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rapid selection in modified bhk-21 cells of a foot-and-mouth disease virus variant showing alterations in cell tropism.with persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in bhk-21 cells, there is coevolution of the cells and the resident virus; the virulence of the virus for the parental bhk-21 cells is gradually increased, and the cells become partially resistant to fmdv. here we report that variants of fmdv c3arg/85 were selected in a single infection of partially resistant bhk-21 cells (termed bhk-rb cells). indirect immunofluorescence showed that the bhk-rb cell population was heterogeneous with regard to s ...19989811758
structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protease: a papain-like fold adapted for self-processing and eif4g recognition.the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, as well as cleaving itself from the nascent viral polyprotein, disables host cell protein synthesis by specific proteolysis of a cellular protein: the eukaryotic initiation factor 4g (eif4g). the crystal structure of the leader protease presented here comprises a globular catalytic domain reminiscent of that of cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily, and a flexible c-terminal extension found intruding into the substrate-binding site of a ...19989857201
characterizing sequence variation in the vp1 capsid proteins of foot and mouth disease virus (serotype 0) with respect to virion structure.the vp1 capsid protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly polymorphic and contains several of the major immunogenic sites important to effective antibody neutralization and subsequent viral clearance by the immune system. whether this high level of polymorphism is of adaptive value to the virus remains unknown. in this study we examined sequence data from a set of 55 isolates in order to establish the nature of selective pressures acting on this gene. using the known molecular stru ...19989541542
antibody response in mice inoculated with dna expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins.candidate foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) dna vaccines designed to produce viral capsids lacking infectious viral nucleic acid were evaluated. plasmid dnas containing a portion of the fmdv genome coding for the capsid precursor protein (p1-2a) and wild-type or mutant viral proteinase 3c (plasmids p12x3c or p12x3c-mut, respectively) were constructed. cell-free translation reactions programmed with pp12x3c (wild-type 3c) and pp12x3c-mut produced a capsid precursor, but only the reactions programmed w ...19989557740
inhibition of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) uncoating by a plant-derived peptide isolated from melia azedarach l leaves.meliacine (ma), a peptide isolated from leaves of the high plant melia azedarach l inhibited the multiplication of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) in bhk-21 cells. in this report, we establish that the ma-inhibitable process takes place within the first hour of the viral reproductive cycle. ma had no virucidal effect and did not affect adsorption and penetration of the virus in cells. in experiments with neutral red-labeled virus, it was found that ma significantly suppressed the development ...19989572558
[physico-chemical bases of the mechanism of thermal inactivation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus].experiments demonstrated that the effect of water activity on the solvate complex of virions underlies the mechanism of thermal inactivation of the foot and mouth disease virus in suspension; changes in the structure of the complex impair the electrophysical balance of the rna-protein relations and hence, destroy the virus. heating of virus-containing suspensions at moderate positive temperatures leads to destruction of the noninfectious part of virus population of 146s particles, thus decreasin ...19989606878
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by heat, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide and gamma radiation. 19989746947
vaccinia virus protein synthesis has a low requirement for the intact translation initiation factor eif4f, the cap-binding complex, within infected cells.the role of the cap-binding complex, eif4f, in the translation of vaccinia virus mrnas has been analyzed within infected cells. plasmid dnas, which express dicistronic mrnas containing a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site, produced within vaccinia virus-infected cells both beta-glucuronidase and a cell surface-targeted single-chain antibody (sfv). cells expressing sfv were selected from nonexpressing cells, enabling analysis of protein synthesis specifically within the transfected cells. ...19989765426
conformational flexibility in a highly mobile protein loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus: distinct structural requirements for integrin and antibody binding.the g-h loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 protein is a highly mobile peptide, that extends from the capsid surface and that in native virions is invisible by x-ray crystallography. in serotype c, this segment contains a hypervariable region with several continuous, overlapping, b-cell epitopes that embrace the conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) cell attachment motif. the solvent-exposed positioning of this peptide by selective insertion into different structural frameworks of e. coli beta-galact ...19989769208
host factors affecting the homologous and heterologous immune response of cattle to fmdv: genetic background, age, virus strains and route of administration.sixty bulls were tested for antibodies to the heterologous serotype c1 of fmdv following repeatable vaccinations with a commercial trivalent vaccine (o1, a22, asia1). six (10%) bulls were found to possess rather high levels of heterologous neutralizing antibodies which showed accumulative trend with age. two high positive and two negative bulls for the heterologous serotype c1 were selected for progeny test involving ten daughters of each bull. the four bulls, either positive or negative for the ...19989607052
differentiating foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected from vaccinated animals with baculovirus-expressed specific proteins.we had shown in preliminary studies with a small number of animals that antibodies against 2c could be detected in cattle and pigs which had been infected with fmdv but not in animals which had been vaccinated against the disease. to determine whether this test was generally applicable, sera from several hundred animals which had been vaccinated with different products in many countries have been tested in an elisa using baculovirus expressed 2c. our results show that only 1-2% of the sera gave ...19989652055
new generation of african horse sickness virus vaccines based on structural and molecular studies of the virus particles.african horse sickness virus (ahsv) is a member of the genus orbivirus, which also includes bluetongue virus (btv) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (ehdv) virus. these orbiviruses have similar morphological and biochemical properties, with distinctive pathobiological properties and host ranges. sequencing studies of the capsid proteins have revealed evolutionary relationships between these viruses. biochemical studies of the viruses together with the expression of individual proteins and prote ...19989785506
cattle response to foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural proteins as antigens within vaccines produced using different concentrations.four groups of ten nine-month-old nelore heifers were used for this study. each group received one of four foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) trivalent vaccines for the duration of the experiment. the four vaccine formulations (normal, 2x, 4x and 8x) differed in 140s content to determine the serological reactivities to fmd virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins 2c, 3abc and 3d. vaccination was by the intramuscular administration of vaccine on day 0, 180 and 360. bleedings were done at 30 days post vaccin ...19989652056
