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structure and receptor binding. 200312527436
evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus evolution is strongly influenced by high mutation rates and a quasispecies dynamics. mutant swarms are subjected to positive selection, negative selection and random drift of genomes. adaptation is the result of selective amplification of subpopulations of genomes. the extent of adaptation to a given environment is quantified by a relative fitness value. fitness values depend on the virus and its physical and biological environment. generally, infections involving la ...200312527437
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most economically important veterinary pathogen due to its highly infectious nature, ability to cause persistent infections and long term effects on the condition and productivity of the many animal species it affects. countries which have the disease have many trade restrictions placed upon them. in the last 15 years there have been significant advances in the understanding of fmd epidemiology. these have largely been due to the application of the molecular b ...200312527438
fmd vaccines. 200312527439
control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease. 200312527440
foot and mouth disease in wildlife. 200312527441
comparison of the capacity of different viral internal ribosome entry segments to direct translation initiation in poly(a)-dependent reticulocyte lysates.polyadenylation stimulates translation of capped eukaryotic mrnas and those carrying picornaviral internal ribosome entry segments (ireses) in vivo. rabbit reticulocyte lysates (rrl) reproduce poly(a)-mediated translation stimulation in vitro after partial depletion of ribosomes and ribosome-associated factors. here, we have evaluated the effects of varying different parameters (extent of extract depletion, cleavage of eif4g, concentrations of kcl, mgcl(2) and programming mrna) on ires-driven tr ...200312527782
a review of the status of foot and mouth disease in south-east asia and approaches to control and eradication.the author presents reports of foot and mouth disease (fmd) submitted between 1996 and 2001 to the office international des epizooties (oie: world organisation for animal health) sub-commission for fmd in south-east asia. of the ten countries in south-east asia, fmd is endemic in seven (cambodia, laos, malaysia, myanmar, the philippines, thailand and vietnam) and three are free of the disease (brunei, indonesia and singapore). part of the philippines is also recognised internationally as being f ...200212530354
foot-and-mouth disease virus receptors: comparison of bovine alpha(v) integrin utilization by type a and o viruses.three members of the alpha(v) integrin family of cellular receptors, alpha(v)beta(1), alpha(v)beta(3), and alpha(v)beta(6), have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro. the virus interacts with these receptors via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) amino acid sequence motif located within the betag-betah (g-h) loop of vp1. other alpha(v) integrins, as well as several other integrins, recognize and bind to rgd motifs on their natural lig ...200312551988
stable expression of antisense rnas targeted to the 5' non-coding region confers heterotypic inhibition to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.the antiviral potential of transcripts targeted to the non-coding regions (ncrs) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna have been studied during transient and constitutive expression in susceptible bhk-21 cells. transient expression of antisense transcripts corresponding to the 5' and 3'ncrs, alone or in combination, confers specific inhibition of homologous (serotype c) virus infection in bhk-21 cells. constitutive expression of antisense 5'ncr transcripts (5'as) exerted higher levels of in ...200312560572
identification and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from primary suspect cases in korea in 2000.the republic of korea had been free from foot and mouth disease (fmd) since 1934, until a recent outbreak in 2000. from march to april 2000, a total of 15 fmd outbreaks due to the serotype o virus were recorded. coincidental outbreaks of fmd in cattle or pigs by the serotype o virus were reported in the region, including taiwan, china, japan, russia and mongolia. in this report, the results of emergency investigations of fmd cases on a dairy farm located approximately 5-km from the demilitarized ...200312576697
molecular epidemiological investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in korea in 2000.the genetic relatedness of 7 korean type o field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in clinical specimens collected from 5 different geographic locations in 2000 was investigated. the sequence of 162 nucleotides (nt 478-639) at the 3' end of the 1d (vp1) genes was determined from amplified cdna fragments, and subjected to the analysis for the sequence identity/divergence and phylogenetic relationship. the overall nucleotide sequence divergence among the 7 field strains was 0 to 3.8%, ...200312576698
the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the netherlands in 2001.an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in great britain was reported on 21 february 2001, followed by an outbreak of fmd in the netherlands a month later. this dutch index outbreak occurred on a mixed, veal-calf/dairy-goat farm in oene, in the central part of the netherlands. the most-likely route of infection was the import of irish veal-calves to this dutch herd via an fmd-contaminated staging point in france. with hindsight, more herds seemed to be infected by the time the index outbreak ...200312581598
