TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
mosaic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes.the results of a simple pairwise-scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination fragments, applied to genome data from 156 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) representing all seven serotypes, are reported. large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments were identified from all parts of the fmdv genome, with the exception of the capsid genes, within which such fragments are infrequent. as expected, intertypic fragment exchange is most common between geographica ...200717251567
quantification of foot and mouth disease virus excretion and transmission within groups of lambs with and without vaccination.sheep are well known to be susceptible for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), but it is unknown whether the infection can spread and persist in a sheep population. we therefore quantified virus transmission by performing experiments with fmd virus strain o/net/2001 in groups of lambs. we used six groups of four lambs each, in which half of each group was inoculated and the other half was contact-exposed. to quantify the effectiveness of a single vaccination we also included six groups of four ...200717254674
non-toxic pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin a expressing the fmdv vp1 g-h loop for mucosal vaccination of swine against foot and mouth disease virus.synthetic peptides derived from the g-h loop of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein vp1 are relatively poor at recapitulating the native conformation present in the virus, and thus are often poor immunogens. we hypothesized that a candidate mucosal vaccine against fmdv could be developed using the non-toxic pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin a (ntpe) to deliver the g-h loop in its native conformation. an added benefit of this approach is the potential for ntpe to serve as an effe ...200717276557
temporal and spatial distributions of foot-and-mouth disease under three different strategies of control and eradication in colombia (1982-2003).outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) from january 1982 through december 2003 were used to examine variations in serotype- and species-specific risk for three control programmes in colombia: (1982-1983) vaccination, using an aluminium hydroxide, saponin adjuvant, required but not enforced; (1984-1996) vaccination, using an oil double-emulsion adjuvant, required but not enforced; and (1997-2003) enforced vaccination, using an oil double-emulsion adjuvant, restricted animal movement enforced, ...200717285248
characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains circulating in turkey during 1996-2004.two genotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a were identified as the cause of disease outbreaks in turkey during 1996-2004, while serotype o strains, identified during the same period, seem to represent an evolutionary continuum, and asia1 strains were only rarely identified. the data presented are concordant with the conclusion that serotype a strains are repeatedly introduced to turkey from the east and circulate only transiently in farming communities, while type o strains persist ...200717294092
the potential role of wild and feral animals as reservoirs of foot-and-mouth disease.we investigated the potential role of feral pigs and wild deer as fmd reservoirs with a susceptible-latent-infected-recovered geographic-automata model, using spatially referenced data from southern texas, usa. an uncontrolled fmd outbreak initiated in feral pigs and in wild deer might infect up to 698 (90% prediction interval 181, 1387) and 1557 (823, 2118) cattle and affect an area of 166 km(2) (53, 306) and 455 km(2) (301, 588), respectively. the predicted spread of fmd virus infection was in ...200717316848
identification of a major antibody binding epitope in the non-structural protein 3d of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle and the development of a monoclonal antibody with diagnostic applications.detection of fmdv non-structural protein 3d antibodies has been used as a complementary method for sero-epidemiological studies as an indirect indicator of fmdv infection. in order to develop a sensitive celisa to detect fmdv antibodies, immune dominant epitopes in fmdv-3d protein were identified by peptide array analysis. monoclonal antibodies were then raised to a selected epitope and used in celisa. ninety two peptides corresponding to the complete amino acid sequence of fmdv-3d were synthesi ...200717320098
thermostable variants are not generally represented in foot-and-mouth disease virus quasispecies.a severe limitation to fully realize the dramatic potential for adaptation of rna virus quasispecies may occur if mutations in vast regions of the sequence space of virus genomes lead to significant decreases in biological fitness. in this study the detection and selection by heat of thermostable variants from different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) populations were attempted, in order to explore whether fmdv may generally accept a substantial increase in thermostability without compromisi ...200717325358
production and application of recombinant antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3abc.the stamping out of animals to control a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreak results in enormous livestock losses. the implementation of vaccination strategies can reduce these losses; however it complicates the process of establishing freedom from disease following an outbreak. the availability of quality diagnostic tests to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is crucial to prove freedom from disease and allow for the resumption of trade in livestock products. all current fo ...200717328909
development of an epitope-blocking-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate between animals infected with and vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease epitope-blocking elisa (eb-elisa) was developed to distinguish animals infected with foot-and-mouth-disease (fmdv) from those immunized with commercial vaccines. the assay used monoclonal antibodies to target the 3b core repeat motif (qkplk) and purified recombinant 3ab proteins from the major b cell line epitopes of fmdv. sera from uninfected and regularly vaccinated cattle, pigs, goats, and sheep (raised in fmdv free areas) were screened to evaluate the specificity of the eb-elisa. the spec ...200717336400
