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first detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/ind-2001d in vietnam.in recent years, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o, topotype middle east-south asia (me-sa), lineage ind-2001d has spread from the indian subcontinent to the middle east, north africa, and southeast asia. in the current report, we describe the first detection of this lineage in vietnam in may, 2015 in đắk nông province. three subsequent outbreaks caused by genetically related viruses occurred between may-october, 2015 after which the virus was not detected in clinical outbreaks for ...201728599321
chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against the 2c and 3abc nonstructural proteins induced by infecting pigs with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (clias) has been accepted in recent years, although their use for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostics has not been reported. full-length 3abc and 2c proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from vaccinated pigs. the recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two clias ...201728592628
bifunctional enzyme jmjd6 contributes to multiple disease pathogenesis: new twist on the old story.jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (jmjd6) is a non-heme fe(ii) 2-oxoglutarate (2og)-dependent oxygenase with arginine demethylase and lysyl hydroxylase activities. its initial discovery as a dispensable phosphatidylserine receptor (psr) in the cell membrane of macrophages for phagocytosis was squashed by newer studies which revealed its nuclear localization and bifunctional enzymatic activity. though its interaction with several nuclear and cytoplasmic target proteins has been demonstrated, th ...201728587176
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o strain yntba from yunnan province of china.yntba is a rabbit-passaged attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o. here, we announce the complete genome sequence of yntba, which provides data for further studies on replication, virulence, its determinants, and cell and host tropism of yntba.201728572308
a synonymous mutation at bovine alpha vitronectin domain of integrin host receptor (itgav) gene effect the susceptibility of foot-and-mouth disease in crossbred cattle.integrins are one of the major biologically active proteins responsible for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)- host interaction. out of various heterodimeric integrins discovered, αvβ6 heterodimer serves as the chief receptor for fmdv host tropism. earlier studies reported that, snps at beta 6 subunit (itgb6) were associated with the occurrence of the diseases in cattle. in this study we report the association between a synonymous snp (rs719257875) at bovine alpha vitronectin domain of integri ...201728567614
rapid engineering of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine and challenge viruses.there are seven antigenically distinct serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), each of which has intratypic variants. in the present study, we have developed methods to efficiently generate promising vaccines against seven serotypes or subtypes. the capsid-encoding gene (p1) of the vaccine strain o1/manisa/turkey/69 was replaced with the amplified or synthetic genes from the o, a, asia1, c, sat1, sat2, and sat3 serotypes. viruses of the seven serotype were rescued successfully. each ch ...201728566375
rules of engagement between αvβ6 integrin and foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mediates cell entry by attachment to an integrin receptor, generally αvβ6, via a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) motif in the exposed, antigenic, gh loop of capsid protein vp1. infection can also occur in tissue culture adapted virus in the absence of integrin via acquired basic mutations interacting with heparin sulphate (hs); this virus is attenuated in natural infections. hs interaction has been visualized at a conserved site in two serotypes ...201728534487
a replication-competent foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a luciferase reporter.bioluminescence is a powerful tool in the study of viral infection both in vivo and in vitro. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a small rna genome with a limited tolerance to foreign rna entities. there has been no success in making a reporter fmdv expressing a luciferase in infected cell culture supernatants. we report here for the first time a replication-competent fmdv encoding nanoluciferase, named as nano-fmdv. nano-fmdv is genetically stable during serial passages in cells and exhibi ...201728532601
attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by engineered viral polymerase fidelity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) (3d(pol)) catalyzes viral rna synthesis. its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allow fmdv to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. in this study, we used the structure of fmdv 3d(pol) in combination with previously reported results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. in particular, we targeted trp237 within conserved ...201728515297
spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in north central nigeria.this study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of fmdv serotypes, and the spatial distribution of fmdv among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the north-central nigeria.201728507418
genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o lineage ind-2001d collected in vietnam in 2015.in 2015, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus lineage ind-2001 was detected for the first time in southeast asia. this report contains the first near-complete genome sequence of a viral isolate from this lineage collected from an outbreak in vietnam. this novel incursion has substantial implications for regional fmd control measures.201728473375
pathogenesis of virulent and attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.understanding the mechanisms of attenuation and virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the natural host species is critical for development of next-generation countermeasures such as live-attenuated vaccines. functional genomics analyses of fmdv have identified few virulence factors of which the leader proteinase (lpro) is the most thoroughly investigated. previous work from our laboratory has characterized host factors in cattle inoculated with virulent fmdv and attenuated mutant s ...201728464897
molecular and functional bases of selection against a mutation bias in an rna virus.the selective pressures acting on viruses that replicate under enhanced mutation rates are largely unknown. here, we describe resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus to the mutagen 5-fluorouracil (fu) through a single polymerase substitution that prevents an excess of a to g and u to c transitions evoked by fu on the wild-type foot-and-mouth disease virus, while maintaining the same level of mutant spectrum complexity. the polymerase substitution inflicts upon the virus a fitness loss during ...201728460010
