TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
further studies to quantify the dose of natural aerosols of foot-and-mouth disease virus for pigs.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by a variety of mechanisms, including wind. simulation models, developed to predict the risk of airborne spread, have played an important part in decision making in some outbreaks. the amount of airborne virus excreted as well as the minimal infectious dose (mid) of fmdv for different species are important determinants of airborne spread. the objective of this study was to obtain data for the o1 lausanne, o skr 2000 and o ukg 2001 strains of fmdv ...200212002550
dose-response relationships for foot and mouth disease in cattle and sheep.the relationships between the inhaled dose of foot and mouth disease virus and the outcomes of infection and disease were examined by fitting dose-response models to experimental data. the parameters for both the exponential and beta-poisson models were estimated using maximum likelihood and bayesian methods. the median probability of infection given a single inhaled tcid50 was estimated to be 0.031 with 95% bayesian credibility intervals (ci) of 0.018-0.052 for cattle, and 0.045 (ci = 0.024-0.0 ...200212002551
a high-efficiency translational control element with potential for cancer gene active internal ribosome entry sequence (ires) that efficiently mediates cap (m7pppgn)-independent translation in human carcinoma cells could be an effective device for gene co-transduction in cancer gene therapy. in this study using the cytomegalovirus (cmv) promoter, a remarkable internal translation activity was observed and mediated by the sequence localized to the 183-653 region of 5' nf-kappab repressor mrna (nfr183ires). to test the potential of such sequence for therapeutic applicatio ...200212012009
review of the status and control of foot and mouth disease in sub-saharan africa.six of the seven serotypes of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus (i.e. all but asia 1) are prevalent in africa although there are marked regional differences in distribution. three of these serotypes are unique to africa, namely the three south african territories (sat) serotypes. serotype c may also now be confined to africa because it has not been reported elsewhere recently. in southern africa at least, the sat serotypes have an intimate and probably ancient association with african buffalo ( ...200212523685
regional status and approaches to control and eradication of foot and mouth disease in the middle east and north africa.the middle east is regarded as the region of the world most heavily affected by foot and mouth disease (fmd). the situation in the middle east and north africa constitutes a threat to other regions of the world, especially europe. risk management differs between north africa and the middle east due to different epidemiological situations. in the middle east, the national cattle population is the principal target of preventive vaccination. vaccination is used as a tool for preventing economic los ...200212523686
recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in countries of east asia.japan regained the status of freedom from foot and mouth disease (fmd) without vaccination in september 2000 and the republic of korea likewise obtained this status in september 2001. however, new outbreaks of fmd caused by the pan-asian topotype have occurred in pigs in the republic of korea since may 2002. taipei china has not experienced an outbreak of fmd since february 2001 and the country is currently implementing an eradication programme. these countries had been free from fmd for many de ...200212523687
clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: cattle.foot and mouth disease (fmd) in cattle is usually clinically obvious in the unvaccinated herds of countries in which the disease occurs only occasionally. however, in vaccinated herds and in some breeds indigenous to areas in which fmd is endemic, the disease may circulate undetected.200212523690
clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: sheep and goats.foot and mouth disease (fmd) in adult sheep and goats is frequently mild or unapparent, but can cause high mortality in young animals. the recent outbreak of fmd in the united kingdom has highlighted the importance of sheep in the epidemiology of the disease, although there have been numerous examples in the past where small ruminants have been responsible for the introduction of fmd into previously disease-free countries. the difficulty in making a clinical diagnosis should encourage the develo ...200212523691
clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: intensively reared pigs, the introduction of foot and mouth disease (fmd) results in severe clinical disease and vesicular lesions in adult and fattening animals, and high mortality in piglets. vaccination of uninfected herds can assist fmd control and eradication programmes by reducing susceptibility of pigs older than 12 to 14 weeks and providing early protection to piglets through maternal antibody, but once fmd is established on a farm, vaccination alone will not prevent recurrent outbrea ...200212523692
unapparent foot and mouth disease infection (sub-clinical infections and carriers): implications for control.unlike animals which are carriers of foot and mouth disease (fmd), sub-clinically infected animals may be highly contagious. the implications of sub-clinical infections for the control of fmd are serious because such animals are likely to disseminate the disease when in contact with susceptible livestock. recent dissemination of fmd virus (fmdv) in europe shows that sub-clinically infected animals render trade in animals or animal products a potential risk for importing countries. this clearly d ...200212523693
identification of foot and mouth disease virus carrier and subclinically infected animals and differentiation from vaccinated animals.countries that are free of foot and mouth disease (fmd) are reluctant to use vaccine in the event of an outbreak because of the difficulties this can cause in re-establishing freedom from fmd status to the satisfaction of trading partners. the problem does not lie in distinguishing between vaccinated and recovered animals as vaccinated animals can be tagged or otherwise marked to show that they have been vaccinated; the difficulty is in identifying vaccinated animals that have had contact with l ...200212523694
predicting the spread of foot and mouth disease by airborne virus.foot and mouth disease (fmd) can spread by a variety of mechanisms which, under certain climatic and epidemiological conditions, includes the windborne spread of disease. recent advances in knowledge of the aerobiological features of fmd are described. the strain of virus and species of infected animal are major determinants of airborne virus emission. pigs emit most virus, cattle and sheep lesser but similar amounts to each other. peak excretion of airborne virus by sheep occurs before the clin ...200212523697
