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detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus using a liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (lpbe) with a bioengineered 3d protein.a liquid-phase blocking sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa-3d) was developed to detect specific antibodies to the 3d protein in sera from foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv)-infected animals. the assay uses a nonstructural 3d recombinant protein and two polyclonal antisera, one for capture (bovine) and the other for detector (guinea pig). the specificity of the assay was demonstrated by negative results with 101 sera of cattle from the fmd-free zone in argentina and with bov ...19968744733
persistent infection of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) with sat-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses: rate of fixation of mutations, antigenic change and interspecies transmission.transmission of a plaque-purified sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) occurred erratically from artificially infected african buffaloes in captivity to susceptible buffaloes and cattle in the same enclosure; in some instances transmission occurred only after contact between persistently infected carriers and susceptible animals lasting a number of months. because the rate at which fmdv mutations accumulated in persistently infected buffaloes was approximately linear (1.64 percent nucleotid ...19968757987
high-titer bicistronic retroviral vectors employing foot-and-mouth disease virus internal ribosome entry site.bicistronic retroviral vectors were constructed containing the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) internal ribosome entry site (ires) followed by the coding region of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) or therapeutic genes, with the selectable neomycin phosphotransferase gene under the control of the viral long terminal repeat (ltr) promoter. lnfx, a vector with a multiple cloning site 3' to foot-and-mouth disease virus ires, was used to construct vectors encoding rat erythropoietin (ep), rat granul ...19968758998
equine rhinovirus serotypes 1 and 2: relationship to each other and to aphthoviruses and cardioviruses.equine rhinoviruses (ervs) are picornaviruses which cause a mild respiratory infection in horses. the illness resembles the common cold brought about by rhinoviruses in humans; however, the presence of a viraemia during erv-1 infection, the occurrence of persistent infections and the physical properties are all more reminiscent of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). cdna cloning and sequencing of the genomes of erv-1 and erv-2 between the poly(c) and poly(a) tracts showed that the serotypes are ...19968760418
efficient infection of cells in culture by type o foot-and-mouth disease virus requires binding to cell surface heparan sulfate.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) enters cells by attaching to cellular receptor molecules of the integrin family, one of which has been identified as the rgd-binding integrin alpha(v)beta3. here we report that, in addition to an integrin binding site, type o strains of fmdv share with natural ligands of alpha(v)beta3 (i.e., vitronectin and fibronectin) a specific affinity for heparin and that binding to the cellular form of this sulfated glycan, heparan sulfate, is required for efficient infe ...19968764038
pathogenesis of wild-type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.four calves were experimentally infected via aerosol with foot-and-mouth disease virus. two were infected with a wild-type virus derived from a full-length infectious clone (a12-ic), and two were infected with a clone-derived virus lacking the leader gene (a12-llv2), with euthanasia and tissue collection at 24 and 72 h postexposure (hpe). clinical disease was apparent only in the animal given a12-ic and euthanized at 72 hpe. in situ hybridization revealed that the animal infected with a12-ic and ...19968764079
[nucleotide sequence of the rna polymerase gene attenuated by a variant of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its comparison with the virulence of related variants of subtype a22].the nucleotide sequence of rna-polymerase gene and 3'-terminal untranslated genome region of attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain a(22)645 has been determined. rna-polymerase gene and predicted amino acid sequences of attenuated fmdv strain a(22)645 were compared with those of the original virulent fmdv strain a(22)550. the examined genome region of strain a(22)645 differed from that of strain a(22)550 by 22 nucleotides and 3 amino acids. three mutations occurred within nucleoti ...19968786750
evolution of a persistent aphthovirus in cytolytic infections: partial reversion of phenotypic traits accompanied by genetic diversification.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) shows a dual potential to be cytolytic or to establish persistent infections in cell culture. fmdv r100, a virus rescued after 100 passages of carrier bhk-21 cells persistently infected with fmdv clone c-s8c1, showed multiple genetic and phenotypic alterations relative to the parental clone c-s8c1. several fmdv r100 populations have been subjected to 100 serial cytolytic infections in bhk-21 cells, and the reversion of phenotypic and genetic alterations has be ...19968794296
perturbations in the surface structure of a22 iraq foot-and-mouth disease virus accompanying coupled changes in host cell specificity and antigenicity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an extremely infectious and antigenically diverse picornavirus of cloven-hoofed animals. strains of the a22 subtype have been reported to change antigenically when adapted to different growth conditions. to investigate the structural basis of this phenomenon we have determined the structures of two variants of an a22 virus.19968805520
long-term, large-population passage of aphthovirus can generate and amplify defective noninterfering particles deleted in the leader protease gene.during serial undiluted passage of a clonal population of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv c-s8c1) in bhk-21 cells, two species of defective rna were generated and selected. sequence analysis revealed that they included deletions within the l-coding region, and retained the correct reading frame for viral protein synthesis. these deleted rnas directed the synthesis of capsid protein vp1, were packaged in particles sedimenting with standard virus, required homologous infectious helper virus in ...19968806535
identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus-free regions by use of a standardized enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay.to assess the potential of a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (eitb) assay to monitor persistent foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral activity in a livestock population.19968807005
a porcine cd8+ t cell clone with heterotypic specificity for foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-specific t cell lines and clones have been obtained from a swine lymphocyte antigen (sla) inbred miniature pig vaccinated with chemically inactivated virus. one of the clones obtained, ce3, showed a specific and heterotypic proliferation against infectious but not inactivated fmdv in the presence of syngeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). adherent cells from pbmc were sufficient to support specific activation of the clone and the proliferation was ...19968811008