laboratory validation of two real-time rt-pcr methods with 5'-tailed primers for an enhanced detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the 3d and 5utr real-time rt-pcr assays (rt-qpcr) from callahan et al. (2002) and reid et al. (2002) are commonly used reference methods for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). for an optimal detection of fmdv in clinical samples, it is advised to use both assays simultaneously (king et al., 2006). recently, vandenbussche et al. (2016) showed that the addition of 5'-tails to the fmdv-specific primers enhances the detection of fmdv in both the 3d and the 5utr rt-qpcr assay. to v ...201728457784
separation of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protein activities; identification of mutants that retain efficient self-processing activity but poorly induce eif4g cleavage.foot-and-mouth disease virus is a picornavirus and its rna genome encodes a large polyprotein. the n-terminal part of this polyprotein is the leader protein, a cysteine protease, termed lpro. the virus causes the rapid inhibition of host cell cap-dependent protein synthesis within infected cells. this results from the lpro-dependent cleavage of the cellular translation initiation factor eif4g. lpro also releases itself from the virus capsid precursor by cleaving the l/p1 junction. using site-dir ...201728452293
simple, quick and cost-efficient: a universal rt-pcr and sequencing strategy for genomic characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a major contributor to poverty and food insecurity in africa and asia, and it is one of the biggest threats to agriculture in highly developed countries. as fmd is extremely contagious, strategies for its prevention, early detection, and the immediate characterisation of outbreak strains are of great importance. the generation of whole-genome sequences enables phylogenetic characterisation, the epidemiological tracing of virus transmission pathways and is supporti ...201728442328
evaluation of immune responses of stabilised sat2 antigens of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines with improved stability and less reliant on a cold-chain are needed to improve the longevity of immune responses elicited in animals. this is especially so for serotypes o and sat2 which are unstable in mildly acidic ph conditions or at elevated temperatures leading to dissociation of the capsid (146s particle) and loss of immunogenicity. previously, stabilised sat2 viruses were generated by reverse genetic approaches and assessed in vitro and in vivo with a ...201728431813
recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein 3a fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) as a candidate probe to identify fmdv-infected cattle in serosurveys.recombinant protein 3a-egfp, a fusion construct between foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein 3a and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was expressed in bl21-de3 cells. the identity of the partially purified protein 3a-egfp was confirmed by its reactivity with sera from cattle infected with fmdv and with a monoclonal antibody specific for fmdv-3abc (mab3h7) in western blot assays. no reactivity was observed with sera from uninfected vaccinated animals. the perform ...201728421368
detection of genome, antigen, and antibodies in oral fluids from pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (ofs). detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome in swine ofs has previously been demonstrated. virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing fmdv, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine of. the objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of fmdv in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and fmdv ...201728408775
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection inhibits lgp2 protein expression to exaggerate inflammatory response and promote viral replication.the role of the innate immune protein lgp2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) in fmdv-infected cells remains unknown. here, we demonstrate the antiviral role of lgp2 during fmdv infection. fmdv infection triggered lgp2 mrna expression but reduced protein expression. overexpression of lgp2 suppressed fmdv replication, and the inflammatory response was significantly inhibited by lgp2 in virus-infected cells. the n-terminal dexdc and the c-terminal regulatory domain regions of lgp2 were esse ...201728406479
phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/panasia in vietnam 2010-2014.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is endemic in vietnam, a country that plays an important role in livestock trade within southeast asia. the large populations of fmdv-susceptible species in vietnam are important components of food production and of the national livelihood. in this study, we investigated the phylogeny of fmdv o/panasia in vietnam, reconstructing the virus' ancestral host species (pig, cattle or buffalo), clinical stage (subclinical carrier or clinically affected) and geographi ...201728403902
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle against heterologous challenge with a field virus from the o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage collected in north africa.outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north africa (2013) and the gulf states (2013) of the middle east have been caused by a fmd viral lineage (o/me-sa/ind-2001) that was before 2013 restricted to the indian sub-continent. this study was undertaken to assess the in vivo efficacy of a fmd virus emergency vaccine type o1 manisa against heterologous challenge with a representative field virus (o/alg/3/2014) from this emerging lineage. this widely available vaccine was selected since in vitr ...201728396208
preclinical diagnosis: predicting its ability to improve control of farm-to-farm foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can cause large disruptive epidemics in livestock. current eradication measures rely on the rapid clinical detection and removal of infected herds. here, we have evaluated the potential for preclinical diagnosis during reactive surveillance to reduce the risk of between farm transmission. we used data from transmission experiments in cattle where both individual animal samples, such as blood, probang, saliva or nasal swabs, and herd level samples, such as air samples ...201728330886
complete genome sequences of three african foot-and-mouth disease viruses from clinical samples isolated in 2009 and 2010.the complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype sat1, sat2 and o) were directly sequenced from rna extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals.201627151795
computational predictions suggest that structural similarity in viral polymerases may lead to comparable allosteric binding sites.the identification of ligand-binding sites is often the first step in drug targeting and design. to date there are numerous computational tools available to predict ligand binding sites. these tools can guide or mitigate the need for experimental methods to identify binding sites, which often require significant resources and time. here, we evaluate four ligand-binding site predictor (lbsp) tools for their ability to predict allosteric sites within the hepatitis c virus (hcv) polymerase. our res ...201627262620