development and performance of inactivated vaccines against foot and mouth disease.the historical background of foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccine production is briefly described. improvements achieved through the use of monolayer and suspension cultures are outlined. elements that are crucial in the production of modern vaccines are discussed, such as inactivation of viral antigen, successive concentration and purification of the antigen and the final formulation of the vaccine. storage of concentrated antigen at ultra-low temperatures creates greater flexibility for the pr ...200212523698
prospects, including time-frames, for improved foot and mouth disease vaccines.inactivated foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccines have been used successfully as part of eradication programmes. however, there are a number of concerns with the use of such vaccines and the recent outbreaks of fmd in disease-free countries have increased the need for improved fmd control strategies. to address this requirement, new generation fmd vaccines are being developed. currently, one of the most promising of these vaccine candidates utilises an empty viral capsid subunit delivered to ani ...200212523699
foot and mouth disease: the future of vaccine banks.the authors briefly review the history of vaccine banks for foot and mouth disease, their current location and their constituent serotypes and strains, together with the occasions on which they have been activated. experimental studies on emergency vaccines are summarised and areas identified for further investigation. the future of such banks is considered, including the principal strengths and weaknesses of existing banks, and suggestions are made for potential improvements. the fact that the ...200212523700
foot and mouth disease: the experience of south africa.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park (knp) and surrounding game parks in south africa. the last outbreak of the disease in domestic stock outside the fmd control zone occurred in 1957. due to the success in containing the disease, the country was accorded zone freedom from fmd without vaccination by the office international des epizooties (oie: world organisation for animal health) in 1995. this status was lost in september 2000 ...200212523712
the position of the dutch farmers' union on lessons learned and future prevention and control of foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) has devastated animal husbandry in the netherlands frequently in the past and still constitutes a threat. the use of vaccination reduced the number of outbreaks in the netherlands in the 20th century. however, the desire of some member states of the european community not to use vaccination led to a new strategy based on stamping-out of infected and contagious farms and to strict transportation regulations. in 2001, this proved very disruptive to the wider rural econ ...200212523719
a dna vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease elicits an immune response in swine which is enhanced by co-administration with interleukin-2.a plasmid dna vaccine candidate (pceis) encoding two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 epitopes (amino acid residues 141-160 and 200-213) has been demonstrated to have the ability to elicit both fmdv-specific t cell proliferation and neutralizing antibody against fmd in swine. in this study, the efficiency of the pceis dna vaccine when administrated by intramuscularly injection in swine was confirmed, and the immunogenicity of the pceis vaccine candidate was found to be enhanced through co ...200212034088
immune responses of goats against foot-and-mouth disease quadrivalent vaccine: comparison of double oil emulsion and aluminium hydroxide gel vaccines in eliciting immunity.the epidemiological role of small ruminants in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks has been generally neglected. although, the disease in these species is sub-clinical in nature, their role as virus carriers represents a reservoir for further infection and spread of disease. data on the usefulness of polyvalent fmd vaccine (fmdv) in goats is scant. thus, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of a highly potent polyvalent fmdv in goats. in the present investigations, fmdv q ...200212034105
early antibody responses of cattle for foot-and-mouth disease quadrivalent double oil emulsion vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the multiplicity of fmdv serotypes in animals poses a central problem in the policy of vaccination and is of much concern to health authorities. hence it is the practice of vaccination with polyvalent vaccine for prophylactic measure. in the present report, we analysed the early antibody responses elicited by fmdv quadrivalent (fmdv o, a, c and asia 1 serotypes) double emulsion (montanide isa 206) vaccine ...200212034538
genetic heterogeneity in the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader and 3c proteinases.the leader and 3c proteinases of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are responsible for almost all the proteolytic processing events of the viral polyprotein precursor. investigation into the genetic heterogeneity of the regions encoding these proteins from isolates of six fmdv serotypes revealed the 3c proteinase to be more conserved than the leader proteinase. maximum likelihood analysis indicated similar phylogenetic groupings for the non-structural protein coding regions of both the leader ...200212036580
evaluation of the portable cepheid smartcycler real-time pcr machine for the rapid diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.the ability of the portable cepheid smartcycler real-time pcr machine to detect foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus sensitively and accurately was evaluated by comparing the results of the analyses of nasal swab and serum samples from experimentally infected animals with those obtained from the real-time pcr assay currently in use in the laboratory. the results indicated that the ability of the machine to detect viral rna is greatly affected by the pcr reagents used for the assay. when it was use ...200212046786
use of a portable real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease evaluate a portable real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay designed to detect all 7 viral serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).200212051502
experimental studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus, strain o, responsible for the 2001 epidemic in the united 2001, the united kingdom experienced its worst epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). to date approximately 3.9 million animals have been culled and direct and indirect revenue losses are probably in excess of pound 12 billion. this study was carried out to investigate the biological characteristics of the fmd virus strain o/ukg/2001 responsible for the epidemic. animal transmission experiments indicated that this strain is not host restricted and will infect the three main susceptible liv ...200212057606
effective synthetic peptide vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease in swine.we have designed a peptide-based vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) effective in swine. the peptide immunogen has a g-h loop domain from the vp1 capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and a novel promiscuous t helper (th) site for broad immunogenicity in multiple species. the g-h loop vp1 site was optimised for cross-reactivity to fmdv by the inclusion into the peptide of cyclic constraint and adjoining sequences. the incorporation of consensus residues into the hypervariabl ...200212057619