preparation of virus-infection-associated (via) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus from inactivated vaccine.virus-infection-associated (via) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus was prepared from an inactivated fmd vaccine. the via antigen coupled with an adjuvant of aluminium hydroxide gel supplemented vaccine was efficiently eluted by suspending and stirring in high concentration of phosphate buffer solution (0.3m, ph 7.6). the final elute purified by deae-sephadex a50 from the vaccine was concentrated in 1/500-1/1,000 of the original volume. via antigens prepared from two kinds of vaccine ...19968811637
[mechanisms involved in the prolonged humoral immune response: behavior of aphthous fever virus].foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a widespread infectious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals with severe economic consequences. animals infected with fmd virus (fmdv) develop an immunological status of immunity characterized by high titers of virus serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies (nab) which persist for at least 18 months. in contrast, currently inactivated virus vaccines elicit lower antibody response for shorter periods. protection against fmdv infection has been commonly related ...19968815460
propagation of an attenuated virus by design: engineering a novel receptor for a noninfectious foot-and-mouth disease virus.to gain entry into cells, viruses utilize a variety of different cell-surface molecules. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) binds to cell-surface integrin molecules via an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) sequence in capsid protein vp1. binding to this particular cell-surface molecule influences fmdv tropism, and virus/receptor interactions appear to be responsible, in part, for selection of antigenic variants. to study early events of virus-cell interaction, we engineered an alternative an ...19968816817
prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease antibodies in dairy herds in the netherlands four years after vaccination.a total of 298 serum samples were collected from dutch cattle born in 1988 or before, and examined in the virus neutralisation test for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus types a10 holland. o bfs, and c1detmold. all the cattle had been vaccinated at least twice during the annual vaccination programme, which stopped in 1991. antibody titres equal to or higher than the titre at which 95 per cent of the cattle would be expected to be protected against challenge, were found in 57 to 73 ...19968819202
serological and molecular analysis of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from disease outbreaks in india during 1987-91.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o outbreaks have been reported frequently in vaccinated cattle in india. twenty-five field isolates, recovered from outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle between 1987 and 1991, were analyzed in relation to the vaccine strain (r2/75) by complement fixation, serum neutralization and partial nucleotide sequencing of the vp1 gene. these sequences were compared with the viral sequences in genembl database. although the indian type o viruses were clos ...19968822633
induced pocket to accommodate the cell attachment arg-gly-asp motif in a neutralizing antibody against foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the three-dimensional structure of the fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (sd6) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been determined at 2.5 a resolution and refined to a crystallography agreement r-factor of 0.186. the structure has been compared with that of the same fab molecule complexes with a 15 amino acid peptide (a15) representing a major antigenic site of fmdv, and determined at 2.8 a resolution. the fab quaternary structure, defined both by the elbow ...19968594203
[the use of synthetic peptides for detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in the blood from convalescent animals].peptides were synthesized, which, according to theoretical analysis of the antigenic structure of protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus types a, 0, and asia 1, corresponded to potential immunodominant protein sites. activities of the peptides were studied by solid-phase indirect radioimmunoassay on polyethylene film with purified immunoglobulins against intact fmd virus. virtually no cross reactions were observed. blood sera of cattle convalescent after fmd were tested with the fmd v ...19968999315
synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease based on a palmitoyl derivative of the vp1 protein 135-159 fragment of the a22 virus strain.the peptide palm2 135-159, a dipalmitoyl derivative of the 135-159 fragment of vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus strain a22 was synthesized. in the experiments on mice, guinea pigs and sheep palm2 135-159 possesses greater immunogenic and protective activity than the nonacylated 135-159 peptide. the synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease for use in sheep was developed on the basis of the lipopeptide. synthetic polymethylsiloxane oil was found to be a suitable adjuvant for ...19969004448
complementation of defective picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements by the coexpression of fragments of the ires.mutant forms of the encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) internal ribosome entry site (ires) have been produced and shown to be severely defective in directing internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells using the vaccinia/t7 rna polymerase system. mutants in different regions of the ires were complemented in trans by coexpression of the intact emcv ires but not by coexpression of the related ires elements from theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (another cardiovirus) or from foot-an ...19979007058
evaluation of a live-attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate.a variant of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) lacking the leader (l) coding region (a12-llv2) was previously constructed and shown to be less virulent in cattle than its wild-type parent (a12-ic). in this study, cattle were tested for their clinical and immunological responses to subcutaneous inoculation with a12-llv2 or a12-ic or to intramuscular vaccination with chemically inactivated a12-ic. five weeks postinoculation animals were challenged by intradermal inoculation in the tongue with a ...19979007062
the cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2a proteins.the primary 2a/2b polyprotein cleavage of aphtho-and cardioviruses is mediated by their 2a proteins cleaving c-terminally. whilst the aphthovirus 2a region is only 16 aa (possibly 18 aa) long, the cardiovirus 2a protein is some 150 aa. we have previously shown that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a is able to mediate cleavage in an artificial (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase/fmdv 2a/beta-glucuronidase [cat-2a-gus]) polyprotein system devoid of any other fmdv sequences with high (approxima ...19979010280
development of tests for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle milk.the liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) and a specific isotype assay (sia) for bovine igg1 were modified to detect antibodies against fmdv isolate o1 manisa in cattle milk. samples from vaccinated animals were mostly indistinguishable from negative control cattle in the lpbe but 90% of milks from convalescent animals (which had also been vaccinated several times previously) gave positive results. the sia was able to detect 95% of cattle vaccinated up to 12 months previously, and 100% of the recov ...19979015288