evaluation of genetically engineered derivatives of a chinese strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus reveals a novel cell-binding site which functions in cell culture and in animals.adaptation of field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to grow in cells in culture can result in changes in viral properties that include acquisition of the ability to bind to cell surface heparan sulfate (hs). after 13 passages on bhk cells to produce a vaccine, a cathay topotype isolate of fmdv serotype o from china (o/cha/90) extended its cell culture host range and bound to heparin-sepharose, although it did not require cell surface hs as a receptor molecule. to understand these ...200312584350
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from culture and clinical samples by reverse transcription-pcr coupled to restriction enzyme and sequence analysis.a reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) method is presented for the highly sensitive and specific detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). a primer pair flanking a region of the viral polymerase gene (3d) corresponding to the c-terminus of the protein was designed and a single step rt-pcr reaction was developed. the assay allowed the detection of viral rna from a variety of animal samples and from a wide range of fmdv isolates of different origins and serotypes. the presence of an ahd i re ...200312588687
antigenic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 field isolates using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia1 field isolates (n = 100) were compared using a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies (mab) in sandwich elisa. the majority (over 89%) of the isolates showed either homologous (76% and above reactivity) or reduced affinity (20-75% reactivity) for the mabs 2a, 13, 40, 34 and 81, suggesting that these mab binding epitopes are conserved, whereas a more variable reactivity was observed for the mabs b3, 1a, 24, 72, 82 and 89. polyclonal relationship ('r' ...200312591202
description of an epidemic simulation model for use in evaluating strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.to develop a spatial epidemic model to simulate intraherd and interherd transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus.200312602589
results of epidemic simulation modeling to evaluate strategies to control an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.to assess estimated effectiveness of control and eradication procedures for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in a region of california.200312602590
unr is required in vivo for efficient initiation of translation from the internal ribosome entry sites of both rhinovirus and poliovirus.translation of picornavirus rnas is mediated by internal ribosomal entry site (ires) elements and requires both standard eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eifs) and ires-specific cellular trans-acting factors (itafs). unr, a cytoplasmic rna-binding protein that contains five cold-shock domains and is encoded by the gene upstream of n-ras, stimulates translation directed by the human rhinovirus (hrv) ires in vitro. to examine the role of unr in translation of picornavirus rnas in vivo, w ...200312610110
longevity of antibody and cytokine responses following vaccination with high potency emergency fmd vaccines.the ability of high potency emergency foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines to promote sustainable immune responses in sheep and pigs following a single application was examined. all vaccine formulations induced a rapid seroconversion in both species, as expected, which was maintained at near peak titres for up to 6 months in sheep and 7 months in pigs. the montanide isa 206 formulation gave the best results in sheep. vaccinated pigs challenged with homologous fmdv were protected from disease at ...200312615428
development of a foot-and-mouth disease nsp elisa and its comparison with differential diagnostic methods.the gene encoding the nonstructural protein (nsp) of o/skr/2000 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was constructed to express under the polyhedron promoter of baculovirus. the expression of nsp was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and western blotting. the expressed nsp was applied as a diagnostic antigen for indirect-trapping elisa (i-elisa). an i-elisa using monoclonal antibody (mab) against 3a as trapping antibody was developed to differentiate infected from vaccinated ca ...200312615437
innate immune responses following emergency vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs.inactivated "emergency" foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine of high potency will induce early protection against the disease, implying a critical role for innate immune defences. at 3 and 6 days post-vaccination (dpv), there was no evidence of vaccine-induced specific anti-fmdv antibodies (abs), nor enhanced uptake and destruction of opsonised virus by macrophages. sera from vaccinates and control animals showed similar capacity to neutralise the virus, and were not different from the pr ...200312615443
