TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
development of a rapid chromatographic strip test for the pen-side detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most contagious animal virus disease of cloven-hoofed livestock and requires reliable and accurate diagnosis for the implementation of measures to control effectively its spread. routine diagnosis of fmd is carried out at the oie/fao world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease (wrl for fmd), pirbright by the combined use of elisa and virus isolation in cell culture supplemented by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) methods. thes ...200111445149
the non-structural leader protein gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus is highly variable between serotypes.aphthoviruses are unique among picornaviruses in that they alone encode a functional l proteinase as the first component of the viral polyprotein. the l genes of a few indian foot-and-mouth disease viruses were sequenced and compared with those available to study the extent of variation in this gene. besides the two in-frame start codons present in all fmdv l genes, the asia-i vaccine virus had an additional in-frame aug (start) codon, at codon position 3. amino acid sequence comparison revealed ...200111450945
molecular epidemiology of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus with emphasis on west and south africa.genetic relationships of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses recovered from outbreaks of the disease in the west african countries of niger, burkina faso and, ghana (1988-1993) and those from south africa (2000) were determined by partial vp1 gene characterization. a 581-bp fragment, corresponding to the c-terminus half of the id (vp1 gene) region was amplified and sequenced. an homologous region of 495 nucleotides was ultimately used to determine genetic relationships of serotype o ...200111450953
direct and indirect contact rates among beef, dairy, goat, sheep, and swine herds in three california counties, with reference to control of potential foot-and-mouth disease estimate direct and indirect contact rates on livestock facilities and distance traveled between herd contacts.200111453490
evidence of secondary structure by high-resolution magic angle spinning nmr spectroscopy of a bioactive peptide bound to different solid supports.the structure of the 19-amino acid peptide epitope, corresponding to the 141-159 sequence of capsid viral protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bound to three different resins, namely, polystyrene-mbha, pega, and poepop, has been determined by high-resolution magic angle spinning (hrmas) nmr spectroscopy. a combination of homonuclear and heteronuclear bidimensional experiments was used for the complete peptide resonance assignment and the qualitative characterization of the peptide ...200111457175
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: involvement of c-terminal residues in self-processing and cleavage of eif4gi.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus frees itself from the nascent polyprotein, cleaving between its own c terminus and the n terminus of vp4 at the sequence lys-leu-lys- downward arrow-gly-ala-gly. subsequently, the l(pro) impairs protein synthesis from capped mrnas in the infected cell by processing a host protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 4gi, at the sequence asn-leu-gly- downward arrow-arg-thr-thr. a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system was used to examine the subs ...200111459842
tricistronic viral vectors co-expressing interleukin-12 (1l-12) and cd80 (b7-1) for the immunotherapy of cancer: preclinical studies in myeloma.synergy between interleukin-12 (il-12) and b7-1 (cd80) for cancer immunotherapy has previously been demonstrated in animal models of breast cancer, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. with a view to human clinical application, tricistronic retroviral and adenovirus vectors co-expressing il-12 (il-12p40 plus il-12p35) and cd80 were constructed by utilizing two internal ribosome entry site (ires) sequences to link the three cdnas. a murine stem cell virus (mscv)-based retroviral vector (mscv-hil12.b7) ...200111477456
a solid-phase competition elisa for measuring antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus.a solid-phase competition elisa has been developed to measure antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus and has been validated using an extensive range of sera from cattle. the assay uses polyclonal antisera and inactivated purified 146s antigens of fmd virus and was compared with the liquid-phase blocking elisa and the virus neutralisation test on a range of serum sets. when examining test sera at a 1:5 dilution with a cut-off point of 30% inhibition of reaction, the solid-phase competit ...200111483215
predicting herd protection against foot-and-mouth disease by testing individual and bulk tank milk samples.four groups of cattle were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus type o(1) over three 70 day vaccination cycles using the liquid-phase-blocking-elisa (lpbe). first lactation cows showed the lowest titres and group protection levels (gpls) against fmd virus strains with 'r' values < or =0.5 while second lactation animals gave the highest results. when mean serum titres for each group and sampling date were plotted against gpl a strong correlation was found. revaccinatio ...200111483220
truncated initiation factor eif4g lacking an eif4e binding site can support capped mrna translation.picornavirus proteases cleave translation initiation factor eif4g into a c-terminal two-thirds fragment (hereafter named p100) and an n-terminal one-third fragment, which interacts with the cap-binding factor eif4e. as the timing of this cleavage correlates broadly with the shut-off of host cell protein synthesis in infected cells, a very widespread presumption has been that p100 cannot support capped mrna translation. through the use of an eif4g-depleted reticulocyte lysate system, we show that ...200111483526
activity of the hepatitis a virus ires requires association between the cap-binding translation initiation factor (eif4e) and eif4g.the question of whether translation initiation factor eif4e and the complete eif4g polypeptide are required for initiation dependent on the ires (internal ribosome entry site) of hepatitis a virus (hav) has been examined using in vitro translation in standard and eif4g-depleted rabbit reticulocyte lysates. in agreement with previous publications, the hav ires is unique among all picornavirus iress in that it was inhibited if translation initiation factor eif4g was cleaved by foot-and-mouth disea ...200111483729
detailed analysis of the requirements of hepatitis a virus internal ribosome entry segment for the eukaryotic initiation factor complex eif4f.the hepatitis a virus (hav) internal ribosome entry segment (ires) is unique among the picornavirus iress in that it is inactive in the presence of either the entero- and rhinovirus 2a or aphthovirus lb proteinases. since these proteinases both cleave eukaryotic initiation factor 4g (eif4g) and hav ires activity could be rescued in vitro by addition of eif4f to proteinase-treated extracts, it was concluded that the hav ires requires eif4f containing intact eif4g. here, we show that the inability ...200111483730
