studies on the small particle complement-fixing antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 196014433745
growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus in a fibroblastic cell line derived from hamster kidneys. 196214476739
effect of inhibitors on the metabolism of cells in tissue culture and on foot-and-mouth disease virus synthesis. 196114487088
defined medium for growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus.pledger, richard a. (plum island animal disease laboratory, greenport, n. y.) and jerome polatnick. defined medium for growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus. j. bacteriol. 83:579-583. 1962.-foot-and-mouth disease virus, grown in primary bovine calf-kidney cell layers with a defined medium containing glucose as the only organic substrate, produced virus titers equivalent to those obtained with complex media containing serum and lactalbumin hydrolyzate. mannose was the only other substrate examin ...196214487167
acid production in normal and foot-and-mouth disease virus infected bovine kidney culture cells. 196214487505
substrate utilization in bovine kidney culture cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus. 196214487506
validation of a lightcycler-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the detection of the polymerase gene (3d) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed and validated with an analytical sensitivity of equal to, to 1,000 times higher than that of a single passage virus isolation. the performance of the rt-pcr was determined in 180 runs. after implementation, 5.3% of the tests had to be rejected due to invalid controls (e.g. cross-contamination of negative controls). the diagnostic s ...200314500125
mutation in the 1d gene (vp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 during serial cytolytic infections in cell culture.changes in the nucleotide sequence of the 1d gene of two vaccine strains (ind 63/72 and ind 491/97) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 during serial cytolytic infections in cell culture have been analyzed. sequence comparisons revealed a majority of transition mutations in ind 491/97. the mutation frequency of the 1d gene of ind 491/97 was about 4.5 to 6.0 fold higher than that of ind 63/72. at the amino acids 40-60 and 140-160 regions the mutation frequency was higher compare ...200314505092
immunogenicity of plasmids encoding t and b cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in this work, we have investigated the immune response in pigs to two recombinant plasmids containing immunodominant neutralizing antibody epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein (vp1) coexpressed with viral non-structural proteins as a source of t cell epitopes. the plasmid pcdna3.1/3d15 contained a sequence coding for the 3d polymerase upstream of a sequence coding for peptide fmdv15, a peptide derived from vp1, previously shown to stimulate protective immunity to foot-and- ...200314505908
expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes in tobacco by a tobacco mosaic virus-based vector.we expressed two immunogenic dominant epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o in tobacco plant using a vector based on a recombinant tobacco mosaic virus (tmv). the recombinant viruses tmvf11 and tmvf14 contained peptides of 11 and 14 amino acid residues, respectively, from fmdv vp 1 fused to the open reading frame of tmv coat protein (cp) gene between amino acid residues 154 and 155. tmvf11 and tmvf14 systemically infected tobacco plant and produced large quantities of stable ...200314505922
adenovirus-mediated type i interferon expression delays and reduces disease signs in cattle challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of livestock. eliminating fmd outbreaks in previously disease-free countries often relies on restriction of animal movement and massive slaughter of infected and in-contact susceptible animals. to develop a more effective and humane fmd control strategy, we explored the possibility of using type i interferon (ifn-alpha/beta) as a novel anti-fmd agent. we have demonstrated previously that swine inoculated with replication-defective ...200314511462
recovery of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice after direct inoculation with in vitro-transcribed rna.we assayed the infectivity of naked foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna by direct inoculation of suckling mice. our results demonstrate that transcripts generated from full-length cdna clones were infectious, as was virion-extracted rna. interestingly, infectious virus could be recovered from a mutant transcript encoding amino acid substitution l-147-->p in capsid protein vp1, known to be noninfectious for bhk-21 cells. the model described here provides a useful tool for virulence studies in ...200314512578
high-pressure freezing in the study of animal pathogens.high-pressure freezing is applicable to both morphological and immunocytochemical studies. we are investigating the morphogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus and african swine fever virus by the use of high-pressure freezing of infected cells. foot-and-mouth disease virus particles are not detected in sections of conventionally immersion-fixed infected cells, but when the cells are prepared by high-pressure freezing, newly formed virions are readily seen throughout the cell. we report two me ...200314516363
a stochastic-modeling evaluation of the foot-and-mouth-disease survey conducted after the outbreak in miyazaki, japan in 2000.when foot-and-mouth-disease (fmd) was identified in miyazaki prefecture in march 2000, japan conducted an intensive serological and clinical survey in the areas surrounding the index herd. as a result of the survey during the 21 days of the movement-restriction period, two infected herds were detected and destroyed; there were no other cases in the months that followed. to evaluate the survey used for screening the disease-control area and surveillance area, we estimated the herd-level sensitivi ...200314516716