biochemical characterization of fmdv a10 and a22 subtypes by page and ief.both polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) and iso-electric focusing (ief) have been standardized using the sucrose density gradient purified 146s particles of fmd virus subtypes a10 and a22. differences in the molecular weights of structural proteins (vp1, vp2 and vp3 of two subtypes (a10 and a22) of fmdv have been revealed in page but no appreciable differences in the pi of vp1, vp2 and vp3 is found in ief.19979023045
specific interactions between human integrin alpha v beta 3 and chimeric hepatitis b virus core particles bearing the receptor-binding epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus.purified integrin alpha v beta 3 was used in solid-phase binding studies with chimeric hepatitis b cores which carry the rgd-containing loop of vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). high levels of specific binding between the integrin and the particles were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. the binding was mn2+ cation dependent and could be competed with fibronectin, vitronectin, and the peptide grgdspk. particles in which the rgd motif had been mutated to rge fai ...19979426454
molecular analysis of foot-and-mouth disease type o viruses isolated in saudi arabia between 1983 and 1995.partial nucleotide sequence of the capsid polypeptide coding gene 1d (vp1) was determined for 68 serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated between 1983 and 1995 from outbreaks occurring in saudi arabia. the sequences were compared with previously published sequences: 14 viruses of middle eastern origin (isolated between 1987 and 1991); and with four vaccine virus strain sequences, three originating from the middle east (o1/turkey/manisa/69, o1/sharquia/egypt/72 and o1/israel/2/85) and o ...19979440443
[a simple method for rna isolation and purification].rnas from escherichia coli cells, syrian hamster kidney cells, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and newcastle disease virus were isolated using glass fiber filters gf/f or gf/c. the rna was reversibly adsorbed on the filters in the presence of 2 m guanidine thiocyanate and 50% ethanol (or isopropanol) and eluted with water. the fraction composition of the isolated rna depended on the guanidine thiocyanate and alcohol concentrations in the adsorption and washing procedures. the rna preparations obta ...19979441599
a ribozyme targeted to cleave the polymerase gene sequences of different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes.vaccinations against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has dramatically reduced the number of disease outbreaks. nevertheless, there are still many outbreaks in different regions around the world. in an effort to find new ways to control the disease, ribozymes able to cleave fmdv were designed and tested. in this work we tested the ability of frz4, a ribozyme targeted to the viral polymerase gene, to cleave polymerase sequences of several fmdv. homology analysis was used to choose target seque ...19979354267
a retro-inverso peptide corresponding to the gh loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits high levels of long-lasting protective neutralizing antibodies.peptides corresponding to the immunodominant loop located at residues 135-158 on capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) generally elicit high levels of anti-peptide and virus-neutralizing antibodies. in some instances, however, the level of neutralizing antibodies is low or even negligible, even though the level of anti-peptide antibodies is high. we have shown previously that the antigenic activity of peptide 141-159 of vp1 of a variant of serotype a can be mimicked by a retr ...19979356486
dissecting the roles of vp0 cleavage and rna packaging in picornavirus capsid stabilization: the structure of empty capsids of foot-and-mouth disease virus.empty capsids of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a22 iraq 24/64, whose structure has been solved by x-ray crystallography, are unusual for picornaviruses since they contain vp2 and vp4, the cleavage products of the protein precursor vp0. both the n terminus of vp1 and the c terminus of vp4, which pack together close to the icosahedral threefold symmetry axis where three pentamers associate, are more disordered in the empty capsid than they are in the rna-containing virus. the ordering o ...19979371640
efficient neutralization of foot-and-mouth disease virus by monovalent antibody binding.neutralization of an aphthovirus by monovalent binding of an antibody is reported. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) clone c-s8c1 was neutralized by monoclonal antibody (mab) sd6, which was directed to a continuous epitope within a major antigenic site of the g-h loop of capsid protein vp1. on a molar basis, the fab fragment was at most fivefold less active in neutralization than the intact antibody, and both blocked virus attachment to cells. neither the antibody nor the fab fragment caused a ...19979371652
characterization of an internal ribosomal entry segment within the 5' leader of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus type a rna and development of novel mlv-rev-based retroviral vectors.the murine leukemia virus (mlv)-related type c viruses constitute a major class of retroviruses that includes numerous endogenous and exogenous mammalian viruses and the related avian spleen necrosis virus (snv). the mlv-related viruses possess a long and multifunctional 5' untranslated leader involved in key steps of the viral life cycle--splicing, translation, rna dimerization, encapsidation, and reverse transcription. recent studies have shown that the 5' leader of friend murine leukemia viru ...19979382952
escape mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus selected by monoclonal antibodies directed to a trypsin-sensitive neutralization epitope.five monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against indian reference/vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus subtype a22 (ind17/77) and a guinea pig antibody against a synthetic peptide representing amino acids (aa) 136-151 of vp1 polypeptide of a22 virus were used in the study. all the antibodies either failed to react or showed a reduced reactivity with trypsin-treated (tt)-146 s virus particles in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and could neutralize the infectivity of the refer ...19979385400
one-tube and one-buffer system of rt-pcr amplification of 1d gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates.a method of reverse transcription (rt) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of 1d (vp1) gene of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus using one reaction mixture containing both avian myeloblastosis virus (amv) reverse transcriptase (rtase) and tfl dna polymerase is described. the procedure was time saving, made use of a single buffer for both rt and subsequent amplification and performed better than the two-step procedure usually conducted with moloney murine leukemia virus (mmlv) rtas ...19979385403
the non-structural polyprotein 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus as a diagnostic antigen in elisa to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle.a diagnostic assay to differentiate antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection from those induced by vaccination was developed. the test is an indirect-trapping elisa which uses a monoclonal antibody to trap the non-structural 3abc-fmdv polypeptide expressed in e. coli. experimental and field sera from naive, vaccinated and infected cattle were examined. using the established threshold of 0.20 optical density units, the sensitivity of the assay was 100%, as all the exper ...19979413510