identification of a conserved linear epitope using a monoclonal antibody against non-structural protein 3b of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a member of the family picornaviridae that has caused severe economic losses in many countries of the world. regular vaccinations have been effectively used to control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in countries where the disease is enzootic. distinguishing between infected and vaccinated animals in herds after immunization is an important component of effective eradication strategies. nonstructural protein (nsp) 3b of fmdv is part of a larger antigen that is ...201626563318
outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in libya and saudi arabia during 2013 due to an exotic o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage virus.foot-and-mouth disease viruses are often restricted to specific geographical regions and spread to new areas may lead to significant epidemics. phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the vp1 genome region of recent outbreak viruses from libya and saudi arabia has revealed a lineage, o-ind-2001, normally found in the indian subcontinent. this paper describes the characterization of field viruses collected from these cases and provides information about a new real-time rt-pcr assay that can be used ...201625483996
a refined guinea pig model of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection for assessing the efficacy of antiviral compounds.an antiviral containment strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks could support or replace current contingency plans in case of an outbreak in europe and could spare many healthy animals from being pre-emptively culled. recently, substantial progress has been made towards the development of small molecule drugs that inhibit fmd virus (fmdv) replication in vitro. for the initial in vivo evaluation of antiviral lead molecules, a refined fmdv-infection model in guinea pigs (gp) is herewi ...201625164494
development of a multiplex luminex assay for detecting swine antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in taiwan.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and swine vesicular disease (svd) are serious vesicular diseases that have devastated swine populations throughout the world. the aim of this study was to develop a multianalyte profiling (xmap) luminex assay for the differential detection of antibodies to the fmd virus of structural proteins (sp) and nonstructural proteins (nsp).201625074628
assessing the potential spread and maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in wild ungulates: general principles and application to a specific scenario in thrace.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), due to infection with serotype o virus, occurred in wild boar and within eleven outbreaks in domestic livestock in the south-east of bulgaria, thrace region, in 2011. hence, the issue of the potential for the spread and maintenance of fmd virus (fmdv) infection in a population of wild ungulates became important. this assessment focused on the spread and maintenance of fmdv infection within a hypothetical wild boar and deer population in an environment, which is char ...201624903641
serotype diversity of foot-and-mouth-disease virus in livestock without history of vaccination in the far north region of cameroon.little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because fmd vaccination is not practiced. we carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of fmd virus (fmdv) infections among different livestock production systems in the far north of cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. ...201624735162
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna and capsid protein in lymphoid tissues of convalescent pigs does not indicate existence of a carrier state.a systematic study was performed to investigate the potential of pigs to establish and maintain persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. infectious virus could not be recovered from sera, oral, nasal or oropharyngeal fluids obtained after resolution of clinical infection with any of five fmdv strains within serotypes a, o and asia-1. furthermore, there was no isolation of live virus from tissue samples harvested at 28-100 days post-infection from convalescent pigs recovered from ...201624943477
inhibition of ehmt2 induces a robust antiviral response against foot-and-mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in bovine cells.the genetic regulatory network controlling the innate immune system is well understood in many species. however, the role of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the expression of immunoregulatory genes is less clear, especially in livestock species. histone h3 lysine 9 dimethylation (h3k9me2) is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional silencing within the euchromatin regions. euchromatic histone-lysine n-methyltransferase 2 (ehmt2; also known as g9a) is a crucial enzyme respo ...201626418342
stable peptides instead of stapled peptides: highly potent αvβ6-selective integrin ligands.the αvβ6 integrin binds the rgd-containing peptide of the foot and mouth disease virus with high selectivity. in this study, the long binding helix of this ligand was downsized to an enzymatically stable cyclic peptide endowed with sub-nanomolar binding affinity toward the αvβ6 receptor and remarkable selectivity against other integrins. computational studies were performed to disclose the molecular bases underlying the high binding affinity and receptor subtype selectivity of this peptide. fina ...201626663660
multi‑transgenic minipig models exhibiting potential for hepatic insulin resistance and pancreatic apoptosis.there are currently no multi‑transgenic minipig models of diabetes for the regulation of multiple genes involved in its pathogenesis. the foot and mouth disease virus 2a (f2a)‑mediated polycistronic system possesses several advantages, and the present study developed a novel multi‑transgenic minipig model associated with diabetes using this system. the tissue‑specific polycistronic system used in the present study consisted of two expression cassettes, separated by an insulator: (i) 11‑β‑hydroxy ...201626648014
increased humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in growing pigs pre-treated with poly-γ-glutamic acid.this study was conducted to determine if humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine improved in 8-week-old growing pigs born to well-vaccinated sows pre-treated with 60 mg of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-pga) three days before vaccination. antibody against fmd virus serotype o was measured 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-vaccination, using a priocheck fmdv type o elisa kit. the results showed that positive antibody reactions against fmdv serotype o antigen among a component of the vac ...201626645341