chloride concentration discriminates between foot-and-mouth disease virus ires-dependent translation and classical scanning translation: new aspects of the picornavirus shutoff mechanism.some picornaviruses might use the general increase of ionic strength in the host cell that occurs successively after infection to induce shutoff of host protein synthesis and to stimulate viral protein synthesis. in order to investigate this discrimination mode on a molecular level, in vitro experiments under different salt conditions comparing the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) internal ribosome entry site (ires)-dependent translation with the translation via the classical scanning mechani ...200314524471
development of a novel quantitative real-time rt-pcr assay for the simultaneous detection of all serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) spreads extremely fast and the need for rapid and robust diagnostic virus detection systems was obvious during the recent european epidemic. using a novel real-time rt-pcr system based on primer-probe energy transfer (priproet) we present here an assay targeting the 3d gene of fmdv. the assay was validated for the efficacy to detect all known fmdv serotypes. the test method was linear over a range of at least 7 orders of magnitude and the detection limit was b ...200314551821
studies of quantitative parameters of virus excretion and transmission in pigs and cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by a variety of mechanisms and the rate of spread, the incubation period and the severity of disease depend on a multitude of parameters, including the strain of virus, the dose received, the route of introduction, the animal species and the husbandry conditions. more knowledge with regard to these parameters is urgently needed to improve resource-efficient disease control. this report describes detailed studies of fmdv load, excretion and transm ...200314554125
synchronous loss of quasispecies memory in parallel viral lineages: a deterministic feature of viral quasispecies.viral quasispecies are endowed with a memory of their past evolutionary history in the form of minority genomes of their mutant spectra. to determine the fate of memory genomes in evolving viral quasispecies, we have measured memory levels of antigenic variant of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) red, which includes an arg-glu-asp (red) at a surface antigenic loop of the viral capsid. the red reverted to the standard arg-gly-asp (rgd), and the red remained as memory in the evolving quasispecie ...200314556744
structural organization of a viral ires depends on the integrity of the gnra motif.little is known about the tertiary structure of internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. the central domain of foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv) ires, named 3 or i, contains a conserved gnra motif, essential for ires activity. we have combined functional analysis with rna probing to define its structural organization. we have found that a uncg motif does not functionally substitute the gnra motif; moreover, binding of synthetic gnra stem-loops to domain 3 was significantly reduced in rnas beari ...200314561883
molecular diagnostics in an insecure of october 2001, the potential for use of infectious agents, such as anthrax, as weapons has been firmly established. it has been suggested that attacks on a nations' agriculture might be a preferred form of terrorism or economic disruption that would not have the attendant stigma of infecting and causing disease in humans. highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is on every top ten list available for potential agricultural bioweapon agents, generally following foot and mouth disease virus an ...200314575112
subpol: a novel sucrose-based polymer support for solid-phase peptide synthesis and affinity chromatography applications.a novel sucrose-based polymer support (subpol) with tailored morphology suitable for the use in solid-phase peptide synthesis (spps) is described, and its application as a hydrophilic affinity matrix for the specific removal of fibrinogen from human plasma is demonstrated. after suspension polymerization of partly methacrylated 2,1':4,6-di-o-isopropylidene sucrose and subsequent removal of the protecting groups, hydrophilic spherical polymer beads were obtained. the morphology of the resulting r ...200314583037
immunization with peptide-functionalized carbon nanotubes enhances virus-specific neutralizing antibody responses. 200314583262
immune response in mice inoculated with plasmid dnas containing multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this paper focuses on the development of candidate dna vaccine encoding antigenic epitopes of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). a series of plasmids encoding different combinations of b cell epitopes and a t cell epitope were constructed and characterized by inoculating balb/c mice. the specific antibodies were only detectable in the mice inoculated with plasmids encoding the t cell epitope and b cell epitopes from sites 5 and 1, within which site 5 includes residues 135-167 of vp1 and ...200314585679
construction of an infectious chimeric classical swine fever virus containing the 5'utr of bovine viral diarrhea virus, and its application as a universal internal positive control in real-time rt-pcr.rt-pcr is used widely as a diagnostic method to detect and differentiate pestiviruses. the construction of two chimeric classical swine fever virus (csfv) recombinants based on a marker virus constructed previously [j. virol. 72 (1998) 5318-5322] is described. these viruses, termed va187cat_5utrbvd and va187cat_iresbvd, contain the entire 5' untranslated region (5'utr) or the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), respectively. both chimeric viruses proved to ...200314599682
identification of foot-and-mouth disease from a captive kangaroo in a zoological garden in india. 200314601799
conserved nucleotides within the j domain of the encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site are required for activity and for interaction with eif4g.the internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements of cardioviruses (e.g., encephalomyocarditis virus [emcv] and foot-and-mouth disease virus) are predicted to have very similar secondary structures. among these complex rna structures there is only rather limited complete sequence conservation. within the j domain of the emcv ires there are four highly conserved nucleotides (a704, c705, g723, and a724)., which are predicted to be unpaired and have been targeted for mutagenesis. using an ires-depen ...200314610168
