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development of dna vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease, evaluation of vaccines encoding replicating and non-replicating nucleic acids in swine.we have developed naked dna vaccine candidates for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an important disease of domestic animals. the virus that causes this disease, fmdv, is a member of the picornavirus family, which includes many important human pathogens, such as poliovirus, hepatitis a virus, and rhinovirus. picornaviruses are characterized by a small (7-9000 nucleotide) rna genome that encodes capsid proteins, processing proteinases, and enzymes required for rna replication. we have developed two ...199910486933
immuno affinity purification of foot and mouth disease virus type specific antibodies using recombinant protein adsorbed to polystyrene wells.the specificity of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serological tests depends largely on the quality and purity of the antibodies used. such type specific antibodies can be generated by hybridoma technology. alternatively, the specific antibodies can be selected from polyclonal serum by immunoaffinity chromatography using recombinant protein/peptide bound affinity matrices. based on this approach, we purified selectively antibodies against the major epitopes of vp 1 of fmdv serotype asia 1 us ...199910488757
[progress in developing viral polynucleotide (dna) vaccines].reviews published reports on the progress in development of dna vaccines protecting from viral diseases. emphasizes the advantages of the preparation injection into the epidermis and the possibility of stimulating the immunogenicity of dna vaccines with adjuvants and cytokines. discusses the results of studies on the immunogenicity of dna vaccines from human, simian, and feline immunodeficiency viruses, hepatitis b and c viruses, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, influenza and measles virus ...199910500980
use of the 2a sequence from foot-and-mouth disease virus in the generation of retroviral vectors for gene therapy.we describe the construction of retroviral plasmid vectors in which two genes are linked by a minimum of 96 nucleotides encoding the 2a sequence from the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). transcription and translation gives rise to a bicistronic mrna and two independent protein products. the system offers advantages to other alternative ways to create polycistronic mrnas and can be used in gene therapy delivery vectors.199910435104
the properties of chimeric picornavirus ireses show that discrimination between internal translation initiation sites is influenced by the identity of the ires and not just the context of the aug codon.the internal ribosome entry segment (ires) of picornaviruses consists of approximately 450 nt of 5'-untranslated region, terminating at the 3' end with an approximately 25 nt element consisting of an absolutely conserved uuuc motif followed by a more variable pyrimidine-rich tract and g-poor spacer, and finally an aug triplet, which is considered to be the actual ribosome entry site. events following entry at this site differ among picornaviruses: in encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) virtually a ...199910376876
delineation of a neutralizing subregion within the immunodominant epitope (gh loop) of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 which does not contain the rgd motif.the major immunogenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is contained in a disordered loop comprising residues 134-158 of capsid protein vp1, located on the surface of the viral particle. peptides corresponding to this sequence generally elicit protective levels of neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. in some instances, however, the level of neutralizing antibodies is low although the level of antibodies against the peptide, determined by elisa, is as high as that in the sera with hi ...199910501234
chaperonin 10 of mycobacterium tuberculosis induces a protective immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus.chaperonin 10 of m. tuberculosis conferred partial or total protection against generalized foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in guinea-pigs challenged with o1 lausanne fmd virus. chaperonin 10-immunized animals mounted an antibody response to the protein, one epitope of which was found in the c-terminal half. a similar recognition pattern was observed in fmd-convalescent guinea-pigs, swine and cattle. anti-chaperonin 10 sera showed antiviral activity against fmdv-infected bhk-21 cells. there was stro ...199910416374
rhinovirus 2a proteinase mediated stimulation of rhinovirus rna translation is additive to the stimulation effected by cellular rna binding proteins.the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of enteroviruses, and especially human rhinoviruses (hrv), functions very inefficiently in rabbit reticulocyte lysates, but can be stimulated by addition of hela cell extracts. two hela cell activities have been identified: the a-type activity is due to polypyrimidine tract binding protein and the b-type to unr. in addition hrv and enterovirus ires function requires a third rna binding protein, poly(rc) binding protein 2, but this is present in reticulocyt ...199910507322
improvement of the immune response to foot and mouth disease virus vaccine in calves by using avridine as adjuvant.the epidemiological analysis of the cattle population during the eradication plan of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in argentina clearly indicated a higher incidence of the disease in animals within their first year of age. it is important to improve the efficacy of the vaccination in those animals. in a previous report, we have shown the effect of an immunomodulator, avridine (avr), in the enhancement of the immune response elicited by fmd virus (fmdv) vaccines in experimental hosts [berinstein, ...199910490231
the structures of picornaviral proteinases.picornaviruses are a family of positive-strand rna viruses the members of which include poliovirus, hepatitis a virus, rhinovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and encephalomyocarditis virus. the genetic information contained in the single-stranded, positive sense rna genome is expressed as a single protein of around 2000 amino acids. this primary product of protein synthesis, designated the polyprotein, is subsequently cleaved into the mature viral proteins by proteinases present within it. the ...199910507325
biochemical and structural studies with neutralizing antibodies raised against foot-and-mouth disease virus.the function of a loop exposed on the aphthovirus capsid (the g-h loop of protein vp1) has been explored by combining genetic and structural studies with viral mutants. the loop displays a dual function of receptor recognition and interaction with neutralizing antibodies. remarkably, some amino acid residues play a critical role in both such disparate functions. therefore residues subjected to antibody pressure for variation may nevertheless maintain a role in receptor recognition for which inva ...199910507326
synthetic peptide vaccines: foot-and-mouth disease virus as a model.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been one of the pioneering viral systems in the development of synthetic peptides as vaccines. protection against fmdv infection is associated with the induction of neutralising antibodies. therefore, attempts have been made to identify peptides capable of eliciting protective humoral responses. peptides based on a continuous, immunodominant b cell site on the capsid protein vp1 have been shown to confer limited protection in natural hosts. this probably r ...199910566773