distinct mechanisms of antibody-mediated enzymatic reactivation in beta-galactosidase molecular sensors.the antibody-mediated reactivation of engineered escherichia coli beta-galactosidases [benito et al. (1996) j. biol. chem. 271, 21251-21256] has been thoughtfully investigated in three recombinant molecular sensors. proteins m278vp1, jx772a and jx795a display the highly antigenic g-h loop peptide segment of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 protein, accommodated in different solvent-exposed loops of the assembled tetramer. these chimaeric enzymes exhibit a significant increase in enzymatic activi ...19989827559
diagnostic potential of mab-based elisas for antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus to differentiate infection from vaccination.this paper summarises the development of monoclonal antibody (mab)-based immunoassays measuring antibodies to non-structural proteins of fmdv to differentiate infection from vaccination. of the three non-structural proteins 2c, 3c and 3abc evaluated in this study, the polypeptide 3abc was the most immunogenic. three elisas for the detection of antibodies to 3abc were developed. two assays rely on the competition of test sera against either a anti-3a mab or against antisera to 3abc raised in rabb ...19989652058
detection of cattle exposed to foot-and-mouth disease virus by means of an indirect elisa test using bioengineered nonstructural polyprotein 3abc. 19989652059
rt-pcr in foot-and-mouth disease diagnosis.a rt-pcr assay for the specific detection of rna sequences from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been developed. the procedure permits also the detection of sequences that correlate with established fmdv serotypes. a computer program that allows selection of genotype-specific primers for rt-pcr amplification was used for the identification of fmdv specific sequences for pcr amplification on rna replicase (3d) gene regions. specific, rapid and highly sensitive detection was achieved for a ...19989652064
detection of foot-and-mouth disease by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation in contact sheep without clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease.two non-vaccinated sheep were experimentally infected with fmdv and one day later 4 other sheep were brought in contact. although the contact sheep showed no clinical signs, serology indicated that all sheep became infected. various secretion samples, taken over a period of at least one month, and various tissue samples were examined for the presence of fmdv by rt-pcr and by virus isolation. fmdv was most often found in saliva (mouth swabs), followed by nasal secretion and sera. faecal material, ...19989652065
mutational analysis of discontinuous epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus using an unprocessed capsid protomer precursor.an unprocessed capsid precursor (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been expressed in mammalian cells to study discontinuous epitopes involved in viral neutralization. amino acid replacements found in virus-escape mutants were engineered in the p1 precursor by site-directed mutagenesis of the plasmid. in all cases the replacements abolished recognition of unprocessed p1 by the relevant monoclonal antibodies (mabs), paralleling the effects of the corresponding substitutions in neutral ...19989617767
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to foot and mouth disease virus type 'c'.five fusion experiments were conducted with spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with purified 146s antigen of foot and mouth disease virus type 'c' (vaccine strain). monoclones (31) thus developed were isotyped as igm (3), igg1 (6), igg2a (5), igg2b (3) and igg3 (14). eleven clones isotyped as igm, igg2a and igg2b showed neutralizing activity in virus neutralization and plaque reduction tests. six of the neutralizing clones precipitated 146s virus in ouchterlony reaction. on the basis of loc ...199810093509
a cell adhesion peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus can direct cell targeted delivery of a functional enzyme.the g-h loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus is a disordered protrusion of the vp1 protein exposed on the virion surface. this short stretch includes an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide, a recognized integrin-binding motif, which is responsible for cell attachment and infection. eight copies of a peptide reproducing the amino acid sequence of this fmdv ligand have been displayed in solvent-exposed regions on an enzymatically active recombinant beta-galactosidase. this viral peptide segm ...199810099340
problems with bhk 21 cells.the properties of baby hamster kidney (bhk 21) cells are modified by passage in suspension culture. the suspended cells differ from monolayer cells in the surface expression of some integrin chains involved in attachment of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), in particular the progressive down-regulation of both alpha5 and alphav integrin chains. this down-regulation is correlated with the loss of actin stress fibres. fmdv particles from these cells are unstable towards the aziridine used in in ...19989737382
the foot and mouth disease virus type o outbreak of 1992 is not related to vaccine strain (o/r2/75).vaccination is the only pragmatic approach to control foot and mouth disease in india. strict quality control measures are essential to supply potent vaccine to the field application, in addition to monitoring the performance of the vaccine in the field. during the process of monitoring, an outbreak of fmd in vaccinated animals caused by type "o" virus in tanjavur district of tamil nadu and a type "o" virus from unvaccinated herd of karnataka were studied. field isolates and vaccine virus were s ...19989608661
multiple virulence determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture.hypervirulent variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c arise upon serial cytolytic or persistent infections in cell culture. a specific mutation in the internal ribosome entry site of persistent fmdv was previously associated with enhanced translation initiation activity that could contribute to the hypervirulent phenotype for bhk-21 cells. here we report that several hypervirulent fmdv variants arising upon serial cytolytic passage show an invariant internal ribosome entry ...19989658076
a rt-pcr assay for the differential diagnosis of vesicular viral diseases of swine.a rt-pcr assay based on specific amplification of rna sequences from each of the etiological agents of three important vesicular diseases that affect swine, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), was developed. genotype-specific primers that amplified dna fragments of differential size from svdv 3d gene or vsv l gene were selected with the aid of a computer program. experimental testing of the primers predicted as svdv-spe ...19989694330
quantitation of foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes in bovine tissue by competitive rt-pcr.the sensitivity of a reverse transcription-dependent polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for detecting foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genomes was quantified by use of rna transcribed in vitro from fmdv-specific cdna. previously, the cdna had been elongated by 228 base pairs. the minimum number of template molecules required to obtain the specific rt-pcr product was determined to be 10(4). this was achieved by use of 1 microg of primer for cdna synthesis and by undertaking of at least 30 cycl ...19989694331