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of sheep: implications for diagnosis and control. 200212081308
the role of mathematical modelling in the control of the 2001 fmd epidemic in the uk.mathematical models played an important role in guiding the development of the control policies in the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the uk. the variety of approaches that helped to guide the policy can sometimes be confusing. here, the different modelling exercises that were developed over the course of the epidemic are reviewed, describing the difficulties in interpreting the available data and the appropriateness of the various assumptions.200212088664
differentiation of type a, asia1 and o foot-and-mouth disease virus variants, amplified by the same system, by sequencing of the capsid protein genes.a reverse transcription-dependent polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) is described that amplifies the genes encoding the capsid proteins vp1-3 of at least three evolutionary lineages each of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus types a, asia1 and o. most of these lineages are circulating at present in asia and africa. the method is not only suitable to confirm suspected outbreaks of fmd, but also describes the modulation of major and minor antigenic sites in the course of an epizootic by nucleo ...200212088821
novel polypeptide-comprising biopolymer systems.covalent bioconjugation between anionic polyelecrolytes and polypeptide antigens chemically synthesized by solid-phase chemistry, were studied in hydrated reversed micelle systems. the epitops of foot-and-mouse disease virus vp1 protein (40--60 and 135--160 residues) were used as polypeptide antigens. the polypeptide-comprising biopolymer systems were obtained by two methods: 1) inclusion of peptides into electrostatic polyelectrolyte complexes of polycations with proteins, 2) inclusion of pepti ...200212118144
viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.this review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. subclinical mastitis has been induced after a ...200212119136
serial passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep reveals declining levels of viraemia over time.if an infectious agent is to maintain itself within a closed population by means of an unbroken serial chain of infections, it must maintain the level of infectiousness of individuals through time, or termination of the transmission chain is inevitable. one possible cause of diminution in infectiousness along serial chains of transmission may be that individuals are unable to amplify and transmit comparable levels of the infectious agent. here, the results are reported of a novel experiment desi ...200212124454
quantities of infectious virus and viral rna recovered from sheep and cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus o uk 2001.the profiles of virus production and excretion have been established for sheep experimentally infected with the uk 2001 strain of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus by inoculation and by direct and intensive contact. virus replicated rapidly in the inoculated sheep, from which a peak infectivity of airborne virus of 10(4.3) tcid(50) per sheep per 24 h was recovered. around 24 h later, contact-infected sheep excreted airborne virus maximally. similar amounts of airborne virus were recovered from ...200212124455
foot-and-mouth disease. report urges u.k. to vaccinate herds. 200212130760
interferons specifically suppress the translation from the internal ribosome entry site of hepatitis c virus through a double-stranded rna-activated protein kinase-independent pathway.interferon (ifn) therapy is used worldwide as the best available treatment for hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection; however, little is known about how ifn or other drugs work against liver diseases. the effect of 6 drugs (glycyrrhizin, ursodeoxycholic acid, ribavirin, methylprednisolone, ifn-alpha, and ifn-beta) on hcv rna translation from the hcv internal ribosome entry site (ires) was investigated, using a bicistronic reporter containing the hcv ires. ifns suppressed both cap-dependent and hcv i ...200212134250
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected from vaccinated pigs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using nonstructural protein 3ab as the antigen and application to an eradication program.baculovirus-expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3ab was used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. this assay allowed the differentiation of vaccinated from infected pigs. serial studies were performed using sera collected from pigs in the field. positive reactions were found in sera from fattening pigs and sows 16 weeks and 3.5 years postoutbreak, respectively. there was, however, no positive reaction in sows with at least 10 vaccinations. mater ...200212149340
macrophage phagocytosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus may create infectious carriers.macrophages play critical roles in innate defences against virus infections, particularly pertinent to the rapid immune response required following emergency vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). consequently, macrophage-fmdv interaction was studied in vitro, in the absence of specific antibodies, to mimic the animal early postvaccination. a gradual loss of infectivity and viral antigen was observed over 48 hr, and no evidence of productive virus replication was found. from th ...200212153517
a novel three-dimensional variant of the watershed transform for segmentation of electron density maps.electron density maps at moderate resolution are often difficult to interpret due to the lack of recognizable features. this is especially true for electron tomograms that suffer in addition to the resolution limitation from low signal-to-noise ratios. reliable segmentation of such maps into smaller, manageable units can greatly facilitate interpretation. here, we present a segmentation approach targeting three-dimensional electron density maps derived by electron microscopy. the approach consis ...200212160708
further studies on the early protective responses of pigs following immunisation with high potency foot and mouth disease vaccine.the ability of an emergency oil adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine to elicit early protective immunity in pigs against direct contact homologous challenge was examined. all vaccinates showed reduced viraemia and shedding of fmdv, and certain animals were protected, showing no clinical signs. il-6, il-8 and il-12 were consistently detected in challenged animals that had been vaccinated. other cytokines--il-1, il-2, tnf, tgf and interferons--were not detected. this demonstrates that t ...200212163272