use of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the rapid diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in south america.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a limiting factor for the economic progress of the animal industry in south america. the presence of the disease results in the imposition of national and international sanitary barriers to animals and animal products, and, most especially, a reduction in the availability of protein from animal origin and in income. rapid and accurate identification of infected animals, those with either clinical or subclinical disease as well as with persistent infection, is esse ...200312625404
induction of lymphopenia and inhibition of t cell function during acute infection of swine with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv).foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus that causes an acute vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. this virus continues to be a threat to livestock worldwide with outbreaks causing severe economic losses. the present study shows an analysis of immune system phenotype and function during the acute phase of fmdv infection in swine. in the first days of infection, a significant lymphopenia is observed that involves all t cell subsets, cd4(+), cd8(+), and cd4(+)/cd8(+). this mark ...200312628764
serotype and vp1 gene sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus from hong kong (2002).the nucleotide sequence of the vp1 coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain hkn/2002, isolated from a disease outbreak occurring in hong kong in february 2002, was determined and compared with the sequences of other fmdvs. the vp1 coding region was 639 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 213 amino acid residues. comparison of the vp1 nucleotide sequence with those of other isolates indicated that hkn/2002 belonged to serotype o. a vp1-based sequence similarity tree ...200312646228
prevalence of seroreagents to fmdv in the cattle population in poland: results of 9-year monitoring studies.the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in sera of cattle in poland. the examinations were performed using the virus neutralization (vn) test and elisa methods: liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) and 3abc-elisa. during 1993-2001, about 681,000 samples of sera collected from animals held on the territory of poland were tested. of about 600,000 sera taken from animals exported to the european union, 963 samples (0.16%) were found to ...200312675463
characterization of a novel rna-binding region of eif4gi critical for ribosomal scanning.the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eif4gi binds several proteins and acts as a scaffold to promote preinitiation complex formation on the mrna molecule (48s). following mrna attachment this complex scans along the messenger in a 5' to 3' direction until it locates and recognizes the initiation start codon. by using a combination of retroviral and picornaviral proteases (hiv-2 and l respectively) in the reticulocyte lysate system, we have characterized a 40 amino acid (aa) region of eif ...200312682023
protective immune response of the capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) of foot and mouth disease virus type 'o' produced in pichia pastoris.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the aetiological agent of a highly contagious vesicular disease of cloven-hooved animals. the gene coding for the capsid polyprotein (p1) of fmdv from serotype 'o' vaccine strain (o75madras) was cloned and expressed in yeast pichia pastoris. the expressed p1 protein was characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and western blot analysis. immunisation of guinea pigs with recombinant p1 induced fmdv type o specific ...200312686422
crystal structure of swine vesicular disease virus and implications for host adaptation.swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) is an enterovirus of the family picornaviridae that causes symptoms indistinguishable from those of foot-and-mouth disease virus. phylogenetic studies suggest that it is a recently evolved genetic sublineage of the important human pathogen coxsackievirus b5 (cbv5), and in agreement with this, it has been shown to utilize the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (car) for cell entry. the 3.0-a crystal structure of strain uk/27/72 svdv (highly virulent) reveals th ...200312692248
construction and characterization of pentacistronic retrovirus vectors.the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a sequence was combined with three different internal ribosome entry segments to construct and characterize three independent pentacistronic retroviruses of different sizes. efficient co-expression of the five proteins was successful and titres obtained for these pentacistronic virus vectors (final genome size approximately 7.9 kb) were comparable to those of vector systems with shorter genomes. other vectors constructed that exceeded the genome len ...200312692295
efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in pigs with single dose immunization.two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the efficacy of a commercial foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine in pigs born to well-vaccinated sows at various ages with a single injection under field conditions. the first experiment showed that single dose vaccination of pigs could be conducted at an age younger than 10 weeks. second experiment demonstrated that pigs vaccinated once at the age of 8 weeks had mean serum neutralization (sn) titer of 1.89+/-0.95 log(10)sn(50) with full protection ...200312706663
