[symposium "animal health: question of european legislation?" "human, animal, nature and economy should be in balance"]. 200211930550
foot-and-mouth disease: a review of the virus and the symptoms.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiologic agent of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), which is a disease of cattle, swine, and other cloven-footed animals. fmd is characterized by the formation of vesicles on the tongue, nose, muzzle, and coronary bands of infected animals. the virus has several unique characteristics that enable it to cause one of the most economically devastating diseases in today's world. the ease with which it may be transmitted by contact and aerosol, combined with it ...200111936028
development of a rapid in vitro protein refolding assay which discriminates between peptide-bound and peptide-free forms of recombinant porcine major histocompatibility class i complex (sla-i).the extracellular domains of swine leukocyte antigen class i (sla-i, major histocompatibility complex protein class i) were cloned and sequenced for two haplotypes (h4 and h7) which do not share any alleles based on serological typing, and which are the most important in danish farmed pigs. the extracellular domain of sla-i was connected to porcine beta2 microglobulin by glycine-rich linkers. the engineered single-chain proteins, consisting of fused sla-i and beta2 microglobulin, were overexpres ...200211943330
phylogenetic analysis of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in india between 1977 and 2000.the genetic diversity among the indian serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates sampled over a period of 24 years (1977-2000) was studied by sequencing the vp1 gene. in the phylogenetic tree, constructed from 83 indian and 37 other available sequences, the fmdv type a isolates were distributed into 10 major genotypes (designated as i-x). the indian isolates were distributed in 4 genotypes (i, iv, vi and vii), and co-circulation of at least 2 genotypes (vi and vii) in different sta ...200211958451
modulation of the electrostatic charge at the active site of foot-and-mouth-disease-virus leader proteinase, an unusual papain-like enzyme.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot-and-mouth-disease virus is an unusual papain-like cysteine proteinase. synthesized without an n-terminal pro precursor region, it frees itself from the growing polypeptide chain by cleavage at its own c-terminus. it also possesses a unique electrostatic environment around the active site, essentially due to asp(163), which orients the catalytic histidine residue, and asp(164); the equivalent residues in papain are asn(175) and ser(176). the importance of th ...200211964149
probing degeneracy in antigen-antibody recognition at the immunodominant site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.antigen-antibody binding is regarded as one of the most representative examples of specific molecular recognition in nature. the simplistic view of antigenic recognition in terms of a lock-and-key mechanism is obsolete, as it is evident that both antigens and antibodies are flexible and can undergo substantial mutual adaptation. this flexibility is the source of complexities such as degeneracy and nonadditivity in antigenic recognition. we have used surface plasmon resonance to study the effects ...200211966979
stratified and cryogenically stored (sacs) vaccines, a new concept in emergency foot-and-mouth disease vaccine formulation and storage.strategic reserves of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) antigen have become an integral part of fmd control policy for many countries. they are based on two principles, ready formulated vaccine stored at +4 degrees c, or concentrated antigen preparations held at ultra-low temperature for later formulation. however, the latter is more economical, since ready formulated vaccine, based on oil or aluminium hydroxide/saponin adjuvants, requires regular replacement. this is primarily the result of the vacc ...200211972974
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease: the implications for canada.vaccination of susceptible animals against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a well established strategy for helping to combat the disease. traditionally, fmd vaccine has been used to control a disease incursion in countries where the disease has been endemic rather than in countries considered free of the disease. in 2001, the use of vaccine was considered but not implemented in the united kingdom (1), whereas vaccine was used to help to control fmd in the netherlands (2,3). canadian contingency ...200212001500
natural aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus to pigs: minimal infectious dose for strain o1 lausanne.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can spread by a variety of mechanisms, including, under certain circumstances, by the wind. simulation models have been developed to predict the risk of airborne spread of fmdv and have played an important part in decision making during emergencies. the minimal infectious dose of fmdv for different species by inhalation is an important determinant of airborne spread. whereas the doses for cattle and sheep have been quantified, those for pigs are not known. the ...200212002549
further studies to quantify the dose of natural aerosols of foot-and-mouth disease virus for pigs.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by a variety of mechanisms, including wind. simulation models, developed to predict the risk of airborne spread, have played an important part in decision making in some outbreaks. the amount of airborne virus excreted as well as the minimal infectious dose (mid) of fmdv for different species are important determinants of airborne spread. the objective of this study was to obtain data for the o1 lausanne, o skr 2000 and o ukg 2001 strains of fmdv ...200212002550
dose-response relationships for foot and mouth disease in cattle and sheep.the relationships between the inhaled dose of foot and mouth disease virus and the outcomes of infection and disease were examined by fitting dose-response models to experimental data. the parameters for both the exponential and beta-poisson models were estimated using maximum likelihood and bayesian methods. the median probability of infection given a single inhaled tcid50 was estimated to be 0.031 with 95% bayesian credibility intervals (ci) of 0.018-0.052 for cattle, and 0.045 (ci = 0.024-0.0 ...200212002551
a high-efficiency translational control element with potential for cancer gene active internal ribosome entry sequence (ires) that efficiently mediates cap (m7pppgn)-independent translation in human carcinoma cells could be an effective device for gene co-transduction in cancer gene therapy. in this study using the cytomegalovirus (cmv) promoter, a remarkable internal translation activity was observed and mediated by the sequence localized to the 183-653 region of 5' nf-kappab repressor mrna (nfr183ires). to test the potential of such sequence for therapeutic applicatio ...200212012009
