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genetic lesions associated with muller's ratchet in an rna virus.the molecular basis of muller's ratchet has been investigated using the important animal pathogen foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). clones from two fmdv populations were subjected to serial plaque transfers (repeated bottleneck events) on host bhk-21 cells. relative fitness losses were documented in 11 out of 19 clones tested. small fitness gains were observed in three clones. one viral clone attained an extremely low plating efficiency, suggesting that accumulation of deleterious mutations h ...19968951375
synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease based on a palmitoyl derivative of the vp1 protein 135-159 fragment of the a22 virus strain.the peptide palm2 135-159, a dipalmitoyl derivative of the 135-159 fragment of vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus strain a22 was synthesized. in the experiments on mice, guinea pigs and sheep palm2 135-159 possesses greater immunogenic and protective activity than the nonacylated 135-159 peptide. the synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease for use in sheep was developed on the basis of the lipopeptide. synthetic polymethylsiloxane oil was found to be a suitable adjuvant for ...19969004448
comparison of a radioactive and non-radioactive method for sequencing foot and mouth disease virus isolates.the authors compare the radioactive method of detecting foot and mouth disease virus sequence products with a non-radioactive, silver stain sequencing method. the latter was found to compare favourably to the radioactive technique for detecting such products. the silver stain sequencing method was simple and did not require expensive specialised equipment. this new approach will be particularly useful in developing countries, since the method does not depend on the availability of fresh radioact ...19969025139
antiviral activity of crude extracts of guarea guidona.crude extracts of leaves and fruits of guarea guidona were tested for antiviral activity against pseudorabies virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus in the ib-rs-2 pig cell line and against bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) in the gbk bovine cell line. the highest nontoxic doses of extracts from fruits and leaves were 125 micrograms/ml and 500 micrograms/ml. respectively. crude extracts presented antiviral activity against pseudorabies virus with a decrease in virus titer of 3.0 log units at 500 micr ...19969033817
foot and mouth disease virus concentration and purification by affinity chromatography.foot and mouth disease virus, (fmdv) from a crude cell lysate was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography with heparin as a ligand. the virus eluted from an heparin-ultrogel a4r column at 1m sodium chloride in 10 mm sodium phosphate buffer, ph 7.0, while most cell protein and albumin did so at lower concentrations of sodium chloride in the same buffer. purity of the eluted fraction containing the virus was assessed by sds-page, hplc, ultracentrifugation, and uv absorption spectrum. ...19969100360
intracellular membrane proliferation in e. coli induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a gene products.during picornavirus infection replication of genomic rna occurs in membrane-associated ribonucleoprotein complexes. these replication complexes contain different nonstructural viral proteins with mostly unknown function. to examine the function of nonstructural picornaviral proteins in more detail, cdna of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) strain o1 lausanne was cloned into lambda zap ii, and different parts of the p3-coding sequence were expressed in e. coli by the t7 polymerase system. expre ...19968879115
liquid-phase blocking sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in water buffalo sera.to develop and apply the liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (blocking-elisa) for the quantification of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains o1 campos, a24 cruzeiro, and c3 indaial. design--antibody quantification.19968725810
functional expression of a cattle mhc class ii dr-like antigen on mouse l cells.cattle dra and drb genes, cloned by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, were transfected into mouse l cells. the cattle dr-expressing l-cell transfectant generated was analyzed serologically, biochemically, and functionally. sequence analysis of the transfected drb gene clearly showed showed that it was drb3 allele drb3(*)0101 , which corresponds to the 1d-ief-determined allele drbf3. 1d-ief analysis of the transfectant confirmed that the expressed dr product was drbf3. functional i ...19969110933
equine rhinovirus serotypes 1 and 2: relationship to each other and to aphthoviruses and cardioviruses.equine rhinoviruses (ervs) are picornaviruses which cause a mild respiratory infection in horses. the illness resembles the common cold brought about by rhinoviruses in humans; however, the presence of a viraemia during erv-1 infection, the occurrence of persistent infections and the physical properties are all more reminiscent of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). cdna cloning and sequencing of the genomes of erv-1 and erv-2 between the poly(c) and poly(a) tracts showed that the serotypes are ...19968760418
the solution structure of the immunodominant and cell receptor binding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a, variant a.abstract: the solution structure of a 20 amino acid long peptide corresponding to the region 141-160 of the envelope protein vp1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a, variant a, has been determined by a combination of nmr experiments and computer calculations. the peptide contains both the immunodominant epitope as well as the sequence (rgd) used by the virus to bind the cell receptor in the initial stages of infection. these two sites have been shown to partially overlap. one hun ...19969225248
the solution conformational features of two highly homologous antigenic peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a, variant a and usa, correlate with their serological properties.the solution structure of a peptide corresponding to the vp1 region 141-160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a variant usa has been studied by nmr and computer calculations and compared with the results from a study on a highly homologous peptide deriving from serotype a, variant a. the two peptides differ in their serological behavior and contain the immunodominant epitope of the virus which partly overlaps with its receptor binding region. distance constraints, derived both from ...19969225249
equine rhinovirus 1 is more closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus than to other picornaviruses.equine rhinovirus 1 (erhv1) is a respiratory pathogen of horses which has an uncertain taxonomic status. we have determined the nucleotide sequence of the erhv1 genome except for a small region at the 5' end. the predicted polyprotein was encoded by 6741 nucleotides and possessed a typical picornavirus proteolytic cleavage pattern, including a leader polypeptide. the genomic structure and predicted amino acid sequence of erhv1 were more similar to those of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdvs), ...19968577774