protection of swine by live and inactivated vaccines prepared from a leader proteinase-deficient serotype a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus.previously, we demonstrated that a genetically engineered variant of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a12 lacking the leader proteinase-coding region (a12-llv2) was attenuated and induced an immune response that partially protected cattle from fmd. in this study, a12-llv2 was tested in swine as a live or chemically inactivated vaccine. animals vaccinated with chemically inactivated a12-llv2 or wild-type (wt) virus in oil adjuvant developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies and w ...19989711798
recognition of picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites within cells; influence of cellular and viral proteins.the ability of different picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements to direct initiation of protein synthesis has been assayed in different cell lines in the presence and absence of viral proteases that inhibit cap-dependent protein synthesis. reporter plasmids that express dicistronic mrnas, containing different ires elements, with the general structure cat/ires/luc, have been assayed. in each plasmid, the cat sequence encodes chloramphenicol acetyl transferase and the luc sequen ...19989582094
a structural model of picornavirus leader proteinases based on papain and bleomycin hydrolase.the leader (l) proteinases of aphthoviruses (foot-and-mouth disease viruses) and equine rhinovirus serotypes 1 and 2 cleave themselves from the growing polyprotein. this cleavage occurs intramolecularly between the c terminus of the l proteinases and the n terminus of the subsequent protein vp4. the foot-and-mouth disease virus enzyme has been shown, in addition, to cleave at least one cellular protein, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4g. mechanistically, inhibitor studies and sequence analysis ...19989472614
study of the immunogenicity of different recombinant mengo viruses expressing hiv1 and siv epitopes.recombinant mengo viruses expressing heterologous genes have proven to be safe and immunogenic in both mice and primates, and to be able to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses (altmeyer et al., 1995, 1996). several recombinant mengo viruses expressing either a large region (aa 65-206) of the hiv1 nef gene product, or cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) epitopic regions from the siv gag (aa 182-190), nef (aa 155-178) and pol (aa 587-601) gene products were engineered. the heterologous anti ...19989561560
emergency vaccination of pigs against foot-and-mouth disease: protection against disease and reduction in contact transmission.the protective ability of two novel oil-based fmd vaccines in pigs was examined. both vaccine formulations were shown to protect pigs against airborne challenge with homologous fmdv within four days of vaccination, but not at two and three days post-vaccination. protection was associated with the induction of variable and low titre serum antibody responses. a transmission study showed that protective immunisation resulted in reduced virus excretion. vaccination at seven days, but not at four day ...19989562696
evolution of a common structural core in the internal ribosome entry sites of picornavirus.the translational control involving internal ribosome binding occurs in poliovirus (pv), human rhinoviruses (hrv), encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and hepatitis a virus (hav). internal ribosome binding utilizes cis-acting genetic elements of approximately 450 nucleotides (nt) termed the internal ribosome entry sites (ires) found in these picornaviral 5'-untranslated region (5'utr). although these ires elements are quite different in their primary sequence, ...19989562889
homologous and heterologous antibody response of cattle and sheep after vaccination with foot and mouth disease and influenza viruses.homologous and heterologous antibody response to fmd and influenza vaccines was studied in 37 calves and 45 lambs at the age of 2 months. the fmd and influenza monovalent killed vaccines were administered simultaneously twice. another group of 18 calves was vaccinated twice, first at the age of 2 months and second at the age of 6 months, with trivalent fmd vaccine. the antibody titers were measured by elisa and hi after second vaccination, for fmdv and influenza, respectively. the conclusions of ...19989569464
induction of anti foot and mouth disease virus t and b cell responses in cattle immunized with a peptide representing ten amino acids of vp1.we previously demonstrated that the immunization of cattle with a synthetic peptide representing the amino acid sequence of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o1 campos vp1 residues 135-160 (p135-160), containing immunodominant t and b epitopes, was able to induce a strong neutralizing antibody (na) response. the epitope mapping of p135-160 identified t and b epitopes in the area restricted to amino acid residues 135-144 (zamorano et al. 1994, virology 201; 1995, virology 212). we are now ...19989569465
vp1-coding sequences of recent isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a, o and asia1.a large part of the capsid protein vp1-coding sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus, isolated between 1993 and 1996 in europe, was amplified by the reverse transcription-dependent polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). the same was done with some non-european virus isolates, especially those against which vaccines were currently produced. the products were sequenced, and the sequences aligned. the alignment comprises sequences of the types a, o and asia 1. although the provenance of virus introd ...19989608664
[molecular basis of changes in biological properties of foot and mouth disease virus of subtype a22].primary structure of capsid proteins and rna polymerase of three closely related strains of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), subtype a22, differing by biological properties (the initial epitheliotropic strain a22 550 and its derivatives: thermoresistant myotropic a22 550/4 and thermosensitive attenuated a22 645) are compared by nucleic acid sequencing and analysis of the amino acid sequencing. the study revealed 1 substitute in vpi and 8 in rna polymerase in the myotropic variant and 1 subst ...19989611758
detection and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-saharan africa.genomic amplification of the vp1 gene of sat-type foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was performed with published and novel oligonucleotide primers. the primer pair with the highest sat-type recognition (67%) was identified and selected for optimization. modifications to primers significantly improved sat-type detection (100%), broadened the recognition range to european (a, o and c) and asian (asia-1) serotypes and improved test sensitivity. in addition to being able to confirm the presence of ...19989629589
a universal virus inactivant for decontaminating blood and biopharmaceutical products.removal of virus infectivity from blood and biopharmaceutical products prepared from blood is an issue of considerable importance. for biopharmaceutical products, removal can usually be achieved by a series of fractionation steps or by inactivation with a suitable reagent. irrespective of the methods that are chosen it is vital that the biological activity of the product is not impaired. for blood and unfractionated plasma or serum, the problem is even more challenging. selective inactivation of ...19989637748
antibody to the nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated animals exposed to infection.cattle which have been infected with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus can be differentiated from those that have been vaccinated on the basis of the detection of antibody to one or more of the non-structural (ns) proteins of the virus. cattle which have been protected by vaccination can become persistently infected with fmd virus (fmdv) without ever showing clinical signs. vaccinated, protected cattle which are persistently infected cannot be distinguished from animals that merely have been va ...19989652054