retrospective genetic analysis of sat-1 type foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in west africa (1975-1981).the complete 1d genome region encoding the immunogenic and phylogenetically informative vp1 gene was genetically characterized for 23 south african territories (sat)-1 viruses causing foot-and-mouth (fmd) disease outbreaks in the west african region between 1975 and 1981. the results indicate that two independent outbreaks occurred, the first involved two west african countries, namely niger and nigeria, whilst the second affected nigeria alone. in the former epizootic, virus circulation spanned ...200312713891
sindbis virus vectors designed to express a foreign protein as a cleavable component of the viral structural polyprotein.alphavirus-based expression vectors commonly use a duplicated 26s promoter to drive expression of a foreign gene. here we describe an expression strategy in which the foreign sequences are linked to the gene encoding the 2a protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus and then inserted in frame between the capsid and e3 genes of sindbis virus. during replication, the 2a fusion protein is synthesized as a component of the viral structural polyprotein that is then released by intramolecular cleavages ...200312719552
genetic and antigenic analysis of two recently circulating genotypes of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus in india: evidence for positive selection in the capsid-coding genes.we have analyzed isolates of two recently circulating genotypes (genotypes vi and vii) of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from india. maximum-likelihood models provided support for the presence of positively selected sites in the capsid-coding (p1) region. positive selection was detected at a number of amino acid positions behind a background of strong purifying selection. among the positively selected sites, four were identified at known critical antigenic residues (vp2 79, vp3 59 an ...200312721795
rapid serological profiling by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its use as an epidemiological indicator of foot-and-mouth disease viral activity.frequency distribution of reactivity levels of foot-and-mouth disease infection-specific antibodies in livestock populations was analysed. specific antibody responses against non-capsid polyprotein 3abc were assessed through a highly sensitive indirect enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (i-elisa 3abc). a graphic display of data was designed based on three negative and three positive categories to illustrate reactivity patterns. the resulting patterns were correlated to the epidemiological status. ...200312721797
scide: identification of stabilization centers in proteins.summary: scide is a program to identify stabilization centers from known protein structures. these are residues involved in cooperative long-range contacts, which can be formed between various regions of a single polypeptide chain, or they can belong to different peptides or polypeptides in a complex. the server takes a pdb file as an input, and the result is presented in graphical or text format. availability: scide is available on the web at http://www.enzim.hu/scide. the source code can be ob ...200312724305
effects of potassium and chloride on ribosome association with the rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and other picornaviruses initiate translation of their polyprotein cap-independently at an internal site of the positive-strand viral rna. this process is mediated by the internal ribosome entry site (ires), a highly structured cis-acting rna element that binds translation initiation factors and ribosomal subunits. during their life cycle, picornaviruses induce proliferation of membrane structures involved in viral replication and an increase in membrane perme ...200312727344
airborne transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from burnside farm, heddon-on-the-wall, northumberland, during the 2001 epidemic in the united kingdom.the results of a detailed assessment of the atmospheric conditions when foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus was released from burnside farm, heddon-on-the-wall, northumberland at the start of the 2001 epidemic in the uk are consistent with the hypothesis that the disease was spread to seven of the 12 farms in the immediate vicinity of the source by airborne virus, and airborne infection could not be ruled out for three other premises; the remaining two premises were unlikely to have been infected ...200312739601
viral internal ribosome entry site structures segregate into two distinct morphologies.an increasing number of viruses have been shown to initiate protein synthesis by a cap-independent mechanism involving internal ribosome entry sites (iress). predictions of the folding patterns of these rna motifs have been based primarily on sequence and biochemical analyses. biophysical confirmation of the models has been achieved only for the ires of hepatitis c virus (hcv), which adopts an open structure consisting of two major stems. we have conducted an extensive comparison of flavivirus a ...200312743317
surveillance of fmd virus non-structural protein antibodies in pig populations involved in an eradication programme. 200312762489