a protective anti-peptide antibody against the immunodominant site of the a24 cruzeiro strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its reactivity with other subtype viruses containing the same minimum binding sequence.a synthetic peptide vaccine of the general sequence cys-cys-(200-213)-pro-pro-ser-(l41-158)-pro-cys-gly(peptide a40), where the numbered residues refer to the vp1 sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain a24 cruzeiro, has previously been shown to elicit neutralizing and protective antibodies in guinea-pigs and cattle. to examine this immunogenic tract in more detail monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were raised to this peptide. one such mab c1.1, which recognized the homologous peptide, ...19968609466
the c-terminal domain of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor (eif) 4g is sufficient to support cap-independent translation in the absence of eif4e.the foot and mouth disease virus, a picornavirus, encodes two forms of a cysteine proteinase (leader or l protease) that bisects the eif4g polypeptide of the initiation factor complex eif4f into n-terminal (nt) and c-terminal (ct) domains. previously we showed that, although in vitro cleavage of the translation initiation factor, eif4g, with l protease decreases cap-dependent translation, the cleavage products themselves may directly promote cap-dependent protein synthesis. we now demonstrate th ...19968635470
a 'mixed' self-assembled monolayer for an impedimetric immunosensor.a synthetic peptide with the amino acid sequence 135-154 of the capsid protein vp1 of the foot-and-mouth-disease virus was modified with omega-hydroxyundecanethiol and applied together with non-derivatised omega-hydroxyundecanethiol for consecutive adsorption onto gold electrodes according to self-assembling procedures. the binding of a specific antibody to prepared recognition layers could be monitored by measurement of impedance or capacitance. in order to avoid non-specific effects, all measu ...19968639283
chimeric hepatitis b virus core particles as probes for studying peptide-integrin interactions.an rgd-containing epitope from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein was inserted into the e1 loop of the hepatitis b virus core (hbc) protein. this chimeric protein was expressed at high levels in escherichia coli and spontaneously assembled into virus-like particles which could be readily purified. these fusion particles elicited high levels of both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- and fmdv-neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. the chimeric particles bound specifically to cul ...19968648742
porcine polypyrimidine tract-binding protein stimulates translation initiation at the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the cdna for porcine polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (sptb) was cloned. the sptb amino acid sequence is highly homologous to the human ptb sequence (97% identity), and the sptb sequence corresponds to that of the longest human ptb, ptb4. the specificity of binding in the uv-crosslink of sptb to the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) is similar to that of human ptb. purified recombinant sptb efficiently stimulates internal translation initiation direct ...19968654585
systematic replacement of amino acid residues within an arg-gly-asp-containing loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus and effect on cell recognition.the conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) motif found in a hypervariable, mobile antigenic loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is critically involved in virus attachment to cells by binding to an integrin, probably related to alphavbeta3. here we describe (i) the synthesis of 241 15-mer peptides, which represent this loop of fmdv (isolate c-s8c1) and single variants in which each amino acid residue was replaced by 16 others and (ii) the inhibitory activity of these peptides on the ability of fmdv ...19968662712
detection of foot-and-mouth disease viral sequences in various fluids and tissues during persistence of the virus in cattle.to assess whether foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-specific sequences could be identified in tissues from persistently virus-infected animals.19968633795
induced pocket to accommodate the cell attachment arg-gly-asp motif in a neutralizing antibody against foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the three-dimensional structure of the fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (sd6) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been determined at 2.5 a resolution and refined to a crystallography agreement r-factor of 0.186. the structure has been compared with that of the same fab molecule complexes with a 15 amino acid peptide (a15) representing a major antigenic site of fmdv, and determined at 2.8 a resolution. the fab quaternary structure, defined both by the elbow ...19968594203
rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction based detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus in clinical samples and cell culture isolates, combined with a simultaneous differentiation with other genomically and/or symptomatically related viruses.reverse transcription followed by the polymerase chain reaction method (pcr) allowed the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), regardless of the serotype. a primer set corresponding to highly conserved regions of the 2b sequence was selected. by combining in a single reaction tube specific primer pairs for fmdv, swine vesicular disease virus, (svdv), encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), all four viruses could be identified and differentiated in on ...19968634024
recognition of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its capsid protein vp1 by bovine peripheral t lymphocytes.the role of t cells in immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus is still poorly defined compared to that of the humoral response. in this paper we describe a systematic, longitudinal study on the cellular recognition of fmdv and its subunit protein vp1 by bovine peripheral blood t lymphocytes. multiple vaccination with a single virus serotype induced a serotype cross-reactive proliferative t cell repertoire that varied in magnitude between individual animals and with the serotype of the vaccine ...19968627261
antibody and host cell recognition of foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype c) cleaved at the arg-gly-asp (rgd) motif: a structural interpretation.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c (isolate c-s8c1) was cleaved in situ by trypsin at the arg-gly-asp (rgd) motif, which is involved both in attachment of fmdv to cells and in recognition of a major antigenic site (site a) by antibodies. though 99.4% of the rgd moieties were cleaved, the virus remained infectious. a synthetic peptide which represented the sequence of the vp1 g-h loop of c-s8c1, including the rgd motif, greatly inhibited fmdv attachment to cells. the same peptide i ...19968627229
differentiation of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.a strategy for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using multiple primers was developed to detect and to differentiate the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) simultaneously, quickly and accurately. the development of the test was carried out on virus isolates grown in tissue culture prior to cdna synthesis and pcr using various sets of primers. primers p33 and p32 were used for the consensus pcr to detect fmdv regardless of the serotype. positive cdna was ...19979274816
identification of noncytopathic equine rhinovirus 1 as a cause of acute febrile respiratory disease in horses.equine rhinovirus 1 (erhv1) is a recognized cause of acute febrile respiratory disease in horse, although the virus is rarely isolated from such animals, despite seroprevalence rates as high as 50% in some horse populations. recently, erhv1 has been shown to be most closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus, raising questions as to its disease associations in horses. we report that erhv1 infection was the likely cause of two separate outbreaks of severe febrile respiratory disease which in ...19979157156
preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1.eight clones of hybrid cells secreting monoclonal antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1 were prepared; three of them neutralized viral infection. the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies was analyzed by various immunoenzyme assays using 146s viral particles, trypsin-treated 146s particles, 12s particles, and certain viral polypeptides. the epitopes unique for virus type asia-1 and conservative among several types were detected on the surface of viral particles. epitopes on t ...19979275286
elf4g and its proteolytic cleavage products: effect on initiation of protein synthesis from capped, uncapped, and ires-containing mrnas.rhinovirus 2a and foot-and-mouth disease virus lb proteinases stimulate the translation of uncapped messages and those carrying the rhinovirus and enterovirus internal ribosome entry segments (ireses) by a mechanism involving the cleavage of host cell proteins. here, we investigate this mechanism using an artificial dicistronic rna containing the human rhinovirus ires as intercistronic spacer. because both proteinases cleave eukaryotic initiation factor 4g (eif4g), we examined whether the cleava ...19979042945
antiviral activity of an extract from leaves of the tropical plant acanthospermum hispidum.incubation of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabiesvirus (prv) and bovine herpesvirus 1 during infection of cell cultures with an extract prepared from the leaves of acanthospermum hispidum impaired productive replication of these viruses in a concentration-dependent manner whereas propagation of classical swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and vaccinia virus was not affected. the 50% inhibitory concentration for cell growth (ic50) was 107 +/- 5 microliters/ml, and the concentration r ...19979330761
characteristic in vitro evolution pattern of foot and mouth disease virus a81/castellanos/arg/87.the in vitro evolution of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) a/81/castellanos/arg/87 (a/castellanos/87) was studied by partial biological and biochemical characterization of viral populations selected after 25 passages on secondary fetal bovine kidney cell monolayers. these passages were performed in the presence or absence of immune pressure exerted in the form of antiviral polyclonal serum. while the viral populations passaged in the absence of immune pressure acquired characteristics such as ...19979175254
total and isotype humoral responses in cattle vaccinated with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunogen produced either in bovine tongue tissue or in bhk-21 cell suspension cultures.the anti-foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serum antibody activity of protected and non protected animals immunized with inactivated fmdv originated in either bovine tongue tissue (bttv vaccines) or bhk-21 cell suspension cultures (bhkv vaccines) was evaluated. the results show that 80-100% of the bttv immunized and only 40-60% of the bhkv immunized animals with liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (lp elisa) serum titres of 1.5-1.7 u, were protected against the challenge with any of the four ...19979178462
computer simulations to identify in polyproteins of fmdv ok1 and a12 strains putative nonapeptides with amino acid motifs for binding to bola class i a11 and a20 haplotype molecules.the computer program "findpatterns" was used to search fmdv- (ok1 and a12 strains) coded structural and nonstructural proteins for the availability of putative proteasome-generated nonapeptides with motifs reported for bola class i a11 and a20 haplotypes. these bola class i a11 and a20 nonapeptide motifs are identical to motifs of nonapeptides that interact with the peptide binding grooves of hla class i b35 and b27 haplotypes, respectively. the computer findpattern program was used to analyze t ...19979237351
tissue culture adaptation of foot-and-mouth disease virus selects viruses that bind to heparin and are attenuated in cattle.isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) exist as complex mixtures of variants. two different serotype o1 campos preparations that we examined contained two variants with distinct plaque morphologies on bhk cells: a small, clear-plaque virus that replicates in bhk and cho cells, and a large, turbid-plaque virus that only grows in bhk cells. cdnas encoding the capsids of these two variants were inserted into a genome-length fmdv type a12 infectious cdna and used to produce chimeric viruses ...19979188578
evolution subverting essentiality: dispensability of the cell attachment arg-gly-asp motif in multiply passaged foot-and-mouth disease virus.aphthoviruses use a conserved arg-gly-asp triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. here we report that this triplet-which is also a widespread motif involved in cell-to-cell adhesion-can become dispensable upon short-term evolution of the virus harboring it. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which was multiply passaged in cell culture, showed an altered repertoire of antigenic variants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. ...19979192645
a cyclic disulfide peptide reproduces in solution the main structural features of a native antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a cyclic disulfide peptide corresponding to the g-h loop sequence 134-155 [replacement tyr136 and arg153 with cys] of the capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolate c-s8c1 was examined by proton 2d-nmr spectroscopy in water and in 25% hfip/water. in water, nmr data supported the presence of a non-canonical turn in the central, conserved cell adhesion rgd motif and suggested the presence of a nascent helix in the c-terminal part, stabilized and slightly extended upon additi ...19979218170
antigenic features of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 as revealed by monoclonal antibodies and neutralization-escape mutants.neutralizable antigenic sites/epitopes of serotype asial foot-and-mouth disease virus (strain ind63/72) were identified using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and their neutralization-escape mutants. relative affinity/reactivity of the mabs for viral (both native and trypsin-cleaved) and subviral antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) showed dominance of trypsin-sensitive and conformation-dependent neutralizable antigenic sites. characterization of neutralization escape mutants identi ...19979282776
natural adaption to pigs of a taiwanese isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19979290197
nucleotide sequence of the p1 region of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o1 caseros.it has been shown that variation of antigenic site i in vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays an important role in the antigenic diversification of this virus. however, the o1 campos strain is able to efficiently cross-protect cattle against the o1 caseros strain, despite having a different sequence in the site i. in this paper we report and compare the p1 coding region for the capsid proteins of fmdv o1 caseros and o1 campos. the deduced amino acid sequence showed a total of 31 amino ...19979311571