foot-and-mouth disease virus: cause of the recent crisis for the uk livestock industry.the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the united kingdom is a stark reminder of the economic devastation that this disease can wreak. tracing the origin of such an outbreak is an essential part of disease control. modern molecular methods have been in place for a number of years to enable scientists to identify unambiguously the strain of virus responsible. however, tracing the precise origin of such a strain is not so straightforward because the virus can move rapidly around th ...200111485797
[molecular characterization of aphthous fever virus isolated during the years 1993-1994 in argentina].nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the vp1 structural protein have been used extensively as diagnostic and epidemiological tools for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this report we have applied this methodology to the analysis of the vp1 coding sequence from fmdv strains isolated in argentina during 1993-1994. the results demonstrated that the field isolates were related to the vaccine strains used at that time. however the involvement of the vaccine virus appeared to be dif ...200111494760
subcellular distribution of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a protein in cells infected with viruses encoding wild-type and bovine-attenuated forms of 3a.picornavirus infection induces the proliferation and rearrangement of intracellular membranes in response to the synthesis of nonstructural proteins, including 3a. we have previously shown that changes in 3a are associated with the inability of a taiwanese strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (otai) to grow in bovine cells and cause disease in cattle, although the virus grows to high titers in porcine cells and is highly virulent in pigs (c. w. beard and p. w. mason, 2000, j. virol. 74, ...200111504550
hbv core particles as a carrier for b cell/t cell the middle 80s, recombinant hepatitis b virus cores (hbc) gave onset to icosahedral virus-like particles (vlps) as a basic class of non-infectious carriers of foreign immunological epitopes. the recombinant hbc particles were used to display immunodominant epitopes of hepatitis b, c, and e virus, human rhinovirus, papillomavirus, hantavirus, and influenza virus, human and simian immunodeficiency virus, bovine and feline leukemia virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, murine cytomegalovirus and ...200111509871
[study on the dna vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus using the heavy chain constant region of swine igg as the carrier for peptide epitopes].the peptide of amino acids 141-160 of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a major b cell epitope and the peptide of amino acids 21-40 is an important t cell epitope. in this study, the dna fragments of 141-160 and 21-40 peptide epitopes of a strain of type o fmdv was chemically synthesized and arranged into a tandem repeat 141-160 (20aa)-21-40 (20aa)-141-160 (20aa). this tandem sequence was fused to the 3' end of the heavy chain constant region gene of swine immunoglobulin g an ...200111517610
the generation and persistence of genetic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus.genetic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is of interest for at least two reasons. first, changes to the genes encoding capsid proteins results in antigenic variation, and affects vaccine efficiency and effectiveness of vaccination programs; second, genetic changes can lead to important insights into the transport of virus between countries, regions, herds, and even possibly individuals. current estimates of rna virus mutation rates suggest that an average of about one base mis-in ...200111530198
evidence that equine rhinitis a virus vp1 is a target of neutralizing antibodies and participates directly in receptor binding.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is a respiratory pathogen of horses and is classified as an aphthovirus, the only non-foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) member of this genus. in fmdv, virion protein 1 (vp1) is a major target of protective antibodies and is responsible for viral attachment to permissive cells via an rgd motif located in a distal surface loop. although both viruses share considerable sequence identity, erav vp1 does not contain an rgd motif. to investigate antibody and receptor-bi ...200111533189
tracing movement of african buffalo in southern africa.genetic characterisation of two pathogens, namely foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus and mycobacterium bovis, isolated from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in southern africa was used to determine the origin of buffalo in situations where the source of infection was obscure. by determining the phylogenetic relatedness of various fmd virus isolates using partial sequencing of the main antigenic determinant, vp1, the origin of buffalo moved illegally to the non-endemic region of south africa was ...200111548532
efficient virus extinction by combinations of a mutagen and antiviral inhibitors.the effect of combinations of the mutagenic base analog 5-fluorouracil (fu) and the antiviral inhibitors guanidine hydrochloride (g) and heparin (h) on the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cell culture has been investigated. related fmdv clones differing up to 10(6)-fold in relative fitness in bhk-21 cells have been compared. systematic extinction of intermediate fitness virus was attained with a combination of fu and g but not with the mutagen or the inhibitor alone. system ...200111559805
ires interaction with translation initiation factors: functional characterization of novel rna contacts with eif3, eif4b, and eif4gii.translation initiation promoted by picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements is dependent on the association of specific ires sequences to the initiation factor eif4g. however the rna determinants interacting with other components of the translational machinery are still unknown. in this study, we have identified novel rna-protein interactions between the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires and three translation initiation factors. a doublet of 116/110 kda that crosslinked t ...200111565745
the nature of the bond between peptide and carrier molecule determines the immunogenicity of the construct.the influence of the nature of the bond between a peptide and a (lipidic) carrier molecule on the immunogenicity of that construct was investigated. as types of bonds a thioester-, a disulfide-, an amide- and a thioether bond were investigated. as carrier molecules a peptide, an n-palmitoylated peptide or a c(16)-hydrocarbon chain were used. the biostability of the bond between peptide and carrier molecule is thioether > amide > disulfide >> thioester. however, the immunogenic potency of the con ...200111576330