the 3a non-structural-protein coding region of the southern african sat type isolates differs from that of other foot-and-mouth disease viruses.the 3a non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses is a relatively conserved protein comprising 153 amino acids. recent studies have demonstrated correlation between mutations in the 3a non-structural-protein-coding region, including a 10-amino acid deletion, and attenuation of the viruses in cattle. although the 3a coding region of several type a, o and c isolates has previously been described, nucleotide sequence data of the 3a coding region of the south african types (sat) 1, 2 a ...200112026059
a dna vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease elicits an immune response in swine which is enhanced by co-administration with interleukin-2.a plasmid dna vaccine candidate (pceis) encoding two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 epitopes (amino acid residues 141-160 and 200-213) has been demonstrated to have the ability to elicit both fmdv-specific t cell proliferation and neutralizing antibody against fmd in swine. in this study, the efficiency of the pceis dna vaccine when administrated by intramuscularly injection in swine was confirmed, and the immunogenicity of the pceis vaccine candidate was found to be enhanced through co ...200212034088
immune responses of goats against foot-and-mouth disease quadrivalent vaccine: comparison of double oil emulsion and aluminium hydroxide gel vaccines in eliciting immunity.the epidemiological role of small ruminants in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks has been generally neglected. although, the disease in these species is sub-clinical in nature, their role as virus carriers represents a reservoir for further infection and spread of disease. data on the usefulness of polyvalent fmd vaccine (fmdv) in goats is scant. thus, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of a highly potent polyvalent fmdv in goats. in the present investigations, fmdv q ...200212034105
early antibody responses of cattle for foot-and-mouth disease quadrivalent double oil emulsion vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the multiplicity of fmdv serotypes in animals poses a central problem in the policy of vaccination and is of much concern to health authorities. hence it is the practice of vaccination with polyvalent vaccine for prophylactic measure. in the present report, we analysed the early antibody responses elicited by fmdv quadrivalent (fmdv o, a, c and asia 1 serotypes) double emulsion (montanide isa 206) vaccine ...200212034538
genetic heterogeneity in the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader and 3c proteinases.the leader and 3c proteinases of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are responsible for almost all the proteolytic processing events of the viral polyprotein precursor. investigation into the genetic heterogeneity of the regions encoding these proteins from isolates of six fmdv serotypes revealed the 3c proteinase to be more conserved than the leader proteinase. maximum likelihood analysis indicated similar phylogenetic groupings for the non-structural protein coding regions of both the leader ...200212036580
evaluation of the portable cepheid smartcycler real-time pcr machine for the rapid diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.the ability of the portable cepheid smartcycler real-time pcr machine to detect foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus sensitively and accurately was evaluated by comparing the results of the analyses of nasal swab and serum samples from experimentally infected animals with those obtained from the real-time pcr assay currently in use in the laboratory. the results indicated that the ability of the machine to detect viral rna is greatly affected by the pcr reagents used for the assay. when it was use ...200212046786
use of a portable real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease evaluate a portable real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay designed to detect all 7 viral serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).200212051502
experimental studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus, strain o, responsible for the 2001 epidemic in the united 2001, the united kingdom experienced its worst epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). to date approximately 3.9 million animals have been culled and direct and indirect revenue losses are probably in excess of pound 12 billion. this study was carried out to investigate the biological characteristics of the fmd virus strain o/ukg/2001 responsible for the epidemic. animal transmission experiments indicated that this strain is not host restricted and will infect the three main susceptible liv ...200212057606
effective synthetic peptide vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease in swine.we have designed a peptide-based vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) effective in swine. the peptide immunogen has a g-h loop domain from the vp1 capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and a novel promiscuous t helper (th) site for broad immunogenicity in multiple species. the g-h loop vp1 site was optimised for cross-reactivity to fmdv by the inclusion into the peptide of cyclic constraint and adjoining sequences. the incorporation of consensus residues into the hypervariabl ...200212057619
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of sheep: implications for diagnosis and control. 200212081308
the role of mathematical modelling in the control of the 2001 fmd epidemic in the uk.mathematical models played an important role in guiding the development of the control policies in the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the uk. the variety of approaches that helped to guide the policy can sometimes be confusing. here, the different modelling exercises that were developed over the course of the epidemic are reviewed, describing the difficulties in interpreting the available data and the appropriateness of the various assumptions.200212088664
differentiation of type a, asia1 and o foot-and-mouth disease virus variants, amplified by the same system, by sequencing of the capsid protein genes.a reverse transcription-dependent polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) is described that amplifies the genes encoding the capsid proteins vp1-3 of at least three evolutionary lineages each of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus types a, asia1 and o. most of these lineages are circulating at present in asia and africa. the method is not only suitable to confirm suspected outbreaks of fmd, but also describes the modulation of major and minor antigenic sites in the course of an epizootic by nucleo ...200212088821
novel polypeptide-comprising biopolymer systems.covalent bioconjugation between anionic polyelecrolytes and polypeptide antigens chemically synthesized by solid-phase chemistry, were studied in hydrated reversed micelle systems. the epitops of foot-and-mouse disease virus vp1 protein (40--60 and 135--160 residues) were used as polypeptide antigens. the polypeptide-comprising biopolymer systems were obtained by two methods: 1) inclusion of peptides into electrostatic polyelectrolyte complexes of polycations with proteins, 2) inclusion of pepti ...200212118144
viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.this review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. subclinical mastitis has been induced after a ...200212119136