titration calculations of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsids and their stabilities as a function of ph.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a non-enveloped picornavirus, is sensitive to acidic conditions. at ph values below 7 the icosahedral virus capsid, formed from 60 copies of a protomer containing four polypeptides (vp1 to 4), dissociates into 12 pentamers, releasing the viral rna. evidence suggests that this acid lability may assist fmdv cell entry via an endosomal pathway. calculations of titration curves and ph-stability profiles are presented for three different strains of fmdv, o1bfs, a1 ...19989466910
monoclonal antibodies, against o1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus, from a natural bovine host, recognize similar antigenic features to those defined by the mouse.eight neutralizing and two non-neutralizing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) bovine igg1 and igg2 monoclonal antibodies (bmabs) recognize conformationally dependent epitopes. the majority of those shown to neutralize virus passively protected mice from virus challenge, regardless of isotype. well-characterized anti-fmdv mouse mabs, representing five independent neutralizing epitopes on o1 serotype virus, were examined with each of the ten bmabs in a competition-based elisa. five of the n ...19989680132
in vivo analysis of the stability and fitness of variants recovered from foot-and-mouth disease virus quasispecies.we have analysed the ability to infect pigs of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) variants isolated at low frequencies from virus populations (quasispecies) generated in pigs on infection with a parental virus, c-s8c1. a monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant (marm21), and a variant isolated at early times post-infection (s-3t1), each exhibiting a unique amino acid substitution in vp1, were able to cause disease in pigs, both by direct inoculation or by contact transmission. the symptoms deve ...19989680133
the biological relevance of virus neutralisation sites for virulence and vaccine protection in the guinea pig model of foot-and-mouth disease.five neutralisation epitopes have been defined for the o1 kaufbeuren strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by neutralising murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs). a mutant virus which is resistant to all these mabs also resists neutralisation by bovine polyclonal sera, and this characteristic was exploited in the current study to investigate the biological relevance of neutralisation sites in fmdv virulence and vaccine protection. the five site neutralisation-resistant mutant was shown to b ...19989683571
differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease using a panel of recombinant, non-structural proteins in elisa.a profiling elisa was developed to detect antibody to the non-structural (ns) proteins lb, 2c, 3a, 3d, and the polyprotein 3abc, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the assay was used to examine panels of sera from naive cattle, and from experimentally infected or vaccinated animals. all sera from cattle experimentally infected with any of the seven serotypes of fmdv were positive for antibody to 2c, 3a, 3d and 3abc, and the majority were positive for lb. the three categories of sera could b ...19989491499
assessment using elisa of the herd immunity levels induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease oil vaccines.the development of a liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (lpbe) to measure antibodies (ab) produced in cattle with the o, a and c foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) types of commercial vaccines used in argentina is described. the test was specific: 99% of naïve cattle sera (n = 130) gave titres below log10 = 1.2, and none had a titre above log10 = 1.5. comparative studies with serum neutralization test (snt) using sera from cattle which received one or more vaccine doses is reported. the overa ...19989500182
infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus results in a rapid reduction of mhc class i surface expression.the modulation of mhc class i molecule expression on the surface of cells as a consequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection has been examined. on cells infected with fmdv, class i expression was reduced to approximately 70% of the initial value 3 h after the infection and to 53% after 6 h. on cells depleted of surface class i complexes by acid treatment, the appearance of newly assembled class i-peptide complexes on the cell surface of non-infected cells increased immediately upo ...19989519820
antigenic structure of foot and mouth disease virus type a22 (indian isolates).variations in foot and mouth disease virus are due to amino acid substitutions in the vp1, which is a major immunogen. analysis of this hypervariable region is essential to know the antigenic structure of the serotype and is necessary to select a suitable vaccine strain. fmdv type a22 is one of the four prevailing virus types for which the vaccine is used regularly. to understand the antigenic structure of this type, carboxy- terminal region of vp1 from two field isolates and vaccine virus were ...19989536655
a similar pattern of interaction for different antibodies with a major antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for intratypic antigenic variation.the three-dimensional structures of the fab fragment of a neutralizing antibody raised against a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c1, alone and complexed to an antigenic peptide representing the major antigenic site a (g-h loop of vp1), have been determined. as previously seen in a complex of the same antigen with another antibody which recognizes a different epitope within antigenic site a, the receptor recognition motif arg-gly-asp and some residues from an adjacent helix partic ...19989420281
protective immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus with vp1 expressed in transgenic plants.it has been reported recently that genes encoding antigens of bacterial and viral pathogens can be expressed in plants in a form in which they retain native immunogenic properties. the structural protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has frequently been shown to contain critical epitopes, has been expressed in different vectors and shown to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies and protection in experimental and natural hosts. here we report the production of transformed plant ...19989445079
analysis of the b and t cell response in guinea pigs induced with recombinant vaccinia expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins.recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) p1 and vp1 genes have been used to study the immune response induced by these viral polypeptides in guinea pigs. anti-fmdv antibodies, but not neutralizing activity, were detected in the sera from immunized animals. the results indicate that both cd4+ and cd8+ fmdv-specific t cells were induced by the vaccinia recombinants. consistently with the activation of cd4+ t cells, lymphocytes from immunized animals specifically ...19989541622
the potential of retro-inverso peptides as synthetic vaccines.retro-inverso (ri) peptides, also called all-d-retro peptides, have been shown to mimic the antigenic and immunogenic properties of l-peptides successfully. ri peptides corresponding to the loop 141-159 of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been synthesized and used to immunize rabbits and guinea pigs. these peptides induced longer-lasting and higher antibody titres in immunized animals than did the corresponding l-peptides and the antibodies cross-reacted strongly with ...19989554267