[point of view of knmvd concerning foot and mouth disease marker vaccine]. 200111596520
[round table discussion about foot and mouth disease prevention and control. the goals and differences of opinion on how to get there]. 200111596536
foot and mouth disease: a revised policy is required. 200111599518
antibody neutralization epitopes and integrin binding sites on nonenveloped viruses. 200111601890
foot-and-mouth disease virus lacking the vp1 g-h loop: the mutant spectrum uncovers interactions among antigenic sites for fitness gain.the arg-gly-asp (rgd) triplet found in the g-h loop of capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is critically involved in the interaction of fmdv with integrin receptors and with neutralizing antibodies. multiplication of fmdv c-s8c1 in baby hamster kidney 21 (bhk-21) cells selected variant viruses exploiting alternative mechanisms of cell recognition that rendered the rgd integrin-binding triplet dispensable for infectivity. by constructing chimeric viruses, we show that dispen ...200111601891
inactivation of viruses by aziridines. 200111672893
genetic heterogeneity of sat-1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses in southern africa.genetic relationships of 50 sat-1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses were determined by phylogenetic analysis of an homologous 417 nucleotide region encoding the c-terminal half of the vp1 gene and part of the 2a segment. viruses obtained from persistently-infected african buffalo populations were selected in order to assess the regional genetic variation within the host species and compared with ten viruses recovered from recent and historical cases of clinical infection. phylogenetic reconstr ...200111676416
dynamics of the 2001 uk foot and mouth epidemic: stochastic dispersal in a heterogeneous landscape.foot-and-mouth is one of the world's most economically important livestock diseases. we developed an individual farm-based stochastic model of the current uk epidemic. the fine grain of the epidemiological data reveals the infection dynamics at an unusually high spatiotemporal resolution. we show that the spatial distribution, size, and species composition of farms all influence the observed pattern and regional variability of outbreaks. the other key dynamical component is long-tailed stochasti ...200111679661
cleavage of translation initiation factor 4ai (eif4ai) but not eif4aii by foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease: identification of the eif4ai cleavage site.the translation initiation factor eif4a is cleaved within mammalian cells infected by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the fmdv 3c protease cleaves eif4ai (between residues e143 and v144), but not the closely related eif4aii. modification of eif4ai, to produce a sequence identical to eif4aii around the cleavage site, blocked proteolysis. alignment of mammalian eif4ai onto the three-dimensional structure of yeast eif4a located the scissile bond within an exposed, flexible portion of the molec ...200111682048
foot and mouth disease in human beings. 200111684262
phylogenetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in argentina.we have analysed complete or partial vpi sequences of 31 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses belonging to serotypes a, o and c to determine the genetic relatedness of field strains of fmd virus (fmdv) that have circulated in argentina between 1961 and 1994. phylogenetic analysis, which also included 15 previously published argentinean sequences and six reference strains, revealed that (i) fmd type a strains showed the highest genetic heterogeneity and could be divided into five lineages with a ...200111724271
epidemiological implications of the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated between 1996 and 2000 in bangladesh.foot-and-mouth disease virus was collected during two years throughout bangladesh. viral rna from 40 samples was subjected to reverse transcription-dependent polymerase chain reactions that amplify parts of the capsid protein encoding genome region, and the products obtained were sequenced. this showed that all virus isolates up to january 1999 belonged to a genotype of serotype o, observed here already in 1987, 1996 and 1997, and elsewhere since 1990. in february 2001, this virus variant was in ...200111724275
how rna viruses exchange their genetic of the most unusual features of rna viruses is their enormous genetic variability. among the different processes contributing to the continuous generation of new viral variants rna recombination is of special importance. this process has been observed for human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses. the collected data reveal a great susceptibility of rna viruses to recombination. they also indicate that genetic rna recombination (especially the nonhomologous one) is a major factor responsible ...200111732610
diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease by real-time fluorogenic pcr assay. 200111761294
the eradication of foot-and-mouth disease: a parallel problem.poliomyelitis and foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can both be prevented by vaccination. the vaccines are highly effective but they differ in that, whereas in most countries attenuated viruses have been used to control poliomyelitis, fmd vaccines are prepared from the virulent viruses. the reasons for choosing inactivated vaccines for fmd are (i) the demonstration several decades ago that a virus which was attenuated for one species could be virulent for another and (ii) the great antigenic variabil ...200111763321
[preventive vaccination against foot and mouth disease not a realistic scenario?]. 200111766538
sequence analysis of recent indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a and asia 1 from clinical materials.partial nucleotide sequences of 1d gene of 38 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotypes o, a and asia 1 originating from various parts of india were determined. field materials were subjected straight to rna extraction, reverse transcription - pcr (rt-pcr) and sequencing. also 3 fmdv vaccine strains, ind r2/75 (serotype o), ind 63/72 (serotype asia 1) and ind 17/77 (serotype a) were included in the analysis. the seqences were compared mutually as well as with available corresp ...200111774894
[vaccination against foot and mouth disease: a biotechnical approach?].described is how through a biotechnical approach a fmd 'marker' vaccine and matching diagnostic test could be developed which makes it possible to control fmd safety and effectively. much research is still necessary but important in this is that the european union supports these developments.200111780258