construction of nef-positive doxycycline-dependent hiv-1 variants using bicistronic expression elements.conditionally replicating hiv-1 variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for hiv research. we previously developed a genetically modified hiv-1 variant that replicates exclusively when doxycycline (dox) is administered. the nef gene in this hiv-rtta variant was replaced with the gene encoding the dox-dependent rtta transcriptional activator. because loss of nef expression compromises virus replication in primary cells and precludes studies on nef function, we tested ...201626615334
further evaluation of an elisa kit for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.an elisa kit for detection of antibodies to a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv) was further evaluated using sequentially collected serum samples of experimentally infected animals, because the sensitivity of the kit used in a previous study was significantly low in field animals. the kit fully detected antibodies in infected animals without vaccination; however, the first detections of antibodies by the kit were later than those by the liquid-phase blocking elisa that is use ...201626498533
complete genome sequence of pig-originated foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o from bangladesh.in this article, we document the first pig-isolated complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o in bangladesh. the complete viral genome revealed a potential serotypic recombination at the 5' untranslated region (utr). conventional amino acid deletion was lacking in 3a region, and antigenic heterogeneity to circulatory type o existed within the vp1 region.201627789636
coordinated protein co-expression in plants by harnessing the synergy between an intein and a viral 2a peptide.a novel approach is developed for coordinated expression of multiple proteins from a single transgene in plants. an ssp dnae mini-intein variant engineered for hyper-n-terminal autocleavage is covalently linked to the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a (f2a) peptide with unique ribosome skipping property, via a peptide linker, to create an 'intf2a' self-excising fusion protein domain. this intf2a domain acts, in cis, to direct highly effective release of its flanking proteins of interest (pois) fro ...201627879048
anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low ph conditions. spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing fmd. kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. moreover, certain chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral ...201626691487
gold nanoparticles impair foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.in this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of gold nanoparticles (aunps) against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), that causes a contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. the anti-fmdv activity of aunps was assessed using plaque reduction assay. mtt assay was used for quantitatively measuring the cytopathic effect caused by the viral infection. the 50% cytotoxicity concentration of nanoparticles was measured and found to be 10.4 μg/ml. the virus yield reduction assay showed tha ...201626685261
immunogenicity of adenovirus-derived porcine parvovirus-like particles displaying b and t cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease.virus-like particles (vlps) vaccines combine many of the advantages of whole-virus vaccines and recombinant subunit vaccines, integrating key features that underlay their immunogenicity, safety and protective potential. we have hypothesized here the effective insertion of the vp1 epitopes (three amino acid residues 21-40, 141-160 and 200-213 in vp1, designated vpe) of foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv) within the external loops of ppv vp2 could be carried out without altering assembly based on struct ...201626685093
generation of mabs to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and application in a competitive elisa for serodiagnosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically devastating disease that severely limits international trade of animals. of the seven fmd virus (fmdv) serotypes, serotype a is one of the most widespread cross the world. currently antibodies to fmdv are detected in animals using the virus neutralization test (vnt) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the vnt is laborious, time-consuming and reliant on live virus and cell cultures, while elisa has the advantage of using inactivated a ...201627894355
evolutionary phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o and a circulating in vietnam.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the highest risk factors that affects the animal industry of the country. the virus causes production loss and high ratio mortality in young cloven-hoofed animals in vietnam. the vp1 coding gene of 80 fmdv samples (66 samples of the serotype o and 14 samples of the serotype a) collected from endemic outbreaks during 2006-2014 were analyzed to investigate their phylogeny and genetic relationship with other available fmdvs globally.201627894299
large-scale production of foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype asia1) vlp vaccine in escherichia coli and protection potency evaluation in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious disease that infects cloven-hoofed animals. vaccination is an effective means of preventing and controlling fmd. compared to conventional inactivated fmdv vaccines, the format of fmdv virus-like particles (vlps) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative.201627371162
foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. during recent fmd outbreaks in india, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst fmd-affected and asymptomatic cows. the current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of fmdv from infected cows to fetuses. for this purpose, fetal t ...201627977708
challenges of generating and maintaining protective vaccine-induced immune responses for foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs.vaccination can play a central role in the control of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) by reducing both the impact of clinical disease and the extent of virus transmission between susceptible animals. recent incursions of exotic fmd virus lineages into several east asian countries have highlighted the difficulties of generating and maintaining an adequate immune response in vaccinated pigs. factors that impact vaccine performance include (i) the potency, antigenic payload, and formulati ...201627965966
transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs.understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen's capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. in the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) during the incubation (preclinical) period of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-n ...201627917386