foot-and-mouth disease virus virulent for cattle utilizes the integrin alpha(v)beta3 as its receptor.adsorption and plaque formation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a12 are inhibited by antibodies to the integrin alpha(v)beta3 (a. berinstein et al., j. virol. 69:2664-2666, 1995). a human cell line, k562, which does not normally express alpha(v)beta3 cannot replicate this serotype unless cells are transfected with cdnas encoding this integrin (k562-alpha(v)beta3 cells). in contrast, we found that a tissue culture-propagated fmdv, type o1bfs, was able to replicate in nontransfecte ...19989557639
the potential of retro-inverso peptides as synthetic vaccines.retro-inverso peptides, also known as all-d-retro or retro-enantio peptides, are composed of d-amino acids assembled in the reverse order from that of the parent l-sequence. since the orientation of the side-chains in a retro-inverso analogue is very similar to that in the parent l-peptide, this leads to a high level of antigenic cross-reactivity between the two peptides. the potential of retro-inverso peptides as synthetic vaccines has been investigated in the case of foot-and-mouth disease. a ...199815992041
cattle response to foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural proteins as antigens within vaccines produced using different concentrations.abstract four groups of ten nine-month-old nelore heifers were used for this study. each group received one of four foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) trivalent vaccines for the duration of the experiment. the four vaccine formulations (normal, 2x, 4x and 8x) differed in 140s content to determine the serological reactivities to fmd virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins 2c, 3abc and 3d. vaccination was by the intramuscular administration of vaccine on day 0, 180 and 360. bleedings were done at 30 days po ...199822077290
differentiating foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected from vaccinated animals with baculovirus-expressed specific proteins.abstract we had shown in preliminary studies with a small number of animals that antibodies against 2c could be detected in cattle and pigs which had been infected with fmdv but not in animals which had been vaccinated against the disease. to determine whether this test was generally applicable, seta from several hundred animals which had been vaccinated with different products in many countries have been tested in an elisa using baculovirus expressed 2c. our results show that only 1-2% of the s ...199822077289
detection of foot-and-mouth disease by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation in contact sheep without clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease.summary two non-vaccinated sheep were experimentally, infected with fmdv and one day later 4 other sheep were brought in contact. although the contact sheep showed no clinical signs, serology indicated that all sheep became infected. various secretion samples, taken over a period of at least one month, and various tissue samples were examined for the presence of fmdv by rt-pcr and by virus isolation. fmdv was most often found in saliva (mouth swabs), followed by nasal secretion and sera. faecal ...199822077296
rt-pcr in foot-and-mouth.summary a rt-pcr assay for the specific detection of rna sequences from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been developed. the procedure permits also the detection of sequences that correlate with established fmdv serotypes. a computer program that allows selection of genotype-specific primers for rt-pcr amplification was used for the identification of fmdv specific sequences for pcr amplification on rna replicase (3d) gene regions. specific, rapid and highly sensitive detection was achieve ...199822077295
diagnostic potential of mab-based elisas for antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus to differentiate infection from vaccination.abstract this paper summarises the development of monoclonal antibody (mab)-based immunoassays measuring antibodies to non-structural proteins of fmdv to differentiate infection from vaccination. of the three non-structural proteins 2c, 3c and 3abc evaluated in this study, the polypeptide 3abc was the most immunogenic. three elisas for the detection of antibodies to 3abc were developed. two assays rely on the competition of test sera against either a anti-3a mab or against antisera to 3abc raise ...199822077292
rhinovirus 2a proteinase mediated stimulation of rhinovirus rna translation is additive to the stimulation effected by cellular rna binding proteins.the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of enteroviruses, and especially human rhinoviruses (hrv), functions very inefficiently in rabbit reticulocyte lysates, but can be stimulated by addition of hela cell extracts. two hela cell activities have been identified: the a-type activity is due to polypyrimidine tract binding protein and the b-type to unr. in addition hrv and enterovirus ires function requires a third rna binding protein, poly(rc) binding protein 2, but this is present in reticulocyt ...199910507322
demonstration of bovine cd8+ t-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus.the aim of this study was to investigate the importance of cellular immunity in foot-and-mouth disease in cattle, in particular to determine whether a cd8+ t-cell response could be detected, as these cells may play a role in both immunity and virus persistence. as attempts to characterize classical cytotoxic t cells had yielded non-reproducible results, largely due to high backgrounds in control cultures, a proliferation assay was developed that was demonstrated to detect antigen-specific, mhc c ...199910092006
evidence of partial protection against foot-and-mouth disease in cattle immunized with a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the precursor polypeptide (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins.a recombinant live vector vaccine was produced by insertion of cdna encoding the structural proteins (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) into a replication-competent human adenovirus type 5 vaccine strain (ad5 wt). groups of cattle (n = 3) were immunized twice, by the subcutaneous and/or intranasal routes, with either the ad5 wt vaccine or with the recombinant fmdv ad5-p1 vaccine. all animals were challenged by intranasal instillation of fmdv 4 weeks after the second immunizations. in th ...199910092007
highly sensitive detection of swine vesicular disease virus based on a single tube rt-pcr system and dig-elisa detection.a highly sensitive detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) based on a single tube rt-pcr system and digoxigenin (dig)-pcr-elisa detection was developed. using a one tube rt-pcr system, optimisation of the pcr conditions and optimisation of the microwell hybridisation and colourimetric detection of the amplicons resulted in a method that could detect viral rna in infected tissue culture fluid with a titre as low as 0.1 tcid50/100 microl. the same sensitivity was obtained with svdv-spike ...199910029329
low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating.the family picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. the human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. these viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 c ...199910049311
flexibility of the major antigenic loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus bound to a fab fragment of a neutralising antibody: structure and neutralisation.the interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype c (clone c-s8c1) with a strongly neutralising monoclonal antibody (mab) 4c4 has been studied by combining data from cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray crystallography. the mab 4c4 binds to the exposed flexible gh-loop of viral protein 1 (vp1), which appears to retain its flexibility, allowing movement of the bound fab. this is in striking contrast to mab sd6, which binds to the same gh-loop of vp1 but exhibits no movement of the boun ...199910069951