translation initiation factor eif4b interacts with a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site in both 48s and 80s initiation complexes independently of initiator aug location.most eukaryotic initiation factors (eifs) are required for internal translation initiation at the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of picornaviruses. eif4b is incorporated into ribosomal 48s initiation complexes with the ires rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in contrast to the weak interaction of eif4b with capped cellular mrnas and its release upon entry of the ribosomal 60s subunit, eif4b remains tightly associated with the fmdv ires during formation of complete 80s ribosomes. bi ...199910438840
protection of mice against challenge with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) by immunization with foliar extracts from plants infected with recombinant tobacco mosaic virus expressing the fmdv structural protein vp1.a tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-based vector has been used to express in plants the complete open reading frame coding for vp1, the major immunogenic protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). in vitro rna transcripts were inoculated into nicotiana benthamiana plants and detectable amounts of recombinant vp1 were identified by western blot as soon as 4 days postinfection. foliar extracts prepared from infected leaves were injected intraperitoneally into mice and all of the immunized animals de ...199910544132
c-terminal region of vp1 of selected foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes: expression in e. coli and affinity purification.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), one of the most contagious and economically important diseases of farm animals, is caused by a fmd virus (fmdv) which belongs to the family of picornaviridae. the virus occurs as seven serotypes of which four (a, o, c and asia 1) are prevalent in india. immunoprophylaxis supported by precise diagnosis is the prime requirement for achieving the success in controlling the disease. recently, recombinant dna technology is gaining importance for the production of cost-ef ...199910749365
a note on outbreaks caused by mixed foot-and-mouth disease virus infections.two outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in vaccinated cattle were investigated wherein a mixed infection due to fmd virus (fmdv) types o and asia 1 was detected by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and confirmed by antigen capture polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the clinical picture and the epidemiological data on these outbreaks are presented. the isolated virus strains were compared to the respective vaccine strains by means of monoclonal antibody (mab) profiling and nu ...199910672344
heterotypic inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection by combinations of rna transcripts corresponding to the 5' and 3' regions.strategies to inhibit rna virus multiplication based on the use of interfering nucleic acids have to consider the high genetic polymorphism exhibited by this group of viruses. here, we report high levels of heterotypic inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infective particle formation in cotransfection experiments of susceptible cell lines with infections viral rna and combinations of viral transcripts. the interfering molecules used include the following regions on type c fmdv rna: ...199910669263
design and construction of african swine fever virus chimeras incorporating foreign viral epitopes.in the present work we have studied the feasibility of introducing foreign epitopes into the african swine fever virus (asfv) particle by genetic manipulation of the virus. for this purpose, we developed specific transfer vectors containing the gene encoding for the highly antigenic structural asfv protein p54 in which foreign sequences were introduced. dna sequences encoding continuous linear epitopes, the antigenic site a from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein and the da3 antigen ...199910481737
demonstration of bovine cd8+ t-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus.the aim of this study was to investigate the importance of cellular immunity in foot-and-mouth disease in cattle, in particular to determine whether a cd8+ t-cell response could be detected, as these cells may play a role in both immunity and virus persistence. as attempts to characterize classical cytotoxic t cells had yielded non-reproducible results, largely due to high backgrounds in control cultures, a proliferation assay was developed that was demonstrated to detect antigen-specific, mhc c ...199910092006
evidence of partial protection against foot-and-mouth disease in cattle immunized with a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the precursor polypeptide (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins.a recombinant live vector vaccine was produced by insertion of cdna encoding the structural proteins (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) into a replication-competent human adenovirus type 5 vaccine strain (ad5 wt). groups of cattle (n = 3) were immunized twice, by the subcutaneous and/or intranasal routes, with either the ad5 wt vaccine or with the recombinant fmdv ad5-p1 vaccine. all animals were challenged by intranasal instillation of fmdv 4 weeks after the second immunizations. in th ...199910092007
e. coli expressed proteins as diagnostic reagents for typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus.truncated proteins corresponding to the c-terminal half of vp1 of four vaccine strains and two field variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed in e. coli. the expressed proteins were affinity purified and their type specific reactivity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with anti-virus antibodies. antibodies were raised against the purified proteins in guinea pigs and the type specificity of the anti peptide antibodies was confirmed by antigen capture reverse transcription ...199910542020
multiple molecular pathways for fitness recovery of an rna virus debilitated by operation of muller's ratchet.repeated bottleneck passages of rna viruses result in fitness losses due to accumulation of deleterious mutations. we have analysed the molecular events underlying fitness recovery of a highly debilitated foot- and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) clone, upon serial passage in bhk-21 cells. the debilitated clone included an unusual, internal polyadenylate extension preceding the second functional aug initiation codon, and a number of additional mutations scattered throughout the genome. comparison of ...19999878424
little evidence for synergism among deleterious mutations in a nonsegmented rna virus.several models have been proposed to account for the segmentation of rna viruses. one of the best known models suggests that segmentation, and mixing of segments during coinfections, is a way to eliminate deleterious mutations from the genome. however, for validity, this model requires that deleterious mutations interact in a synergistic way. that is, two mutations together should have a more deleterious effect than the result of adding their individual effects. here i present evidence that dele ...199910552052
monoclonal antibodies to an indian strain of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus.a set of five neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to an indian strain (ind17/77) of type a (subtype a22) foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) was used in the study. four of the mabs (27s, 37s, 85s, and 143s) identified a trypsin-sensitive (ts) epitope(s) and were specific for vp1, while the remaining mab (145s) reacted with a trypsin-resistant (tr) epitope and was specific for vp3 in western blot analysis. both the epitopes (ts and tr) were conformation-independent in nature. results ...199910749367