mutagenesis versus inhibition in the efficiency of extinction of foot-and-mouth disease virus.rna viruses replicate near the error threshold for maintenance of genetic information, and an increase in mutation frequency during replication may drive rna viruses to extinction in a process termed lethal mutagenesis. this report addresses the efficiency of extinction (versus escape from extinction) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by combinations of the mutagenic base analog 5-fluorouracil (fu) and the antiviral inhibitors guanidine hydrochloride (g) and heparin (h). selection of g- or ...200312768034
comparisons of the complete genomes of asian, african and european isolates of a recent foot-and-mouth disease virus type o pandemic strain (panasia).during the last 12 years, a strain of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus serotype o, named panasia, has spread from india throughout southern asia and the middle east. during 2000, this strain caused outbreaks in the republic of korea, japan, russia (primorsky territory), mongolia and south africa (kwazulu-natal province), areas which last experienced fmd outbreaks in 1934, 1908, 1964, 1974 and 1957, respectively. in february 2001, the panasia strain spread to the united kingdom where, in just o ...200312771429
the implications of virus diversity within the sat 2 serotype for control of foot-and-mouth disease in sub-saharan africa.sat 2 is the serotype most often associated with outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in livestock in southern and western africa and is the only sat type to have been recorded outside the african continent in the last decade. its epidemiology is complicated by the presence of african buffalo (syncerus caffer), which play an important role in virus maintenance and transmission. to assess the level of genetic complexity of this serotype among viruses associated with both domestic livestock a ...200312771430
mapping epitopes in equine rhinitis a virus vp1 recognized by antibodies elicited in response to infection of the natural host.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is an important respiratory pathogen of horses and is of additional interest because of its close relationship and common classification with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). as is the case with fmdv, the vp1 capsid protein of erav has been shown to be a target of neutralizing antibodies. in fmdv vp1, such antibodies commonly recognize linear epitopes present in the betag-betah loop region. to map linear b cell epitopes in erav vp1, overlapping fragments spanni ...200312771431
construction, expression, purification, refold and activity assay of a specific scfv fragment against foot and mouth disease virus.an active form of a single-chain antibody (scfv) from the murine monoclonal antibody (mab) 1c7, which is specific for type o foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), was produced in escherichia coli. the complementary dnas encoding the variable regions of the heavy chain (vh) and light chain (vl) were connected by a (gly4ser)3 linker, using an assembly polymerase chain reaction. vh-(gly4ser)3-vl genes were screened by phage display technology. the sequencing results showed that the vh gene of scfv w ...200312777098
recombinant adenovirus co-expressing capsid proteins of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv): in vitro characterization and induction of neutralizing antibodies against fmdv in swine.human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) has been evaluated as a novel gene delivery vector for the development of live-viral vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in this study, we constructed an ad5 vector co-expressing the capsid precursor proteins, p1, of fmd virus (fmdv) field strains a24 cruzeiro and o1 campos and examined the neutralizing antibody responses in swine after inoculation with the vector. to construct the ad5 vector, a bicistronic expression cassette containing a cytomegalovirus pro ...200312782369
synthesis, structural characterization, and immunological properties of carbon nanotubes functionalized with peptides.carbon nanotubes (nts) are becoming highly attractive molecules for applications in medicinal chemistry. the main problem of insolubility in aqueous media has been solved by developing a synthetic protocol that allows highly water-soluble carbon nts to be obtained. as a result, biologically active peptides can be easily linked through a stable covalent bond to carbon nts. we have demonstrated that a bound peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus, corresponding to the 141-159 region of the v ...200312785847
phenotypic mixing and hiding may contribute to memory in viral quasispecies.in a number of recent experiments with food-and-mouth disease virus, a deleterious mutant, red, was found to avoid extinction and remain in the population for long periods of time. since red characterizes the past evolutionary history of the population, this observation was called quasispecies memory. while the quasispecies theory predicts the existence of these memory genomes, there is a disagreement between the expected and observed mutant frequency values. therefore, the origin of quasispecie ...200312795816
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: determination and statistical validation of a model using a serological approach.european foot-and-mouth disease vaccine manufacturers are required to quantify the efficacy of their product in accordance with the european pharmacopoeia (ep). the method used most often to establish the potency of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines requires viral challenge of vaccinated cattle. alternative approaches, such as challenge-free serological assessments have many advantages over existing methods and could be used if robust statistical models could be developed that related antibody tit ...200312804854