conserved rna secondary structures in picornaviridae genomes.the family picornaviridae contains important pathogens including, for example, hepatitis a virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. the genome of these viruses is a single messenger-active (+)-rna of 7200-8500 nt. besides coding for the viral proteins, it also contains functionally important rna secondary structures, among them an internal ribosomal entry site (ires) region towards the 5'-end. this contribution provides a comprehensive computational survey of the complete genomic rnas and a detai ...200111812840
[diagnosis of foot and mouth disease].because foot-and-mouth disease has the potential for an explosive spread, instant and reliable diagnosis is of special importance. in this article the clinical examination, types and shipment of samples as well as the current methods of laboratory diagnosis by detection of fmd-virus, antigen, nucleic acid and antibodies are reviewed. special emphasis is laid on the differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals, in respect to conventional as well as novel vaccines.200111822165
[persistence of fdmv and its effects on disease control strategies].it is well-known that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a persistent infection, lasting for more than 28 days, in cattle, sheep, goat as well as some other ruminant species, but not in pigs. although convincing evidence for virus transmission is missing, these carrier animals have to be considered as a potential risk of infection. some aspects of fmdv persistence are presented and discussed with regard to disease control strategies.200111822166
[vaccination against foot and mouth disease: current state and perspectives].foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in many parts of the world and poses a permanent threat for cloven-hoofed animals in all countries. the available vaccines against fmd are safe and efficacious. combat of fmd by vaccination is controversial in currently fmd-free countries including the ones of the european union. the article summarizes our knowledge concerning production and use of vaccines, virus persistence, differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals, vaccination programs an ...200111822168
synthetic peptide-based vaccine and diagnostic system for effective control of fmd.we have designed synthetic peptides corresponding to two different regions of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that are effective as (a) a vaccine or (b) a diagnostic reagent which differentiates convalescent from vaccinated animals, respectively. the peptide vaccine is based on a sequence from the prominent g-h loop of vp1, one of the four capsid proteins. the sequence was optimized by the inclusion of a cyclic constraint and adjoining sequences, and broader immunogenicity was ...200111851319
synthetic peptide vaccines: unexpected fulfillment of discarded hope?in the early eighties it was realized that the ultimate vaccine would be a synthetic peptide. major efforts were put into the development of a synthetic vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) for which even today no alternative exists besides the classical vaccine based on inactivated virus. despite impressive progress, a peptide vaccine that could match the classical vaccine with respect to efficacy (i.e. full protection of all animals after a single vaccination) has not materialized. ...200111851321
synthetic peptides as functional mimics of a viral discontinuous antigenic site.functional reproduction of discontinuous antigenic site d of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been achieved by means of synthetic peptide constructions that integrate into a single molecule each of the three protein loops that define the antigenic site. the site d mimics are designed on the basis of the x-ray structure of fmdv type c-s8c1 with the aid of molecular dynamics, so that the five residues assumed to be involved in antigenic recognition are located on the same face of the molecu ...200111851326
the ability of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) to function as a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus is not dependent on the presence of complete subunit cytoplasmic domains.the integrin alpha(v)beta(3) has been shown to function as one of the integrin receptors on cultured cells for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and high-efficiency utilization of the bovine homolog of this integrin is dependent on the cysteine-rich repeat region of the bovine beta(3) subunit. in this study we have examined the role of the cytoplasmic domains of the alpha(v) and beta(3) subunits in fmdv infection. we have found that truncations or extensions of these domains of either subunit ...200111119622
deletion or substitution of the aphthovirus 3' ncr abrogates infectivity and virus replication.the 3' noncoding region (ncr) of the genomic picornaviral rna is believed to contain major cis-acting signals required for negative-strand rna synthesis. the 3' ncr of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was studied in the context of a full-length infectious clone in which the genetic element was deleted or exchanged for the equivalent region of a distantly related swine picornavirus, swine vesicular disease virus (svdv). deletion of the 3' ncr, while maintaining the intact poly(a) tail as well ...200111125162
the localization of persistent foot and mouth disease virus in the epithelial cells of the soft palate and pharynx.after contact with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), cattle may become persistently infected, regardless of their pre-existing immune status or whether they develop clinical disease. the cellular sites of fmdv persistence have not previously been determined. the use of in-situ hybridization in combination with tyramide signal amplification (tsa) provided the first direct evidence that fmdv rna is localized within the epithelial cells of the soft palate and pharynx during persistent infection, ...200111222004
viral capsid mobility: a dynamic conduit for inactivation.mass spectrometry and fluorescent probes have provided direct evidence that alkylating agents permeate the protein capsid of naked viruses and chemically inactivate the nucleic acid. n-acetyl-aziridine and a fluorescent alkylating agent, dansyl sulfonate aziridine, inactivated three different viruses, flock house virus, human rhinovirus-14, and foot and mouth disease virus. mass spectral studies as well as fluorescent probes showed that alkylation of the genome was the mechanism of inactivation. ...200111226229
type-independent detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus by monoclonal antibodies that bind to amino-terminal residues of capsid protein vp2.the characterization of monoclonal antibodies raised against the foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates a22 iraq/1964, asia1 shamir-israel/1989, and sat1 zimbabwe/1989 with regard to neutralizing activity and sensitivity of their epitopes for treatment with trypsin, resulted in the identification of one non-neutralizing antibody in each panel that binds to a trypsin-sensitive epitope. furthermore, each of these antibodies recognized 27 isolates of different provenance, representative of six serot ...200111226567
immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) challenge in swine vaccinated with adenovirus-fmdv constructs.a replication-defective adenovirus 5 encoding foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions (ad5-fmdv3cwt) was used to vaccinate swine. a single inoculation utilizing 1 x 10(8) plaque forming units (pfu) or an inoculation of 1 x 10(8) followed by a boost of 5 x 10(8) pfu ad5-fmdv3cwt were tested, along with an inoculation and boost using an adenovirus encoding the fmdv capsid coding region and an inactive form of the 3c proteinase (ad5-fmdv3cmut). sera collected fro ...200111228388
identification of t-cell epitopes in nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.porcine t-cell recognition of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins (nsp) was tested using in vitro lymphoproliferative responses. lymphocytes were obtained from outbred pigs experimentally infected with fmdv. of the different nsp, polypeptides 3a, 3b, and 3c gave the highest stimulations in the in vitro assays. the use of overlapping synthetic peptides allowed the identification of amino acid regions within these proteins that were efficiently recognized by the lymphocytes. ...200111238843
foot-and-mouth disease virus: a long known virus, but a current threat.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was the first animal virus identified. since then, fmdv has become a model system in animal virology and a considerable amount of information on its structure, biology and vaccinology has been obtained. however, the disease that this virus produces (fmd) still constitutes one of the main animal health concerns. in this review, we have attempted to summarise the state of the knowledge in different basic and applied areas of fmdv research, with emphasis on those ...200111254174
identification of optimal regions for phylogenetic studies on vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus: analysis of types a and o argentinean analysis of the informative content of sequence stretches on the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vpi gene was applied to two important viral serotypes: a and o. several sequence regions were identified to allow the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees equivalent to those derived from the whole vpi gene. the optimal informative regions for sequence windows of 150 to 250 nt were predicted between positions 250 and 550 of the gene. the sequences spanning the 250 nt of the 3' end (positions 4 ...200111254175
residual foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies in french cattle and sheep six years after the vaccination ban.a serological survey was carried out on french cattle to establish a reference pattern of residual vaccine antibodies and non-specific reactions against the foot-and-mouth disease virus 6 years after the ban on vaccination and in the absence of any foot-and-mouth disease outbreak. most of the multi-vaccinated cattle still displayed high titres of antibodies and up to 50% of those which had received a single injection still had antibodies. non-specific reactors were also recorded among animals bo ...200111254180
functional interaction of translation initiation factor eif4g with the foot-and-mouth disease virus internal ribosome entry the life-cycle of picornaviruses, the synthesis of the viral polyprotein is initiated cap-independently at the internal ribosome entry site (ires) far downstream from the 5' end of the viral plus-strand rna. the cis-acting ires rna elements serve as binding sites for translation initiation factors that guide the ribosomes to an internal site of the viral rna. in this study, we show that the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eif4g interacts directly with the ires of foot-and-mouth disea ...200111257179
a single amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 3a can mediate adaptation of foot-and-mouth disease virus to the guinea pig.the genetic changes selected during the adaptation of a clonal population of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to the guinea pig have been analyzed. fmdv clone c-s8c1 was adapted to the guinea pig by serial passage in the animals until secondary lesions were observed. analysis of the virus directly recovered from the lesions developed by the animals revealed the selection of variants with two amino acid substitutions in nonstructural proteins, i(248)-->t in 2c and q(44)-->r in 3a. on further p ...200111264387
nucleotide sequence of genome segment 5 from bombyx mori cypovirus 1.the complete nucleotide sequences of the double-stranded rna genome segments 5 (s5) from bombyx mori cypovirus 1 (bmcpv-1) strains i and h were determined. the segments consisted of 2,852 nucleotides encoding putative proteins of 881 amino acids with molecular masses of approximately 101 kda (p101). a homology search showed that p101 has high similarity (93%) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a protease (2apro) at amino acid position 219 to 235. these findings suggest the possibility that ...200111266213
induction of a virus-specific antibody response to foot and mouth disease virus using the structural protein vp1 expressed in transgenic potato plants.we have recently communicated the oral and parental immunogenicity of the structural protein vp1 of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) expressed in different transgenic plants. those results clearly indicated the necessity of increasing the expression of the foreign genes in the transgenic plant to avoid additional steps toward the purification and/or concentration of the antigen of interest. here, we report the production of transgenic potatoes plants containing the vp1 gene cloned under the r ...200111270596
role of the cytoplasmic domain of the beta-subunit of integrin alpha(v)beta6 in infection by foot-and-mouth disease virus.field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are believed to use rgd-dependent integrins as cellular receptors in vivo. using sw480 cell transfectants, we have recently established that one such integrin, alpha(v)beta6, functions as a receptor for fmdv. this integrin was shown to function as a receptor for virus attachment. however, it was not known if the alpha(v)beta6 receptor itself participated in the events that follow virus binding to the host cell. in the present study, we invest ...200111287565
outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in the uk caused by a pandemic strain. 200111292084
analysis of the aphthovirus 2a/2b polyprotein 'cleavage' mechanism indicates not a proteolytic reaction, but a novel translational effect: a putative ribosomal 'skip'.the 2a region of the aphthovirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polyprotein is only 18 aa long. a 'primary' intramolecular polyprotein processing event mediated by 2a occurs at its own c terminus. fmdv 2a activity was studied in artificial polyproteins in which sequences encoding reporter proteins flanked the 2a sequence such that a single, long, open reading frame was created. the self-processing properties of these artificial polyproteins were investigated and the co-translational 'cleava ...200111297676