baculovirus expressed 2c of foot-and-mouth disease virus has the potential for differentiating convalescent from vaccinated animals.determining whether animals have been infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus or vaccinated is important because infected animals frequently become carriers of the virus, shed it intermittently and thus may be the source of new outbreaks of the disease. we had shown previously that the sera of convalescent animals contain antibodies to 2c, a highly conserved non-structural protein, whereas the sera of vaccinated animals do not. this is explained by observation that 2c is retained on the membr ...19979128860
rapid diagnosis of encephalomyocarditis virus infections in pigs using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) is widespread and the economic losses caused by an emcv outbreak in pig holdings and the similarity between a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and an emcv infection in young piglets stress the need for a rapid, specific and broad diagnostic assay. an alternative to the time-consuming seroneutralisation assay, currently used for the characterisation of emcv, is described. an emcv specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), using primers ...19979220393
one-tube and one-buffer system of rt-pcr amplification of 1d gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates.a method of reverse transcription (rt) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of 1d (vp1) gene of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus using one reaction mixture containing both avian myeloblastosis virus (amv) reverse transcriptase (rtase) and tfl dna polymerase is described. the procedure was time saving, made use of a single buffer for both rt and subsequent amplification and performed better than the two-step procedure usually conducted with moloney murine leukemia virus (mmlv) rtas ...19979385403
plasmid dna encoding replicating foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes induces antiviral immune responses in swine.dna vaccine candidates for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) were engineered to produce fmd virus (fmdv) particles that were noninfectious in cell culture or animals. the prototype plasmid, pwrm, contains a cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-driven genome-length type a12 cdna followed by the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation site. bhk cells transfected with this plasmid produced virus, but the specific infectivity of pwrm was much lower than that achieved with in vitro-generated rna genomes ...19979311823
foot-and-mouth disease virus and poliovirus particles contain proteins of the replication complex.nonstructural proteins 2c, 3cd, 3c, and 3d, and the cellular protein actin, are present in highly purified preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and poliovirus. they remain bound in variable amounts to the rnas when the rnas are extracted from the viruses with phenol or phenol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) and, for fmdv, when the rna is released from the particles by a lowering of the ph below 7. rna prepared by these methods is rapidly degraded at 37 degrees c, particularly in the ...19979311848
functional involvement of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein in translation initiation complexes with the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the synthesis of picornavirus polyproteins is initiated cap independently far downstream from the 5' end of the viral rna at the internal ribosome entry site (ires). the cellular polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (ptb) binds to the ires of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, we demonstrate that ptb is a component of 48s and 80s ribosomal initiation complexes formed with fmdv ires rna. the incorporation of ptb into these initiation complexes is dependent on the entry of the ire ...19979343186
arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-specific binding by foot-and-mouth disease viruses to the purified integrin alpha(v)beta3 in vitro.the integrin alpha(v)beta3 has been shown to act as the receptor for internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (a12), with attachment being through a highly conserved rgd motif located on the g-h loop of viral capsid protein vp1. in addition, however, we have recently shown that efficient infection of culture-grown cells by fmdv (o1bfs) requires binding to cell surface heparan sulfate. in this study, we have used a solid-phase receptor binding assay to characterize the binding by fm ...19979343190
efficient neutralization of foot-and-mouth disease virus by monovalent antibody binding.neutralization of an aphthovirus by monovalent binding of an antibody is reported. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) clone c-s8c1 was neutralized by monoclonal antibody (mab) sd6, which was directed to a continuous epitope within a major antigenic site of the g-h loop of capsid protein vp1. on a molar basis, the fab fragment was at most fivefold less active in neutralization than the intact antibody, and both blocked virus attachment to cells. neither the antibody nor the fab fragment caused a ...19979371652
health hazards to the small ruminant population of the middle east posed by the trade of sheep and goat meat.meat consumers in the middle east traditionally prefer meat from freshly slaughtered animals to that from chilled or frozen carcasses. consequently, meat trade in the middle east is based mainly upon the importation of large quantities of live animals rather than of sheep and goat carcasses. furthermore, as it seems that pathogens remain viable for longer periods of time in live animals than in meat, the probability of pathogens spreading in the middle east as a result of contaminated small rumi ...19979329108
likelihood of introducing selected exotic diseases to domestic swine in the continental united states of america through uncooked swill.to help policy makers determine the need for current regulations (which require cooking of swill prior to feeding to swine), an assessment of the likelihood of exposing domestic swine in the continental united states of america (usa) to selected foreign animal disease agents by feeding uncooked swill was carried out. the hazard was assumed to originate from contraband food items entering the usa and subsequently being discarded in household waste. such food waste may be collected by licensed was ...19979329117
a retro-inverso peptide corresponding to the gh loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits high levels of long-lasting protective neutralizing antibodies.peptides corresponding to the immunodominant loop located at residues 135-158 on capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) generally elicit high levels of anti-peptide and virus-neutralizing antibodies. in some instances, however, the level of neutralizing antibodies is low or even negligible, even though the level of anti-peptide antibodies is high. we have shown previously that the antigenic activity of peptide 141-159 of vp1 of a variant of serotype a can be mimicked by a retr ...19979356486
dissecting the roles of vp0 cleavage and rna packaging in picornavirus capsid stabilization: the structure of empty capsids of foot-and-mouth disease virus.empty capsids of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a22 iraq 24/64, whose structure has been solved by x-ray crystallography, are unusual for picornaviruses since they contain vp2 and vp4, the cleavage products of the protein precursor vp0. both the n terminus of vp1 and the c terminus of vp4, which pack together close to the icosahedral threefold symmetry axis where three pentamers associate, are more disordered in the empty capsid than they are in the rna-containing virus. the ordering o ...19979371640