structural differences between foot-and-mouth disease and poliomyelitis viruses influence their inactivation by aziridines.inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and poliovirus by ethyleneimine (ei) and n-acetylethyleneimine (aei) has been studied at 25 degrees and at 37 degrees c and in different ionic conditions. fmdv is inactivated rapidly in 100 mm tris ph 7.6 by each reagent at both temperatures. poliovirus is also inactivated rapidly in 100 mm tris by ei at both temperatures and by aei at 37 degrees c. however, it is inactivated much more slowly by aei at 25 degrees c; but if the virus is first in ...200010738103
the epithelial integrin alphavbeta6 is a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus.field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been shown to use the rgd-dependent integrin alphavbeta3 as a cellular receptor on cultured cells. however, several other rgd-dependent integrins may have the potential to act as receptors for fmdv in vivo. of these, alphavbeta6 is a likely candidate for use as a receptor by fmdv as it is expressed on epithelial cells, which correlates with the tissue tropism of the virus. in this report, we show that human colon carcinoma cells (sw480) ...200010799568
type i interferon production in cattle infected with 2 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus, as determined by in situ hybridization.four calves were exposed via aerosol to 1 of 2 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus. two animals received virus derived from an infectious clone virus (a12-ic) and 2 received virus derived from the same clone but which lacked the leader coding region (a12-llv2) that codes for a protein responsible for turning off host protein synthesis. animals were euthanized at 24 and 72 h post exposure. cattle receiving a12-ic had a rapid course of disease with more virus in tissues while a12-llv2-infected ...200010805253
a multiply substituted g-h loop from foot-and-mouth disease virus in complex with a neutralizing antibody: a role for water molecules.the crystal structure of a 15 amino acid synthetic peptide, corresponding to the sequence of the major antigenic site a (g-h loop of vp1) from a multiple variant of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), has been determined at 2.3 a resolution. the variant peptide includes four amino acid substitutions in the loop relative to the previously studied peptide representing fmdv c-s8c1 and corresponds to the loop of a natural fmdv isolate of subtype c(1). the peptide was complexed with the fab fragment ...200010811933
successful mimicry of a complex viral antigen by multiple peptide insertions in a carrier protein.the antigenic properties of a viral peptide from the surface of foot-and-mouth disease virus particles have been successfully mimicked by multiple insertion in solvent-exposed regions of escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. by increasing the number of viral peptides per enzyme monomer, the average ic(50) of hybrid proteins in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) have decreased to values close to that presented by natural virions. moreover, the antigenic diversity of these new recombi ...200010828457
improvement of a serodiagnostic strategy for foot-and-mouth disease virus surveillance in cattle under systematic vaccination: a combined system of an indirect elisa-3abc with an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) recombinant non-capsideal viral antigens 3a, 3b, 2c, 3d and 3abc were assessed individually in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-elisa) for their ability to screen for persistent infection-specific antibodies in cattle, regardless of vaccination condition. results of sequential serum samples from non-vaccinated animals with experimentally induced persistent infection, and their correlation with virus isolation, indicated that the polypeptides 3a, 3b an ...200010795516
replication-competent foot-and-mouth disease virus rnas lacking capsid coding sequences.rna transcripts were prepared from plasmids encoding an infectious cdna of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) or derivatives in which the leader (lab and lb) and capsid protein coding sequences were deleted or replaced by sequences encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat). the transcripts were electroporated into bhk cells and the expression of cat and the fmdv 3c protease was monitored. detection of cat and 3c was dependent on the ability of the transcript to replicate. all of the lb c ...200010859374
antigenic variation among foot-and-mouth disease virus type a field isolates of 1997-1999 from iran.the sequences of the antigenically relevant capsid proteins vp1-3 of 10 isolates obtained during an epizootic of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus in iran, and collected within two and a half years, were found to be highly similar. however, each isolate differed by at least one amino acid from all others. this prompted us to analyze the immunological reactivity of the isolates. to this end, monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against one isolate were generated and characterized with regard to neu ...200010831859
detection and characterization of functional t-cell epitopes on the structural proteins vp2, vp3, and vp4 of foot and mouth disease virus o1 campos.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the cause of a widespread infectious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. it is controlled by vaccination with immune-inactivated virus grown in tissue culture. however, peptide vaccines represent a safer alternative to the current virus-inactivated immunogens. their design requires the identification and evaluation of the sequences recognized by t- and b-lymphocytes. four structural proteins, vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4, comprise the viral capsid of the fmd ...200010860876
a comparison of methods for measuring the antibody response in mice and cattle following vaccination against foot and mouth disease.we present a comparison of methods for evaluating the potency of foot and mouth disease vaccine in the laboratory. the anti-fmdv antibodies (ab) in vaccinated mice were tested by liquid phase (lp) elisa, solid phase (sp) elisa and virus neutralization (vn), and were compared with the ab titres detected by lpelisa, which is the official test in argentina for testing the potency of fmd vaccines and protection against a virulent challenge in cattle. the results demonstrated that it is possible to r ...200010836271
rescue of infectious classical swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease virus by rna transfection and virus detection by rt-pcr after extended storage of samples in trizol.a method for storing samples containing classical swine fever virus (csfv) or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), respectively, was developed, which abolishes the infectivity of both plus strand rna viruses, and allows storage of samples above 0 degrees c for an extended time, yet preserves the viral rna in a state which allows its detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and even rescue of infectious virus after transfection of the extracted rna into susceptible c ...200010856750
limitations on the use of fused green fluorescent protein to investigate structure-function relationships for the cauliflower mosaic virus movement protein.to investigate the process of tubule formation for the cauliflower mosaic virus movement protein (camv mp), the green fluorescent protein (gfp) was fused to the mp to provide a vital marker for mp location after expression in insect cells. in contrast to the long tubular structures seen previously following baculovirus-based expression of the wild-type mp, the fusion protein produced only aggregates of fluorescing material in the cytoplasm. however, by co-expressing wild-type mp and gfp-mp, or b ...200010859392