modeling viral genome fitness evolution associated with serial bottleneck events: evidence of stationary states of fitness.evolution of fitness values upon replication of viral populations is strongly influenced by the size of the virus population that participates in the infections. while large population passages often result in fitness gains, repeated plaque-to-plaque transfers result in average fitness losses. here we develop a numerical model that describes fitness evolution of viral clones subjected to serial bottleneck events. the model predicts a biphasic evolution of fitness values in that a period of expon ...200212163587
detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by real-time, fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.a fluorogenic rt-pcr (5'-nuclease probe-based) assay using a primer/probe set designed from the internal ribosomal entry site region of the virus genome was developed for the specific detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in epithelial suspensions and cell culture virus preparations. the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) specifically detected fmd virus in sample submissions from the uk 2001 fmd outbreak with greater sensitivity than our con ...200212176143
polycistronic viral vectors.traditionally, vectors for gene transfer/therapy experiments were mono- or bicistronic. in the latter case, vectors express the gene of interest coupled with a marker gene. an increasing demand for more complex polycistronic vectors has arisen in recent years to obtain complex gene transfer/therapy effects. in particular, this demand is stimulated by the hope of a more powerful effect from combined gene therapy than from single gene therapy in a process whose parallels lie in the multi-drug comb ...200212189721
contaminants in feed for food-producing animals.outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and food borne microbial infections, dioxin contaminated animal products, the presence of veterinary drug residues, microbial resistance to antibiotics, mycotoxins, agricultural and industrial chemicals, etc. are serious concerns for the food industry in many countries. since the direct links between feed safety and safety of foods of animal origin are obvious, feed production and manufacture should be considered as an integral part of the food ...200212189948
aspects of the persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animals--the carrier problem.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a member of the aphthovirus genus in the picornaviridae family. seven distinct serotypes, each including a wide range of variants, have been defined. fmd, affects wild and domesticated ruminants and pigs, is difficult to control and is the major constraint to international trade in livestock and animal products. after the acute stage of infection, fmdv may cause a prolonged, asymptomatic but persistent infection in ruminants. also, vaccinated or naturally i ...200212191660
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the l and vp1 genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1.most of the molecular epidemiological studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are based on comparison of vp1 gene sequence. in this report, we determine the nucleotide (nt) sequence of the l (603 nt) and vp1 (633 nt) genes of 27 fmdv serotype asia 1 isolates recovered from different outbreaks in india, and compared with each other and the vaccine strain, ind 63/72, used in the country. independent phylogenetic analyses on both the aligned gene sequences identified two major lineages (desi ...200212191774
immunogenicity of a recombinant fusion protein of tandem repeat epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia 1 for guinea this study, the sequences of capsid protein vpi regions of ynas1.1 and ynas1.2 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were analyzed and a peptide containing amino acids (aa) 133-158 of vp1 and aa 20-34 of vp4 of fmdv type asia i was assumed to contain b and t cell epitopes, because it is hypervariable and includes a cell attachment site rgd located in the g-h loop. the dna fragments encoding aa 133-158 of vp1 and aa 20-34 of vp4 of fmdv type asia 1 were chemically synthesized and lig ...200212199204
proton dipolar recoupling in resin-bound peptides under high-resolution magic angle spinning.rotational resonance and radiofrequency-driven dipolar recoupling (rfdr) experiments have been used to recover the weak proton dipolar interaction present in peptides bound to swollen resins spun at the magic angle. the intensity of the correlation peaks obtained using these sequences is shown to be significantly stronger than the one obtained using the classical noesy experiment. in addition, it is found that during the relatively long mixing times required to transfer magnetization in such sof ...200212202131
emergence of a new strain of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus: its phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship with the panasia pandemic india, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o has been associated with more than 75% of the outbreaks. previous studies with this serotype have indicated that the viruses circulating in india belong to a single genotype. recent (february 2001) fmd epidemics in europe have focussed global attention on the source of the virus and have been traced to a strain, panasia (serotype o), which is present in india since 1990. in this study, to further characterize the isolates belonging to the ...200212206305
identification and characterization of a cis-acting replication element (cre) adjacent to the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.over the last few years, an essential rna structure known as the cis-acting replicative element (cre) has been identified within the protein-coding region of several picornaviruses. the cre, a stem-loop structure containing a conserved aaaca motif, functions as a template for addition of u residues to the protein primer 3b. by surveying the genomes of representatives of several serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), we discovered a putative cre in the 5' untranslated region of the gen ...200212208947
recognition of eukaryotic initiation factor 4g isoforms by picornaviral proteinases.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot and mouth disease virus is a papain-like cysteine proteinase. after processing itself from the polyprotein, l(pro) then cleaves the host protein eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4gi, thus preventing protein synthesis from capped mrna in the infected cell. we have investigated l(pro) interaction with eif4gi and its isoform, eif4gii. l(pro), expressed as a catalytically inactive fusion protein with glutathione s-transferase, binds specifically to eif4g isom ...200212228254
a method to detect major serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) is an isothermal technique that allows the rapid amplification of specific regions of nucleic acid obtained from a diverse range of sources. it is especially suitable for amplifying rna sequences. a rapid and specific nasba technique was developed, allowing the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus genetic material in a range of sample material, including preserved skin biopsy material from infected animals, vaccines prepared from denatured c ...200212237113