molecular analysis of foot-and-mouth disease type o viruses isolated in saudi arabia between 1983 and 1995.partial nucleotide sequence of the capsid polypeptide coding gene 1d (vp1) was determined for 68 serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated between 1983 and 1995 from outbreaks occurring in saudi arabia. the sequences were compared with previously published sequences: 14 viruses of middle eastern origin (isolated between 1987 and 1991); and with four vaccine virus strain sequences, three originating from the middle east (o1/turkey/manisa/69, o1/sharquia/egypt/72 and o1/israel/2/85) and o ...19979440443
[a simple method for rna isolation and purification].rnas from escherichia coli cells, syrian hamster kidney cells, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and newcastle disease virus were isolated using glass fiber filters gf/f or gf/c. the rna was reversibly adsorbed on the filters in the presence of 2 m guanidine thiocyanate and 50% ethanol (or isopropanol) and eluted with water. the fraction composition of the isolated rna depended on the guanidine thiocyanate and alcohol concentrations in the adsorption and washing procedures. the rna preparations obta ...19979441599
the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep milk.the liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) and a specific isotype assay (sia) modified for caprine/ovine igg1 and igg2 were used to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus isolate o(1) manisa in sheep milk samples. the majority of samples from animals vaccinated 14-23 weeks previously were indistinguishable from naive sheep when tested in the lpbe but 97% were positive using the sia. all milk samples taken at 7 days after parturition from immunised animals were positive by lpbe. there ...19979504750
[bacterial synthesis of immunogenic epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused either to human necrosis factor or to hepatitis b core antigen].using recombinant dna technology, construction and bacterial expression of genes was carried out which code for hybrid proteins, human tumor necrosis factor and hepatitis b core protein fused to immunogenic epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus, strains a22 and o1-194. hybrids of tumor necrosis factor with foot-and-mouth disease antigenic determinants protected laboratory animals against the experimental challenge with a homologous strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus. hybrid protein that c ...19979157845
characterization of an internal ribosomal entry segment within the 5' leader of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus type a rna and development of novel mlv-rev-based retroviral vectors.the murine leukemia virus (mlv)-related type c viruses constitute a major class of retroviruses that includes numerous endogenous and exogenous mammalian viruses and the related avian spleen necrosis virus (snv). the mlv-related viruses possess a long and multifunctional 5' untranslated leader involved in key steps of the viral life cycle--splicing, translation, rna dimerization, encapsidation, and reverse transcription. recent studies have shown that the 5' leader of friend murine leukemia viru ...19979382952
escape mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus selected by monoclonal antibodies directed to a trypsin-sensitive neutralization epitope.five monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against indian reference/vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus subtype a22 (ind17/77) and a guinea pig antibody against a synthetic peptide representing amino acids (aa) 136-151 of vp1 polypeptide of a22 virus were used in the study. all the antibodies either failed to react or showed a reduced reactivity with trypsin-treated (tt)-146 s virus particles in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and could neutralize the infectivity of the refer ...19979385400
the non-structural polyprotein 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus as a diagnostic antigen in elisa to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle.a diagnostic assay to differentiate antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection from those induced by vaccination was developed. the test is an indirect-trapping elisa which uses a monoclonal antibody to trap the non-structural 3abc-fmdv polypeptide expressed in e. coli. experimental and field sera from naive, vaccinated and infected cattle were examined. using the established threshold of 0.20 optical density units, the sensitivity of the assay was 100%, as all the exper ...19979413510
specific interactions between human integrin alpha v beta 3 and chimeric hepatitis b virus core particles bearing the receptor-binding epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus.purified integrin alpha v beta 3 was used in solid-phase binding studies with chimeric hepatitis b cores which carry the rgd-containing loop of vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). high levels of specific binding between the integrin and the particles were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. the binding was mn2+ cation dependent and could be competed with fibronectin, vitronectin, and the peptide grgdspk. particles in which the rgd motif had been mutated to rge fai ...19979426454
contamination of animal products: the minimum pathogen dose required to initiate infection.when an animal product contains a low level of contamination (perhaps less than the minimum infective dose of a pathogen as determined experimentally), the theoretical probability remains that if a large number of animals are exposed to that product, at least one animal in the group will become infected. such an infected animal could start an outbreak of the disease. these aspects, therefore, should be considered when risk assessments are performed. foot and mouth disease virus in milk is used a ...19979329105
duration of the foot-and-mouth disease virus antibody response in mice is closely related to the presence of antigen-specific presenting cells.natural and experimental hosts infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) develop a long-lasting immune response that is closely related to the presence of anti-fmdv antibodies (ab). we show here that spleen cells from animals which had been infected 3 or more months previously induced an anti-fmdv-ab response in untreated animals which lasted more than 210 days after cell transfer. persistence of infectious virus was excluded since virus isolation or detection of the viral genome by pcr ...19979152419
antigenic variation in foot and mouth disease virus type asia 1 isolates circulated during 1993-95 in india.the antigenic variation in foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is very high. the effective strategy to control the foot and mouth disease (fmd) in india which is a habitat of four serotypes o, a, c and asia 1, is by regular vaccination, using the vaccine strain most suitable for the local situation. india is an endemic country with the disease being widely distributed. selection of vaccine strain should therefore need the information on the circulating viruses. asia 1 causes the second largest n ...19979482590
neutralization antigenic sites on type asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus defined by monoclonal antibody-resistant variants.seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) produced against serotype asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were used to select neutralization-resistant variants. seven single and six multiple antibody-resistant variants were selected to identify neutralization antigenic sites on fmdv asia-1. the variants no longer reacted with nmabs which were used to select them when tested by microneutralization test (mnt), radioimmunoassay (ria) and agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) assay. based on t ...19979495534