caspases are not involved in the cleavage of translation initiation factor eif4gi during picornavirus infection.infection of cells by many picornaviruses results in the rapid inhibition of cellular protein synthesis due to cleavage of the translation initiation factor eif4g. the poliovirus (pv) 2a and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) l proteases are each sufficient to mediate this cleavage, but the cleavage mechanism may be indirect, involving an unidentified cellular protease(s). eif4g is also targetted for cleavage by caspase-3 during apoptosis. here, it is shown that caspase inhibitors do not inhibi ...200010859375
high-efficiency utilization of the bovine integrin alpha(v)beta(3) as a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus is dependent on the bovine beta(3) subunit.we have previously reported that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which is virulent for cattle and swine, can utilize the integrin alpha(v)beta(3) as a receptor on cultured cells. since those studies were performed with the human integrin, we have molecularly cloned the bovine homolog of the integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and have compared the two receptors for utilization by fmdv. both the alpha(v) and beta(3) subunits of the bovine integrin have high degrees of amino acid sequence similarity to ...200010906183
duplicated dq haplotypes increase the complexity of restriction element usage in cattle.the mhc of cattle encodes two distinct isotypes of class ii molecules, dr and dq. unlike humans, cattle lack the dp locus and about half the common haplotypes express duplicated dq genes. the number and frequency of dqa and dqb alleles means that most cattle are heterozygous. if inter- and/or intrahaplotype pairing of dqa and dqb molecules occurs, cattle carrying dq-duplicated haplotypes may express more restriction elements than would be predicted by the number of expressed alleles. we are inve ...200010861045
selection of t-cell epitopes from foot-and-mouth disease virus reflects the binding affinity to different cattle mhc class ii molecules.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-restricted selection of t-cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by individual cattle mhc class ii dr (bola-dr) molecules was studied in a direct mhc-peptide binding assay. by in vitro priming of t lymphocytes derived from animals homozygous for both mhc class i and ii, five t-cell epitopes were analyzed in the context of three mhc class ii haplotypes. we found that the presentation of these t-cell epitopes was mediated by dr molecules, si ...200010941845
characteristics of foot and mouth disease virus in taiwan.since march 1997 two strains of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus have found their way into taiwan, causing severe outbreaks in pigs and in chinese yellow cattle. outbreaks occurred in march 1997 were caused by a pig-adapted virus strain (o/taiwan/97) which did not infect other species of cloven-hoofed animals by natural route. the epidemic spread over the whole region of taiwan within two months and the aftermath was 6,147 pig farms infected and 3,850,746 pigs destroyed. in june 1999, the seco ...200010945282
genetic determinants of altered virulence of taiwanese foot-and-mouth disease virus.in 1997, a devastating outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in taiwan was caused by a serotype o virus (referred to here as otai) with atypical virulence. it produced high morbidity and mortality in swine but did not affect cattle. we have defined the genetic basis of the species specificity of otai by evaluating the properties of genetically engineered chimeric viruses created from otai and a bovine-virulent fmd virus. these studies have shown that an altered nonstructural protein, 3a, is a ...200010623761
characterization of an internal ribosomal entry segment in the 5' leader of murine leukemia virus env rna.the 5' untranslated region, also called the leader, of oncoretroviruses and lentiviruses is long and is formed of several structured domains critically important in virus replication. the 5' leader of murine leukemia virus (mlv) rna contains an internal ribosomal entry segment (ires) which promotes synthesis of gag and glyco-gag polyprotein precursors. in the present study we investigated the translational features of the 5' leader of mlv subgenomic rna (env rna) encoding the env polyprotein pre ...200010623747
protective immunity against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by a recombinant vaccinia virus.we report the construction of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the precursor for the four structural proteins of fmd virus (fmdv) (p1) strain c3arg85 using a procedure for isolation of recombinant vaccinia viruses based solely on plaque formation. adult mice vaccinated with this recombinant vaccinia virus elicited high titers of neutralizing antibodies against both the homologous fmdv and vaccinia virus, measured by neutralization assays. liquid phase blocking sandwich enzyme-linked immun ...200010717342
validation of the specific isotype assay to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in bovine milk.the specific isotype assay (sia) detects igg1 against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in bovine milk. a strong correlation was demonstrated between milk antibody titres, and those in serum as measured by the liquid phase blocking elisa. thus the sia would be useful on a herd basis to monitor the milk of vaccinated cattle to determine when re-immunisation is advisable. the sia titration elisa was then simplified to a single dilution test and optimised to differentiate the reactions in the milk ...200010716352
interspecies major histocompatibility complex-restricted th cell epitope on foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein vp4.t-cell epitopes within viral polypeptide vp4 of the capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus were analyzed using 15-mer peptides and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from vaccinated outbred pigs. an immunodominant region between vp4 residues 16 and 35 was identified, with peptide residues 20 to 34 (vp4-0) and 21 to 35 (vp4-5) particularly immunostimulatory for pbmc from all of the vaccinated pigs. cd25 upregulation on peptide-stimulated cd4(+) cd8(+) cells-dominated by th memory c ...200010775633
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease induces cleavage of translation initiation factors eif4a and eif4g within infected cells.infection of cells by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) results in the rapid inhibition of host cell protein synthesis. this process is accompanied by the early cleavage of the translation initiation factor eif4g, a component of the cap-binding complex eif4f. this cleavage is mediated by the leader (l) protease. subsequently, as the virus proteins accumulate, secondary cleavages of eif4g occur. furthermore, eif4a (46 kda), a second component of eif4f, is also cleaved in these later stages of t ...200010590115
[synthetic peptide designs based on immunoactive fragments of the vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus strain a22].peptide constructs consisting of 44-53 aa were synthesized on the basis of sequences 135-159, 170-190 and 197-213 of vp1 from the foot-and-mouth disease a22 strain. immunogenic and protective properties of the peptide constructs were studied in guinea pigs and mice of three lines. the constructs were shown to induce higher levels of antibodies and exhibit higher protective effects than the separate peptides. the most active among the peptides studied was the construct involving the vp1 fragments ...200011195591
genetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o isolates responsible for field outbreaks in india between 1993 and 1999.partial nucleotide sequence at the 3' end of id (vp1-encoding) gene of 90 foot-and-mouth disease virus type o isolates recovered from field outbreaks in india between 1993-9 were determined. the sequences were compared with each other and reference viruses. the published sequences of 15 type o isolates recovered from different parts of asia and one isolate (o1bfs) from europe and one from egypt (o1/sharquia/egypt/72) were also included in the analysis for comparison. on the basis of phylogenetic ...200011218224
comparison of bicistronic retroviral vectors containing internal ribosome entry sites (ires) using expression of human interleukin-12 (il-12) as a readout.many gene therapy applications require the co-ordinated delivery of more than one reading frame. we wished to systematically compare ires in the context of a retroviral vector to determine which was the most effective for protein production and viral titre. to do this we monitored expression of il-12, as co-ordinated expression of both p35 and p40 subunits is required for production of the active heterodimer.200010953915
tricistronic and tetracistronic retroviral vectors for gene transfer.we have combined the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a sequence and the internal ribosome entry sites (ireses) from encephalomyocarditis virus (ecmv) and avian reticuloendotheliosis virus type a (rev-a) to construct tricistronic and tetracistronic vectors. all the polycistronic constructs show high titers and expression of the genes inserted. clones have been obtained in which cells simultaneously express the three or four genes carried by the polycistronic vectors.200010986564
plasmids encoding foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 epitopes elicited immune responses in mice and swine and protected swine against viral infection.vp1 is a capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and contains epitopes of the virus. plasmids encoding two vp1 epitopes (amino acid residues 141-160 and 200-213) and a host-self immunoglobulin molecule were constructed to produce a new type of fmd dna vaccine. two plasmids, namely, pceim and pceis, containing mouse immunoglobulin (igg) or swine igg were subjected to immunogenicity testing in mice and swine, respectively. in mice administrated pceim in the abdomen using a genegun, b ...200011112477
expression of a foreign epitope by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.the potential of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) as a viral vector was explored by the insertion of a sequence encoding a foreign antigen into the infectious cdna clone of the lelystad virus isolate. an epitope of the hemagglutinin (ha) protein of human influenza a virus was introduced at the 5' end and at the 3' end of orf7, in each case resulting in a fusion protein between the ha epitope and the nucleocapsid (n) protein. furthermore, in the construct carrying the h ...200011118361
the inactivation of foot and mouth disease, aujeszky's disease and classical swine fever viruses in pig slurry.the aim of the study was to investigate the decontamination of pig slurry containing exotic viruses of pigs, foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv) and classical swine fever virus (csfv). laboratory-scale decontamination experiments showed that fmdv, adv and csfv were heat inactivated in slurry within 3 min at 67 degrees c, 3 min at 62 degrees c and 3 min at 60 degrees c and in glasgow eagles medium within 5 min at 67 degrees c, 4 min at 65 degrees c and 2 min at 65 ...200011119149
an immunoglobulin g based chimeric protein induced foot-and-mouth disease specific immune response in swine.epitopes containing the residues 141aa-160aa and 200aa-213aa from foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o1k hk type fmdv vp1 were joined to a swine immunoglobulin g single heavy chain constant region (scigg), creating a novel chimeric protein, named f1-scigg. in this study, inoculation with f1-scigg induced both fmd virus-neutralizing antibody response and t cell response in swine. antisera from these f1-scigg-inoculated swine protected suckling mice against 1000 lethal dose 50 (1000ld(50)) fmd ...200011027819
native-like cyclic peptide models of a viral antigenic site: finding a balance between rigidity and flexibility.antigenic site a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype c) has been reproduced by means of cyclic versions of peptide a15, ytasargdlahlttt, corresponding to residues 136-150 of envelope protein vp1. a structural basis for the design of the cyclic peptides is provided by crystallographic data from complexes between the fab fragments of anti-site a monoclonal antibodies and a15, in which the bound peptide is folded into a quasi-cyclic pattern. head-to-tail cyclizations of a15 do not provide pep ...200010679891
memory in viral quasispecies.biological adaptive systems share some common features: variation among their constituent elements and continuity of core information. some of them, such as the immune system, are endowed with memory of past events. in this study we provide direct evidence that evolving viral quasispecies possess a molecular memory in the form of minority components that populate their mutant spectra. the experiments have involved foot-and-mouth disease virus populations with known evolutionary histories. the co ...200010729128
response of foot-and-mouth disease virus to increased mutagenesis: influence of viral load and fitness in loss of infectivity.passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cell culture in the presence of the mutagenic base analog 5-fluorouracil or 5-azacytidine resulted in decreases of infectivity and occasional extinction of the virus. low viral loads and low viral fitness enhanced the frequency of extinction events; this finding was shown with a number of closely related fmdv clones and populations differing by up to 10(6)-fold in relative fitness in infections involving either single or multiple passages in the ...200010954530
foot-and-mouth disease virus is a ligand for the high-affinity binding conformation of integrin alpha5beta1: influence of the leucine residue within the rgdl motif on selectivity of integrin binding.field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) use rgd-dependent integrins as receptors for internalization, whereas strains that are adapted for growth in cultured cell lines appear to be able to use alternative receptors like heparan sulphate proteoglycans (hspg). the ligand-binding potential of integrins is regulated by changes in the conformation of their ectodomains and the ligand-binding state would be expected to be an important determinant of tropism for viruses that use integrins ...200010769082
a sensitive method for the detection of foot and mouth disease virus by in situ hybridisation using biotin-labelled oligodeoxynucleotides and tyramide signal amplification.an in situ hybridisation technique, based on oligodeoxynucleotide probes and tyramide signal amplification, is described for the detection of foot and mouth disease virus rna in infected cells. biotinylated oligodeoxynucleotide probes, with and without tyramide signal amplification, were compared. the tyramide signal amplification detection enhances by at least 100-fold the sensitivity of in situ hybridisation.200010960706
extremely efficient cleavage of eif4g by picornaviral proteinases l and 2a in vitro.certain picornaviruses encode proteinases which cleave the translation initiation factor eif4g, a member of the eif4f complex which recruits mrna to the 40s ribosomal subunit during initiation of protein synthesis in eukaryotes. we have compared the efficiency of eif4g cleavage in rabbit reticulocyte lysates during translation of mrnas encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (lpro) or the human rhinovirus 2apro. under standard translation conditions, lpro cleaved 50% of eif4g ...200011034318