evidence of recombination in the capsid-coding region of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus.recombination is one of the factors that contribute to genetic diversity in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). similarity and bootscan analyses have provided evidence of recombination in the capsid-coding (p1) region of the virus. in the present study, of the 14 subtype a22 field isolates that were distributed in three previously described genotypes (iv, vi and vii) based on the 1d (vp1-encoding) gene sequence (tosh et al., 2002 ), one isolate (ind 170/88) was found to be a hybrid of genotypes ...200212237427
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: a papain-like enzyme requiring an acidic environment in the active site.foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (l(pro)), a papain-like cysteine proteinase, has six acidic amino acids between 4 a and 11 a of the catalytic dyad of cys51 and his148. in contrast, in papain and related enzymes, only one acidic residue lies within this distance. we have examined by site-directed mutagenesis the importance of each of these residues for l(pro) self-processing and cleavage of its cellular substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor 4gi. only substitution of the electrost ...200212297280
dose-dependent responses of sheep inoculated intranasally with a type o foot-and-mouth disease virus.unlike foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle and pigs, which spreads rapidly, resulting in easily detectable foci of clinical infection, the disease in sheep is characterized by restricted transmission, low morbidity and sporadic clinical cases. the study described was designed to investigate whether the ability of sheep to transmit and maintain fmd virus was dose-related. the viral isolate used was known to be associated epidemiologically with rapid fade-out of transmission within sheep flocks ...200212354542
foot-and-mouth disease virus: biology and prospects for disease control.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a disease that constitutes one of the main animal health concerns, as evidenced by the devastating outbreaks that occurred in different areas of the world over the last few years. in this review, we summarise important features of fmdv, aspects of its interactions with cells and hosts as well as current and new strategies for fmd control by vaccination.200212361919
foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an aphthovirus of the family picornaviridae and the etiological agent of the economically most important animal disease. as a typical picornavirus, fmd virions are nonenveloped particles of icosahedral symmetry and its genome is a single stranded rna of about 8500 nucleotides and of positive polarity. fmdv rna is infectious and it replicates via a complementary, minus strand rna. fmdv rna replication is error-prone so that viral populations consist of mutan ...200212365806
diagnosis and screening of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostic methods are reviewed. as the presence of clinical signs alone is inconclusive, laboratory diagnosis should always be carried out. the presence of fmd virus can be demonstrated by cell culture isolation, complement fixation test, elisa or the more recent polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method. serological diagnosis is also a valuable tool. the virus neutralization test has been replaced by elisa and the antibody response to some viral non-structural protein ...200212365807
epidemiological basis useful for the control of foot-and-mouth disease.although known for many years, foot-and-mouth disease is still able to represent a real threat to many farming economies in the world. the recent 2001 western european epizootics linked to o panasia virus strain can illustrate the fact that many questions are still unanswered in the field of foot-and-mouth epidemiology. it also demonstrates that the increase in international trade, including livestock, animal products and animal food, means an increase in the probability of transmitting, through ...200212365808
eukaryotic initiation factor 4gi is a poor substrate for hiv-1 proteinase.eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4gi is efficiently cleaved during picornaviral replication. eif4gi processing has also recently been observed during hiv-1 replication. we have compared the efficiency of eif4gi proteolysis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates during translation of mrnas encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (l(pro)) or the hiv-1 proteinase (hiv-1(pro)). l(pro) cleaved 50% eif4gi within 12 min whereas hiv-1(pro) required 4 h; the concentrations were 2 pg/microl ...200212372624
construction and evaluation of a recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for inactivated vaccine production.the south african territories (sat) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) show marked genomic and antigenic variation throughout sub-saharan africa. this variation is geographically linked and requires the use of custom-made vaccines. adaptation of field isolates as vaccine strains is cumbersome, time consuming, and expensive. as an alternative to the adaptation process, the construction of recombinant fmd viruses followed by the production of conventional, inactivated vaccines utilizing ...200212381568
the possible role that buffalo played in the recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in south africa.african buffalo (syncerus caffer) act as maintenance hosts for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in southern africa. a single buffalo can become infected with all three of the endemic serotypes of fmd virus (sat-1, sat-2, and sat-3) and pose a threat of infection to other susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. the floods of 2000 in southern africa damaged the kruger national park (knp) game fence extensively, and there were several accounts of buffalo that had escaped from the park. the vp1 gene, which c ...200212381589
the fencing issue relative to the control of foot-and-mouth disease.certain livestock diseases in sub-saharan africa, such as foot-and-mouth disease are difficult to control because of the large numbers of infected wildlife hosts. these wildlife disease reservoirs form a continuous hazard of transmittal of the diseases to domestic livestock, which limits the access of livestock products from southern africa to international markets. the disease reservoirs are often found in border areas between countries with susceptible species and infected reservoir animals co ...200212381590
ires-driven translation is stimulated separately by the fmdv 3'-ncr and poly(a) sequences.the 3' end region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) consists of two distinct elements, a 90 nt untranslated region (3'-ncr) and a poly(a) tract. removal of either the poly(a) tract or both the 3'-ncr and the poly(a) tract abrogated infectivity in susceptible cells in the context of a full-length cdna clone. we have addressed the question of whether the impairment of rna infectivity is related to defects at the translation level using a double approach. first, compared to the full-length vir ...200212384586