intact eukaryotic initiation factor 4g is required for hepatitis a virus internal initiation of translation.the requirements for optimal activity of the hepatitis a virus (hav) internal ribosome entry segment (ires) differ substantially from those of other picornavirus ireses. one such difference is that, to date, the hav ires is the only one whose efficiency is severely inhibited in the presence of the picornaviral 2a proteinase. here we describe experiments designed to dissect the mechanism of proteinase-mediated inhibition of hav translation. using dicistronic mrnas translated in vitro, we show tha ...19979344915
infectivity assays of foot-and-mouth disease virus: contact transmission between cattle and buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in the early stages of infection.no differences were observed between cattle and indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in terms of temperature, viraemia or virus replication in the pharyngeal area, during the acute phase of foot-and-mouth disease. like cattle, the indian buffalo became infected and excreted virus before any clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease developed. the disease was transmitted from cattle to buffalo and vice versa, during the acute stage of infection, as if the animals had been of the same species, presumab ...19979123797
dexamethasone inhibits virus production and the secretory iga response in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid in cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus were treated with dexamethasone to suppress the immune system in an attempt to influence the level of virus recovery from oesophageal pharyngeal (probang) samples. twelve carrier cattle were assigned to one of three groups: control; 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone; and 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone. groups 2 and 3 were injected intramuscularly three times weekly for 3 weeks with dexamethasone between days 33 and 56 post-infection with foot-and-mou ...19979129595
structure of the complex of an fab fragment of a neutralizing antibody with foot-and-mouth disease virus: positioning of a highly mobile antigenic loop.data from cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography have been combined to study the interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype c (fmdv-c) with a strongly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) sd6. the mab sd6 binds to the long flexible gh-loop of viral protein 1 (vp1) which also binds to an integrin receptor. the structure of the virus-fab complex was determined to 30 a resolution using cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis. the known structure of fmdv-c, and of the sd ...19979130694
a large-scale evaluation of peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease: lack of solid protection in cattle and isolation of escape mutants.a large-scale vaccination experiment involving a total of 138 cattle was carried out to evaluate the potential of synthetic peptides as vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease. four types of peptides representing sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c3 argentina 85 were tested: a, which includes the g-h loop of capsid protein vp1 (site a); at, in which a t-cell epitope has been added to site a; ac, composed of site a and the carboxy-terminal region of vp1 (site c); and act, in which ...19979060612
[seroprevalence of viral infections in llamas (lama glama) in the republic of argentina].this study reports the seroprevalence of bovine viral infections in llamas (lama glama) in argentina. this is the first study made in the country including 390 llamas and testing antibodies against eight viruses. samples were collected from nine farms distributed in three different provinces: buenos aires, córdoba and jujuy. the samples were tested for antibodies against eight viruses known to infect cattle: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine adenovirus ...19979229724
phenotypic features of bhk-21 cells used for production of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.bhk-21 c13 monolayer and suspension cells were investigated with regard to some phenotypic features which could bear on the quality of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen produced in them. despite good viability, suspension cells differed from monolayer cells in fundamental features of susceptibility to fmdv. most important, fmd virus particles grown in suspension cells at high passage levels were shown to be largely degraded following inactivation with an aziridine compound. suspension ...19979167010
conformational preferences of a peptide corresponding to the major antigenic determinant of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for peptide-vaccine approaches.the conformational preferences in solution of a peptide corresponding to the gh loop of the vp1 capsid protein from the foot-and-mouth disease virus were examined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism. the gh loop is the major antigenic determinant of the virus and participates in cell attachment through an integrin-like arg-gly-asp sequence. the synthetic peptide, corresponding to residues gly132 to ser162 of the vp1 capsid protein of the serotype o, is largely disordered ...19979169027
the proteolytic cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4g is prevented by eif4e binding protein (phas-i; 4e-bp1) in the reticulocyte lysate.a common feature of viral infection is the subversion of the host cell machinery towards the preferential translation of viral products. in some instances, this is partly mediated by the expression of virally encoded proteases which lead to the cleavage of initiation factor eif4g. the foot-and-mouth disease virus encodes two forms of a cysteine proteinase (l protease) which bisects the eif4g polypeptide into an n-terminal fragment containing the eif4e binding site, and a c-terminal fragment whic ...19979049313
foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected but not vaccinated cattle develop antibodies against recombinant 3ab1 nonstructural protein.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines induce antibodies against structural and some nonstructural proteins present in vaccine preparations. to differentiate between fmdv-infected and vaccinated animals, we developed immunochemical assays capable of detecting antibodies against a fmdv nonstructural protein. recombinant nonstructural 3ab1 protein was expressed in e.coli and in insect cells and used to detect anti-3ab1 antibodies. elisa and western blot analysis showed that sera from cattle infecte ...19979170505
differential restrictions on antigenic variation among antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the absence of antibody selection.clonal populations of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been serially passaged in cell culture to analyse variation in the absence of immune selection at different antigenic sites of the virus. mutant frequencies at the rna regions encoding two independent antigenic sites (sites c and d) were more than twentyfold lower than for antigenic site a (the g-h loop of vp1). correspondingly, fixation of amino acid substitutions was very restricted in sites c and d. in spite of such a restriction, neutra ...19979049411