induction of a protective antibody response to foot and mouth disease virus in mice following oral or parenteral immunization with alfalfa transgenic plants expressing the viral structural protein vp1.the utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens to be used in the formulation of experimental immunogens has been recently communicated. we report here the development of transgenic plants of alfalfa expressing the structural protein vp1 of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). the presence of the transgenes in the plants was confirmed by pcr and their specific transcription was demonstrated by rt-pcr. mice parenterally immunized using leaf extracts or receiving in their diet ...199910069960
self-processing 2a-polyproteins--a system for co-ordinate expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants.achieving co-ordinate, high-level and stable expression of multiple transgenes in plants is currently difficult. expression levels are notoriously variable and influenced by factors that act independently on transgenes at different genetic loci. instability of expression due to loss, re-arrangement or silencing of transgenes may occur, and is exacerbated by increasing numbers of transgenic loci and repeated use of homologous sequences. even linking two or more genes within a t-dna does not neces ...199910205902
effect of mycobacterium sp. wall and avridine on the antibody response, igg isotype profile and proliferative response induced by foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccination in cattle.different immunomodulators have been previously tested in our laboratory as enhancers of the specific immune response to fmdv vaccines in a murine model [2-4]. here, we present results of two of these immunomodulators, a water-soluble fraction of the cell wall of mycobacterium sp. (wsf) and a synthetic lipoamide, avridine (av), which were tested in bovines included in fmdv oil vaccines. two different concentrations of inactivated viral antigen were employed and the effect of different concentrat ...19999987173
emergency vaccination of sheep against foot-and-mouth disease: protection against disease and reduction in contact transmission.the ability of several emergency fmd vaccine formulations to elicit early protective immunity in sheep was examined. all vaccine formulations were shown to protect sheep against airborne challenge with homologous fmdv within 4 days of vaccination. protection was associated in part with the induction of serum antibody responses but was also demonstrated in the absence of any detectable antibody response at the time of challenge. aqueous al(oh)3/saponin vaccine formulations and oil emulsion vaccin ...199910217583
two-helper rna system for production of recombinant semliki forest virus particles.alphavirus expression systems based on suicidal virus particles carrying recombinant replicons have proven to be a very efficient way to deliver genes for heterologous protein expression. however, present strategies for production of such particles have biosafety limitations due to the generation, by rna recombination, of replication-proficient viruses (rpvs). here we describe a new packaging system for semliki forest virus (sfv) based on a the use of a two-helper system in which the capsid and ...19999882310
the structures of picornaviral proteinases.picornaviruses are a family of positive-strand rna viruses the members of which include poliovirus, hepatitis a virus, rhinovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and encephalomyocarditis virus. the genetic information contained in the single-stranded, positive sense rna genome is expressed as a single protein of around 2000 amino acids. this primary product of protein synthesis, designated the polyprotein, is subsequently cleaved into the mature viral proteins by proteinases present within it. the ...199910507325
biochemical and structural studies with neutralizing antibodies raised against foot-and-mouth disease virus.the function of a loop exposed on the aphthovirus capsid (the g-h loop of protein vp1) has been explored by combining genetic and structural studies with viral mutants. the loop displays a dual function of receptor recognition and interaction with neutralizing antibodies. remarkably, some amino acid residues play a critical role in both such disparate functions. therefore residues subjected to antibody pressure for variation may nevertheless maintain a role in receptor recognition for which inva ...199910507326
genetical and immunological analysis of recent asian type a and o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates.this report extends the knowledge on the epizootical situation of foot-and-mouth disease in asia. rna from six samples of type a and five of type o virus, isolated between 1987 and 1997 in bangladesh, iran, malaysia and turkey, was subjected to reverse transcription-dependent polymerase chain reactions that amplify large parts of the capsid protein vp1 encoding genome region. the amplification products were sequenced, and the sequences aligned to each other and to published sequences. this showe ...199910595408
characterization of the structural-protein-coding region of sat 2 type foot-and-mouth disease virus.the south african territories (sat) types of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus show marked genomic and antigenic variation in sub-saharan africa that is to a large extent geographically determined. this has implications for selection of appropriate vaccine strains as well as the accuracy of laboratory diagnosis. however, adaptation of field isolates as vaccine strains is cumbersome, time consuming and expensive. we propose the construction of recombinant viruses in which specific antigenic dete ...199910595414
differential utilization of poly(rc) binding protein 2 in translation directed by picornavirus ires elements.the translation of picornavirus genomic rnas occurs by a cap-independent mechanism that requires the formation of specific ribonucleoprotein complexes involving host cell factors and highly structured regions of picornavirus 5' noncoding regions known as internal ribosome entry sites (ires). although a number of cellular proteins have been shown to be involved in picornavirus rna translation, the precise role of these factors in picornavirus internal ribosome entry is not understood. in this rep ...199910606268
lectins.lectins - carbohydrate-binding proteins involved in a variety of recognition processes - exhibit considerable structural diversity. three new lectin folds and further elaborations of known folds have been described recently. large variability in quaternary association resulting from small alterations in essentially the same tertiary structure is a property exhibited specially by legume lectins. the strategies used by lectins to generate carbohydrate specificity include the extensive use of water ...199910607664
solution structure of a retro-inverso peptide analogue mimicking the foot-and-mouth disease virus major antigenic site. structural basis for its antigenic cross-reactivity with the parent peptide.the antigenic activity of a 19-mer peptide corresponding to the major antigenic region of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its retro-enantiomeric analogue was found to be completely abolished when they were tested in a biosensor system in trifluoroethanol. this suggests that the folding pattern, which is alpha-helix in trifluoroethanol (confirmed by cd measurement), does not correspond to the biologically relevant conformation(s) recognized by antibodies. the nmr structures of both peptides were ...19999920919