the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep milk.the liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) and a specific isotype assay (sia) modified for caprine/ovine igg1 and igg2 were used to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus isolate o(1) manisa in sheep milk samples. the majority of samples from animals vaccinated 14-23 weeks previously were indistinguishable from naive sheep when tested in the lpbe but 97% were positive using the sia. all milk samples taken at 7 days after parturition from immunised animals were positive by lpbe. there ...19979504750
antigenic variation in foot and mouth disease virus type asia 1 isolates circulated during 1993-95 in india.the antigenic variation in foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is very high. the effective strategy to control the foot and mouth disease (fmd) in india which is a habitat of four serotypes o, a, c and asia 1, is by regular vaccination, using the vaccine strain most suitable for the local situation. india is an endemic country with the disease being widely distributed. selection of vaccine strain should therefore need the information on the circulating viruses. asia 1 causes the second largest n ...19979482590
evaluation of primers for pcr amplification of rna polymerase gene sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus.eight oligonucleotide primers in 7 different combinations were used to amplify 3d gene sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). six of the primers were designed at this laboratory. all the primer combinations could specifically amplify 3d gene sequences of fmdv serotypes o, a, and c. the largest fragment amplified was of 1,393 bp and the smallest was of 208 bp in size. the 1,393 bp fragment included sequences from the preceedin ...19979607092
neutralization antigenic sites on type asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus defined by monoclonal antibody-resistant variants.seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) produced against serotype asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were used to select neutralization-resistant variants. seven single and six multiple antibody-resistant variants were selected to identify neutralization antigenic sites on fmdv asia-1. the variants no longer reacted with nmabs which were used to select them when tested by microneutralization test (mnt), radioimmunoassay (ria) and agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) assay. based on t ...19979495534
[seroprevalence of viral infections in llamas (lama glama) in the republic of argentina].this study reports the seroprevalence of bovine viral infections in llamas (lama glama) in argentina. this is the first study made in the country including 390 llamas and testing antibodies against eight viruses. samples were collected from nine farms distributed in three different provinces: buenos aires, córdoba and jujuy. the samples were tested for antibodies against eight viruses known to infect cattle: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine adenovirus ...19979229724
computer simulations to identify in polyproteins of fmdv ok1 and a12 strains putative nonapeptides with amino acid motifs for binding to bola class i a11 and a20 haplotype molecules.the computer program "findpatterns" was used to search fmdv- (ok1 and a12 strains) coded structural and nonstructural proteins for the availability of putative proteasome-generated nonapeptides with motifs reported for bola class i a11 and a20 haplotypes. these bola class i a11 and a20 nonapeptide motifs are identical to motifs of nonapeptides that interact with the peptide binding grooves of hla class i b35 and b27 haplotypes, respectively. the computer findpattern program was used to analyze t ...19979237351
differentiation of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.a strategy for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using multiple primers was developed to detect and to differentiate the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) simultaneously, quickly and accurately. the development of the test was carried out on virus isolates grown in tissue culture prior to cdna synthesis and pcr using various sets of primers. primers p33 and p32 were used for the consensus pcr to detect fmdv regardless of the serotype. positive cdna was ...19979274816
preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1.eight clones of hybrid cells secreting monoclonal antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1 were prepared; three of them neutralized viral infection. the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies was analyzed by various immunoenzyme assays using 146s viral particles, trypsin-treated 146s particles, 12s particles, and certain viral polypeptides. the epitopes unique for virus type asia-1 and conservative among several types were detected on the surface of viral particles. epitopes on t ...19979275286
antigenic features of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 as revealed by monoclonal antibodies and neutralization-escape mutants.neutralizable antigenic sites/epitopes of serotype asial foot-and-mouth disease virus (strain ind63/72) were identified using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and their neutralization-escape mutants. relative affinity/reactivity of the mabs for viral (both native and trypsin-cleaved) and subviral antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) showed dominance of trypsin-sensitive and conformation-dependent neutralizable antigenic sites. characterization of neutralization escape mutants identi ...19979282776
natural adaption to pigs of a taiwanese isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19979290197
[use of protease 3c and foot-and-mouth disease virus rna polymerase hybrid proteins, synthesized in escherichia coli, for diagnosis]. 19979297102
nucleotide sequence of the p1 region of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o1 caseros.it has been shown that variation of antigenic site i in vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays an important role in the antigenic diversification of this virus. however, the o1 campos strain is able to efficiently cross-protect cattle against the o1 caseros strain, despite having a different sequence in the site i. in this paper we report and compare the p1 coding region for the capsid proteins of fmdv o1 caseros and o1 campos. the deduced amino acid sequence showed a total of 31 amino ...19979311571
plasmid dna encoding replicating foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes induces antiviral immune responses in swine.dna vaccine candidates for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) were engineered to produce fmd virus (fmdv) particles that were noninfectious in cell culture or animals. the prototype plasmid, pwrm, contains a cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-driven genome-length type a12 cdna followed by the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation site. bhk cells transfected with this plasmid produced virus, but the specific infectivity of pwrm was much lower than that achieved with in vitro-generated rna genomes ...19979311823
foot-and-mouth disease virus and poliovirus particles contain proteins of the replication complex.nonstructural proteins 2c, 3cd, 3c, and 3d, and the cellular protein actin, are present in highly purified preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and poliovirus. they remain bound in variable amounts to the rnas when the rnas are extracted from the viruses with phenol or phenol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) and, for fmdv, when the rna is released from the particles by a lowering of the ph below 7. rna prepared by these methods is rapidly degraded at 37 degrees c, particularly in the ...19979311848