identification of antigenic epitopes on the foot and mouth disease virus isolate o1/manisa/turkey/69 using monoclonal antibodies.a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was produced against a strain of type o foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) from the middle east, o1/manisa/turkey/69. seven neutralising mabs were fully characterised and all were found to react with conformational epitopes. monoclonal antibody neutralisation-resistant mutants (marms) were generated from the parental virus stock and the complete capsid sequences of these marms were determined. sequence analysis revealed that five of the marms had am ...200011107617
detection of porcine enteroviruses by nrt-pcr: differentiation of cpe groups i-iii with specific primer sets.porcine enteroviruses (pev) comprising at least 13 serotypes grouped into three species are described as causative agents of neurological disorders, fertility disorders, and dermal lesions of swine. despite their well-documented acid stability, enteric infection route, and similarity of clinical symptoms, most of the porcine enterovirus (pev) serotypes are set apart from the genus enterovirus of the picornaviridae. hence, pcr procedures used commonly to detect enteroviruses are not applicable to ...200010960708
inactivation of viruses by aziridines.ethyleneimine (ei) and n-acetylethyleneimine (aei) have been shown to inactivate viruses belonging to most of the families described by the international committee for the taxonomy of viruses. the mechanism by which they inactivate the viruses has not been established. in this paper, experiments with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and poliovirus are described which indicate that the inactivating lesion is on the rna.200010794100
presentation of antigenic sites from foot-and-mouth disease virus on the surface of baculovirus and in the membrane of infected cells.we describe the construction of recombinant baculoviruses displaying on their surface and in the membrane of infected cells the small, immunodominant antigenic site (site a) or the large polyprotein (p1) coding for the four structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the coding sequences were inserted in the amino-terminus of gp64, the major glycoprotein of the baculovirus autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acnpv). following infection of insect cells with the reco ...200011043943
the role of management segregations in controlling intra-herd foot-and-mouth disease.transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by aerosol spread can occur over considerable distances. however, this is less effective in hot, dry environmental conditions, and a detailed study of an outbreak within a large dairy herd in saudi arabia has shown that contact spread is the main mode of transmission within a herd: both physical and spatial barriers curtailed the course of disease across the farm. hence, the speed and path of an outbreak can be altered by changing the positioni ...200011059037
porcine alveolar macrophages: poor accessory or effective suppressor cells for t-lymphocytes.porcine alv-mphi from bronchoalveolar lavages were tested for their function in an in vitro foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-specific lymphoproliferative recall response. the alv-mphi were seen to be poor accessory cells when compared with peripheral blood monocytes. this poor capacity was evident despite an efficient expression of sla-dr region antigens, and other co-stimulatory adhesion molecules. it was noted that alv-mphi secrete relatively little interleukin 1 (il-1beta), with or without ...200011137117
evaluation of three 'ready to formulate' oil adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine production.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type or(2)/75, grown on bhk 21 clone 13 cell monolayers, was inactivated with formalin. the virus was clarified and was either concentrated with 8% polyethylene glycol 6000 (peg) or used in its untreated form for the preparation of oil adjuvant vaccines. the oil adjuvants used in this study were montanide isa 206 (which renders a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) type of emulsion), montanide isa 57 and montanide isa 50v (both of which render water-in-oil (w/o) typ ...200011137244
interaction of the eif4g initiation factor with the aphthovirus ires is essential for internal translation initiation in vivo.the strategies developed by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements to recruit the translational machinery are poorly understood. in this study we show that protein-rna interaction of the eif4g translation initiation factor with sequences of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires is a key determinant of internal translation initiation in living cells. moreover, we have identified the nucleotides required for eif4g-rna functional interaction, using native proteins from fmdv-susceptible ...200011073214
carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review.this review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. in particular, knowledge about the carrier state, the period in which virus can be isolated from animals 28 days or longer post infection, is important, because the risk that animals may carry the virus will influence the diagnostic and preventive me ...200011087128
association of bovine drb3 alleles with immune response to fmdv peptides and protection against viral challenge.we have analysed the influence of bovine mhc (bola) polymorphism on the immune response and degree of protection induced by peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle. the peptides used for animal immunisation were: a (vp1(138-156)), at (peptide a linked to vp1(21-40)) and act (peptide a, linked to vp1(196-209) and vp1(21-40)). sixteen different drb3 types were found among the 46 cattle analysed by pcr-rflp typing. no absolute correlation was observed, for any type, with the ...200011137253
comparison of amino acid sequences at the amino acid 130-160 region of vp1 polypeptide of indian field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia 1.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences in the amino acid (aa) 130-160 region of vp1 polypeptide of 65 field isolates of foot- and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 were determined and the consensus sequences were deduced. comparison of amino acid sequences revealed conservation of ngk (130-132), tyg (134-136), rgd (142-144), and lptsf (156-160) motifs and aa 148 (l) while variation was observed at the rest of the region (variability index (vi) of 2.06 to 16.85). synonymous and ...200010989699
internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation initiation in equine rhinitis a virus: similarities to and differences from that of foot-and-mouth disease virus.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) has recently been classified as an aphthovirus, a genus otherwise comprised of the different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). fmdv initiates translation via a type ii internal ribosomal entry site (ires) and utilizes two in-frame aug codons to produce the leader proteinases lab and lb. here we show that the erav 5' nontranslated region also possesses the core structures of a type ii ires. the functional activity of this region was characterized by ...200011090170
development of reverse transcription-pcr (oligonucleotide probing) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis and preliminary typing of foot-and-mouth disease: a new system using simple and aqueous-phase hybridization.a reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system that detects a relatively conserved region within the rna genome of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been developed. the high specificity of the assay is achieved by including a rapid hybridization step with a biotin-labeled internal oligonucleotide. the assay is highly sensitive, fast, and easy to perform. a similar assay, based on a highly variable region of the fmdv genome and employing ...200011101603