intranasal immunization of guinea pigs with an immunodominant foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide conjugate induces mucosal and humoral antibodies and protection against challenge.guinea pigs immunized intranasally with a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-linked peptide, corresponding to the prominent g-h loop of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus, raised substantial levels of antipeptide and virus-neutralizing antibodies in sera and of peptide-specific secretory immunoglobulin a in nasal secretions. in groups of animals immunized intranasally without adjuvant, 86 percent were fully protected upon challenge with homotypic virus. surprisingly, animals given the peptid ...200312805448
epidemiology and control of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the republic of ireland in 2001.an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease was confirmed in a flock of sheep on a farm in the cooley peninsula, county louth, on march 22, 2001. the virus was similar to other viruses of the serotype o panasian strain and virtually indistinguishable from other isolates from northern ireland and great britain. the epidemiological evidence suggested that infected sheep brought from great britain on february 19, 2001, were the source of the infection. the disease was eradicated by epidemiological invest ...200312825703
genomic sequence analyses of segments 1 to 6 of dendrolimus punctatus cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus.the complete nucleotide sequences of genomic segments s1 to s6 from dendrolimus punctatus cypovirus 1 (dpcpv-1) have been determined. each segment of s1 to s6 possess a single open reading frame. conserved motifs 5' (aguaa) and 3'(guuagcc) were found at the ends of each segment. comparison of the proteins of dpcpv with those of other members in the family reoviridae lead us to suggest that s1, s3, s4 and s6 encode the viral structural protein vp1, vp2, vp3 and vp4, respectively. s5 encoded viral ...200312827465
curing of foot-and-mouth disease virus from persistently infected cells by ribavirin involves enhanced mutagenesis.bhk-21 cells persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be cured of virus by treatment with the antiviral nucleoside analogue ribavirin. to study whether the process involved an increase in the number of mutations in the mutant spectrum of the viral population, viral genomes were cloned from persistently infected cells treated or untreated with ribavirin. an increase of up to 10-fold in mutation frequencies associated with ribavirin treatment was observed in the viral gen ...200312842623
a b cell-based sensor for rapid identification of pathogens.we report the use of genetically engineered cells in a pathogen identification sensor. this sensor uses b lymphocytes that have been engineered to emit light within seconds of exposure to specific bacteria and viruses. we demonstrated rapid screening of relevant samples and identification of a variety of pathogens at very low levels. because of its speed, sensitivity, and specificity, this pathogen identification technology could prove useful for medical diagnostics, biowarfare defense, food- an ...200312855808
benefit-cost analysis of vaccination and preemptive slaughter as a means of eradicating foot-and-mouth disease.to assess relative costs and benefits of vaccination and preemptive herd slaughter to control transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv).200312856762
complete alanine scanning of intersubunit interfaces in a foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid reveals critical contributions of many side chains to particle stability and viral function.spherical virus capsids are large, multimeric protein shells whose assembly and stability depend on the establishment of multiple non-covalent interactions between many polypeptide subunits. in a foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid, 42 amino acid side chains per protomer are involved in noncovalent interactions between pentameric subunits that function as assembly/disassembly intermediates. we have individually truncated to alanine these 42 side chains and assessed their relevance for completion ...200312857761
the pathogenesis and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is reviewed, taking account of knowledge gained from field and experimental studies and embracing investigations at the level of the virus, the cell, the organ, the whole animal and the herd or flock. the review also addresses the immune response and the carrier state in fmd. progress made in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease is highlighted in relation to developments in diagnosis and methods of control.200312859905
detection of carrier cattle and sheep persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus by a rapid real-time rt-pcr assay.the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in persistently infected carriers among exposed ruminants is of great importance in disease control. for this purpose, a real time, fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-pcr) assay was evaluated for the identification of fmdv carrier animals. the results indicate that this real time rt-pcr assay may be suitable for detection of fmdv carrier animals.200312880924