immediate protection of swine from foot-and-mouth disease: a combination of adenoviruses expressing interferon alpha and a foot-and-mouth disease virus subunit vaccine.we have previously shown that swine inoculated with recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 containing the porcine interferon alpha gene (ad5-pifnalpha) are completely protected when challenged 1 day later with virulent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in the current study, we examined the duration of protection afforded swine by ad5-pifnalpha and the ability of a combination of ad5-pifnalpha and a fmdv subunit vaccine delivered by ad5-a24 (an ad5 vector containing the cap ...200314615155
molecular epidemiology of sat3-type foot-and-mouth disease.vp1 gene nucleotide sequences of 51 sat3-type foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses from seven southern and eastern african countries were used to infer a gene phylogeny. results obtained by phylogenetic analysis of the homologous 405 nt region corresponding to the c-terminal 128 amino acids of 1d and adjacent 7 amino acids of 2a indicate that there are six distinct virus lineages evolving independently in different geographical localities in accordance with the fmd topotype concept. topotypes i- ...200314618089
developments in diagnostic techniques for differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically significant disease of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and wild ruminant species. the fmd virus genome encodes a unique polyprotein from which the different viral polypeptides are cleaved by viral proteases, including eight different non-structural proteins (nsps). both structural and non-structural antigens induce the production of antibodies in infected animals. in contrast, vaccinated animals which have not been exposed to replic ...200414623146
role of nonstructural proteins 3a and 3b in host range and pathogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) differs from that of other picornaviruses in that it encodes a larger 3a protein (>50% longer than poliovirus 3a), as well as three copies of protein 3b (also known as vpg). previous studies have shown that a deletion of amino acids 93 to 102 of the 153-codon 3a protein is associated with an inability of a taiwanese strain of fmdv (o/taw/97) to cause disease in bovines. recently, an asian virus with a second 3a deletion (amino acids 133 to 143) h ...200314645558
induction of an antigen-specific immune response and partial protection of cattle against challenge infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) after lipopeptide vaccination with fmdv-specific b-cell evaluate the potential of chemically synthesized lipopeptides for vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), seven lipopeptides containing the immunostimulating principle of bacterial lipoproteins and linear b-cell epitopes of fmdv strain o(1)kaufbeuren (o(1)k) were used to immunize cattle (n=7). animals were vaccinated once and 21 days after immunization animals were infected with the homologous virus. four animals were protected. after vaccination, as well as after challenge infectio ...200314645912
validation of a foot-and-mouth disease antibody screening solid-phase competition elisa (spce).this paper describes the validation of a solid-phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (spce) for the serological detection of antibody to serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in sheep, cattle and pigs. the specificity of the spce was calculated from the results of testing known negative sera from sheep, cattle and pigs (n=3030, 1418 and 1495, respectively). the mean percentage inhibition (pi) for known negative sheep, cattle and pig sera were 19.3, 24.1 and 20.8%, respectively. t ...200414667530
emergence of a novel subgroup within the widely circulating lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1 in india.the complete vp1 encoding (1d) gene of 54 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype asia1 field isolates, most of which were isolated during 2000 and 2001, was sequenced. the phylogenetic analysis identified a novel subgroup (>10% nucleotide divergence) within the widely circulating lineage of this serotype. the newly emerged viruses were responsible for disease outbreaks in both cattle and buffaloes and were present in six different states in the country. amino acid sequence comparison of the ...200414672859
vaccines and companion diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease virus. an overview of the experience in south america.vaccination constitutes an important control policy for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in affected areas with advanced eradication programmes, as well as in free regions that decide to use immunization as a control measure after a recent introduction of the disease. however, considering that vaccinated animals exposed to fmd virus can establish sub-clinical infection and eventually remain persistently infected, availability of tools to identify sub-clinical infection and its silent transmission wi ...200314677677
vaccines and foot-and-mouth disease eradication in south america.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines have been a component of disease control and eradication strategies in south america ever since the first national programmes were created in the 1960s. by the mid 1970s, with the aid of international loans, fmd control programmes were implemented in almost every country and control measures strengthened. livestock production forms are still a determining factor in the spread and prevalence of fmd and regional control/eradication strategies based on these fo ...200314677678
engineering better vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease.although efficacious and safe, current vaccines for fmd suffer from drawbacks. among these are that the immune response to the vaccine interferes with the ability to detect vaccinated animals that have subsequently become infected and could carry and shed the virus, creating an obstacle to re-instating disease-free status to countries/regions that vaccinate to control outbreaks. multiple diagnostic tests are available to identify animals that have been infected with fmdv by detection of antibodi ...200314677679