protective immune response to 16 kda immunoreactive recombinant protein encoding the c-terminal vp1 portion of foot and mouth disease virus type asia 1.recombinant protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 corresponding to the c-terminal half of vp1 was expressed in escherichia coli. as an alternative to the synthetic peptide, this selected c-terminal region was used as a protein vaccine in guinea pigs in order to study the immune response with various adjuvant formulations: immune stimulatory complexes (iscoms), montanide isa 206, freund's incomplete adjuvant (fia), lipopolysaccharide (lps) and cytokine mixture. a primary dose ...199910524794
e. coli expressed proteins as diagnostic reagents for typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus.truncated proteins corresponding to the c-terminal half of vp1 of four vaccine strains and two field variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed in e. coli. the expressed proteins were affinity purified and their type specific reactivity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with anti-virus antibodies. antibodies were raised against the purified proteins in guinea pigs and the type specificity of the anti peptide antibodies was confirmed by antigen capture reverse transcription ...199910542020
multiple molecular pathways for fitness recovery of an rna virus debilitated by operation of muller's ratchet.repeated bottleneck passages of rna viruses result in fitness losses due to accumulation of deleterious mutations. we have analysed the molecular events underlying fitness recovery of a highly debilitated foot- and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) clone, upon serial passage in bhk-21 cells. the debilitated clone included an unusual, internal polyadenylate extension preceding the second functional aug initiation codon, and a number of additional mutations scattered throughout the genome. comparison of ...19999878424
protection of mice against challenge with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) by immunization with foliar extracts from plants infected with recombinant tobacco mosaic virus expressing the fmdv structural protein vp1.a tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-based vector has been used to express in plants the complete open reading frame coding for vp1, the major immunogenic protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). in vitro rna transcripts were inoculated into nicotiana benthamiana plants and detectable amounts of recombinant vp1 were identified by western blot as soon as 4 days postinfection. foliar extracts prepared from infected leaves were injected intraperitoneally into mice and all of the immunized animals de ...199910544132
recombinant fusion protein and dna vaccines against foot and mouth disease virus infection in guinea pig and swine.in this study, we provide evidence that a recombinant fusion protein containing beta-galactosidase and a tandem repeat peptide of immunogenic dominant epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein elicits high levels of neutralizing antibody and protects both guinea pigs and swine against infection. vaccination with this fusion protein induced a fmdv-specific proliferative t-cell response and a neutralizing antibody response. the immunized guinea pigs and swine were protected agains ...199910333237
efficient inactivation of viruses and mycoplasma in animal sera using uvc irradiation.transmission of viruses by animal sera represents a considerable risk for humans and animals particularly when the serum is used for the production of pharmaceutical products such as vaccines. procedures applicable for inactivating large numbers of different viruses, both enveloped and non-enveloped, are therefore mandatory. for this purpose we have developed and validated uvc irradiation as the virus-inactivation procedure of choice for serum to be used in an industrial setting. spiking experim ...199910404882
synthetic peptide vaccines: foot-and-mouth disease virus as a model.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been one of the pioneering viral systems in the development of synthetic peptides as vaccines. protection against fmdv infection is associated with the induction of neutralising antibodies. therefore, attempts have been made to identify peptides capable of eliciting protective humoral responses. peptides based on a continuous, immunodominant b cell site on the capsid protein vp1 have been shown to confer limited protection in natural hosts. this probably r ...199910566773
design and construction of african swine fever virus chimeras incorporating foreign viral epitopes.in the present work we have studied the feasibility of introducing foreign epitopes into the african swine fever virus (asfv) particle by genetic manipulation of the virus. for this purpose, we developed specific transfer vectors containing the gene encoding for the highly antigenic structural asfv protein p54 in which foreign sequences were introduced. dna sequences encoding continuous linear epitopes, the antigenic site a from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein and the da3 antigen ...199910481737
a universal virus inactivant for decontaminating blood and biopharmaceutical products.removal of virus infectivity from blood and biopharmaceutical products prepared from blood is an issue of considerable importance. irrespective of the methods that are chosen it is vital that the biological activity of the product is not impaired. for blood and unfractionated plasma or serum, the problem is even more challenging. selective inactivation of the genome is the key step in the preparation of killed virus vaccines. imines have been used for more than 30 years for the preparation of in ...199910404883
serological survey of viral antibodies in llamas (lama glama) in argentina.this study analysed sera from 390 llamas (lama glama) from nine farms located in three different argentine provinces: buenos aires, cordoba and jujuy. the samples were tested for antibodies against 8 virus known to infect cattle: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine adenovirus (badv iii), bovine enterovirus (bev), bovine rotavirus (brv), bluetongue virus (btv), bovine leukaemia virus (blv), and foot-and-mouth virus (fmdv) by conventional methods such as s ...199910337237
interaction of eukaryotic initiation factor eif4b with the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus is independent of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein.eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4b (eif4b) binds directly to the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). mutations in all three subdomains of the ires stem-loop 4 reduce binding of eif4b and translation efficiency in parallel, indicating that eif4b is functionally involved in fmdv translation initiation. in reticulocyte lysate devoid of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (ptb), eif4b still bound well to the wild-type ires, even after removal of the ...199910364367
noncytopathic flavivirus replicon rna-based system for expression and delivery of heterologous genes.noncytopathic replicons of the flavivirus kunjin (kun) were employed for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. replicon vector c20dx2arep, containing a unique cloning site followed by the sequence of 2a autoprotease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, was constructed and used for expression of a number of heterologous genes including chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat), green fluorescent protein (gfp), beta-galactosidase, glycoprotein g of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the core and n ...199910069962