early dissemination of foot-and-mouth disease virus through sheep marketing in february 2001.the results of epidemiological investigations suggest that livestock on up to 79 premises, spread widely throughout the british isles, may have been exposed to infection by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus by the movement of infected sheep before the first case of the disease was confirmed at an abattoir in essex on february 20, 2001. a further 36 premises may have been infected by this route before the national livestock movement ban was imposed on february 23.200312885212
identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus-specific linear b-cell epitopes to differentiate between infected and vaccinated cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. for several years, vaccination of animals, which had proven to be successful for the eradication of the disease, has been forbidden in the united states and the european community because of the difficulty of differentiating between vaccinated and infected animals. in this study, detailed investigations of the bovine humoral immune response against fmd virus (fmdv) were performed with the aim of identifyi ...200312885881
foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 protein fused with cholera toxin b subunit expressed in chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast.a chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast expression vector, pactbvp1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 gene and the cholera toxin b subunit (ctb) gene was constructed and transfered to the chloroplast genome of c. reinhardtii by the biolistic method. the transformants were identified by pcr, southern blot, western blot and elisa assays after selection on resistant medium and incubation in the dark. the ctbvp1 fusion protein was expressed in c. reinhardtii chlor ...200312889819
model of the equine rhinitis a virus capsid: identification of a major neutralizing immunogenic site.mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were employed to select neutralization escape mutants of equine rhinitis a virus (erav). amino acid changes in the erav mutants resulting in resistance to neutralization were identified in capsid protein vp1 at lys-114, pro-240 and thr-241. although the changes were located in different parts of the polypeptide chain, these mutants exhibited cross-resistance against all four mabs employed, indicating that these residues contribute to a single immunogenic site. ...200312917457
induction of immunity in swine by purified recombinant vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus.vp1, a capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), contains neutralizing epitopes of the virus. due to its poor water solubility, recombinant escherichia coli derived vp1 (rvp1) has previously been used mainly in a denatured form and is not well characterized. here, using sds to assist protein refolding and then removing sds with a detergent removing column, we have successfully purified rvp1 in two aqueous-soluble forms, i.e. monomer and dimer. studies showed that dimerization occurs ...200312922103
a synthetic peptide containing the consensus sequence of the g-h loop region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type-o vp1 and a promiscuous t-helper epitope induces peptide-specific antibodies but fails to protect cattle against viral challenge.a pilot study was carried out in cattle to determine the immunogenicity of a synthetic consensus peptide comprising the g-h loop region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type-o vp1 and a non-vp1 t-helper (th) epitope. cattle vaccinated intramuscularly either once (n = 5) or twice (n = 4) with 50 microg of the peptide preparation at a 21-day interval developed antibodies to the peptide as determined by elisa with the exception of one steer that received a single dose. however, neutralizing a ...200312922108
biological effect of varying peptide binding affinity to the bola-drb3*2703 allele.mhc class i and ii molecules are immunoregulatory cell surface glycoproteins, which selectively bind to and present antigenic peptides to t-lymphocytes. murine and human studies show that variable peptide binding affinity to mhc ii molecules influences th1/th2 responses by inducing distinctive cytokine expression. to examine the biological effects of peptide binding affinity to bovine mhc (bola), various self peptides (bola-dq and fibrinogen fragments) and non-self peptides from ovalbumin (ova), ...200312927080
rna-dependent rna polymerase gene sequence from foot-and-mouth disease virus in hong kong.a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv, hkn/2002) was isolated in hong kong in 2002. the nucleotide sequence of the 3d(pol) gene encoding the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase was determined and compared with that of the same gene from other fmdvs. the 3d(pol) gene was 1410 nucleotides in length encoding a protein of 470 amino acid residues. sequence comparisons indicated that hkn/2002 belonged to serotype o. an evolutionary tree based on the 3d(pol) sequences of 20 fmdv isolates revealed that th ...200312927804
procedures for preventing the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus to pigs and sheep by personnel in contact with infected pigs.the most effective method of containing an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is by the culling of livestock. however, qualified people must diagnose the disease before the culling can begin, and they must avoid susceptible animals after having been in contact with infected premises, to prevent them from transmitting the virus. to test the effectiveness of biosecurity procedures in preventing the transmission of fmd virus (o/uk/35/2001) investigators contacted and sampled pigs inoculated w ...200312934795