genome sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o isolate gre/23/94.the complete genome of a foot-and-mouth disease type o virus originating from an epidemic in greece in 1994 is reported. this virus belongs to the middle east-south asia topotype.201627174269
crystal structure of the 3c protease from southern african territories type 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)). as in other picornaviruses, 3c(pro) performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the large open reading frame in the rna genome of the virus. previous work revealed that the 3c(pro) from serotype a-one of the seven serotypes of fmdv-adopts a trypsin-like fold. on the basis of capsid sequence comparisons the fmdv serotypes are grouped into two phylogenet ...201627168976
chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o displaying a serotype asia1 antigenic epitope at the surface.to determine whether the g-h loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o can function as a target structure to harbour and display serotype asia1 antigenic epitope at the surface.201627160994
transmission of foot-and-mouth disease sat2 viruses at the wildlife-livestock interface of two major transfrontier conservation areas in southern africa.over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) re-emerged in southern africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. fmd virus (fmdv) serotype sat2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the african buffalo as the major wildlife fmd reservoir in the region. we used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of fmd transmission between buffalo and domestic ca ...201627148217
the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in cattle.the pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection was investigated in 46 cattle that were either naive or had been vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine 2 weeks before challenge. the prevalence of fmdv persistence was similar in both groups (62% in vaccinated cattle, 67% in nonvaccinated cattle), despite vaccinated cattle having been protected from clinical disease. analysis of antemortem infection dynamics demonstrated that the subclinical diverg ...201627147736
involvement of a joker mutation in a polymerase-independent lethal mutagenesis escape mechanism.we previously characterized a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with three amino acid replacements in its polymerase (3d) that conferred resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin. here we show that passage of this mutant in the presence of high ribavirin concentrations resulted in selection of viruses with the additional replacement i248t in 2c. this 2c substitution alone (even in the absence of replacements in 3d) increased fmdv fitness mainly in the presence of ribavirin, pre ...201627136067
development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of vesicular stomatitis new jersey virus: use of rapid molecular assays to differentiate between vesicular disease viruses.vesicular stomatitis (vs) is endemic in central america and northern regions of south america, where sporadic outbreaks in cattle and pigs can cause clinical signs that are similar to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). there is therefore a pressing need for rapid, sensitive and specific differential diagnostic assays that are suitable for decision making in the field. rt-lamp assays have been developed for vesicular diseases such as fmd and swine vesicular disease (svd) but there is currently no rt-l ...201627118518
genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o isolated from morocco in 2015.the genome of a virus isolated from an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in morocco in 2015 is described here. this virus is classified as lineage ind-2001d within serotype o, topotype me-sa (middle east-south asia). this lineage is endemic on the indian subcontinent but has caused outbreaks in the middle east and north africa since 2013.201627103736
differential gene expression in porcine sk6 cells infected with wild-type and sap domain-mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in livestock. the viral proteinase l(pro) of fmdv is involved in pathogenicity, and mutation of the l(pro) sap domain reduces fmdv pathogenicity in pigs. to determine the gene expression profiles associated with decreased pathogenicity in porcine cells, we performed transcriptome analysis using next-generation sequencing technology and compared differentially expressed genes in sk6 cells infected with fmdv ...201627097918
genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus outside the 3a region is also responsible for virus replication in bovine cells.the deletion of residues 93-102 in non-structure protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is associated with the inability of fmdv to grow in bovine cells and attenuated virulence in cattle.whereas, a previously reported fmdv strain o/hkn/21/70 harboring 93-102 deletion in 3a protein grew equally well in bovine and swine cells. this suggests that changes infmdv genome sequence, in addition to 93-102 deletion in 3a, may also affectthe viral growth phenotype in bovine cellsduring infectio ...201627094491
foot-and-mouth disease virus replicates independently of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and type iii phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases.picornaviruses form replication complexes in association with membranes in structures called replication organelles. common themes to emerge from studies of picornavirus replication are the need for cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (pi4p). in infected cells, type iii phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (pi4kiiis) generate elevated levels of pi4p, which is then exchanged for cholesterol at replication organelles. for the enteroviruses, replication organelles form at golgi membranes in ...201627093462
distance effects during polyprotein processing in the complementation between defective fmdv rnas.passage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in bhk-21 cells resulted in the segmentation of the viral genome into two defective rnas lacking part of either the l- or the capsid-coding region. the two rnas are infectious by complementation. electroporation of l-defective rna in bhk-21 cells resulted in the accumulation of the precursor p3 located away from the deleted sequence. expression of l in trans led to the processing of p3, indicating that there is a connection between l protease activi ...201627073008
molecular infectious disease epidemiology: survival analysis and algorithms linking phylogenies to transmission trees.recent work has attempted to use whole-genome sequence data from pathogens to reconstruct the transmission trees linking infectors and infectees in outbreaks. however, transmission trees from one outbreak do not generalize to future outbreaks. reconstruction of transmission trees is most useful to public health if it leads to generalizable scientific insights about disease transmission. in a survival analysis framework, estimation of transmission parameters is based on sums or averages over the ...201627070316