contamination of animal products: the minimum pathogen dose required to initiate infection.when an animal product contains a low level of contamination (perhaps less than the minimum infective dose of a pathogen as determined experimentally), the theoretical probability remains that if a large number of animals are exposed to that product, at least one animal in the group will become infected. such an infected animal could start an outbreak of the disease. these aspects, therefore, should be considered when risk assessments are performed. foot and mouth disease virus in milk is used a ...19979329105
health hazards to the small ruminant population of the middle east posed by the trade of sheep and goat meat.meat consumers in the middle east traditionally prefer meat from freshly slaughtered animals to that from chilled or frozen carcasses. consequently, meat trade in the middle east is based mainly upon the importation of large quantities of live animals rather than of sheep and goat carcasses. furthermore, as it seems that pathogens remain viable for longer periods of time in live animals than in meat, the probability of pathogens spreading in the middle east as a result of contaminated small rumi ...19979329108
likelihood of introducing selected exotic diseases to domestic swine in the continental united states of america through uncooked swill.to help policy makers determine the need for current regulations (which require cooking of swill prior to feeding to swine), an assessment of the likelihood of exposing domestic swine in the continental united states of america (usa) to selected foreign animal disease agents by feeding uncooked swill was carried out. the hazard was assumed to originate from contraband food items entering the usa and subsequently being discarded in household waste. such food waste may be collected by licensed was ...19979329117
antiviral activity of an extract from leaves of the tropical plant acanthospermum hispidum.incubation of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabiesvirus (prv) and bovine herpesvirus 1 during infection of cell cultures with an extract prepared from the leaves of acanthospermum hispidum impaired productive replication of these viruses in a concentration-dependent manner whereas propagation of classical swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and vaccinia virus was not affected. the 50% inhibitory concentration for cell growth (ic50) was 107 +/- 5 microliters/ml, and the concentration r ...19979330761
functional involvement of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein in translation initiation complexes with the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the synthesis of picornavirus polyproteins is initiated cap independently far downstream from the 5' end of the viral rna at the internal ribosome entry site (ires). the cellular polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (ptb) binds to the ires of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, we demonstrate that ptb is a component of 48s and 80s ribosomal initiation complexes formed with fmdv ires rna. the incorporation of ptb into these initiation complexes is dependent on the entry of the ire ...19979343186
arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-specific binding by foot-and-mouth disease viruses to the purified integrin alpha(v)beta3 in vitro.the integrin alpha(v)beta3 has been shown to act as the receptor for internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (a12), with attachment being through a highly conserved rgd motif located on the g-h loop of viral capsid protein vp1. in addition, however, we have recently shown that efficient infection of culture-grown cells by fmdv (o1bfs) requires binding to cell surface heparan sulfate. in this study, we have used a solid-phase receptor binding assay to characterize the binding by fm ...19979343190
intact eukaryotic initiation factor 4g is required for hepatitis a virus internal initiation of translation.the requirements for optimal activity of the hepatitis a virus (hav) internal ribosome entry segment (ires) differ substantially from those of other picornavirus ireses. one such difference is that, to date, the hav ires is the only one whose efficiency is severely inhibited in the presence of the picornaviral 2a proteinase. here we describe experiments designed to dissect the mechanism of proteinase-mediated inhibition of hav translation. using dicistronic mrnas translated in vitro, we show tha ...19979344915
infectivity assays of foot-and-mouth disease virus: contact transmission between cattle and buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in the early stages of infection.no differences were observed between cattle and indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in terms of temperature, viraemia or virus replication in the pharyngeal area, during the acute phase of foot-and-mouth disease. like cattle, the indian buffalo became infected and excreted virus before any clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease developed. the disease was transmitted from cattle to buffalo and vice versa, during the acute stage of infection, as if the animals had been of the same species, presumab ...19979123797
baculovirus expressed 2c of foot-and-mouth disease virus has the potential for differentiating convalescent from vaccinated animals.determining whether animals have been infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus or vaccinated is important because infected animals frequently become carriers of the virus, shed it intermittently and thus may be the source of new outbreaks of the disease. we had shown previously that the sera of convalescent animals contain antibodies to 2c, a highly conserved non-structural protein, whereas the sera of vaccinated animals do not. this is explained by observation that 2c is retained on the membr ...19979128860
dexamethasone inhibits virus production and the secretory iga response in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid in cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus were treated with dexamethasone to suppress the immune system in an attempt to influence the level of virus recovery from oesophageal pharyngeal (probang) samples. twelve carrier cattle were assigned to one of three groups: control; 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone; and 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone. groups 2 and 3 were injected intramuscularly three times weekly for 3 weeks with dexamethasone between days 33 and 56 post-infection with foot-and-mou ...19979129595
structure of the complex of an fab fragment of a neutralizing antibody with foot-and-mouth disease virus: positioning of a highly mobile antigenic loop.data from cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography have been combined to study the interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype c (fmdv-c) with a strongly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) sd6. the mab sd6 binds to the long flexible gh-loop of viral protein 1 (vp1) which also binds to an integrin receptor. the structure of the virus-fab complex was determined to 30 a resolution using cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis. the known structure of fmdv-c, and of the sd ...19979130694
duration of the foot-and-mouth disease virus antibody response in mice is closely related to the presence of antigen-specific presenting cells.natural and experimental hosts infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) develop a long-lasting immune response that is closely related to the presence of anti-fmdv antibodies (ab). we show here that spleen cells from animals which had been infected 3 or more months previously induced an anti-fmdv-ab response in untreated animals which lasted more than 210 days after cell transfer. persistence of infectious virus was excluded since virus isolation or detection of the viral genome by pcr ...19979152419