serial passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep reveals declining levels of viraemia over time.if an infectious agent is to maintain itself within a closed population by means of an unbroken serial chain of infections, it must maintain the level of infectiousness of individuals through time, or termination of the transmission chain is inevitable. one possible cause of diminution in infectiousness along serial chains of transmission may be that individuals are unable to amplify and transmit comparable levels of the infectious agent. here, the results are reported of a novel experiment desi ...200212124454
quantities of infectious virus and viral rna recovered from sheep and cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus o uk 2001.the profiles of virus production and excretion have been established for sheep experimentally infected with the uk 2001 strain of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus by inoculation and by direct and intensive contact. virus replicated rapidly in the inoculated sheep, from which a peak infectivity of airborne virus of 10(4.3) tcid(50) per sheep per 24 h was recovered. around 24 h later, contact-infected sheep excreted airborne virus maximally. similar amounts of airborne virus were recovered from ...200212124455
foot-and-mouth disease. report urges u.k. to vaccinate herds. 200212130760
interferons specifically suppress the translation from the internal ribosome entry site of hepatitis c virus through a double-stranded rna-activated protein kinase-independent pathway.interferon (ifn) therapy is used worldwide as the best available treatment for hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection; however, little is known about how ifn or other drugs work against liver diseases. the effect of 6 drugs (glycyrrhizin, ursodeoxycholic acid, ribavirin, methylprednisolone, ifn-alpha, and ifn-beta) on hcv rna translation from the hcv internal ribosome entry site (ires) was investigated, using a bicistronic reporter containing the hcv ires. ifns suppressed both cap-dependent and hcv i ...200212134250
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected from vaccinated pigs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using nonstructural protein 3ab as the antigen and application to an eradication program.baculovirus-expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3ab was used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. this assay allowed the differentiation of vaccinated from infected pigs. serial studies were performed using sera collected from pigs in the field. positive reactions were found in sera from fattening pigs and sows 16 weeks and 3.5 years postoutbreak, respectively. there was, however, no positive reaction in sows with at least 10 vaccinations. mater ...200212149340
macrophage phagocytosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus may create infectious carriers.macrophages play critical roles in innate defences against virus infections, particularly pertinent to the rapid immune response required following emergency vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). consequently, macrophage-fmdv interaction was studied in vitro, in the absence of specific antibodies, to mimic the animal early postvaccination. a gradual loss of infectivity and viral antigen was observed over 48 hr, and no evidence of productive virus replication was found. from th ...200212153517
a novel three-dimensional variant of the watershed transform for segmentation of electron density maps.electron density maps at moderate resolution are often difficult to interpret due to the lack of recognizable features. this is especially true for electron tomograms that suffer in addition to the resolution limitation from low signal-to-noise ratios. reliable segmentation of such maps into smaller, manageable units can greatly facilitate interpretation. here, we present a segmentation approach targeting three-dimensional electron density maps derived by electron microscopy. the approach consis ...200212160708
further studies on the early protective responses of pigs following immunisation with high potency foot and mouth disease vaccine.the ability of an emergency oil adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine to elicit early protective immunity in pigs against direct contact homologous challenge was examined. all vaccinates showed reduced viraemia and shedding of fmdv, and certain animals were protected, showing no clinical signs. il-6, il-8 and il-12 were consistently detected in challenged animals that had been vaccinated. other cytokines--il-1, il-2, tnf, tgf and interferons--were not detected. this demonstrates that t ...200212163272
modeling viral genome fitness evolution associated with serial bottleneck events: evidence of stationary states of fitness.evolution of fitness values upon replication of viral populations is strongly influenced by the size of the virus population that participates in the infections. while large population passages often result in fitness gains, repeated plaque-to-plaque transfers result in average fitness losses. here we develop a numerical model that describes fitness evolution of viral clones subjected to serial bottleneck events. the model predicts a biphasic evolution of fitness values in that a period of expon ...200212163587
detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by real-time, fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.a fluorogenic rt-pcr (5'-nuclease probe-based) assay using a primer/probe set designed from the internal ribosomal entry site region of the virus genome was developed for the specific detection of all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in epithelial suspensions and cell culture virus preparations. the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) specifically detected fmd virus in sample submissions from the uk 2001 fmd outbreak with greater sensitivity than our con ...200212176143
polycistronic viral vectors.traditionally, vectors for gene transfer/therapy experiments were mono- or bicistronic. in the latter case, vectors express the gene of interest coupled with a marker gene. an increasing demand for more complex polycistronic vectors has arisen in recent years to obtain complex gene transfer/therapy effects. in particular, this demand is stimulated by the hope of a more powerful effect from combined gene therapy than from single gene therapy in a process whose parallels lie in the multi-drug comb ...200212189721
contaminants in feed for food-producing animals.outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and food borne microbial infections, dioxin contaminated animal products, the presence of veterinary drug residues, microbial resistance to antibiotics, mycotoxins, agricultural and industrial chemicals, etc. are serious concerns for the food industry in many countries. since the direct links between feed safety and safety of foods of animal origin are obvious, feed production and manufacture should be considered as an integral part of the food ...200212189948
aspects of the persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animals--the carrier problem.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a member of the aphthovirus genus in the picornaviridae family. seven distinct serotypes, each including a wide range of variants, have been defined. fmd, affects wild and domesticated ruminants and pigs, is difficult to control and is the major constraint to international trade in livestock and animal products. after the acute stage of infection, fmdv may cause a prolonged, asymptomatic but persistent infection in ruminants. also, vaccinated or naturally i ...200212191660