immunoprotective mechanisms in swine within the "grey zone" in antibody response after immunization with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by the fmd virus (fmdv). vaccination represents one approach for limiting the effects of fmd. the level of protection in vaccinated animals after challenge with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is closely related to the antibody titer, which can be classified into three zones: a "white zone", a "grey zone", and a "black zone". the aim of the present study was to clarify the immunoprotective mechanisms ...201627067203
effect of different culture systems on the production of foot and mouth disease trivalent vaccine.this study aims to determine the effect of the stationary rawx, roller, and the suspension cell culture systems on the total virus yield infectivity and antigenicity.201627051181
evaluation of the flinders technology associates cards for storage and temperature challenges in field conditions for foot-and-mouth disease virus surveillance.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) samples transported to the laboratory from far and inaccessible areas for diagnosis and identification of fmdv pose a major problem in a tropical country like india, where wide fluctuation of temperature over a large geographical area is common. inadequate storage methods lead to spoilage of fmdv samples collected from clinically positive animals in the field. such samples are declared as non-typeable by the typing laboratories with the consequent loss of valu ...201625598192
a tale of tails: dissecting the enhancing effect of tailed primers in real-time pcr.non-specific tail sequences are often added to the 5'-terminus of primers to improve the robustness and overall performance of diagnostic assays. despite the widespread use of tailed primers, the underlying working mechanism is not well understood. to address this problem, we conducted a detailed in vitro and in silico analysis of the enhancing effect of primer tailing on 2 well-established foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rt-qpcr assays using an fmdv reference panel. tailing of the panfmdv-5 ...201627723800
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected in nigeria between 2007 and 2014: evidence for epidemiological links between west and east africa.this study describes the molecular characterization of 47 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses recovered from field outbreaks in nigeria between 2007 and 2014. antigen elisa of viral isolates was used to identify fmd virus serotypes o, a and sat 2. phylogenetic analyses of vp1 nucleotide sequences provide evidence for the presence of multiple sublineages of serotype sat 2, and o/east africa 3 (ea-3) and o/west africa topotypes in the country. in contrast, for serotype a, a single monophyletic cl ...201627718336
infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intranasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure.for the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. ante-mortem infection dynamics were characterized in cattle exposed to fmdv through a novel, simulated natural intranasopharyngeal (inp) inoculation system or through standardized and controlled systems of within- or be ...201627697284
molecular epidemiology of senecavirus a associated with vesicular disease in pigs in brazil.senecavirus a (sv-a) may cause vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in pigs, and was first detected in brazil in 2015. samples including tissues and serum from pigs with suspected vesicular diseases were collected from january to august in 2015 from farms in the states of minas gerais, santa catarina, goiás and rio grande do sul, brazil, and tested for the presence of sv-a by reverse transcriptase pcr. all samples were negative for foot and mouth disease virus, as well as 13 other infectious ...201627687954
scotti: efficient reconstruction of transmission within outbreaks with the structured coalescent.exploiting pathogen genomes to reconstruct transmission represents a powerful tool in the fight against infectious disease. however, their interpretation rests on a number of simplifying assumptions that regularly ignore important complexities of real data, in particular within-host evolution and non-sampled patients. here we propose a new approach to transmission inference called scotti (structured coalescent transmission tree inference). this method is based on a statistical framework that mod ...201627681228
construction of stabilized and tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. construction and purification of stable antigen for vaccine are necessary but technically difficult and laborious. here, we have tried to investigate an alternative method by inserting a hexa-histidine tag (6xhis) in the vp1 c-terminal for easy purification and replacing two amino acids of vp1/vp2 to enhance the stability of the capsid of the fmd virus (fmdv) asi ...201627659244
transcriptomic analysis of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle suggests impairment of apoptosis and cell-mediated immunity in the nasopharynx.in order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the fmdv carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant fmdv a vaccine, 10 non-vaccinated) were challenged with fmdv a24 cruzeiro, and the gene expression profiles of nasopharyngeal tissues collected between 21 and 35 days after challenge were compared between 11 pe ...201627643611
systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine.in order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. eighteen steers that had received a recombinant fmdv a vaccine 2 weeks earlier and 29 non-vaccinated steers were challenged by intra-nasopharyngeal deposition of fmdv a24. for up to 35 days after challenge, host factors including complete blood counts with t lymphocyte subsets, type i/iii i ...201627634113
in-cell shape uncovers dynamic interactions between the untranslated regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.the genome of rna viruses folds into 3d structures that include long-range rna-rna interactions relevant to control critical steps of the viral cycle. in particular, initiation of translation driven by the ires element of foot-and-mouth disease virus is stimulated by the 3'utr. here we sought to investigate the rna local flexibility of the ires element and the 3'utr in living cells. the shape reactivity observed in vivo showed statistically significant differences compared to the free rna, revea ...201627608725
dna vaccine (p1-2a-3c-pcdna) co-administered with bovine il-18 gives protective immune response against foot and mouth disease in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. presently used tissue culture inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration. dna vaccines along with appropriate adjutants is one of the approach for the development of alternative vaccine. in the present study, we constructed p1-2a-3cpcdna (containing p1-2a-3c coding sequences of fmdv asia-1 ind 63/72) and bovine il-18 pcdn ...201627599937