identification of noncytopathic equine rhinovirus 1 as a cause of acute febrile respiratory disease in horses.equine rhinovirus 1 (erhv1) is a recognized cause of acute febrile respiratory disease in horse, although the virus is rarely isolated from such animals, despite seroprevalence rates as high as 50% in some horse populations. recently, erhv1 has been shown to be most closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus, raising questions as to its disease associations in horses. we report that erhv1 infection was the likely cause of two separate outbreaks of severe febrile respiratory disease which in ...19979157156
[bacterial synthesis of immunogenic epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused either to human necrosis factor or to hepatitis b core antigen].using recombinant dna technology, construction and bacterial expression of genes was carried out which code for hybrid proteins, human tumor necrosis factor and hepatitis b core protein fused to immunogenic epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus, strains a22 and o1-194. hybrids of tumor necrosis factor with foot-and-mouth disease antigenic determinants protected laboratory animals against the experimental challenge with a homologous strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus. hybrid protein that c ...19979157845
phenotypic features of bhk-21 cells used for production of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.bhk-21 c13 monolayer and suspension cells were investigated with regard to some phenotypic features which could bear on the quality of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen produced in them. despite good viability, suspension cells differed from monolayer cells in fundamental features of susceptibility to fmdv. most important, fmd virus particles grown in suspension cells at high passage levels were shown to be largely degraded following inactivation with an aziridine compound. suspension ...19979167010
conformational preferences of a peptide corresponding to the major antigenic determinant of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for peptide-vaccine approaches.the conformational preferences in solution of a peptide corresponding to the gh loop of the vp1 capsid protein from the foot-and-mouth disease virus were examined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism. the gh loop is the major antigenic determinant of the virus and participates in cell attachment through an integrin-like arg-gly-asp sequence. the synthetic peptide, corresponding to residues gly132 to ser162 of the vp1 capsid protein of the serotype o, is largely disordered ...19979169027
foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected but not vaccinated cattle develop antibodies against recombinant 3ab1 nonstructural protein.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines induce antibodies against structural and some nonstructural proteins present in vaccine preparations. to differentiate between fmdv-infected and vaccinated animals, we developed immunochemical assays capable of detecting antibodies against a fmdv nonstructural protein. recombinant nonstructural 3ab1 protein was expressed in e.coli and in insect cells and used to detect anti-3ab1 antibodies. elisa and western blot analysis showed that sera from cattle infecte ...19979170505
characteristic in vitro evolution pattern of foot and mouth disease virus a81/castellanos/arg/87.the in vitro evolution of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) a/81/castellanos/arg/87 (a/castellanos/87) was studied by partial biological and biochemical characterization of viral populations selected after 25 passages on secondary fetal bovine kidney cell monolayers. these passages were performed in the presence or absence of immune pressure exerted in the form of antiviral polyclonal serum. while the viral populations passaged in the absence of immune pressure acquired characteristics such as ...19979175254
total and isotype humoral responses in cattle vaccinated with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunogen produced either in bovine tongue tissue or in bhk-21 cell suspension cultures.the anti-foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serum antibody activity of protected and non protected animals immunized with inactivated fmdv originated in either bovine tongue tissue (bttv vaccines) or bhk-21 cell suspension cultures (bhkv vaccines) was evaluated. the results show that 80-100% of the bttv immunized and only 40-60% of the bhkv immunized animals with liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (lp elisa) serum titres of 1.5-1.7 u, were protected against the challenge with any of the four ...19979178462
tissue culture adaptation of foot-and-mouth disease virus selects viruses that bind to heparin and are attenuated in cattle.isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) exist as complex mixtures of variants. two different serotype o1 campos preparations that we examined contained two variants with distinct plaque morphologies on bhk cells: a small, clear-plaque virus that replicates in bhk and cho cells, and a large, turbid-plaque virus that only grows in bhk cells. cdnas encoding the capsids of these two variants were inserted into a genome-length fmdv type a12 infectious cdna and used to produce chimeric viruses ...19979188578
cellular and humoral immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus and its non-structural proteins in infected swine. 19979191317
cellular immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19979191319
evolution subverting essentiality: dispensability of the cell attachment arg-gly-asp motif in multiply passaged foot-and-mouth disease virus.aphthoviruses use a conserved arg-gly-asp triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. here we report that this triplet-which is also a widespread motif involved in cell-to-cell adhesion-can become dispensable upon short-term evolution of the virus harboring it. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which was multiply passaged in cell culture, showed an altered repertoire of antigenic variants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. ...19979192645
a cyclic disulfide peptide reproduces in solution the main structural features of a native antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a cyclic disulfide peptide corresponding to the g-h loop sequence 134-155 [replacement tyr136 and arg153 with cys] of the capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolate c-s8c1 was examined by proton 2d-nmr spectroscopy in water and in 25% hfip/water. in water, nmr data supported the presence of a non-canonical turn in the central, conserved cell adhesion rgd motif and suggested the presence of a nascent helix in the c-terminal part, stabilized and slightly extended upon additi ...19979218170
rapid diagnosis of encephalomyocarditis virus infections in pigs using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) is widespread and the economic losses caused by an emcv outbreak in pig holdings and the similarity between a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and an emcv infection in young piglets stress the need for a rapid, specific and broad diagnostic assay. an alternative to the time-consuming seroneutralisation assay, currently used for the characterisation of emcv, is described. an emcv specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), using primers ...19979220393
point mutations within the betag-betah loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1k affect virus attachment to target cells.the amino acid sequence arg-gly-asp (rgd) is a highly conserved region located on the p1d protein of most sero- and subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)and participates in binding of fmdv to their target cells. in order to analyze the role of the rgd sequence in fmdv infection of cells in more detail, 13 mutations within or near the rgd sequence of virus type o1kaufbeuren were designed by using a full-length cdna plasmid. transfection of baby hamster kidney cells (bhk-21) with in vitr ...19978995624