nucleotide sequence of the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus a22-india.nucleotide sequence of the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a22-india 17/77 was determined using non-radioisotopic technique. comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence with a22-iraq 24/64 revealed 175 synonymous (silent) and 42 non-synonymous nucleotide changes resulting in 34 amino acid substitutions along the capsid proteins (vp1-vp4). out of the 4 structural proteins vp4 is highly conserved. the highly variable and immunodominant protein ...200010949956
natural transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus between african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and impala (aepyceros melampus) in the kruger national park, south africa.vp1 gene sequences of sat-2 type foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses recovered from impala and african buffalo in the kruger national park (knp) were used to determine intra- and interspecies relationships of viruses circulating in these wildlife populations. on this basis five distinct lineages of sat-2 virus were identified in routine sampling of oesophageopharyngeal epithelium from buffalo between 1988 and 1996. different lineages were associated with discrete geographic sampling localities. ...200010982083
direct single-step surface plasmon resonance analysis of interactions between small peptides and immobilized monoclonal antibodies.surface plasmon resonance (spr) methods have been optimized to permit direct kinetic analysis of the antigenic peptide analytes interacting with immobilized monoclonal antibodies (mabs). high reproducibility and a significant correlation between spr and previous elisa data on the same set of antibodies and peptides were observed. the kinetic data obtained provide further insight into the structure of the main antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).200010675762
ovine interleukin-12: analysis of biologic function and species comparison.interleukin-12 (il-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine produced mainly by phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells (apc). the cdna encoding the ovine il-12 (ovil-12) subunits, p40 and p35, were generated from concanavalin a (cona)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). the ovine genes encoded proteins that had the highest amino acid identity to caprine p40 (99% amino acid identity) and p35 (97% amino acid identity) and also displayed a high degree of identity with human p40 (84%) and p ...200010888112
a simple purification and fluorescent assay method of the poliovirus 3c protease searching for specific inhibitors.picornaviruses such as poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and encephalomyocarditis virus produce their proteins by translating their genomic rna, injected within the host cell, into a precursor polyprotein, which is then subjected to precise processing. the polyprotein is cleaved into mature proteins predominantly by the viral 3c protease. a simple purification and assay method for poliovirus 3c protease for use for screening for inhibitors of the 3c protease is described. a poliovirus cd ...200010680961
genetic and antigenic variance of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia1.the capsid protein encoding genes of five recent type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates, representative of three genotypes, were sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequences were aligned to each other and to two published sequences. the sequence differences suggested different antigenic properties of the isolates. one isolate was used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which were analyzed for neutralizing activity and reactivity with trypsinized virus. trypsin removes the major an ...200010664412
a cell cycle-dependent protein serves as a template-specific translation initiation factor.cap-independent translation initiation on picornavirus mrnas is mediated by an internal ribosomal entry site (ires) in the 5' untranslated region (5' utr) and requires both eukaryotic initiation factors (eifs) and ires-specific cellular trans-acting factors (itafs). we show here that the requirements for trans-acting factors differ between related picornavirus iress and can account for cell type-specific differences in ires function. the neurovirulence of theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus ...200010950867
an integrated model to predict the atmospheric spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the application of a computer model called rimpuff for simulating the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is described. rimpuff is more sophisticated and accurate than other fmd simulation models previously described. it can be run on a desktop computer and performs analyses very quickly. it can be linked to a geographical information system and so the information generated can be integrated with geographical and demographical data for display in a format that can be easily assimilat ...200010982082
inhibitors of rt-pcr in serum.amplification by rt-pcr of the rna present in foot-and-mouth disease virus particles is inhibited by substances present in the sera of several species. this inhibition appears to be caused by a direct interaction of the substances with the rna and not the enzymes used for its amplification.200010644091
cell recognition by foot-and-mouth disease virus that lacks the rgd integrin-binding motif: flexibility in aphthovirus receptor usage.cell surface molecules that can act as virus receptors may exert an important selective pressure on rna viral quasispecies. large population passages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cell culture select for mutant viruses that render dispensable a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) motif responsible for integrin receptor recognition. here, we provide evidence that viability of recombinant fmdvs including a asp-143-->gly change at the rgd motif was conditioned by a number of capsid subst ...200010644333
engineering cowpea mosaic virus rna-2 into a vector to express heterologous proteins in plants.a series of new cowpea mosaic virus (cpmv) rna-2-based expression vectors were designed. the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (gfp) was introduced between the movement protein (mp) and the large (l) coat protein or downstream of the small (s) coat protein. release of the gfp inserted between the mp and l proteins was achieved by creating artificial processing sites each side of the insert, either by duplicating the mp-l cleavage site or by introducing a sequence encoding the foot-and-mouth di ...200010662612
cleavage of polypeptide chain initiation factor eif4gi during apoptosis in lymphoma cells: characterisation of an internal fragment generated by caspase-3-mediated cleavage.polypeptide chain initiation factor eif4gi undergoes caspase-mediated degradation during apoptosis to give characteristic fragments. the most prominent of these has an estimated mass of approximately 76 kda (middle-fragment of apoptotic cleavage of eif4g; m-fag). subcellular fractionation of the bjab lymphoma cell line after induction of apoptosis indicates that m-fag occurs in both ribosome-bound and soluble forms. affinity chromatography on m7gtp-sepharose shows that m-fag retains the ability ...200010889507
application of latex beads agglutination test for the detection of the antibody against virus-infection-associated (via) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus.latex beads agglutination (la) for the detection of the antibody against virus infection-associated (via) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus was estimated using experimentally infected animals. the via antibody titer by the la test were compared with the neutralization titer and the titer by agarose gel diffusion (agd) test, which has been used as a standard method for via antibody titration. the latex beads were coated with via antigen in carbonate buffer solution (0.5 m, ph 9.6) for ...200010945307