an analysis of foot-and-mouth-disease epidemics in the uk.there was a major epidemic of the foot-and-mouth-disease virus among cattle herds in the uk in 1967-68 which showed a very rapid early spread, a much slower later spread, and eventually infected 12% of herds in the core epidemic area. a simple discrete-time version of a susceptible-latent-infectious-removed epidemiological model is used to generate a set of estimates of the transmission rate. this parameter has high values over the first few days, then the values are lower and they subsequently ...19979080685
structural comparison between retro-inverso and parent peptides: molecular basis for the biological activity of a retro-inverso analogue of the immunodominant fragment of vp1 coat protein from foot-and-mouth disease virus.antibodies induced against intact foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles bind to the retro-inverso analogue of fragment 141-159 of the viral coat protein vp1 of fmdv, variant a, equally well as to the parent peptide. a conformational investigation of this retro-inverso peptide was carried out by nmr spectroscopy and restrained molecular modeling in order to identify the structural basis for the antigenic mimicry between these retro-inverso and parent peptides. in 100% trifluoroethanol a w ...19979095678
cellular and humoral immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus and its non-structural proteins in infected swine. 19979191317
cellular immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19979191319
complementation of defective picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements by the coexpression of fragments of the ires.mutant forms of the encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) internal ribosome entry site (ires) have been produced and shown to be severely defective in directing internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells using the vaccinia/t7 rna polymerase system. mutants in different regions of the ires were complemented in trans by coexpression of the intact emcv ires but not by coexpression of the related ires elements from theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (another cardiovirus) or from foot-an ...19979007058
evaluation of a live-attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate.a variant of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) lacking the leader (l) coding region (a12-llv2) was previously constructed and shown to be less virulent in cattle than its wild-type parent (a12-ic). in this study, cattle were tested for their clinical and immunological responses to subcutaneous inoculation with a12-llv2 or a12-ic or to intramuscular vaccination with chemically inactivated a12-ic. five weeks postinoculation animals were challenged by intradermal inoculation in the tongue with a ...19979007062
development of tests for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle milk.the liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) and a specific isotype assay (sia) for bovine igg1 were modified to detect antibodies against fmdv isolate o1 manisa in cattle milk. samples from vaccinated animals were mostly indistinguishable from negative control cattle in the lpbe but 90% of milks from convalescent animals (which had also been vaccinated several times previously) gave positive results. the sia was able to detect 95% of cattle vaccinated up to 12 months previously, and 100% of the recov ...19979015288
biochemical characterization of fmdv a10 and a22 subtypes by page and ief.both polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) and iso-electric focusing (ief) have been standardized using the sucrose density gradient purified 146s particles of fmd virus subtypes a10 and a22. differences in the molecular weights of structural proteins (vp1, vp2 and vp3 of two subtypes (a10 and a22) of fmdv have been revealed in page but no appreciable differences in the pi of vp1, vp2 and vp3 is found in ief.19979023045
characterization of synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus provirions separates acid-mediated disassembly from infectivity.one of the final steps in the maturation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is cleavage of the vp0 protein to produce vp4 and vp2. the mechanism of this cleavage is unknown, but it is thought to function in stabilizing the virus particle and priming it for infecting cells. to investigate the cleavage process and to understand its role in virion maturation, we engineered synthetic fmdv rnas with mutations at ala-85 (a85) and asp-86 (d86) of vp0, which border the cleavage site. bhk cells trans ...19979060641
point mutations within the betag-betah loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1k affect virus attachment to target cells.the amino acid sequence arg-gly-asp (rgd) is a highly conserved region located on the p1d protein of most sero- and subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)and participates in binding of fmdv to their target cells. in order to analyze the role of the rgd sequence in fmdv infection of cells in more detail, 13 mutations within or near the rgd sequence of virus type o1kaufbeuren were designed by using a full-length cdna plasmid. transfection of baby hamster kidney cells (bhk-21) with in vitr ...19978995624
evaluation of primers for pcr amplification of rna polymerase gene sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus.eight oligonucleotide primers in 7 different combinations were used to amplify 3d gene sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). six of the primers were designed at this laboratory. all the primer combinations could specifically amplify 3d gene sequences of fmdv serotypes o, a, and c. the largest fragment amplified was of 1,393 bp and the smallest was of 208 bp in size. the 1,393 bp fragment included sequences from the preceedin ...19979607092
[use of protease 3c and foot-and-mouth disease virus rna polymerase hybrid proteins, synthesized in escherichia coli, for diagnosis]. 19979297102
the cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2a proteins.the primary 2a/2b polyprotein cleavage of aphtho-and cardioviruses is mediated by their 2a proteins cleaving c-terminally. whilst the aphthovirus 2a region is only 16 aa (possibly 18 aa) long, the cardiovirus 2a protein is some 150 aa. we have previously shown that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a is able to mediate cleavage in an artificial (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase/fmdv 2a/beta-glucuronidase [cat-2a-gus]) polyprotein system devoid of any other fmdv sequences with high (approxima ...19979010280
a ribozyme targeted to cleave the polymerase gene sequences of different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes.vaccinations against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has dramatically reduced the number of disease outbreaks. nevertheless, there are still many outbreaks in different regions around the world. in an effort to find new ways to control the disease, ribozymes able to cleave fmdv were designed and tested. in this work we tested the ability of frz4, a ribozyme targeted to the viral polymerase gene, to cleave polymerase sequences of several fmdv. homology analysis was used to choose target seque ...19979354267
the potential of retro-inverso peptides as synthetic vaccines.retro-inverso peptides, also known as all-d-retro or retro-enantio peptides, are composed of d-amino acids assembled in the reverse order from that of the parent l-sequence. since the orientation of the side-chains in a retro-inverso analogue is very similar to that in the parent l-peptide, this leads to a high level of antigenic cross-reactivity between the two peptides. the potential of retro-inverso peptides as synthetic vaccines has been investigated in the case of foot-and-mouth disease. a ...199815992041