elf4g and its proteolytic cleavage products: effect on initiation of protein synthesis from capped, uncapped, and ires-containing mrnas.rhinovirus 2a and foot-and-mouth disease virus lb proteinases stimulate the translation of uncapped messages and those carrying the rhinovirus and enterovirus internal ribosome entry segments (ireses) by a mechanism involving the cleavage of host cell proteins. here, we investigate this mechanism using an artificial dicistronic rna containing the human rhinovirus ires as intercistronic spacer. because both proteinases cleave eukaryotic initiation factor 4g (eif4g), we examined whether the cleava ...19979042945
the proteolytic cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4g is prevented by eif4e binding protein (phas-i; 4e-bp1) in the reticulocyte lysate.a common feature of viral infection is the subversion of the host cell machinery towards the preferential translation of viral products. in some instances, this is partly mediated by the expression of virally encoded proteases which lead to the cleavage of initiation factor eif4g. the foot-and-mouth disease virus encodes two forms of a cysteine proteinase (l protease) which bisects the eif4g polypeptide into an n-terminal fragment containing the eif4e binding site, and a c-terminal fragment whic ...19979049313
differential restrictions on antigenic variation among antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the absence of antibody selection.clonal populations of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been serially passaged in cell culture to analyse variation in the absence of immune selection at different antigenic sites of the virus. mutant frequencies at the rna regions encoding two independent antigenic sites (sites c and d) were more than twentyfold lower than for antigenic site a (the g-h loop of vp1). correspondingly, fixation of amino acid substitutions was very restricted in sites c and d. in spite of such a restriction, neutra ...19979049411
a large-scale evaluation of peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease: lack of solid protection in cattle and isolation of escape mutants.a large-scale vaccination experiment involving a total of 138 cattle was carried out to evaluate the potential of synthetic peptides as vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease. four types of peptides representing sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c3 argentina 85 were tested: a, which includes the g-h loop of capsid protein vp1 (site a); at, in which a t-cell epitope has been added to site a; ac, composed of site a and the carboxy-terminal region of vp1 (site c); and act, in which ...19979060612
characterization of synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus provirions separates acid-mediated disassembly from infectivity.one of the final steps in the maturation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is cleavage of the vp0 protein to produce vp4 and vp2. the mechanism of this cleavage is unknown, but it is thought to function in stabilizing the virus particle and priming it for infecting cells. to investigate the cleavage process and to understand its role in virion maturation, we engineered synthetic fmdv rnas with mutations at ala-85 (a85) and asp-86 (d86) of vp0, which border the cleavage site. bhk cells trans ...19979060641
an analysis of foot-and-mouth-disease epidemics in the uk.there was a major epidemic of the foot-and-mouth-disease virus among cattle herds in the uk in 1967-68 which showed a very rapid early spread, a much slower later spread, and eventually infected 12% of herds in the core epidemic area. a simple discrete-time version of a susceptible-latent-infectious-removed epidemiological model is used to generate a set of estimates of the transmission rate. this parameter has high values over the first few days, then the values are lower and they subsequently ...19979080685
structural comparison between retro-inverso and parent peptides: molecular basis for the biological activity of a retro-inverso analogue of the immunodominant fragment of vp1 coat protein from foot-and-mouth disease virus.antibodies induced against intact foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles bind to the retro-inverso analogue of fragment 141-159 of the viral coat protein vp1 of fmdv, variant a, equally well as to the parent peptide. a conformational investigation of this retro-inverso peptide was carried out by nmr spectroscopy and restrained molecular modeling in order to identify the structural basis for the antigenic mimicry between these retro-inverso and parent peptides. in 100% trifluoroethanol a w ...19979095678
assessment using elisa of the herd immunity levels induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease oil vaccines.the development of a liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (lpbe) to measure antibodies (ab) produced in cattle with the o, a and c foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) types of commercial vaccines used in argentina is described. the test was specific: 99% of naïve cattle sera (n = 130) gave titres below log10 = 1.2, and none had a titre above log10 = 1.5. comparative studies with serum neutralization test (snt) using sera from cattle which received one or more vaccine doses is reported. the overa ...19989500182
[synthesis and immunogenic properties of peptides--fragments of the immunodominant regions of the vp1 protein of the asia-1 type of foot- and-mouth disease virus].potential immunodominant epitopes were predicted on the basis of a theoretical analysis of the antigenic structure of the vp1 protein of the type asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus. peptides corresponding to the 140-153, 136-153, 132-153, 143-157, 137-157, and 193-208 fragments of the vp1 protein sequence were synthesized by the solid phase method, and the immunogenic properties of the peptides were studied on guinea pigs. the shortest peptide exhibiting the protective effect was found to corre ...199810079947
the foot and mouth disease virus type o outbreak of 1992 is not related to vaccine strain (o/r2/75).vaccination is the only pragmatic approach to control foot and mouth disease in india. strict quality control measures are essential to supply potent vaccine to the field application, in addition to monitoring the performance of the vaccine in the field. during the process of monitoring, an outbreak of fmd in vaccinated animals caused by type "o" virus in tanjavur district of tamil nadu and a type "o" virus from unvaccinated herd of karnataka were studied. field isolates and vaccine virus were s ...19989608661
vp1-coding sequences of recent isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a, o and asia1.a large part of the capsid protein vp1-coding sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus, isolated between 1993 and 1996 in europe, was amplified by the reverse transcription-dependent polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). the same was done with some non-european virus isolates, especially those against which vaccines were currently produced. the products were sequenced, and the sequences aligned. the alignment comprises sequences of the types a, o and asia 1. although the provenance of virus introd ...19989608664
[molecular basis of changes in biological properties of foot and mouth disease virus of subtype a22].primary structure of capsid proteins and rna polymerase of three closely related strains of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), subtype a22, differing by biological properties (the initial epitheliotropic strain a22 550 and its derivatives: thermoresistant myotropic a22 550/4 and thermosensitive attenuated a22 645) are compared by nucleic acid sequencing and analysis of the amino acid sequencing. the study revealed 1 substitute in vpi and 8 in rna polymerase in the myotropic variant and 1 subst ...19989611758