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the l and vp1 genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1.most of the molecular epidemiological studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) are based on comparison of vp1 gene sequence. in this report, we determine the nucleotide (nt) sequence of the l (603 nt) and vp1 (633 nt) genes of 27 fmdv serotype asia 1 isolates recovered from different outbreaks in india, and compared with each other and the vaccine strain, ind 63/72, used in the country. independent phylogenetic analyses on both the aligned gene sequences identified two major lineages (desi ...200212191774
immunogenicity of a recombinant fusion protein of tandem repeat epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia 1 for guinea this study, the sequences of capsid protein vpi regions of ynas1.1 and ynas1.2 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were analyzed and a peptide containing amino acids (aa) 133-158 of vp1 and aa 20-34 of vp4 of fmdv type asia i was assumed to contain b and t cell epitopes, because it is hypervariable and includes a cell attachment site rgd located in the g-h loop. the dna fragments encoding aa 133-158 of vp1 and aa 20-34 of vp4 of fmdv type asia 1 were chemically synthesized and lig ...200212199204
proton dipolar recoupling in resin-bound peptides under high-resolution magic angle spinning.rotational resonance and radiofrequency-driven dipolar recoupling (rfdr) experiments have been used to recover the weak proton dipolar interaction present in peptides bound to swollen resins spun at the magic angle. the intensity of the correlation peaks obtained using these sequences is shown to be significantly stronger than the one obtained using the classical noesy experiment. in addition, it is found that during the relatively long mixing times required to transfer magnetization in such sof ...200212202131
emergence of a new strain of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus: its phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship with the panasia pandemic india, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o has been associated with more than 75% of the outbreaks. previous studies with this serotype have indicated that the viruses circulating in india belong to a single genotype. recent (february 2001) fmd epidemics in europe have focussed global attention on the source of the virus and have been traced to a strain, panasia (serotype o), which is present in india since 1990. in this study, to further characterize the isolates belonging to the ...200212206305
identification and characterization of a cis-acting replication element (cre) adjacent to the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.over the last few years, an essential rna structure known as the cis-acting replicative element (cre) has been identified within the protein-coding region of several picornaviruses. the cre, a stem-loop structure containing a conserved aaaca motif, functions as a template for addition of u residues to the protein primer 3b. by surveying the genomes of representatives of several serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), we discovered a putative cre in the 5' untranslated region of the gen ...200212208947
recognition of eukaryotic initiation factor 4g isoforms by picornaviral proteinases.the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of foot and mouth disease virus is a papain-like cysteine proteinase. after processing itself from the polyprotein, l(pro) then cleaves the host protein eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4gi, thus preventing protein synthesis from capped mrna in the infected cell. we have investigated l(pro) interaction with eif4gi and its isoform, eif4gii. l(pro), expressed as a catalytically inactive fusion protein with glutathione s-transferase, binds specifically to eif4g isom ...200212228254
a method to detect major serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) is an isothermal technique that allows the rapid amplification of specific regions of nucleic acid obtained from a diverse range of sources. it is especially suitable for amplifying rna sequences. a rapid and specific nasba technique was developed, allowing the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus genetic material in a range of sample material, including preserved skin biopsy material from infected animals, vaccines prepared from denatured c ...200212237113
evidence of recombination in the capsid-coding region of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus.recombination is one of the factors that contribute to genetic diversity in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). similarity and bootscan analyses have provided evidence of recombination in the capsid-coding (p1) region of the virus. in the present study, of the 14 subtype a22 field isolates that were distributed in three previously described genotypes (iv, vi and vii) based on the 1d (vp1-encoding) gene sequence (tosh et al., 2002 ), one isolate (ind 170/88) was found to be a hybrid of genotypes ...200212237427
foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: a papain-like enzyme requiring an acidic environment in the active site.foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (l(pro)), a papain-like cysteine proteinase, has six acidic amino acids between 4 a and 11 a of the catalytic dyad of cys51 and his148. in contrast, in papain and related enzymes, only one acidic residue lies within this distance. we have examined by site-directed mutagenesis the importance of each of these residues for l(pro) self-processing and cleavage of its cellular substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor 4gi. only substitution of the electrost ...200212297280
dose-dependent responses of sheep inoculated intranasally with a type o foot-and-mouth disease virus.unlike foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle and pigs, which spreads rapidly, resulting in easily detectable foci of clinical infection, the disease in sheep is characterized by restricted transmission, low morbidity and sporadic clinical cases. the study described was designed to investigate whether the ability of sheep to transmit and maintain fmd virus was dose-related. the viral isolate used was known to be associated epidemiologically with rapid fade-out of transmission within sheep flocks ...200212354542
foot-and-mouth disease virus: biology and prospects for disease control.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a disease that constitutes one of the main animal health concerns, as evidenced by the devastating outbreaks that occurred in different areas of the world over the last few years. in this review, we summarise important features of fmdv, aspects of its interactions with cells and hosts as well as current and new strategies for fmd control by vaccination.200212361919
foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an aphthovirus of the family picornaviridae and the etiological agent of the economically most important animal disease. as a typical picornavirus, fmd virions are nonenveloped particles of icosahedral symmetry and its genome is a single stranded rna of about 8500 nucleotides and of positive polarity. fmdv rna is infectious and it replicates via a complementary, minus strand rna. fmdv rna replication is error-prone so that viral populations consist of mutan ...200212365806