the effect of vaccination on foot and mouth disease virus transmission among dairy cows.the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a single vaccination of dairy cows on foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) transmission. to estimate if vaccination could significantly reduce virus transmission, we performed two replicates of a transmission experiment with one group of vaccinated and one group of non-vaccinated dairy cows (ten animals per group). half of both groups were intranasally inoculated, with fmdv field isolate o/net2001, and housed with the other half of the group (co ...200716949184
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease: recent structural and functional insights into an antiviral target.the 3c protease from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv 3c(pro)) is critical for viral pathogenesis, having vital roles in both the processing of the polyprotein precursor and rna replication. although recent structural and functional studies have revealed new insights into the mechanism and function of the enzyme, key questions remain that must be addressed before the potential of fmdv 3c(pro) as an antiviral drug target can be realised.200716979372
2'-c-methylcytidine as a potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we report on the potent and selective in vitro antiviral activity of 2'-c-methylcytidine (2'-c-metcyt) against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). fmdv belongs to the picornaviridae and has the potential to cause devastating epidemics in livestock. the 50% and 90% effective concentrations (ec50 and ec90) for inhibition of the fmdv-induced cytopathic effect (cpe) formation were 6.4+/-3.8 and 10.8+/-5.4 microm. comparable ec50 values for inhibition of viral rna synthesis were observed. treatment ...200717055073
phylogenetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o re-emerging in free areas of south america.the nucleotide sequences of the complete vp(1)-coding region of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv), type o, isolated during the recent emergencies of the disease in free areas of south america (mato grosso do sul, brazil, october 2005, and corrientes, argentina, february 2006), were determined. also established were the complete vp(1)-coding sequences of viruses occurring in neighbouring locations between the years 2000 and 2003. a phylogenetic analysis was performed based on comparison with ...200717056146
structural and mutagenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease reveals the role of the beta-ribbon in proteolysis.the 3c protease (3c(pro)) from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the causative agent of a widespread and economically devastating disease of domestic livestock, is a potential target for antiviral drug design. we have determined the structure of a new crystal form of fmdv 3c(pro), a chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease, which reveals features that are important for catalytic activity. in particular, we show that a surface loop which was disordered in previous structures adopts a beta-ribbon st ...200717065215
reporting of suspect cases of foot-and-mouth-disease during the 2001 epidemic in the uk, and the herd sensitivity and herd specificity of clinical diagnosis.we described the clinical diagnostic process utilized during the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth-disease in the united kingdom (uk), and considered it as a series of diagnostic tests. premises were classified according to these diagnostic-test results and actual disease status, determined by the reference test, which in this case was one or more internationally accepted laboratory tests. the herd-level sensitivity (hse) and herd-level specificity (hsp) of the clinical diagnostic process were cal ...200717081639
immune enhancing effects of recombinant bovine il-18 on foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in mice model.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and can cause a considerable socio-economic loss for affected countries. interleukin-18 (il-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important role in both the development of a functional immune system as well as the response of the organism to infection. in the present study, bovine il-18 (boil-18), foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 and vp1/boil-18 fusion genes were cloned and expressed in pichia pastoris (p. pas ...200717084491
localization of functional polypeptides in bacterial inclusion bodies.bacterial inclusion bodies, while showing intriguing amyloid-like features, such as a beta-sheet-based intermolecular organization, binding to amyloid-tropic dyes, and origin in a sequence-selective deposition process, hold an important amount of native-like secondary structure and significant amounts of functional polypeptides. the aggregation mechanics supporting the occurrence of both misfolded and properly folded protein is controversial. single polypeptide chains might contain both misfolde ...200717085715
production and characterization of two serotype independent monoclonal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced from mice immunized with either fmdv serotype a, subunit (12s) or fmdv serotype o, whole virus (140s). both mabs (f1412sa and f21140so) recognized all seven serotypes of fmdv in a double antibody sandwich (das) elisa, suggesting that the binding epitopes of the two mabs are conserved between serotypes. these mabs are igg1 isotype and contain kappa light chains. in order to define the mab binding epitopes, the reac ...200717109972
comparison of sensitivity and specificity in three commercial foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein elisa kits with swine sera in taiwan.three commercialized elisa kits for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus were compared, using sera from uninfected, vaccinated, challenged and naturally infected pigs. the kinetics of the antibody response to nsps was compared on sequential serum samples in swine from challenge studies and outbreaks. the results showed that elisa a (ubi) and elisa b (cedi) had better sensitivity than that of the 3abc recombinant protein-based elisa c (chekit). the peak f ...200717112687
genetic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates recovered from persistently infected water buffalo (bubalus bubalis).genetic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates, serotype o, recovered serially over a 1-year period from persistently infected buffalos was assessed. the persistent state was established experimentally with plaque-purified fmdv, strain o(1)campos, in five buffalos (bubalus bubalis). viral isolates collected from esophageal-pharyngeal (ep) fluids for up to 71 weeks after infection were analyzed at different times by nucleotide sequencing and t(1) rnase oligonucleotide fingerpri ...200717113729