foot-and-mouth disease: susceptibility of domestic poultry and free-living birds to infection and to disease--a review of the historical and current literature concerning the role of birds in spread of foot-and-mouth disease viruses.ruminants and pigs are the dominant natural hosts of food-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses. approximately 70 additional mammalian species are found to be susceptible under natural or experimental conditions. reptilia, amphibia, and fish are probably naturally resistant to infection. according to the reviewed literature, domestic birds (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks and geese) have been experimentally infected with some strains of fmd viruses and may develop lesions suggestive of fmd such ...200212395578
a sliding window-based method to detect selective constraints in protein-coding genes and its application to rna we present a new sliding window-based method specially designed to detect selective constraints in specific regions of a multiple protein-coding sequence alignment. in contrast to previous window-based procedures, our method is based on a nonarbitrary statistical approach to find the appropriate codon-window size to test deviations of synonymous (d(s)) and nonsynonymous (d(n)) nucleotide substitutions from the expectation. the probabilities of d(n) and d(s) are obtained from simulated data ...200212399925
immune responses of sheep to quadrivalent double emulsion foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: rate of development of immunity and variations among other ruminants.despite representing the majority of the world's foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-susceptible livestock, sheep and goats have generally been neglected with regard to their epidemiological role in the spread of fmd. in the present investigations, fmd virus quadrivalent double emulsion (montanide isa 206) vaccines were tested in sheep. the oil adjuvant elicited a better immune response at any time than did aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine, and the response developed quicker. the animals maintained their ...200212409434
the complete nucleotide sequence of the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in japan.the complete nucleotide sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2000 strain, the panasia strain, was determined by cycle sequencing and primer walking. the 5' end of the genome upstream from homopolymeric poly(c) tract (s-fragment) was 367 nucleotides in length, and the remainder of the genome (l-fragment), excepting the poly(a) tail, was 7808 nucleotides. the l-fragment contains a single open reading frame of 6996 nucleotides terminating at a uaa codon 96 bases from the 3' pol ...200212416675
the effects of gamma interferon on replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in persistently infected bovine cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which has a considerable socio-economic impact on the countries affected. in addition, persistent infection can occur following clinical or sub-clinical disease in either vaccinated or non-vaccinated cattle. the mechanism(s) by which fmdv persistence is established and maintained is not fully understood. to better understand the basic mechanisms controlling the virus infection in cattle, the ef ...200212417950
full length nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o1 campos/bra/58. brief report.the complete nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) south american strain o(1) campos/bra/58 was determined. the 8,168 kb sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence were compared to published fmdv sequences. they showed the highest sequence homology with the o(1) kaufbeuren/frg/66 strain, but closer evolutionary relatedness to the argentinean strains.200212417956
broad-spectrum virus reduction in red cell concentrates using inactine pen110 chemistry.the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens by transfusion is a persistent problem in medicine. to address this safety issue, inactine pen110 chemistry is being utilized to develop a process for preparing pathogen-reduced red blood cell concentrates (rbcc). the purpose of this study was to characterize the virucidal effectiveness of the inactine pen110 chemistry in full units of rbcc by using a panel of viruses with diverse properties in composition, size and shape.200212437518
virus-derived tubular structure displaying foreign sequences on the surface elicit cd4+ th cell and protective humoral responses.particulate vector systems for the presentation of immunogenic epitopes provide an alternate and powerful approach for the delivery of immunogens of interest. in this article, we have exploited a viral protein of unknown function, bluetongue virus (btv) nonstructural protein ns1, which forms distinct tubular aggregates in infected cells, as an immunogen delivery system. tubules are helical assemblies of ns1 protein that present the c-terminus of the protein to the outer edge effectively displayi ...200212441082
foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) affects cloven-footed animals. it is caused by seven species ("types") of foot and mouth virus (fmdv) in the genus aphthovirus, family picornaviridae (). fmdv is a single-stranded rna virus, with a protein coat consisting of four capsid proteins enumerated as vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4 (garland and donaldson 1990).200212443674
a review of the status of foot and mouth disease in south-east asia and approaches to control and eradication.the author presents reports of foot and mouth disease (fmd) submitted between 1996 and 2001 to the office international des epizooties (oie: world organisation for animal health) sub-commission for fmd in south-east asia. of the ten countries in south-east asia, fmd is endemic in seven (cambodia, laos, malaysia, myanmar, the philippines, thailand and vietnam) and three are free of the disease (brunei, indonesia and singapore). part of the philippines is also recognised internationally as being f ...200212530354
isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from japanese black cattle in miyazaki prefecture, japan, 2000.four outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred from march to may 2000 in miyazaki and hokkaido prefectures, japan. fmd virus isolation was achieved by sampling probang materials from japanese black cattle in the third case found in miyazaki prefecture. the probang materials were inoculated to bovine kidney (bk) and bovine thyroid cell cultures. cpe was observed in the bk at two days post-inoculation. specific amplified dna segments for fmd virus (fmdv) were detected by reverse transcrip ...200211853156
genetic diversity in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.complete nucleotide sequence of the 1d (vp1-encoding) gene of 61 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype asia i virus isolates recovered from different outbreaks in india between 1985 and 1999 including two vaccine strains currently used were determined. the sequences were compared with each other and those from other asian countries. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis the viruses could be grouped into four genotypes (genotypes i-iv). all the 61 isolates from india belong to a single genotype ( ...200211855637
[foot and mouth disease in (meat)calves: clinical signs and viral shedding]. 200211858041