diagnosis and screening of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostic methods are reviewed. as the presence of clinical signs alone is inconclusive, laboratory diagnosis should always be carried out. the presence of fmd virus can be demonstrated by cell culture isolation, complement fixation test, elisa or the more recent polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method. serological diagnosis is also a valuable tool. the virus neutralization test has been replaced by elisa and the antibody response to some viral non-structural protein ...200212365807
epidemiological basis useful for the control of foot-and-mouth disease.although known for many years, foot-and-mouth disease is still able to represent a real threat to many farming economies in the world. the recent 2001 western european epizootics linked to o panasia virus strain can illustrate the fact that many questions are still unanswered in the field of foot-and-mouth epidemiology. it also demonstrates that the increase in international trade, including livestock, animal products and animal food, means an increase in the probability of transmitting, through ...200212365808
eukaryotic initiation factor 4gi is a poor substrate for hiv-1 proteinase.eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4gi is efficiently cleaved during picornaviral replication. eif4gi processing has also recently been observed during hiv-1 replication. we have compared the efficiency of eif4gi proteolysis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates during translation of mrnas encoding the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (l(pro)) or the hiv-1 proteinase (hiv-1(pro)). l(pro) cleaved 50% eif4gi within 12 min whereas hiv-1(pro) required 4 h; the concentrations were 2 pg/microl ...200212372624
construction and evaluation of a recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for inactivated vaccine production.the south african territories (sat) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) show marked genomic and antigenic variation throughout sub-saharan africa. this variation is geographically linked and requires the use of custom-made vaccines. adaptation of field isolates as vaccine strains is cumbersome, time consuming, and expensive. as an alternative to the adaptation process, the construction of recombinant fmd viruses followed by the production of conventional, inactivated vaccines utilizing ...200212381568
the possible role that buffalo played in the recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in south africa.african buffalo (syncerus caffer) act as maintenance hosts for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in southern africa. a single buffalo can become infected with all three of the endemic serotypes of fmd virus (sat-1, sat-2, and sat-3) and pose a threat of infection to other susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. the floods of 2000 in southern africa damaged the kruger national park (knp) game fence extensively, and there were several accounts of buffalo that had escaped from the park. the vp1 gene, which c ...200212381589
the fencing issue relative to the control of foot-and-mouth disease.certain livestock diseases in sub-saharan africa, such as foot-and-mouth disease are difficult to control because of the large numbers of infected wildlife hosts. these wildlife disease reservoirs form a continuous hazard of transmittal of the diseases to domestic livestock, which limits the access of livestock products from southern africa to international markets. the disease reservoirs are often found in border areas between countries with susceptible species and infected reservoir animals co ...200212381590
ires-driven translation is stimulated separately by the fmdv 3'-ncr and poly(a) sequences.the 3' end region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) consists of two distinct elements, a 90 nt untranslated region (3'-ncr) and a poly(a) tract. removal of either the poly(a) tract or both the 3'-ncr and the poly(a) tract abrogated infectivity in susceptible cells in the context of a full-length cdna clone. we have addressed the question of whether the impairment of rna infectivity is related to defects at the translation level using a double approach. first, compared to the full-length vir ...200212384586
foot-and-mouth disease: susceptibility of domestic poultry and free-living birds to infection and to disease--a review of the historical and current literature concerning the role of birds in spread of foot-and-mouth disease viruses.ruminants and pigs are the dominant natural hosts of food-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses. approximately 70 additional mammalian species are found to be susceptible under natural or experimental conditions. reptilia, amphibia, and fish are probably naturally resistant to infection. according to the reviewed literature, domestic birds (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks and geese) have been experimentally infected with some strains of fmd viruses and may develop lesions suggestive of fmd such ...200212395578
a sliding window-based method to detect selective constraints in protein-coding genes and its application to rna we present a new sliding window-based method specially designed to detect selective constraints in specific regions of a multiple protein-coding sequence alignment. in contrast to previous window-based procedures, our method is based on a nonarbitrary statistical approach to find the appropriate codon-window size to test deviations of synonymous (d(s)) and nonsynonymous (d(n)) nucleotide substitutions from the expectation. the probabilities of d(n) and d(s) are obtained from simulated data ...200212399925
immune responses of sheep to quadrivalent double emulsion foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: rate of development of immunity and variations among other ruminants.despite representing the majority of the world's foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-susceptible livestock, sheep and goats have generally been neglected with regard to their epidemiological role in the spread of fmd. in the present investigations, fmd virus quadrivalent double emulsion (montanide isa 206) vaccines were tested in sheep. the oil adjuvant elicited a better immune response at any time than did aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine, and the response developed quicker. the animals maintained their ...200212409434
the complete nucleotide sequence of the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in japan.the complete nucleotide sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2000 strain, the panasia strain, was determined by cycle sequencing and primer walking. the 5' end of the genome upstream from homopolymeric poly(c) tract (s-fragment) was 367 nucleotides in length, and the remainder of the genome (l-fragment), excepting the poly(a) tail, was 7808 nucleotides. the l-fragment contains a single open reading frame of 6996 nucleotides terminating at a uaa codon 96 bases from the 3' pol ...200212416675