influence of il-12 on interferon-gamma production by bovine leucocyte subsets in response to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the cytokine il-12 is a key molecule in the regulation of cd4+ t cell development and specifically potentiates the development of t helper 1 responses in mouse and man. however the biological effects mediated by bovine il-12 have not been defined in cattle. to produce the expression of the two mature proteins a polyprotein approach was used. this system is employed by positive strand viruses and encodes both products from a single open reading frame (orf). the 2a region of foot-and-mouth disease ...19989656442
multiple virulence determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture.hypervirulent variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c arise upon serial cytolytic or persistent infections in cell culture. a specific mutation in the internal ribosome entry site of persistent fmdv was previously associated with enhanced translation initiation activity that could contribute to the hypervirulent phenotype for bhk-21 cells. here we report that several hypervirulent fmdv variants arising upon serial cytolytic passage show an invariant internal ribosome entry ...19989658076
differentiating foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected from vaccinated animals with baculovirus-expressed specific proteins.we had shown in preliminary studies with a small number of animals that antibodies against 2c could be detected in cattle and pigs which had been infected with fmdv but not in animals which had been vaccinated against the disease. to determine whether this test was generally applicable, sera from several hundred animals which had been vaccinated with different products in many countries have been tested in an elisa using baculovirus expressed 2c. our results show that only 1-2% of the sera gave ...19989652055
cattle response to foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural proteins as antigens within vaccines produced using different concentrations.four groups of ten nine-month-old nelore heifers were used for this study. each group received one of four foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) trivalent vaccines for the duration of the experiment. the four vaccine formulations (normal, 2x, 4x and 8x) differed in 140s content to determine the serological reactivities to fmd virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins 2c, 3abc and 3d. vaccination was by the intramuscular administration of vaccine on day 0, 180 and 360. bleedings were done at 30 days post vaccin ...19989652056
diagnostic potential of mab-based elisas for antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus to differentiate infection from vaccination.this paper summarises the development of monoclonal antibody (mab)-based immunoassays measuring antibodies to non-structural proteins of fmdv to differentiate infection from vaccination. of the three non-structural proteins 2c, 3c and 3abc evaluated in this study, the polypeptide 3abc was the most immunogenic. three elisas for the detection of antibodies to 3abc were developed. two assays rely on the competition of test sera against either a anti-3a mab or against antisera to 3abc raised in rabb ...19989652058
detection of cattle exposed to foot-and-mouth disease virus by means of an indirect elisa test using bioengineered nonstructural polyprotein 3abc. 19989652059
rt-pcr in foot-and-mouth disease diagnosis.a rt-pcr assay for the specific detection of rna sequences from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been developed. the procedure permits also the detection of sequences that correlate with established fmdv serotypes. a computer program that allows selection of genotype-specific primers for rt-pcr amplification was used for the identification of fmdv specific sequences for pcr amplification on rna replicase (3d) gene regions. specific, rapid and highly sensitive detection was achieved for a ...19989652064
the foot-and-mouth disease rna virus as a model in experimental phylogenetics.phylogenetic reconstruction methods are subject to two types of limitations: our knowledge about the true history of organisms and the gross simplification implied in the numerical simulation models of the relationships between them. in such a situation, experimental phylogenetics provides a way to assess the accuracy of the phylogenetic reconstruction methods. nonetheless, this capacity is only feasible for organisms in which replication and mutation rates are high enough to provide valuable da ...199810943380
detection of foot-and-mouth disease by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation in contact sheep without clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease.two non-vaccinated sheep were experimentally infected with fmdv and one day later 4 other sheep were brought in contact. although the contact sheep showed no clinical signs, serology indicated that all sheep became infected. various secretion samples, taken over a period of at least one month, and various tissue samples were examined for the presence of fmdv by rt-pcr and by virus isolation. fmdv was most often found in saliva (mouth swabs), followed by nasal secretion and sera. faecal material, ...19989652065
the foot and mouth disease virus type o outbreak of 1992 is not related to vaccine strain (o/r2/75).vaccination is the only pragmatic approach to control foot and mouth disease in india. strict quality control measures are essential to supply potent vaccine to the field application, in addition to monitoring the performance of the vaccine in the field. during the process of monitoring, an outbreak of fmd in vaccinated animals caused by type "o" virus in tanjavur district of tamil nadu and a type "o" virus from unvaccinated herd of karnataka were studied. field isolates and vaccine virus were s ...19989608661
vp1-coding sequences of recent isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a, o and asia1.a large part of the capsid protein vp1-coding sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus, isolated between 1993 and 1996 in europe, was amplified by the reverse transcription-dependent polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). the same was done with some non-european virus isolates, especially those against which vaccines were currently produced. the products were sequenced, and the sequences aligned. the alignment comprises sequences of the types a, o and asia 1. although the provenance of virus introd ...19989608664
a universal virus inactivant for decontaminating blood and biopharmaceutical products.removal of virus infectivity from blood and biopharmaceutical products prepared from blood is an issue of considerable importance. for biopharmaceutical products, removal can usually be achieved by a series of fractionation steps or by inactivation with a suitable reagent. irrespective of the methods that are chosen it is vital that the biological activity of the product is not impaired. for blood and unfractionated plasma or serum, the problem is even more challenging. selective inactivation of ...19989637748
[synthesis and immunogenic properties of peptides--fragments of the immunodominant regions of the vp1 protein of the asia-1 type of foot- and-mouth disease virus].potential immunodominant epitopes were predicted on the basis of a theoretical analysis of the antigenic structure of the vp1 protein of the type asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus. peptides corresponding to the 140-153, 136-153, 132-153, 143-157, 137-157, and 193-208 fragments of the vp1 protein sequence were synthesized by the solid phase method, and the immunogenic properties of the peptides were studied on guinea pigs. the shortest peptide exhibiting the protective effect was found to corre ...199810079947
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