a review of emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines.the primary objectives of this paper are to describe emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines and review literature on emergency vaccine efficacy to protect animals against (1) clinical signs and (2) infection (local virus replication). the reviewed experiments suggest that in cattle, sheep and pigs, the vaccine could be effective in preventing disease within 4-5 days post-vaccination. these studies also suggest that the risk of spreading infection decreases as the interval between vaccin ...200211858856
early protection against homologous challenge after a single dose of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 expressing capsid proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain a24.previously we demonstrated that two doses of a replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 (ad5) carrying the capsid (p1) and 3c protease coding regions of a laboratory strain of fmdv (a12) completely protected five of six swine challenged with homologous virus. the objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of one dose of an ad5-vectored vaccine expressing the p1 coding region of an fmdv field strain. a replication-defective ad5 containing the p1 coding region of fmdv a24 ...200211858872
could foot and mouth disease be a biological warfare incident? 200211873548
emergence and selection of rna virus variants: memory and extinction.two features of viral quasispecies are reviewed: the presence of memory genomes as minority components of their mutant spectra, and viral extinction due to enhanced mutagenesis. memory has been documented with several genetic markers of the important animal picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the presence of memory genomes in viral quasispecies may accelerate their adaptive response whenever a selective constraint has already been experienced by a viral population during previous s ...200211885948
a replication-competent chimera of plant and animal viruses.human, animal, fungal, and plant viruses encode papain-like proteinases that function in polyprotein processing, rna synthesis, and virus-host interactions. to compare the functional profiles of diverse papain-like proteinases, we replaced a proteinase gene of the beet yellows virus (byv) with those derived from equine arteritis virus (eav), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and the fungal virus chv1. we found that, although each of the foreign proteinases efficiently processed the viral poly ...200211886267
coexpression of interleukin-12 chains by a self-splicing vector increases the protective cellular immune response of dna and mycobacterium bovis bcg vaccines against mycobacterium tuberculosis.more effective vaccines against mycobacterium tuberculosis may contribute to the control of this major human pathogen. dna vaccines encoding single mycobacterial proteins stimulate antimycobacterial t-cell responses and induce partial protection against m. tuberculosis in animal models. the protective efficacy of these vaccines encoding a single antigen, however, has been less than that afforded by the current vaccine, mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg). the heterodimeric cytokin ...200211895958
[the contagiousness of the pestivirus and foot and mouth disease virus]. 200211905240
antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv): an analysis of the specificities of anti-fmdv antibodies after vaccination of naturally susceptible host species.of the known neutralizing antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), site 1 or a, formed in part by the g-h loop of vp1, has historically been considered immunodominant because of evidence implicating its importance in the induction of a protective immune response. however, no systematic study has been done to determine the relative importance of the various specificities of antibodies against the known neutralizing antigenic sites of fmdv in the polyclonal immune response of a natu ...200211907326
functional mimicry of a discontinuous antigenic site by a designed synthetic peptide.functional reproduction of the discontinuous antigenic site d of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been achieved by means of synthetic peptide constructions that integrate each of the three protein loops that define the antigenic site into a single molecule. the site d mimics were designed on the basis of the x-ray structure of fmdv type c-s8c1 with the aid of molecular dynamics, so that the five residues assumed to be involved in antigenic recognition are located on the same face of the m ...200211921395
duration and fitness dependence of quasispecies memory.the duration and fitness dependence of memory in viral quasispecies evolving in cell culture have been investigated using two genetic markers of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in lineages of antigenic variant fmdv red, which reverted to fmdv rgd, memory fmdv red genomes were detected after 50 infectious cycles, and memory level was fitness dependent. in growth-competition experiments between a reference fmdv rgd and two different fmdv red populations, a 7.6-fold higher fitness of the initi ...200211786012
serological evidence of fmd subclinical infection in sheep population during the 1999 epidemic in morocco.during 1999, 11 outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (fmd) were declared in the east and central part of morocco. all the fmd clinical cases reported were cattle. in order to analyse the serological status of sheep from the fmd outbreak areas, 598 sheep sera were tested using a liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) to detect antibodies against fmdv structural proteins. the study confirmed the presence of fmdv specific antibodies in 77 clinically normal sheep, indicating that unrecognised fmdv-infect ...200211792487
a novel methodology to develop a foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) peptide-based vaccine in transgenic plants.the expression of antigens in transgenic plants has been increasingly used as an alternative to the classical methodologies for antigen expression in the development of experimental vaccines. however, an important limitation in most cases is the low concentration of the recombinant antigens in the plant tissues, which reduces the possibilities of practical applications. because the site of insertion of the transferred dna into the cellular chromosomal dna is at random, different levels of foreig ...200211803075
integrity of gh-loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus during virus inactivation: detection by epitope specific antibodies.vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is prepared after inactivating the virus produced in cell culture. inactivation of the fmd virus (fmdv) was earlier done by formaline. however, several vaccine outbreaks, which occurred in europe revealed that the formaline treatment is not highly effective for virus inactivation. subsequently, binary ethyleneimine (bei) was identified as an effective inactivation reagent for fmdv. however, these chemical reagents are likely to have effect on whole vi ...200211803078