the effects of gamma interferon on replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in persistently infected bovine cells.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which has a considerable socio-economic impact on the countries affected. in addition, persistent infection can occur following clinical or sub-clinical disease in either vaccinated or non-vaccinated cattle. the mechanism(s) by which fmdv persistence is established and maintained is not fully understood. to better understand the basic mechanisms controlling the virus infection in cattle, the ef ...200212417950
full length nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o1 campos/bra/58. brief report.the complete nucleotide sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) south american strain o(1) campos/bra/58 was determined. the 8,168 kb sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence were compared to published fmdv sequences. they showed the highest sequence homology with the o(1) kaufbeuren/frg/66 strain, but closer evolutionary relatedness to the argentinean strains.200212417956
broad-spectrum virus reduction in red cell concentrates using inactine pen110 chemistry.the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens by transfusion is a persistent problem in medicine. to address this safety issue, inactine pen110 chemistry is being utilized to develop a process for preparing pathogen-reduced red blood cell concentrates (rbcc). the purpose of this study was to characterize the virucidal effectiveness of the inactine pen110 chemistry in full units of rbcc by using a panel of viruses with diverse properties in composition, size and shape.200212437518
virus-derived tubular structure displaying foreign sequences on the surface elicit cd4+ th cell and protective humoral responses.particulate vector systems for the presentation of immunogenic epitopes provide an alternate and powerful approach for the delivery of immunogens of interest. in this article, we have exploited a viral protein of unknown function, bluetongue virus (btv) nonstructural protein ns1, which forms distinct tubular aggregates in infected cells, as an immunogen delivery system. tubules are helical assemblies of ns1 protein that present the c-terminus of the protein to the outer edge effectively displayi ...200212441082
foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) affects cloven-footed animals. it is caused by seven species ("types") of foot and mouth virus (fmdv) in the genus aphthovirus, family picornaviridae (). fmdv is a single-stranded rna virus, with a protein coat consisting of four capsid proteins enumerated as vp1, vp2, vp3, and vp4 (garland and donaldson 1990).200212443674
a solid-phase blocking elisa for detection of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies suitable for mass serology.a simple solid-phase blocking elisa for the detection of antibodies directed against type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed. the elisa was validated using field sera collected from cattle, pigs and sheep originating from fmdv infected and non-infected dutch farms, reference sera obtained from the world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease at the institute for animal health, pirbright laboratory, uk and sera from experimentally infected animals. testing 2664 sera coll ...200312445942
ires elements: features of the rna structure contributing to their activity.the activity of internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements depends on their structural organization. we have addressed here the study of conserved structural motifs in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires as an example to understand the relationship between rna structure and function. the features of the rna structure known to be functionally relevant are discussed in regards to the capacity to modulate interaction of translation initiation factors with the fmdv ires element. additiona ...200212457563
molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/skr/2000.molecular cloning and sequencing of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/skr/2000, one of panasia strain, were performed from fmdv infected cattle. from the poly (c) tract of the 5' nontranslated region (ntr) to the 3' ntr including 14 base pairs (bp) of poly (a) tail, 7813 bp sequences comprising approximately 95% of the whole genome were obtained by reverse transcription polymerase reaction (rt-pcr). the deduced amino acid sequences of the structural and nonstructural proteins ( ...200212457959
expression of foot and mouth disease virus non-structural polypeptide 3abc induces histone h3 cleavage in bhk21 of the non-structural polypeptide 3abc of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) expressed in escherichia coli-bl21-de3 was prevented by mutating either four glutamic acid residues at the 3a/3b1, 3b1/2, 3b2/3 and 3b3/3c junctions (3abctet) or a single cysteine residue at position 383 within the 3c domain (3abcm). independent expression of 3abc and 3abctet genes induced expression of chaperone dnak and degradation of ribosomal s1 protein in e. coli. they also induced cleavage of nucl ...200212457965
investigation of the possible spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus by the burning of animal carcases on open atmospheric dispersion model was used to predict the airborne spread and concentrations of foot-and-mouth disease virus within the plumes generated by 11 pyres built to burn infected carcases during the epidemic of 2001 in the uk. on the basis of assumptions about the quantity of virus emitted during the three hours after the pyres were built and the threshold concentration of virus required to cause an infection in cattle, it was concluded that none of the disease breakdowns which occurred u ...200212463534
conservation of l and 3c proteinase activities across distantly related aphthoviruses.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader (l) proteinase is an important virulence determinant in fmdv infections. it possesses two distinct catalytic activities: (i) c-terminal processing at the l/vp4 junction; and (ii) induction of the cleavage of translation initiation factor eif4g, an event that inhibits cap-dependent translation in infected cells. the only other member of the aphthovirus genus, equine rhinitis a virus (erav), also encodes an l protein, but this shares only 32% amino ac ...200212466488
genome variability and capsid structural constraints of hepatitis a virus.the number of synonymous mutations per synonymous site (k(s)), the number of nonsynonymous mutations per nonsynonymous site (k(a)), and the codon usage statistic (n(c)) were calculated for several hepatitis a virus (hav) isolates. while k(s) was similar to those of poliovirus (pv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), k(a) was 1 order of magnitude lower. the n(c) parameter provides information on codon usage bias and decreases when bias increases. the n(c) value in hav was about 38, while in ...200312477850
serotype c foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from india belong to a separate so far not described lineage.complete 1d gene sequences of 13 indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type c field isolates and a vaccine strain (c-bombay/64) were determined. all the field isolates showed a greater genetic homogeneity (95-100%) among themselves and were 19.7-21.2% divergent from the vaccine strain. in the phylogenetic analysis, the indian field isolates formed a separate lineage (lineage vii) different from the previously identified six lineages (lineage i-vi) in type c fmdv [j. virol. 66 (1992) 3557]. ...200312488068