mutational analysis of discontinuous epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus using an unprocessed capsid protomer precursor.an unprocessed capsid precursor (p1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been expressed in mammalian cells to study discontinuous epitopes involved in viral neutralization. amino acid replacements found in virus-escape mutants were engineered in the p1 precursor by site-directed mutagenesis of the plasmid. in all cases the replacements abolished recognition of unprocessed p1 by the relevant monoclonal antibodies (mabs), paralleling the effects of the corresponding substitutions in neutral ...19989617767
detection and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-saharan africa.genomic amplification of the vp1 gene of sat-type foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was performed with published and novel oligonucleotide primers. the primer pair with the highest sat-type recognition (67%) was identified and selected for optimization. modifications to primers significantly improved sat-type detection (100%), broadened the recognition range to european (a, o and c) and asian (asia-1) serotypes and improved test sensitivity. in addition to being able to confirm the presence of ...19989629589
differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease using a panel of recombinant, non-structural proteins in elisa.a profiling elisa was developed to detect antibody to the non-structural (ns) proteins lb, 2c, 3a, 3d, and the polyprotein 3abc, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the assay was used to examine panels of sera from naive cattle, and from experimentally infected or vaccinated animals. all sera from cattle experimentally infected with any of the seven serotypes of fmdv were positive for antibody to 2c, 3a, 3d and 3abc, and the majority were positive for lb. the three categories of sera could b ...19989491499
an rna virus can adapt to the multiplicity of infection.rna viruses evolve as complex distributions of mutants termed viral quasispecies. for this reason it is relevant to explore those environmental parameters that favour the selective advantage of some viral subpopulations over others. in the present study we provide direct evidence that the relative fitness of two competing viral subpopulations may depend on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.). two closely related subpopulations of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c, which differ ...19989880011
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to foot and mouth disease virus type 'c'.five fusion experiments were conducted with spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with purified 146s antigen of foot and mouth disease virus type 'c' (vaccine strain). monoclones (31) thus developed were isotyped as igm (3), igg1 (6), igg2a (5), igg2b (3) and igg3 (14). eleven clones isotyped as igm, igg2a and igg2b showed neutralizing activity in virus neutralization and plaque reduction tests. six of the neutralizing clones precipitated 146s virus in ouchterlony reaction. on the basis of loc ...199810093509
a cell adhesion peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus can direct cell targeted delivery of a functional enzyme.the g-h loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus is a disordered protrusion of the vp1 protein exposed on the virion surface. this short stretch includes an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide, a recognized integrin-binding motif, which is responsible for cell attachment and infection. eight copies of a peptide reproducing the amino acid sequence of this fmdv ligand have been displayed in solvent-exposed regions on an enzymatically active recombinant beta-galactosidase. this viral peptide segm ...199810099340
infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus results in a rapid reduction of mhc class i surface expression.the modulation of mhc class i molecule expression on the surface of cells as a consequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection has been examined. on cells infected with fmdv, class i expression was reduced to approximately 70% of the initial value 3 h after the infection and to 53% after 6 h. on cells depleted of surface class i complexes by acid treatment, the appearance of newly assembled class i-peptide complexes on the cell surface of non-infected cells increased immediately upo ...19989519820
antigenic structure of foot and mouth disease virus type a22 (indian isolates).variations in foot and mouth disease virus are due to amino acid substitutions in the vp1, which is a major immunogen. analysis of this hypervariable region is essential to know the antigenic structure of the serotype and is necessary to select a suitable vaccine strain. fmdv type a22 is one of the four prevailing virus types for which the vaccine is used regularly. to understand the antigenic structure of this type, carboxy- terminal region of vp1 from two field isolates and vaccine virus were ...19989536655
characterizing sequence variation in the vp1 capsid proteins of foot and mouth disease virus (serotype 0) with respect to virion structure.the vp1 capsid protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly polymorphic and contains several of the major immunogenic sites important to effective antibody neutralization and subsequent viral clearance by the immune system. whether this high level of polymorphism is of adaptive value to the virus remains unknown. in this study we examined sequence data from a set of 55 isolates in order to establish the nature of selective pressures acting on this gene. using the known molecular stru ...19989541542
analysis of the b and t cell response in guinea pigs induced with recombinant vaccinia expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins.recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) p1 and vp1 genes have been used to study the immune response induced by these viral polypeptides in guinea pigs. anti-fmdv antibodies, but not neutralizing activity, were detected in the sera from immunized animals. the results indicate that both cd4+ and cd8+ fmdv-specific t cells were induced by the vaccinia recombinants. consistently with the activation of cd4+ t cells, lymphocytes from immunized animals specifically ...19989541622
the potential of retro-inverso peptides as synthetic vaccines.retro-inverso (ri) peptides, also called all-d-retro peptides, have been shown to mimic the antigenic and immunogenic properties of l-peptides successfully. ri peptides corresponding to the loop 141-159 of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been synthesized and used to immunize rabbits and guinea pigs. these peptides induced longer-lasting and higher antibody titres in immunized animals than did the corresponding l-peptides and the antibodies cross-reacted strongly with ...19989554267
foot-and-mouth disease virus virulent for cattle utilizes the integrin alpha(v)beta3 as its receptor.adsorption and plaque formation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a12 are inhibited by antibodies to the integrin alpha(v)beta3 (a. berinstein et al., j. virol. 69:2664-2666, 1995). a human cell line, k562, which does not normally express alpha(v)beta3 cannot replicate this serotype unless cells are transfected with cdnas encoding this integrin (k562-alpha(v)beta3 cells). in contrast, we found that a tissue culture-propagated fmdv, type o1bfs, was able to replicate in nontransfecte ...19989557639
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