field-deployable reverse transcription-insulated isothermal pcr (rt-iipcr) assay for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which can decimate the livestock industry and economy of countries previously free of this disease. rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is critical to containing an fmd outbreak. availability of a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, yet simple and field-deployable assay would support local decision-making during an fmdv outbreak. here we report validation of a novel reverse transcript ...201627589902
the serological response against foot and mouth disease virus elicited by repeated vaccination of dairy cattle.in israel, cattle are annually vaccinated against foot and mouth disease (fmd). if infections with fmd virus occur in dairy farms it mainly involves heifers and calves, while older dairy cows seldom become infected. we hypothesized that this difference in susceptibility between adult cows and the young heifers and calves is due to stronger and more stable immune response elicited by multiple vaccinations. in order to test this hypothesis, 99 dairy cattle, divided into six groups according to num ...201627576078
development and evaluation of tailored specific real-time rt-pcr assays for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in east africa.rapid, reliable and accurate diagnostic methods provide essential support to programmes that monitor and control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). while pan-specific molecular tests for fmd virus (fmdv) detection are well established and widely used in endemic and fmd-free countries, current serotyping methods mainly rely either on antigen detection elisas or nucleotide sequencing approaches. this report describes the development of a panel of serotype-specific real-time rt-pcr assays (rrt-pcr) tail ...201627575682
protection of a novel epitope-rna vlp double-effective vlp vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. previously, we found that the epitope peptide ep141-160 displayed on virus-like particles (vlp) for use as a vaccine showed high immunoreactivity and conferred partially effective protection to animals. in this study, we first combined antisense rna with vlp as a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by using a prokaryotic co-expression system. the antisense rna against the 3d genes of f ...201627565990
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat3 zimbabwe/4/81.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype sat3 virus zim/4/81, which belongs to a topotype 1 (sez), is reported here.201627563037
efficient production of a bioactive bevacizumab monoclonal antibody using the 2a self-cleavage peptide in transgenic rice callus.bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mab) targeting to the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf), has been widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of multiple cancers. bevacizumab was mostly produced by the mammalian cell expression system. we here reported the first plant-derived bevacizumab by using transgenic rice callus as an alternative gene expression system. codon-optimized bevacizumab light chain (blc) and bevacizumab heavy chain (bhc) genes were designed, synthes ...201627555853
the first identification and complete genome of senecavirus a affecting pig with idiopathic vesicular disease in china.senecavirus a (sva) infection was recently confirmed in pigs in brazil. in march, 2015, an outbreak of vesicular disease occurred in guangdong, china, characterized by vesicular lesions in sows and acute death of neonatal piglets. cumulative incidence of porcine idiopathic vesicular disease in farm a was 258, which had a total number of 5500 sows. sows in farm b displayed typical vesicular symptoms by may, 2015, which also had 5500 sows. a total of 278 and 142 of 5500 sows in farm b demonstrated ...201627539949
foot-and-mouth disease in a small sample of experimentally infected pronghorn (antilocapra americana).there is limited information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north american wildlife and none concerning pronghorn ( antilocapra americana ). in an experimental study of 13 pronghorn and six steers ( bos taurus ), we compared the susceptibility of pronghorn to fmd virus (fmdv) strain o, with that of cattle ( bos taurus ). we also determined the potential for intra- and interspecies transmission of fmdv strain o in pronghorn and cattle, assessed the applica ...201627525593
expanding specificity of class i restricted cd8(+) t cells for viral epitopes following multiple inoculations of swine with a human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine.the immune response to the highly acute foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is routinely reported as a measure of serum antibody. however, a critical effector function of immune responses combating viral infection of mammals is the cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) response mediated by virus specific cd8 expressing t cells. this immune mechanism arrests viral spread by killing virus infected cells before new, mature virus can develop. we have previously shown that infection of swine by fmdv results i ...201627498407
truncated bovine integrin alpha-v/beta-6 as a universal capture ligand for fmd diagnosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in many regions of the world and is one of the most prevalent epizootic animal diseases. fmd affects livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and causes enormous economic losses due to reduced productivity and trade restrictions. preparedness and early diagnosis are essential for effective control of fmd. many diagnostic assays are dependent on raising high-affinity, anti-fmd virus (fmdv) serotype-specific antibodies in small animals (rabbits and ...201627494135
genetic characterization of serotypes a and asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in balochistan, pakistan, in 2011.this study reports characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in samples collected from balochistan, pakistan. fmdv was detected by pan-fmdv real-time rt-pcr in 31 samples (epithelial and oral swabs) collected in 2011 from clinical suspect cases. of these, 29 samples were serotyped by serotype-specific real-time rt-pcr assays and were confirmed by sequencing the vp1 coding region. sixteen samples were found positive for serotype a and eight for serotype asia-1, whereas five samples ...201627484792
a recombinant adenovirus expressing p12a and 3c protein of the type o foot-and-mouth disease virus stimulates systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious livestock disease of cloven-hoofed animals which causes severe economic losses. the replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored fmd vaccine has been proven effective against fmd. however, the role of t-cell-mediated antiviral responses and the mucosae-mediated antiviral responses induced by the adenovirus-vectored fmd vaccine was rarely examined. here, the capsid protein precursor p1-2a and viral protease 3c of the type o fmdv were express ...201627478836