serosurveillance of wild deer and wild boar after the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the netherlands in 2001.blood samples from 140 wild deer and 208 wild boar shot in the aftermath of the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the netherlands in 2001 were examined for antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. they were all negative.200314682541
studies of genetically defined chimeras of a european type a virus and a south african territories type 2 virus reveal growth determinants for foot-and-mouth disease virus.the three south african territories (sat) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) display great genetic and antigenic diversity, resulting from the independent evolution of these viruses in different geographical localities. for effective control of the disease in such areas, the use of custom-made vaccines is required. to circumvent the tedious process of vaccine strain selection, an alternative in the control process is being investigated. specifically, it is proposed to replace the antig ...200414718620
no foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission between individually housed calves.the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the netherlands in 2001 most likely started on a mixed veal-calf/dairy-goat farm. the outbreak among the 74 calves on this farm appeared to be limited to four animals, and no clinical signs of fmd were reported. also on a second veal-calf farm minor clinical signs and limited virus transmission were observed. since fmd is known to be a very contagious disease, and can cause severe lesions, these observations were disputed. therefore, we carried out two expe ...200414738779
comparison of elisa for the detection of porcine serum antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.three foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein antibody detection kits, chekit fmd-3abc, ubi fmd ns eia and dvivr nsp elisa, were compared in the study. the results showed that the specificity of the kits ranged from 96.7 to 100% in nai;ve pigs and from 93.6 to 98.1% in vaccinated pigs, and that the dvivr kit had the highest analytical sensitivity. the kappa statistics for the detection of 612 sera were 0.582, 0.447 and 0.658 for chekit/ubi, chekit/dvivr and ubi/dvivr, respectively. t ...200414738982
evaluation of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus.differential detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) from the other vesicular disease viruses of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), vesicular stomatitis (vs) and vesivirus is important as the vesicular lesions produced by these viruses are indistinguishable in pigs. two independent sets of primers and probe, designed from nucleotide sequences within the 5' untranslated region (utr) of the svdv genome, were evaluated in a real-time (5' nuclease probe-based or fluorogenic) pcr format. althoug ...200414738984
expression of a foot-and-mouth disease virus immunodominant epitope by a filamentous bacteriophage vector.we described the construction of a recombinant filamentous phage displaying on its surface the immunodominant site of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the coding sequence was inserted at the amino-terminus of the major coat protein pviii via a spacer. the hybrid phage proved to be antigenic as it was recognized by polyclonal and monoclonal anti fmdv sera. in two experiments involving immunisation of guinea-pigs with the recombinant phage, a low antibody response was generated. ...200414745601
extent of reduction of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna load in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid after peak levels may be a critical determinant of virus persistence in infected investigate whether foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna loads in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid (op-fluid) in the early course of infection is related to the outcome of virus persistence, viral rna in op-fluid samples from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv type o was quantitatively analysed by using a quantitative real-time rt-pcr. viral rna was detected within 24 h post-infection (p.i.) in all infected animals. rapid virus replication led to peak levels of viral rna load by 30-53 h ...200414769899
[a compound of foot and mouth disease virus with serum albumin and protamine]. 195114822561
[behavior of foot and mouth disease virus in asbestos filters]. 195114845629
combination of foot- and mouth disease virus albumen and protamine. 195014846638
in vitro cultivation of the mexican strain (vallée a type) of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 195114850745
[dermotropic viruses. 7. foot and mouth disease virus]. 195114865023
[massive culture of foot and mouth disease virus on fetal skin in deproteined and purified amniotic fluid]. 195114870383
[receptivity of autochthonous moroccan cattle to foot and mouth disease virus]. 195114896572
propagation of strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus in unweaned white mice. 195114911842
the determination of the sedimentation constant of a homogeneous component having the characteristics of the foot- and mouth disease virus. 195214924104
an investigation of the foot- and mouth disease virus by the use of electrophoresis in filter paper. 195214924105
research on foot- and mouth disease; cultivation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in explanted epithelium of the bovine tongue. iv. tissue and medium variations. 195214924106
[experimental studies on infection with the foot and mouth disease virus]. 195114934819
[receptivity of autochthonous moroccan beef to the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 195214956125
a simulation model of intraherd transmission of foot and mouth disease with reference to disease spread before and after clinical diagnosis.intraherd transmission of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was examined using a simulation model for a hypothetical 1,000-cow dairy, assuming clinical diagnosis was made when at least 1% (10 cows) or 5% (50 cows) had clinical signs of fmd, i index case cow, and transition state distributions for the latent, subclinically infectious, and clinically infectious periods of fmd calculated from published data. estimates assumed for the number of animal-to-animal contacts (k) adequate for transmissi ...200414974841