the properties of chimeric picornavirus ireses show that discrimination between internal translation initiation sites is influenced by the identity of the ires and not just the context of the aug codon.the internal ribosome entry segment (ires) of picornaviruses consists of approximately 450 nt of 5'-untranslated region, terminating at the 3' end with an approximately 25 nt element consisting of an absolutely conserved uuuc motif followed by a more variable pyrimidine-rich tract and g-poor spacer, and finally an aug triplet, which is considered to be the actual ribosome entry site. events following entry at this site differ among picornaviruses: in encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) virtually a ...199910376876
comparative organization and function of the major histocompatibility complex of domesticated cattle.this review focuses on recent advances in research on the bovine major histocompatibility complex (bola), with specific reference to the genetic organization, polymorphism and function of the class ii genes. the bola region is unlike the mhc of humans and mice in that a large inversion has moved several class ii genes, including the tap/lmp cluster, close to the centromere of bovine chromosome 23. therefore, close linkage of mhc genes and other genes associated with the mhc in humans and mice do ...199910319257
development of dna vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease, evaluation of vaccines encoding replicating and non-replicating nucleic acids in swine.we have developed naked dna vaccine candidates for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an important disease of domestic animals. the virus that causes this disease, fmdv, is a member of the picornavirus family, which includes many important human pathogens, such as poliovirus, hepatitis a virus, and rhinovirus. picornaviruses are characterized by a small (7-9000 nucleotide) rna genome that encodes capsid proteins, processing proteinases, and enzymes required for rna replication. we have developed two ...199910486933
immuno affinity purification of foot and mouth disease virus type specific antibodies using recombinant protein adsorbed to polystyrene wells.the specificity of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serological tests depends largely on the quality and purity of the antibodies used. such type specific antibodies can be generated by hybridoma technology. alternatively, the specific antibodies can be selected from polyclonal serum by immunoaffinity chromatography using recombinant protein/peptide bound affinity matrices. based on this approach, we purified selectively antibodies against the major epitopes of vp 1 of fmdv serotype asia 1 us ...199910488757
improvement of the immune response to foot and mouth disease virus vaccine in calves by using avridine as adjuvant.the epidemiological analysis of the cattle population during the eradication plan of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in argentina clearly indicated a higher incidence of the disease in animals within their first year of age. it is important to improve the efficacy of the vaccination in those animals. in a previous report, we have shown the effect of an immunomodulator, avridine (avr), in the enhancement of the immune response elicited by fmd virus (fmdv) vaccines in experimental hosts [berinstein, ...199910490231
differentiation of convalescent animals from those vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease by a peptide elisa.we have identified continuous antigenic determinants within the amino acid sequences of the conserved nonstructural region containing proteins 2c and 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus which can distinguish between the sera from vaccinated and infected animals. an elisa based on a 3b peptide gave a positive reaction with sera from cattle, pigs, sheep and guinea pigs infected with all seven serotypes of the virus, but not with sera from vaccinated animals. in experiments with cattle and pigs to ...199910462239
antigenic properties and population stability of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with an altered arg-gly-asp receptor-recognition motif.the antigenic properties and genetic stability of a multiply passaged foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) clone c-s8c1 with an arg-gly-gly triplet (rgg) instead of the arg-gly-asp (rgd) integrin-recognition motif at positions 141 to 143 of capsid protein vp1 are described. clear antigenic differences between fmdv rgg and clone c-s8c1 have been documented in elisa, enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer (western) blot and neutralization assays using site a-specific monoclonal antibodies and anti-fmd ...199910466785
production of interleukin-12 as a self-processing 2a polypeptide.interleukin-12 (il-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of two disulfide-linked subunits (p40 and p35) encoded by separate genes. we used the apparent autocleavage property of a 2a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to express bovine (bo) il-12 as a self-processing polypeptide (p402ap35). we demonstrate that 2a will mediate the cleavage of p402ap35 into two separate subunits in a manner similar to that observed during the processing of the fmdv polypeptide. furthermore, thi ...199910213462
evidence for the role of his-142 of protein 1c in the acid-induced disassembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsids.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsids are inherently labile under mildly acidic conditions, dissociating to pentamers at ph values in the region of 6.5, with the release of protein 1a and the viral rna. this acid-induced disassembly is thought to be required for the entry of the virus genome into the host cell. previous work has highlighted a histidine-alpha-helix charge-dipole interaction at the twofold axes of symmetry between pentamers and has suggested that this interaction plays a rol ...199910466786
production of biologically active, heterodimeric porcine interleukin-12 using a monocistronic baculoviral expression system.a baculoviral expression system for the production of biologically active, heterodimeric interleukin (il)-12 was developed by utilizing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) self-cleaving peptide, 2a. recombinant porcine il-12 (rpoil-12) was produced by insect cells after infection with recombinant baculoviruses expressing the gene encoding a fusion protein of p35 and p40 subunits of il-12 connected with 2a. by reducing and non-reducing sds-page analyses, it was demonstrated that rpoil-12 had a he ...199910628673
genomic nucleotide sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus clone and its persistent derivatives. implications for the evolution of viral quasispecies during a persistent infection.the consensus nucleotide sequence of the entire genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (biological clone c-s8c1) has been completed, and compared with that of two persistent derivatives r99 and r146, rescued after 99 and 146 passages of the carrier bhk-21 cells. consensus sequences were determined directly from supernatants of persistently infected cells, without intervening cytolytic amplification of the viruses. these genomic sequences have also been compared with that of fmdv r100, a v ...199910518712
development of replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 containing the capsid and 3c protease coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate.a recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 vector containing fmdv capsid, p1-2a, and viral 3c protease coding regions was constructed. two viral clones were isolated, ad5-p12x3cwt, containing the wild-type (wt) 3c protease that processes capsid polyprotein precursor into mature capsid proteins, and ad5-p12x3cmut, containing a point mutation in the protease coding region that inhibits processing. in 293 cells infected with either virus, synthesis of the fmdv capsid polyprotei ...199910544121
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