integrin alphavbeta1 is a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus.infection by field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is initiated by binding to certain species of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd)-dependent integrin including alphavbeta3 and the epithelial integrin alphavbeta6. in this report we show that the integrin alphavbeta1, when expressed as a human/hamster heterodimer on transfected chob2 cells, is a receptor for fmdv. virus binding and infection mediated by alphavbeta1 was inefficient in the presence of physiological concentrations o ...200211773368
sensitivity of primary cells immortalised by oncogene transfection for the detection and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease and swine vesicular disease viruses.primary cells derived from calf thyroid (cty), calf kidney (ck) and piglet kidney (pk) were immortalised by oncogene transfection and their susceptibility to infection by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus and swine vesicular disease (svd) virus examined. eighty-five immortalised cell lines (47 cty, 20 ck and 18 pk) proved stable upon repeated cell culture passage and many supported the growth of fmd virus and several of the pk cell lines supported svd virus. however, none of the immortalised li ...200211750139
anti-3ab antibodies in the chinese yellow cattle infected by the o/taiwan/99 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the o/taiwan/99 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a south asian topotype of serotype o, was introduced into taiwan in 1999. the chinese yellow cattle infected by the virus did not develop clinical lesions under experimental and field conditions. a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit with the 3ab antigen, a polypeptide of fmdv non-structural (ns) proteins, was used to evaluate the development and duration of anti-3ab antibodies, proving active viral replication, in the chine ...200211750140
direct kinetic assay of interactions between small peptides and immobilized antibodies using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor.a surface plasmon resonance (spr) protocol is described for the direct kinetic analysis of small antigenic peptides interacting with immobilized monoclonal antibodies (mab). high peptide concentrations (up to 2.5 microm) and medium mab surface densities (about 1.5 ng/mm(2)) are needed to ensure measurable binding levels, and fast buffer flow rates (60 microl/min) are required to minimize diffusion-controlled kinetics. good reproducibility levels in the kinetic constants are obtained under these ...200211730856
extensive antigenic and genetic variation among foot-and-mouth disease type a viruses isolated from the 1994 and 1995 foci in são paulo, brazil.nine foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a isolates recovered from the field fmd foci in são paulo state, brazil, during 1994 and 1995 (a period preceding the last reported focus of fmd in 1996 in this state) were compared among themselves and with the reference vaccine strain a(24)cruzeiro. the techniques used were sandwich elisa, virus neutralization (vn), polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) of the structural polypeptides and direct sequencing of the vp1-coding region (1d gene). res ...200211731156
the hand, foot and mouth disease virus capsid: sequence analysis and prediction of antigenic sites from homology modelling.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is the most common aetiological agent detected in cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) resulting in incidences of neurological complications and fatality in recent years. a comparison of the capsid proteins implicated in the pathogenicity of the fatal and non-fatal strains of ev71, reveals a high degree of homology (93%-100% identity). to facilitate diagnostic immunoassays and vaccine development, a consensus structural model for the ev71 coat protein has been devel ...200215130856
[combined use of killed vaccines and immunomodulator ridostin for urgent prevention of epidemic stomatitis, aujeszky disease and carnivore plague in experiment].results of experimental studies of mice and pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus, minks infected with aujeszky's disease virus, and dogs infected with canine distemper virus are described. in animals with foot-and-mouth disease and aujeszky's disease, combined treatment with killed vaccine and immunomodulator ridostin by the scheme of urgent prophylaxis (3 days before infection) caused 75% (foot-and-mouth disease) and 100% (aujeszky's disease) prevention of animal death and developmen ...200212508681
review of foot-and-mouth disease virus survival in animal excretions and on fomites. 200212498410
evidence of the coevolution of antigenicity and host cell tropism of foot-and-mouth disease virus in this work we analyze the antigenic properties and the stability in cell culture of virus mutants recovered upon challenge of peptide-vaccinated cattle with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c3 arg85. previously, we showed that a significant proportion of 29 lesions analyzed (41%) contained viruses with single amino acid replacements (r141g, l144p, or l147p) within a major antigenic site located at the g-h loop of vp1, known to participate also in interactions with integrin receptors. here w ...200312502839
novel viral disease control strategy: adenovirus expressing alpha interferon rapidly protects swine from foot-and-mouth disease.we have previously shown that replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly sensitive to alpha/beta interferon (ifn-alpha/beta). in the present study, we constructed recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vectors containing either porcine ifn-alpha or ifn-beta (ad5-pifnalpha or ad5-pifnbeta). we demonstrated that cells infected with these viruses express high levels of biologically active ifn. swine inoculated with 10(9) pfu of a control ad5 virus lacking the i ...200312502879
engineering of escherichia coli beta-galactosidase for solvent display of a functional scfv antibody fragment.protein engineering allows the generation of hybrid polypeptides with functional domains from different origins and therefore exhibiting new biological properties. we have explored several permissive sites in escherichia coli beta-galactosidase to generate functional hybrid enzymes displaying a mouse scfv antibody fragment. when this segment was placed at the amino-terminus of the enzyme, the whole fusion protein was stable, maintained its specific activity and interacted specifically with the t ...200312505169
evaluation of automated rt-pcr to accelerate the laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.automated fluorogenic (5' nuclease probe-based) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) procedures were evaluated for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) using suspensions of vesicular epithelium, heparinised or clotted blood, milk and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid ('probang') samples from the united kingdom (uk) 2001 epidemic and on sera from animals experimentally infected with the outbreak serotype o fmd virus strain. a magna pure lc was initially programmed to autom ...200312505626
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