quantitative estimates of the risk of new outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease as a result of burning pyres.the risk of dispersing foot-and-mouth disease virus into the atmosphere, and spreading it to susceptible holdings as a result of burning large numbers of carcases together on open pyres, has been estimated for six selected pyres burned during the 2001 outbreak in the uk. the probability of an animal or holding becoming infected was dependent on the estimated level of exposure to the virus predicted from the concentrations of virus calculated by the met office, bracknell. in general, the probabil ...200414979669
stable, stoichiometric delivery of diverse protein contemporary "genomics" steadily reveals an increasing number of novel gene sequences, the need for efficient methodologies to functionally characterize these genes in vivo increases significantly. reliable coupling of target gene expression to a variety of surrogate reporter functions is critical to properly assay novel gene function in complex cell populations. ideally, independent target and reporter proteins would be derived from a single open reading frame creating a stoichiometric relat ...200414980783
molecular phylogeny of leader proteinase gene of type a of foot-and-mouth disease virus from india.we previously demonstrated the presence of three genotypes (iv, vi and vii) of type a (subtype a22) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in india based on 1d gene sequence analysis. in the present study, the leader proteinase (l(pro)) gene sequences of 35 type a fmdv field isolates sampled over a period of 24 years (1977-2000) have been analyzed. maximum-likelihood (ml) phylogenetic analysis revealed four distinct genetic lineages (a-d), indicating high divergence in l gene of type a fmdv. lin ...200414991441
detection of foot and mouth disease virus by rt-pcr and microplate hydridization assay using inactivated viral antigens.a single step rt-pcr was tested for detection of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and immunoenzymatic determination of amplified products in a microplate hybridization assay. inactivated reference strains (elisa antigen) of all seven serotypes were used to optimize the test. oligonucleotide primers were selected from two different genomic regions coding for rna polymerase and vp1 protein, respectively. the rt-pcr used to amplify the polymerase gene specific rna detected fmdv strains a, c, o, ...200414992244
evidence that high potency foot-and-mouth disease vaccine inhibits local virus replication and prevents the "carrier" state in sheep.the ability of a single administration of a high, medium and low potency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine to decrease or inhibit local virus replication and excretion in the oropharynx of sheep following aerosol challenge with homologous live virus 14 days later was examined. unvaccinated sheep showed signs of clinical fmd, whereas all of the vaccinated sheep, regardless of antigen payload, were protected against clinical disease and development of viraemia. virological and serological resul ...200415003651
the risks posed by the importation of animals vaccinated against foot and mouth disease and products derived from vaccinated animals: a review.the terrestrial animal health code of the oie (world organisation for animal health) (the terrestrial code) makes recommendations for international movements of live animals and animal products because of a possible generic risk of foot and mouth disease (fmd) for these different commodities. for instance, international movement of vaccinated live animals or products of such animals is restricted due to the possible masking of clinical disease as a result of vaccination and to the perceived risk ...200315005540
high-level expression of codon optimized foot-and-mouth disease virus complex epitopes and cholera toxin b subunit chimera in hansenula polymorpha.a codon optimized dna sequence coding for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein complex epitopes of vp1 amino acid residues 21-40, 135-160, and 200-213 was genetically fused to the n-terminal end of a 6x his-tagged cholera toxin b subunit (ctb) gene with the similar synonymous codons preferred by the methylotropic yeast hansenula polymorpha. the fusion gene was synthesized based on a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and subsequently overexpressed in h. polymorpha. the chimeric protei ...200415013451
cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4gii within foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells: identification of the l-protease cleavage site in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces a very rapid inhibition of host cell protein synthesis within infected cells. this is accompanied by the cleavage of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4gi (eif4gi). the cleavage of the related protein eif4gii has now been analyzed. within fmdv-infected cells, cleavage of eif4gi and eif4gii occurs with similar kinetics. cleavage of eif4gii is induced in cells and in cell extracts by the fmdv leader protease (l(pro)) alone, generating cleavage ...200415016848
preextinction viral rna can interfere with infectivity.when the error rate during the copying of genetic material exceeds a threshold value, the genetic information cannot be maintained. this concept is the basis of a new antiviral strategy termed lethal mutagenesis or virus entry into error catastrophe. critical for its success is preventing survival of residual infectious virus or virus mutants that escape the transition into error catastrophe. here we document that mutated, preextinction foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna can interfere with ...200415016853
comparable sensitivity and specificity in three commercially available elisas to differentiate between cattle infected with or vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease virus.three commercially available elisas for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were evaluated, using sera from uninfected, vaccinated, infected, inoculated, first vaccinated and subsequently infected, and first vaccinated and subsequently inoculated cattle. we compared antibody kinetics to non-structural proteins, sensitivity, and specificity. one of the elisas had a higher sensitivity and much lower specificity than the other two, there ...200415019100