synthetic peptides. 200312958453
resistance of virus to extinction on bottleneck passages: study of a decaying and fluctuating pattern of fitness loss.rna viruses display high mutation rates and their populations replicate as dynamic and complex mutant distributions, termed viral quasispecies. repeated genetic bottlenecks, which experimentally are carried out through serial plaque-to-plaque transfers of the virus, lead to fitness decrease (measured here as diminished capacity to produce infectious progeny). here we report an analysis of fitness evolution of several low fitness foot-and-mouth disease virus clones subjected to 50 plaque-to-plaqu ...200312960384
molecular weapons against agricultural vulnerability and the war on terror.the multiple reports in this issue of the journal from the agenda for action conference, coupled with the analysis by the national academy of sciences, the national research council, and the auditor general (uk) on bioterror preparedness and homeland security, highlight the immediate need for rapid disease detection and advanced diagnostic capabilities to protect the public health, animal agriculture, and the numerous associated economies in the united states. in response to the potentially deva ...200312970863
additional thoughts on the funding of poliovirus research: some reflections stimulated by "parallel path: poliovirus research in the vaccine era" (m.s. garfinkel and d. sarewitz). 200312971294
monitoring of fmd virus non-structural protein 3ab antibody in intensive pig farms after a severe outbreak of fmd. 200312974342
transmission of fmd by people. 200312974344
[the aphtha virus cultured in vivo on a specific and elective embryoma, and anti-aphthous vaccination]. 195313051893
[foot and mouth disease virus in newborn laboratory animals]. 195213064820
a preliminary report on the purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus by serological methods. 195313084913
[establishment of a relation between the variations of the properties of foot and mouth disease virus cultured on elective embryoma, and the stages of clinical evolution of the foot and mouth disease; individualization of the optimum stage for the preparation of vaccines]. 195313107168
influence of cortisone on susceptibility of adult mice to foot-and-mouth-disease virus. 195413124695
[the culture of foot and mouth disease virus on an industrial scale]. 195313135049
electrophoretic studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 195413148477
titration of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease in culture. 195413152368
ultracentrifugation of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. iii. verification of the existence of two particles of different size carrying the complement-fixing antigen. 195413158028
ultracentrifugation of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. iv. splitting of the greater complement-fixing particle. 195413158029
[adaptation of the foot and mouth disease virus to merion]. 195413161349
[repeated passages of foot and mouth virus c from guinea pig foot to mouse perineum do not permit the adaptation of a viscerotropic strain to the mouse]. 195413161366
research on foot-and-mouth disease. vii. cultivation of the virus on a practical scale in explantations of tongue epithelium; a modification of the culture technique. 195413171490
susceptibility and serological response of various species of animals to infection with the virus of vesicular stomatitis. 195413171515
[behavior of three types of aphthous virus during electrophoresis in starch]. 195413195290
electrophoresis of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. i. mobility experiments suggesting a close relation between virus and host microsomes. 195413197049
electrophoresis of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. ii. mobility of the lesser complement fixing particle. 195413197050
[change of type of the foot and mouth diseases virus]. 195413206702
electrophoresis of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. iii. mobility studies on the greater complement fixing particle and its splitting by ph-6.5. 195413206773
on the stability of bovine foot-and-mouth disease virus dependent on ph; investigations on the complement fixing and the immunizing antigen as well as on the infective agent. 195413206774
[separation by ultrafiltration of foot-and-mouth disease virus from molecules larger than the virus and from molecules smaller than the virus]. 195413209889
[adsorbing power of protein complexes with regard to the foot-and-mouth disease virus and possibility of liberating the latter by ultrafiltration]. 195413209896
the sterilizing action of gaseous ethylene oxide on foot-and-mouth disease virus; a preliminary report. 195513228886
differentiation between foot-and-mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses by means of mouse inoculation. 195513238756
control of yeast contamination by mycostatin in cultures of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. 195513253607
research on foot-and-mouth disease. viii. titration of foot-and-mouth disease virus making use of surviving tongue epithelium from vaccinated cattle. 195513259024
electrophoretic properties of foot and mouth disease virus. 195513259503
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