constitutively active irf7/irf3 fusion protein completely protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. several serotype-specific vaccine formulations exist, but they require about 5 to 7 days to induce protective immunity. our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine interferon (ifn) regulatory factors (irf) 7 and 3 [irf7/3(5d)] strongly induced type i ifn and antiviral genes in vitro and prevented mortality in an fmd mouse model when delivered with a rep ...201627466421
tracking the antigenic evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus.quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. however, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the p ...201627448206
proper timing of foot-and-mouth disease vaccination of piglets with maternally derived antibodies will maximize expected protection levels.we investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to fmd virus (fmdv) were measured using virus neutralization tests (vnt). we used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the n ...201627446940
identification of a conserved linear neutralizing epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 9a9 against serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. in recent years, a series of outbreaks of serotype a fmd have occurred in many countries. high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope have the potential to provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of fmdv serotype a and to protect against future pandemics. in this study, we produced ...201627422396
investigating intra-host and intra-herd sequence diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.due to the poor-fidelity of the enzymes involved in rna genome replication, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus samples comprise of unique polymorphic populations. in this study, deep sequencing was utilised to characterise the diversity of fmd virus (fmdv) populations in 6 infected cattle present on a single farm during the series of outbreaks in the uk in 2007. a novel rt-pcr method was developed to amplify a 7.6kb nucleotide fragment encompassing the polyprotein coding region of the fmdv genom ...201627421209
evaluation of antiviral activity of plant extracts against foot and mouth disease virus in vitro.the aim of this study was to evaluate antiviral activity of chloroformic leaves extracts of three plants: azadirachta indica, moringa oleifera and morus alba against foot and mouth disease virus using mtt assay (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). antiviral and cytotoxic activity of each extract was evaluated as cell survival percentage and results were expressed as means ± s.d. the concentrations which resulted in cell survival percentages of greater than 50% are co ...201627393440
a disposable, continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction device: design, fabrication and evaluation.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) is used to amplify a specific segment of dna through a thermal cycling protocol. the pcr industry is shifting its focus away from macro-scale systems and towards micro-scale devices because: micro-scale sample sizes require less blood from patients, total reaction times are on the order of minutes opposed to hours, and there are cost advantages as many microfluidic devices are manufactured from inexpensive polymers. some of the fastest pcr devices use continuous f ...201627393216
redefining the "carrier" state for foot-and-mouth disease from the dynamics of virus persistence in endemically affected cattle populations.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) "carrier" state was defined by van bekkum in 1959. it was based on the recovery of infectious virus 28 days or more post infection and has been a useful construct for experimental studies. using historic data from 1,107 cattle, collected as part of a population based study of endemic fmd in 2000, we developed a mixed effects logistic regression model to predict the probability of recovering viable fmdv by probang and culture, conditional on the animal's ag ...201627381947
induction of systemic ifitm3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. interferon-induced transmembrane (ifitm) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. our previous study showed that overexpression of swine ifitm3 (sifitm3) impeded replication of the fmd virus (fmdv) in bhk-21 cells and mice. in this study, sifitm3-transgenic (tg) pigs were produced by handmade cloni ...201627374903
application of mouse model for effective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.efficacy evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines has been conducted in target animals such as cows and pigs. in particular, handling fmd virus requires a high level of biosafety management and facilities to contain the virulent viruses. the lack of a laboratory animal model has resulted in inconvenience when it comes to using target animals for vaccine evaluation, bringing about increased cost, time and labor for the experiments. the fmd mouse model has been studied, but most fmd vir ...201627340094
biological function of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins and non-coding elements.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) represses host translation machinery, blocks protein secretion, and cleaves cellular proteins associated with signal transduction and the innate immune response to infection. non-structural proteins (nsps) and non-coding elements (nces) of fmdv play a critical role in these biological processes. the fmdv virion consists of capsid and nucleic acid. the virus genome is a positive single stranded rna and encodes a single long open reading frame (orf) flanked by a ...201627334704
recombinant aav vectors for enhanced expression of authentic igg.adeno-associated virus (aav) has become a vector of choice for the treatment of a variety of genetic diseases that require safe and long-term delivery of a missing protein. muscle-directed gene transfer for delivery of protective antibodies against aids viruses and other pathogens has been used experimentally in mice and monkeys. here we examined a number of variations to aav vector design for the ability to produce authentic immunoglobulin g (igg) molecules. expression of rhesus igg from a sing ...201627332822
foot-and-mouth disease virus genome replication is unaffected by inhibition of type iii phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes economically damaging infections of cloven-hooved animals, with outbreaks resulting in large financial losses to the agricultural industry. due to the highly contagious nature of fmdv, research with infectious virus is restricted to a limited number of key facilities worldwide. fmdv sub-genomic replicons are therefore important tools for the study of viral translation and genome replication. the type iii phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases (pi4ks) are a fami ...201627323707
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