the ultrastructure of the developing replication site in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bhk-38 cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus of the picornaviridae: infection by picornaviruses results in a major rearrangement of the host cell membranes to create vesicular structures where virus genome replication takes place. in this report, using fluorescence and electron microscopy, membrane rearrangements in the cytoplasm of fmdv-infected bhk-38 cells are documented. at 1.5-2.0 h post-infection, free ribosomes, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, g ...200415039536
vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) among pigs. reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. transmission of fmdv was studied in three groups of ten pigs: one non-vaccinated group and two groups that were vaccinated 7 days (-7 dpi) and 14 days before inoculation (-14 dpi), respectively. five randomly selected pigs from each group were inoculat ...200415063559
a recombinant fusion protein and dna vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia 1 infection in guinea pigs.on the basis of amino acid (aa) sequence of the tandem repeat 133-158-20-34-133-158 which consisted of aa 133-158 of vp1 and aa 20-34 of vp4 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 a recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pas1-p encoding a fusion protein and eukaryotic expression vectors pas1-e and pas1-edeltacpg-odn representing dna vaccines were constructed. guinea pigs immunized with these vaccines showed both neutralizing antibody and t cell proliferation responses. fmdv challe ...200315068379
integrin alphavbeta8 functions as a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus: role of the beta-chain cytodomain in integrin-mediated infection.field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been shown to use three alphav integrins, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, and alphavbeta6, as cellular receptors. binding to the integrin is mediated by a highly conserved rgd motif located on a surface-exposed loop of vp1. the rgd tripeptide is recognized by several other members of the integrin family, which therefore have the potential to act as receptors for fmdv. here we show that sw480 cells are made susceptible to fmdv following transfe ...200415078934
foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. recent fmd outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. this review describes the reemergence of fmd in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control stra ...200415084510
isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus specific bovine antibody fragments from phage display libraries.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an important veterinary pathogen which can cause widespread epidemics. due to the high antigenic variability of fmdv, it is important to undertake mutation analysis under immunological pressure. to study the bovine antibody response at a molecular level, phage display technology was used to produce bovine anti-fmdv fabs. ch1-vh chains with fmdv specific binding could be isolated after selection from a library made from vaccinated cattle. though their involv ...200415087230
low linkage disequilibrium indicative of recombination in foot-and-mouth disease virus gene sequence alignments.we have applied tests for detecting recombination to genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). our approach estimated summary statistics of linkage disequilibrium (ld), which are sensitive to recombination. using the genealogical relationships, rate heterogeneity and mutation parameters estimated from individual sets of aligned gene sequences, we simulated matching rna sequence datasets without recombination. these simulated datasets allowed for recurrent mutations at any site to mimic homop ...200415105526
immunogenicity and t cell recognition in swine of foot-and-mouth disease virus polymerase 3d.immunization of domestic pigs with a vaccinia virus (vv) recombinant expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 3d protein conferred partial protection against challenge with infectious virus. the severity reduction of the clinical symptoms developed by the challenged animals occurred in the absence of significant levels of anti-3d circulating antibodies. this observation suggested that the partial protection observed was mediated by the induction of a 3d-specific cellular immune response. t ...200415110524
a practitioner's primer on foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by an rna virus of the genus aphthovirus; 7 immunologically distinct serotypes of the virus have been identified. susceptible species are mainly domestic and wild even-toed ungulates, such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, bison, and deer. all body fluids of infected animals can contain the virus and are considered infective. the primary mode of transmission is animal-to-animal transmission through inhalation or ingestion of aerosols containing the virus. the ...200415112774
the hand, foot and mouth disease virus capsid: sequence analysis and prediction of antigenic sites from homology modelling.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is the most common aetiological agent detected in cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) resulting in incidences of neurological complications and fatality in recent years. a comparison of the capsid proteins implicated in the pathogenicity of the fatal and non-fatal strains of ev71, reveals a high degree of homology (93%-100% identity). to facilitate diagnostic immunoassays and vaccine development, a consensus structural model for the ev71 coat protein has been devel ...200215130856
comparison of two 3abc enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of multiple-serotype foot-and-mouth disease in a cattle population in an area of endemicity.the development of a serological test for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) which is quick and easy to use, which can identify all seven serotypes, and which can differentiate vaccinated from convalescing or potential virus carriers would be a major advance in the epidemiological toolkit for fmdv. the nonstructural polyprotein 3abc has recently been proposed as such an antigen, and a number of diagnostic tests are being developed. this paper evaluates the performance of two fmdv tests for anti ...200415131177