review of foot-and-mouth disease virus survival in animal excretions and on fomites. 200212498410
evidence of the coevolution of antigenicity and host cell tropism of foot-and-mouth disease virus in this work we analyze the antigenic properties and the stability in cell culture of virus mutants recovered upon challenge of peptide-vaccinated cattle with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c3 arg85. previously, we showed that a significant proportion of 29 lesions analyzed (41%) contained viruses with single amino acid replacements (r141g, l144p, or l147p) within a major antigenic site located at the g-h loop of vp1, known to participate also in interactions with integrin receptors. here w ...200312502839
novel viral disease control strategy: adenovirus expressing alpha interferon rapidly protects swine from foot-and-mouth disease.we have previously shown that replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly sensitive to alpha/beta interferon (ifn-alpha/beta). in the present study, we constructed recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vectors containing either porcine ifn-alpha or ifn-beta (ad5-pifnalpha or ad5-pifnbeta). we demonstrated that cells infected with these viruses express high levels of biologically active ifn. swine inoculated with 10(9) pfu of a control ad5 virus lacking the i ...200312502879
engineering of escherichia coli beta-galactosidase for solvent display of a functional scfv antibody fragment.protein engineering allows the generation of hybrid polypeptides with functional domains from different origins and therefore exhibiting new biological properties. we have explored several permissive sites in escherichia coli beta-galactosidase to generate functional hybrid enzymes displaying a mouse scfv antibody fragment. when this segment was placed at the amino-terminus of the enzyme, the whole fusion protein was stable, maintained its specific activity and interacted specifically with the t ...200312505169
evaluation of automated rt-pcr to accelerate the laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.automated fluorogenic (5' nuclease probe-based) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) procedures were evaluated for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) using suspensions of vesicular epithelium, heparinised or clotted blood, milk and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid ('probang') samples from the united kingdom (uk) 2001 epidemic and on sera from animals experimentally infected with the outbreak serotype o fmd virus strain. a magna pure lc was initially programmed to autom ...200312505626
[combined use of killed vaccines and immunomodulator ridostin for urgent prevention of epidemic stomatitis, aujeszky disease and carnivore plague in experiment].results of experimental studies of mice and pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus, minks infected with aujeszky's disease virus, and dogs infected with canine distemper virus are described. in animals with foot-and-mouth disease and aujeszky's disease, combined treatment with killed vaccine and immunomodulator ridostin by the scheme of urgent prophylaxis (3 days before infection) caused 75% (foot-and-mouth disease) and 100% (aujeszky's disease) prevention of animal death and developmen ...200212508681
co-translational, intraribosomal cleavage of polypeptides by the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a peptide.during co-translational protein import into the endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes are docked onto the translocon. this prevents inappropriate exposure of nascent chains to the cytosol and, conversely, cytosolic factors from gaining access to the nascent chain. we exploited this property of co-translational translocation to examine the mechanism of polypeptide cleavage by the 2a peptide of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. we find that the scission reaction is unaffected by placing 2a into a co-tra ...200312522142
review of the status and control of foot and mouth disease in sub-saharan africa.six of the seven serotypes of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus (i.e. all but asia 1) are prevalent in africa although there are marked regional differences in distribution. three of these serotypes are unique to africa, namely the three south african territories (sat) serotypes. serotype c may also now be confined to africa because it has not been reported elsewhere recently. in southern africa at least, the sat serotypes have an intimate and probably ancient association with african buffalo ( ...200212523685
regional status and approaches to control and eradication of foot and mouth disease in the middle east and north africa.the middle east is regarded as the region of the world most heavily affected by foot and mouth disease (fmd). the situation in the middle east and north africa constitutes a threat to other regions of the world, especially europe. risk management differs between north africa and the middle east due to different epidemiological situations. in the middle east, the national cattle population is the principal target of preventive vaccination. vaccination is used as a tool for preventing economic los ...200212523686
recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in countries of east asia.japan regained the status of freedom from foot and mouth disease (fmd) without vaccination in september 2000 and the republic of korea likewise obtained this status in september 2001. however, new outbreaks of fmd caused by the pan-asian topotype have occurred in pigs in the republic of korea since may 2002. taipei china has not experienced an outbreak of fmd since february 2001 and the country is currently implementing an eradication programme. these countries had been free from fmd for many de ...200212523687
clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: cattle.foot and mouth disease (fmd) in cattle is usually clinically obvious in the unvaccinated herds of countries in which the disease occurs only occasionally. however, in vaccinated herds and in some breeds indigenous to areas in which fmd is endemic, the disease may circulate undetected.200212523690
clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: sheep and goats.foot and mouth disease (fmd) in adult sheep and goats is frequently mild or unapparent, but can cause high mortality in young animals. the recent outbreak of fmd in the united kingdom has highlighted the importance of sheep in the epidemiology of the disease, although there have been numerous examples in the past where small ruminants have been responsible for the introduction of fmd into previously disease-free countries. the difficulty in making a clinical diagnosis should encourage the develo ...200212523691
clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: intensively reared pigs, the introduction of foot and mouth disease (fmd) results in severe clinical disease and vesicular lesions in adult and fattening animals, and high mortality in piglets. vaccination of uninfected herds can assist fmd control and eradication programmes by reducing susceptibility of pigs older than 12 to 14 weeks and providing early protection to piglets through maternal antibody, but once fmd is established on a farm, vaccination alone will not prevent recurrent outbrea ...200212523692