the 'cleavage' activities of foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a site-directed mutants and naturally occurring '2a-like' sequences.the 2a/2b cleavage of aphtho- and cardiovirus 2a polyproteins is mediated by their 2a proteins 'cleaving' at their own c termini. we have analysed this activity using artificial reporter polyprotein systems comprising green fluorescent protein (gfp) linked via foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a to beta-glucuronidase (gus) -- forming a single, long, open reading frame. analysis of the distribution of radiolabel showed a high proportion of the in vitro translation products (approximately 90%) ...200111297677
molecular intermediates of fitness gain of an rna virus: characterization of a mutant spectrum by biological and molecular cloning.the mutant spectrum of a virus quasispecies in the process of fitness gain of a debilitated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) clone has been analysed. the mutant spectrum was characterized by nucleotide sequencing of three virus genomic regions (internal ribosome entry site; region between the two aug initiation codons; vp1-coding region) from 70 biological clones (virus from individual plaques formed on bhk-21 cell monolayers) and 70 molecular clones (rt--pcr products cloned in e. coli). the ...200111297679
[transmission of the foot and mouth disease virus through milk and meat products is not a threat for human health]. 200111338619
antigenicity modulation upon peptide cyclization: application to the gh loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain c1-barcelona.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolate c(1)-barcelona (or c-s30) includes four replacements within its immunodominant site (gh loop, residues 136-150 of capsid protein vp1, yttstrgdlahvtat), relative to reference strain c-s8c1 (ytasargdlahlttt). although one of the mutations in c-s30 (147leu-->val) is known to be detrimental for antibody recognition, reactivity of this isolate with the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) 4c4, raised against fmdv c1-brescia (gh loop: ytastrgdlahltat), was ...200111348711
construction of regulatable picornavirus ireses as a test of current models of the mechanism of internal translation initiation.picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites (iress) are approximately 450 nt. rna elements that direct internal initiation of translation, such that when placed between the two cistrons of a dicistronic construct, they drive independent translation of the downstream cistron. consequently they have been widely used for coordinated expression of two or more proteins. all picornavirus iress have an aug triplet at the very 3' end, which is thought to be the actual site of internal ribosome entry. how ...200111350029
the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of hepatitis c virus visualized by electron microscopy.translation of hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna is initiated via the internal ribosome entry site (ires), located within the 5' untranslated region. although the secondary structure of this element has been predicted, little information on the tertiary structure is available. here we report the first structural characterization of the hcv ires using electron microscopy. in vitro transcribed rna appeared as particles with characteristic morphology and gold labeling using a specific oligonucleotide con ...200111350030
inhibition of l-deleted foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by alpha/beta interferon involves double-stranded rna-dependent protein kinase.we previously demonstrated that the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to form plaques in cell culture is associated with the suppression of alpha/beta interferon (ifn-alpha/beta). in the present study, we used escherichia coli-expressed porcine and bovine ifn-alpha or -beta individually to demonstrate that each was equally effective in inhibiting fmdv replication. the block in fmdv replication appeared to be at the level of protein translation, suggesting a role for double-stranded ...200111356957
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from ruminants in taiwan in 1999, 10 sporadic outbreaks of cattle foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) occurred in taiwan. by the time, infection was limited to the chinese yellow cattle (a native species of beef cattle in mainland china), which did not develop vesicular lesions under field conditions. five viruses isolates obtained from individual farms were confirmed to be the serotype o fmd virus (o/taiwan/1999). during january-february 2000, however, this virus has spread to dairy cattle and goat herds, causing severe morta ...200111390103
genetic and antigenic analysis of type a foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in india during 1987-1996.twenty-three foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a field isolates, recovered from different outbreaks during 1987-1996 in india, were subjected to antigenic and genetic analysis. the isolates showed a close antigenic relationship to the current vaccine strain (ind 17/77) in micro-neutralization test conducted using a vaccine strain (ind 17/77) antiserum and a peptide (aa 136-151 of vp1 protein of the a22/azerbaijan/65 strain) antiserum. however, the isolates revealed minor antigenic differe ...200111394573
evidence for positive selection in foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid genes from field isolates.the nature of selection on capsid genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was characterized by examining the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in 11 data sets of sequences obtained from six different serotypes of fmdv. using a method of analysis that assigns each codon position to one of a number of estimated values of nonsynonymous to synonymous ratio, significant evidence of positive selection was identified in 5 data sets, operating at 1-7% of codon positions. evidence o ...200111139487
evidence for positive selection in the capsid protein-coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subjected to experimental passage regimens.we present sequence data from two genomic regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subjected to several experimental passage regimens. maximum-likelihood estimates of the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous rate ratio parameter (d(n)/d(s)) suggested the action of positive selection on some antigenic sites of the fmdv capsid during some experimental passages. these antigenic sites showed an accumulation of convergent amino acid replacements during massive serial cytolytic passages and also in persi ...200111141188