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in the adamawa province of cameroon.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is one of the most important economic diseases of livestock. most studies of fmdv are done in countries where control measures are being implemented. in contrast, in areas such as sub-saharan africa, where fmdv is endemic and new strains are likely to emerge, there are only sporadic submissions to the world reference laboratory, pirbright, united kingdom. this paper describes the molecular epi ...200415131187
fitness increase of memory genomes in a viral quasispecies.viral quasispecies may contain a subset of minority genomes that reflect those genomic sequences that were dominant at an early phase of quasispecies evolution. such minority genomes are referred to as memory in viral quasispecies. a memory marker previously characterized in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an internal oligoadenylate tract of variable length that became dominant upon serial plaque-to-plaque transfers of fmdv clones. during large population passages, genomes with internal o ...200415136042
disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia.samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia, were collected during june-august 1999. all 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory ...200415137493
coordinate expression and independent subcellular targeting of multiple proteins from a single transgene.a variety of conventional methods allow the expression of multiple foreign proteins in plants by transgene stacking or pyramiding. however, most of these approaches have significant drawbacks. we describe a novel alternative, using a single transgene to coordinate expression of multiple proteins that are encoded as a polyprotein capable of dissociating into component proteins on translation. we demonstrate that this polyprotein system is compatible with the need to target proteins to a variety o ...200415141063
an approach to a fmd vaccine based on genetic engineered attenuated pseudorabies virus: one experiment using vp1 gene alone generates an antibody responds on fmd and pseudorabies in swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and pseudorabies (pr) are two important infectious diseases in swine. an attenuated pseudorabies virus (prv) has been successfully used as a gene delivery vector for the development of live-viral vaccines. in this study, a recombinant prv-vp1 virus was constructed by fusioning the vp1 gene of fmd virus in frame to the n-terminal sequence of the gg gene of prv. to test the protective immunity, 15 fmdv sero-negative white swine were divided into three groups and immuni ...200415149769
pressure-inactivated fmdv: a potential vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). alternative fmd vaccines have been pursued due to important disadvantages of the one currently in use. high hydrostatic pressure (hp) has been observed to inactivate some viruses. here, we investigated the effects of hp on fmdv o1 campos-vallée (cva) infectivity. a treatment consisting of 2.5 kbar at -15 degrees c and 1m urea, completely abolished fmdv infectivity, maintaining the integrity of its cap ...200415149793
re-emergence of foot-and-mouth disease in botswana.the re-emergence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in botswana is reported. the disease outbreak occurred in the matsiloje extension area of francistown veterinary district situated in the northeastern part of the country in an office international des épízooties (oie) recognized fmd free zone without vaccination. the disease affected cattle only and did not spillover into sheep and goats resident in the same extension area, as demonstrated by lack of seroconversion to fmd when tested. the virus i ...200415158214
localization of infection-related epitopes on the non-structural protein 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus and the application of tandem means of overlapping peptides expressed in escherichia coli in combination with western-blotting, infection specific linear epitopes were identified on the non-structural protein 3abc of fmdv. the epitopes reacted with sera from pigs or guinea pigs infected with different serotypes of fmdv, but not with sera from normal or vaccinated animals. a protein was constructed by tandem repeat of the epitope covering amino acid residues 141-190 on 3abc. an elisa based on the protein with tandem epitop ...200415158588
control measures implemented during the 2002 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the republic of korea. 200415162790
the c terminus of the movement protein of brome mosaic virus controls the requirement for coat protein in cell-to-cell movement and plays a role in long-distance movement.the 3a movement protein (mp) plays a central role in the movement of brome mosaic virus (bmv). to identify the functional regions in bmv mp, 24 alanine-scanning (as) mp mutants of bmv were constructed. infectivity of the as mutants in the host plant chenopodium quinoa showed that the central region of bmv mp is important for viral movement and both termini of bmv mp have effects on the development of systemic symptoms. a green-fluorescent-protein-expressing rna3-based bmv vector containing a 2a ...200415166461
application of universal primers for identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus and swine vesicular disease virus by pcr and pcr-elisa.two approaches for simultaneous identification of both foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) are described: (1) a single-step reverse transcription-pcr with three primers and (2) a pcr-elisa assay with two universal primers for genome amplification and two virus-specific probes for identification. these methods are based on the use of 3d gene universal pcr primers, the structure of which was optimized and refined due to the close relationship between the tw ...200415168202