unapparent foot and mouth disease infection (sub-clinical infections and carriers): implications for control.unlike animals which are carriers of foot and mouth disease (fmd), sub-clinically infected animals may be highly contagious. the implications of sub-clinical infections for the control of fmd are serious because such animals are likely to disseminate the disease when in contact with susceptible livestock. recent dissemination of fmd virus (fmdv) in europe shows that sub-clinically infected animals render trade in animals or animal products a potential risk for importing countries. this clearly d ...200212523693
identification of foot and mouth disease virus carrier and subclinically infected animals and differentiation from vaccinated animals.countries that are free of foot and mouth disease (fmd) are reluctant to use vaccine in the event of an outbreak because of the difficulties this can cause in re-establishing freedom from fmd status to the satisfaction of trading partners. the problem does not lie in distinguishing between vaccinated and recovered animals as vaccinated animals can be tagged or otherwise marked to show that they have been vaccinated; the difficulty is in identifying vaccinated animals that have had contact with l ...200212523694
predicting the spread of foot and mouth disease by airborne virus.foot and mouth disease (fmd) can spread by a variety of mechanisms which, under certain climatic and epidemiological conditions, includes the windborne spread of disease. recent advances in knowledge of the aerobiological features of fmd are described. the strain of virus and species of infected animal are major determinants of airborne virus emission. pigs emit most virus, cattle and sheep lesser but similar amounts to each other. peak excretion of airborne virus by sheep occurs before the clin ...200212523697
development and performance of inactivated vaccines against foot and mouth disease.the historical background of foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccine production is briefly described. improvements achieved through the use of monolayer and suspension cultures are outlined. elements that are crucial in the production of modern vaccines are discussed, such as inactivation of viral antigen, successive concentration and purification of the antigen and the final formulation of the vaccine. storage of concentrated antigen at ultra-low temperatures creates greater flexibility for the pr ...200212523698
prospects, including time-frames, for improved foot and mouth disease vaccines.inactivated foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccines have been used successfully as part of eradication programmes. however, there are a number of concerns with the use of such vaccines and the recent outbreaks of fmd in disease-free countries have increased the need for improved fmd control strategies. to address this requirement, new generation fmd vaccines are being developed. currently, one of the most promising of these vaccine candidates utilises an empty viral capsid subunit delivered to ani ...200212523699
foot and mouth disease: the future of vaccine banks.the authors briefly review the history of vaccine banks for foot and mouth disease, their current location and their constituent serotypes and strains, together with the occasions on which they have been activated. experimental studies on emergency vaccines are summarised and areas identified for further investigation. the future of such banks is considered, including the principal strengths and weaknesses of existing banks, and suggestions are made for potential improvements. the fact that the ...200212523700
foot and mouth disease: the experience of south africa.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park (knp) and surrounding game parks in south africa. the last outbreak of the disease in domestic stock outside the fmd control zone occurred in 1957. due to the success in containing the disease, the country was accorded zone freedom from fmd without vaccination by the office international des epizooties (oie: world organisation for animal health) in 1995. this status was lost in september 2000 ...200212523712
the position of the dutch farmers' union on lessons learned and future prevention and control of foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) has devastated animal husbandry in the netherlands frequently in the past and still constitutes a threat. the use of vaccination reduced the number of outbreaks in the netherlands in the 20th century. however, the desire of some member states of the european community not to use vaccination led to a new strategy based on stamping-out of infected and contagious farms and to strict transportation regulations. in 2001, this proved very disruptive to the wider rural econ ...200212523719
the foot-and-mouth disease virus cis-acting replication element (cre) can be complemented in trans within infected cells.a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutation was identified within the 5'-untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna. the mutation destabilizes a stem-loop structure recently identified as a cis-acting replication element (cre). genetic analyses indicated that the ts defect in virus replication could be complemented. thus, the fmdv cre can function in trans. it is suggested that the cre be renamed a 3b-uridylylation site (bus).200312525659
synthetic approaches to multivalent lipopeptide dendrimers containing cyclic disulfide epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the synthesis of a multiantigenic peptide dendrimer incorporating four copies of a cyclic disulfide epitope has been undertaken. since standard chemoselective ligation procedures involving thioether formation are inadvisable in the presence of a preformed disulfide, conjugation through a peptide bond between the lipidated branched lysine scaffold and a suitably protected version of the cyclic disulfide has been used instead. several synthetic approaches to the partially protected cyclic disulfid ...200312526703
the history of research in foot-and-mouth disease.the history of research in foot-and-mouth disease falls into several distinct areas. in this short chapter i have highlighted what i consider to be the significant advances in our knowledge of the disease and its causal agent. 1. loeffler and frosch's landmark description in 1898 that the disease is caused by a filterable agent, the first observation that an animal disease could be caused by a virus. 2. the search for experimental laboratory animals, culminating in the demonstration by waldmann ...200312527434
molecular basis of pathogenesis of fmdv.current understanding of the molecular basis of pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been achieved through over 100 years of study into the biology of the etiologic agent, fmdv. over the last 40 years, classical biochemical and physical analyses of fmdv grown in cell culture have helped to reveal the structure and function of the viral proteins, while knowledge gained by the study of the virus' genetic diversity has helped define structures that are essential for replication and prod ...200312527435
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