molecular analysis of peptides from the gh loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus c-s30 using surface plasmon resonance: a role for kinetic rate constants.a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) field variant, isolate c-s30 (also named c(1)-barcelona), is known to contain four changes within the main antigenic site a (gh loop of capsid protein vp1, residues 136-150), at least one of which (leu147-->val) involves a highly conserved position, critical for antibody recognition in the reference strain c-s8c1. however, immunoenzymatic analysis of fmdv c-s30 showed it was recognised by 4c4, a monoclonal antibody that specifically targets site a. this rema ...200011395136
structural and biochemical features distinguish the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase from other papain-like enzymes.the structures of the two leader protease (lpro) variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus known to date were solved using crystals in which molecules were organized as molecular fibers. such crystals diffract to a resolution of only approximately 3 a. this singular, pseudo-polymeric organization is present in a new lpro crystal form showing a cubic packing. as molecular fiber formation appeared unrelated to crystallization conditions, we mutated the reactive cysteine 133 residue, which makes a d ...200011183785
swine vesicular disease virus. pathology of the disease and molecular characteristics of the virion.swine vesicular disease is a highly contagious disease of pigs that is caused by an enterovirus of the family picornaviridae. the virus is a relatively recent derivative of the human coxsackievirus b5, with which it has high molecular and antigenic homology. the disease is not severe, and affected animals usually show moderate general weakening and slight weight loss that is recovered in few days, as well as vesicular lesions in the mucosa of the mouth and nose and in the interdigital spaces of ...200011708597
foot and mouth disease in human beings. 200111684262
mechanisms of integrin-mediated virus attachment and internalization process.viruses that propagate within vertebrate hosts have adapted many strategies to infect host cells. one of the first steps in a viral infection is the binding of the virus to cell surface molecules. this interaction between a virus and its receptors plays a key role in the multiplication cycle. entry of viruses into cells is a complex, multistep process, and for several viruses, cell attachment and internalization are distinct steps. a number of virus receptors have been identified; a common famil ...200111922076
sequence analysis of recent indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a and asia 1 from clinical materials.partial nucleotide sequences of 1d gene of 38 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotypes o, a and asia 1 originating from various parts of india were determined. field materials were subjected straight to rna extraction, reverse transcription - pcr (rt-pcr) and sequencing. also 3 fmdv vaccine strains, ind r2/75 (serotype o), ind 63/72 (serotype asia 1) and ind 17/77 (serotype a) were included in the analysis. the seqences were compared mutually as well as with available corresp ...200111774894
foot-and-mouth disease: a review of the virus and the symptoms.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiologic agent of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), which is a disease of cattle, swine, and other cloven-footed animals. fmd is characterized by the formation of vesicles on the tongue, nose, muzzle, and coronary bands of infected animals. the virus has several unique characteristics that enable it to cause one of the most economically devastating diseases in today's world. the ease with which it may be transmitted by contact and aerosol, combined with it ...200111936028
efficient virus extinction by combinations of a mutagen and antiviral inhibitors.the effect of combinations of the mutagenic base analog 5-fluorouracil (fu) and the antiviral inhibitors guanidine hydrochloride (g) and heparin (h) on the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cell culture has been investigated. related fmdv clones differing up to 10(6)-fold in relative fitness in bhk-21 cells have been compared. systematic extinction of intermediate fitness virus was attained with a combination of fu and g but not with the mutagen or the inhibitor alone. system ...200111559805
the 3a non-structural-protein coding region of the southern african sat type isolates differs from that of other foot-and-mouth disease viruses.the 3a non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses is a relatively conserved protein comprising 153 amino acids. recent studies have demonstrated correlation between mutations in the 3a non-structural-protein-coding region, including a 10-amino acid deletion, and attenuation of the viruses in cattle. although the 3a coding region of several type a, o and c isolates has previously been described, nucleotide sequence data of the 3a coding region of the south african types (sat) 1, 2 a ...200112026059
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: involvement of c-terminal residues in self-processing and cleavage of eif4gi.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth disease virus frees itself from the nascent polyprotein, cleaving between its own c terminus and the n terminus of vp4 at the sequence lys-leu-lys- downward arrow-gly-ala-gly. subsequently, the l(pro) impairs protein synthesis from capped mrnas in the infected cell by processing a host protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 4gi, at the sequence asn-leu-gly- downward arrow-arg-thr-thr. a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system was used to examine the subs ...200111459842
subcellular distribution of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a protein in cells infected with viruses encoding wild-type and bovine-attenuated forms of 3a.picornavirus infection induces the proliferation and rearrangement of intracellular membranes in response to the synthesis of nonstructural proteins, including 3a. we have previously shown that changes in 3a are associated with the inability of a taiwanese strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (otai) to grow in bovine cells and cause disease in cattle, although the virus grows to high titers in porcine cells and is highly virulent in pigs (c. w. beard and p. w. mason, 2000, j. virol. 74, ...200111504550
dynamics of the 2001 uk foot and mouth epidemic: stochastic dispersal in a heterogeneous landscape.foot-and-mouth is one of the world's most economically important livestock diseases. we developed an individual farm-based stochastic model of the current uk epidemic. the fine grain of the epidemiological data reveals the infection dynamics at an unusually high spatiotemporal resolution. we show that the spatial distribution, size, and species composition of farms all influence the observed pattern and regional variability of outbreaks. the other key dynamical component is long-tailed stochasti ...200111679661
the nature of the bond between peptide and carrier molecule determines the immunogenicity of the construct.the influence of the nature of the bond between a peptide and a (lipidic) carrier molecule on the immunogenicity of that construct was investigated. as types of bonds a thioester-, a disulfide-, an amide- and a thioether bond were investigated. as carrier molecules a peptide, an n-palmitoylated peptide or a c(16)-hydrocarbon chain were used. the biostability of the bond between peptide and carrier molecule is thioether > amide > disulfide >> thioester. however, the immunogenic potency of the con ...200111576330
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