a first molecular epidemiological study of sat-2 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses in west africa.thirty-one viruses causing sat-2 outbreaks in seven west african countries between 1974 and 1991, and four viruses representative of east and central africa were genetically characterized in this study. four major viral lineages (i-iv) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of an homologous 480 nucleotide region corresponding to the c-terminus end of vp1. lineage i comprised two west african genotypes with viruses clustering according to year of isolation rather than geographical origin. linea ...200415188721
rna interference targeting vp1 inhibits foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in bhk-21 cells and suckling mice.rna interference (rnai) is a powerful tool to silence gene expression posttranscriptionally. in this study, we evaluated the antiviral potential of small interfering rna (sirna) targeting vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which is essential during the life cycle of the virus and plays a key role in virus attachment to susceptible cells. we investigated in vivo the inhibitory effect of vp1-specific sirnas on fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells and suckling mice, a commonly used small anima ...200415194766
integrin alpha v beta 6 is an rgd-dependent receptor for coxsackievirus a9.coxsackievirus a9 (cav9), a member of the enterovirus genus of picornaviridae, is a common human pathogen and is one of a significant number of viruses containing a functional arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) motif in one of their capsid proteins. previous studies identified the rgd-recognizing integrin alpha(v)beta(3) as its cellular receptor. however, integrin alpha(v)beta(6) has been shown to be an efficient receptor for another rgd-containing picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (f ...200415194773
sequence variability in the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 field isolates.a total of 30 field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 belonging to two different lineages and five isolates belonging to a divergent group as delineated earlier in 1d (encodingvp1 protein) gene-based phylogeny were sequenced in the structural protein (p1) coding region. phylogenetic comparison of these isolates along with some of the published exotic sequences revealed the presence of five different lineages around the world. similar grouping pattern was observed for ...200415196905
comparison and analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from animals in korea and other panasia strains.during the last 3 years, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o, named panasia, caused two outbreaks in the republic of korea. to determine if there was an obvious genetic relationship between the virus isolated in 2002 (o/skr/2002) and the o/skr/2000, and to further analyze the epidemiological relationships between the panasia viruses and the viruses identified in korea, the complete nucleotide sequence of the o/skr/2002 and the o/skr/2000 were determined by automatic cycling sequencing and pr ...200415215684
differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth-disease: evaluation of an elisa based on recombinant 3abc.recent devastating outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in europe have reopened the discussion about the adequacy of the non-vaccination strategy implemented by the eu in 1991. here we describe the evaluation of a new commercially available test kit for the discrimination between vaccination and infection. the test is based on the detection of antibodies against the recombinant non-structural (ns) protein 3abc. in contrast to immunization with vaccines free of 3abc, these antibodies are eli ...200415223123
[a review of the risks involved in the import of foot and mouth disease vaccinated animals and the products of such animals]. 200415232965
comparative immunogenecity of foot and mouth disease virus antigens in fmd-haemorrhagic septicaemia combined vaccine and fmd vaccine alone in buffalo calves.humoral immune response was evaluated by monitoring the serum antibody titres and virus specific igm titres against foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus antigens in serum samples obtained from different groups of calves inoculated with combined vaccine or fmd vaccine alone, on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days post-vaccination (dpv). the cellular immune response was monitored by mtt based lymphoproliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. higher liquid phase blocking (lpb) elisa ant ...200415233294
effect of chemical adjuvants on dna vaccination.dna vaccination is useful for generating immune responses, particularly the cell-mediated immune response, in a wide variety of species. however, dna vaccination generally induces only relatively weak responses; hence, various approaches have been developed recently in order to improve its efficacy or immunopotency. the use of a chemical adjuvant is one of them. previously we have shown that bupivacaine or marcaine can modulate immune responses induced by dna vaccines [proc. natl. acad. sci. 90 ...200415246629
generation of an infectious cdna clone of an fmdv strain isolated from swine.a full-length cdna clone of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolated from swine was assembled in, the plasmid vector pbluescript ii sk+ downstream of a t7 promoter. rna synthesized in vitro using t7 polymerase lead to the production of infectious particles upon transfection of bhk-21 cells, as shown by cytopathic effects. the rescued virus was also found to be highly pathogenic for mice by intradermal injection producing a fatal disease indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus. the a ...200415246653
the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in raw and pasteurized milk and milk products.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is not a public health threat, but it is highly contagious to cloven-footed animals. the virus is shed into milk up to 33 h before there are apparent signs of the disease in dairy cows, and, in extreme cases, signs of disease may not appear for up to 14 d. during this time, raw milk can serve as a vector for spread of the disease both at the farm and during transport to the processing plant by milk tanker. raw milk and milk products fed to animals have the ...200415259248
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