emergence in asia of foot-and-mouth disease viruses with altered host range: characterization of alterations in the 3a 1997, an epizootic in taiwan, province of china, was caused by a type o foot-and-mouth disease virus which infected pigs but not cattle. the virus had an altered 3a protein, which harbored a 10-amino-acid deletion and a series of substitutions. here we show that this deletion is present in the earliest type o virus examined from the region (from 1970), whereas substitutions surrounding the deletion accumulated over the last 29 years. analyses of the growth of these viruses in bovine cells sug ...200111152528
development of a novel real-time rt-pcr assay for quantitation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in diverse porcine tissues.pigs are more difficult to immunise and more variable in their response to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) than other livestock species. this has important consequences for fmd control during both prophylactic vaccination programmes in endemic situations and when emergency vaccination may be used as an adjunct to stamping out during outbreaks in countries normally free from the disease. the rapid and effective control of fmd in pigs is especially important in regions of high pig density since infec ...200111164915
development and standardization of a piezo electric immunobiosensor for foot and mouth disease virus immunobiosensor using a piezo electric (pz) crystal was developed and standardized for foot and mouth disease (fmd) diagnosis and virus typing. a 6mhz quartz crystal was used as the frequency determining element. foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type specific antibody raised in rabbits/monoclonal antibody was coated on the crystal surface and the resonance measured. one microlitre of the 10% aqueous suspension of the clinical sample (tongue or foot epithelium) was applied on both surfaces ...200111182498
sequence analysis of the rna polymerase gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1.the complete nucleotide (nt.) sequence of the rna polymerase (3d) gene and 81 nt. in the 3'-untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asial (ind63/72) was determined and compared with the sequence of other fmdv serotypes. the 3d genomic region was 1410 nt. long encoding 470 amino acids with an inframe stop codon (taa) at nt. position 1411-1413. the deduced amino acid sequence of the protein showed 8 conserved motifs as reported in other picornaviruses, 2 of which are 10 ...200111210935
a novel protein-rna binding assay: functional interactions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus internal ribosome entry site with cellular proteins.translation initiation on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna occurs by a cap-independent mechanism directed by a highly structured element (approximately 435 nt) termed an internal ribosome entry site (ires). a functional assay to identify proteins that bind to the fmdv ires and are necessary for fmdv ires-mediated translation initiation has been developed. in vitro-transcribed polyadenylated rnas corresponding to the whole or part of the fmdv ires were immobilized on oligo-dt dynabeads and ...200111214173
the 3a non-structural-protein coding region of the southern african sat type isolates differs from that of other foot-and-mouth disease viruses.the 3a non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses is a relatively conserved protein comprising 153 amino acids. recent studies have demonstrated correlation between mutations in the 3a non-structural-protein-coding region, including a 10-amino acid deletion, and attenuation of the viruses in cattle. although the 3a coding region of several type a, o and c isolates has previously been described, nucleotide sequence data of the 3a coding region of the south african types (sat) 1, 2 a ...200112026059
foot-and-mouth disease: a review of the virus and the symptoms.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiologic agent of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), which is a disease of cattle, swine, and other cloven-footed animals. fmd is characterized by the formation of vesicles on the tongue, nose, muzzle, and coronary bands of infected animals. the virus has several unique characteristics that enable it to cause one of the most economically devastating diseases in today's world. the ease with which it may be transmitted by contact and aerosol, combined with it ...200111936028
diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease by rt-pcr: use of phylogenetic data to evaluate primers for the typing of viral rna in clinical samples.the results of type-specific rt-pcr diagnostic assays on foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses in clinical samples were mapped onto serotype-specific dendrograms representing the degree of nucleotide sequence variation between the fmd virus isolates. this novel approach assisted the selection of suitable pcr primer sets for the diagnosis of fmd virus isolates belonging to different topotypes within each serotype. these interpretations were qualified by using a universal (fmd virus group) specific ...200111811689
mechanisms of integrin-mediated virus attachment and internalization process.viruses that propagate within vertebrate hosts have adapted many strategies to infect host cells. one of the first steps in a viral infection is the binding of the virus to cell surface molecules. this interaction between a virus and its receptors plays a key role in the multiplication cycle. entry of viruses into cells is a complex, multistep process, and for several viruses, cell attachment and internalization are distinct steps. a number of virus receptors have been identified; a common famil ...200111922076
fighting foot-and-mouth disease in mexico: popular protest against diplomatic decisions. 200118095399
[symposium "animal health: question of european legislation?" "human, animal, nature and economy should be in balance"]. 200211930550
resistance to extinction of low fitness virus subjected to plaque-to-plaque transfers: diversification by mutation clustering.plaque-to-plaque transfers of rna viruses lead to accumulation of mutations and fitness decrease. to test whether continuing plaque-to-plaque transfers would lead to viral extinction, we have subjected several low fitness foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) clones to up to 130 successive plaque transfers, and have analyzed the evolution of plaque titers and genomic nucleotide sequences. no case of viral extinction could be documented. some low fitness clones that posses an internal poly(a) tract ...200211812137
ires elements: features of the rna structure contributing to their activity.the activity of internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements depends on their structural organization. we have addressed here the study of conserved structural motifs in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires as an example to understand the relationship between rna structure and function. the features of the rna structure known to be functionally relevant are discussed in regards to the capacity to modulate interaction of translation initiation factors with the fmdv ires element. additiona ...200212457563
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/skr/2000.molecular cloning and sequencing of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/skr/2000, one of panasia strain, were performed from fmdv infected cattle. from the poly (c) tract of the 5' nontranslated region (ntr) to the 3' ntr including 14 base pairs (bp) of poly (a) tail, 7813 bp sequences comprising approximately 95% of the whole genome were obtained by reverse transcription polymerase reaction (rt-pcr). the deduced amino acid sequences of the structural and nonstructural proteins ( ...200212457959
expression of foot and mouth disease virus non-structural polypeptide 3abc induces histone h3 cleavage in bhk21 of the non-structural polypeptide 3abc of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) expressed in escherichia coli-bl21-de3 was prevented by mutating either four glutamic acid residues at the 3a/3b1, 3b1/2, 3b2/3 and 3b3/3c junctions (3abctet) or a single cysteine residue at position 383 within the 3c domain (3abcm). independent expression of 3abc and 3abctet genes induced expression of chaperone dnak and degradation of ribosomal s1 protein in e. coli. they also induced cleavage of nucl ...200212457965
investigation of the possible spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus by the burning of animal carcases on open atmospheric dispersion model was used to predict the airborne spread and concentrations of foot-and-mouth disease virus within the plumes generated by 11 pyres built to burn infected carcases during the epidemic of 2001 in the uk. on the basis of assumptions about the quantity of virus emitted during the three hours after the pyres were built and the threshold concentration of virus required to cause an infection in cattle, it was concluded that none of the disease breakdowns which occurred u ...200212463534
conservation of l and 3c proteinase activities across distantly related aphthoviruses.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader (l) proteinase is an important virulence determinant in fmdv infections. it possesses two distinct catalytic activities: (i) c-terminal processing at the l/vp4 junction; and (ii) induction of the cleavage of translation initiation factor eif4g, an event that inhibits cap-dependent translation in infected cells. the only other member of the aphthovirus genus, equine rhinitis a virus (erav), also encodes an l protein, but this shares only 32% amino ac ...200212466488
development of a rapid in vitro protein refolding assay which discriminates between peptide-bound and peptide-free forms of recombinant porcine major histocompatibility class i complex (sla-i).the extracellular domains of swine leukocyte antigen class i (sla-i, major histocompatibility complex protein class i) were cloned and sequenced for two haplotypes (h4 and h7) which do not share any alleles based on serological typing, and which are the most important in danish farmed pigs. the extracellular domain of sla-i was connected to porcine beta2 microglobulin by glycine-rich linkers. the engineered single-chain proteins, consisting of fused sla-i and beta2 microglobulin, were overexpres ...200211943330
phylogenetic analysis of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in india between 1977 and 2000.the genetic diversity among the indian serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates sampled over a period of 24 years (1977-2000) was studied by sequencing the vp1 gene. in the phylogenetic tree, constructed from 83 indian and 37 other available sequences, the fmdv type a isolates were distributed into 10 major genotypes (designated as i-x). the indian isolates were distributed in 4 genotypes (i, iv, vi and vii), and co-circulation of at least 2 genotypes (vi and vii) in different sta ...200211958451
modulation of the electrostatic charge at the active site of foot-and-mouth-disease-virus leader proteinase, an unusual papain-like enzyme.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth-disease virus is an unusual papain-like cysteine proteinase. synthesized without an n-terminal pro precursor region, it frees itself from the growing polypeptide chain by cleavage at its own c-terminus. it also possesses a unique electrostatic environment around the active site, essentially due to asp(163), which orients the catalytic histidine residue, and asp(164); the equivalent residues in papain are asn(175) and ser(176). the importance of th ...200211964149
probing degeneracy in antigen-antibody recognition at the immunodominant site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.antigen-antibody binding is regarded as one of the most representative examples of specific molecular recognition in nature. the simplistic view of antigenic recognition in terms of a lock-and-key mechanism is obsolete, as it is evident that both antigens and antibodies are flexible and can undergo substantial mutual adaptation. this flexibility is the source of complexities such as degeneracy and nonadditivity in antigenic recognition. we have used surface plasmon resonance to study the effects ...200211966979
stratified and cryogenically stored (sacs) vaccines, a new concept in emergency foot-and-mouth disease vaccine formulation and storage.strategic reserves of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) antigen have become an integral part of fmd control policy for many countries. they are based on two principles, ready formulated vaccine stored at +4 degrees c, or concentrated antigen preparations held at ultra-low temperature for later formulation. however, the latter is more economical, since ready formulated vaccine, based on oil or aluminium hydroxide/saponin adjuvants, requires regular replacement. this is primarily the result of the vacc ...200211972974
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease: the implications for canada.vaccination of susceptible animals against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a well established strategy for helping to combat the disease. traditionally, fmd vaccine has been used to control a disease incursion in countries where the disease has been endemic rather than in countries considered free of the disease. in 2001, the use of vaccine was considered but not implemented in the united kingdom (1), whereas vaccine was used to help to control fmd in the netherlands (2,3). canadian contingency ...200212001500
natural aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus to pigs: minimal infectious dose for strain o1 lausanne.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can spread by a variety of mechanisms, including, under certain circumstances, by the wind. simulation models have been developed to predict the risk of airborne spread of fmdv and have played an important part in decision making during emergencies. the minimal infectious dose of fmdv for different species by inhalation is an important determinant of airborne spread. whereas the doses for cattle and sheep have been quantified, those for pigs are not known. the ...200212002549
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