inhibition of the secretory pathway by foot-and-mouth disease virus 2bc protein is reproduced by coexpression of 2b with 2c, and the site of inhibition is determined by the subcellular location of 2c.infection of cells with picornaviruses can lead to a block in protein secretion. for poliovirus this is achieved by the 3a protein, and the consequent reduction in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class i proteins may inhibit host immune responses in vivo. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), another picornavirus, can cause persistent infection of ruminants, suggesting it too may inhibit immune responses. endoplasmic reticulum (er) ...200717121791
passive immunization of guinea pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease that occasionally causes outbreaks in europe. there is a need for therapies that provide rapid protection against fmd in outbreak situations. we aim to provide such rapid protection by passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs). twenty-four vhhs binding serotype o fmdv in vitro were isolated from immunized llamas by phage display and expressed in bakers yeast for further characterization. they recognized fou ...200717127019
foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant with decreased sensitivity to ribavirin: implications for error catastrophe.the nucleoside analogue ribavirin (r) is mutagenic for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). passage of fmdv in the presence of increasing concentrations of r resulted in the selection of fmdv with the amino acid substitution m296i in the viral polymerase (3d). measurements of progeny production and viral fitness with chimeric viruses in the presence and absence of r documented that the 3d substitution m296i conferred on fmdv a selective replicative advantage in the presence of r but not in the a ...200717151116
deterministic, compensatory mutational events in the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus in response to the introduction of mutations found in viruses from persistent infections.the evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (biological clone c-s8c1) in persistently infected cells led to the emergence of a variant (r100) that displayed increased virulence, reduced stability, and other modified phenotypic traits. some mutations fixed in the r100 genome involved a cluster of highly conserved residues around the capsid pores that participate in interactions with each other and/or between capsid protomers. we have investigated phenotypic and genotypic changes that occ ...200717151123
serological and mucosal immune responses after vaccination and infection with fmdv in pigs.the aim of this study was to determine a possible correlation between humoral immune responses shortly after vaccination and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection and to study the serological and mucosal antibody responses after vaccination and infection. we used three groups of ten pigs, one non-vaccinated group, one group vaccinated with a single dose vaccine and one group vaccinated with a four-fold dose vaccine. at 7 days post vaccination, five pigs per group were ...200717157418
a second rgd motif in the 1d capsid protein of a sat1 type foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolate is not essential for attachment to target cells.the amino acid sequence motif arg-gly-asp (rgd), located in the surface-exposed betag-betah loop of the 1d protein of different serotypes and subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is highly conserved and participates in binding of fmdv to susceptible cells. previous sequence analyses of the 1d-encoding region of a fmdv serotype sat1 field isolate from namibia (nam/307/98) indicated the presence of a second rgd motif upstream of the conserved betag-betah loop rgd. the role of these rgd ...200717161881
induction of immature dendritic cell apoptosis by foot and mouth disease virus is an integrin receptor mediated event before viral infection.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been demonstrated to infect dendritic cells (dc) and reduced its ability to stimulate host immune responses. this study aimed to determine whether non-replicating fmdv could induce apoptosis of the host immune cells. in this study, we have demonstrated that bone morrow derived dendritic cells (bmdcs) were induced to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, which was determined by the annexin-v staining, dna fragmentation, and tunel staining methods, a ...200717427949
pocket factors are unlikely to play a major role in the life cycle of human rhinovirus.human rhinovirus 14 (hrv14) is a member of the rhinovirus genus, which belongs to the picornavirus family, which includes clinically and economically important members, such as poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and endomyocarditis virus. capsid stability plays an important role in the viral infection process, in that it needs to be stable enough to move from cell to cell and yet be able to release its genetic material upon the appropriate environmental cues from the host cell. it has bee ...200717428846
molecular basis for a lack of correlation between viral fitness and cell killing capacity.the relationship between parasite fitness and virulence has been the object of experimental and theoretical studies often with conflicting conclusions. here, we provide direct experimental evidence that viral fitness and virulence, both measured in the same biological environment provided by host cells in culture, can be two unrelated traits. a biological clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus acquired high fitness and virulence (cell killing capacity) upon large population passages in cell cultu ...200717432933
[construction of recombinant retroviral vector carrying porcine interferon-gamma and its expression in porcine kidney cells (pk-15)].porcine interferon-gamma (poifn-gamma) of chinese local brand, meishan porcine, was cloned and inserted into retroviral vector plxsn (neo r) . using lipofectamine, this recombinant plasmid was transfected into retroviral packing cell line, pa317 cells. these transfected cells were selected by dmem containing 400microg/ml g418 for one week. rna was extracted from the supernatant of these selected pa317 cells and the poifn-gamma gene could be amplified by rt-pcr. pocine kidney cells and pk-15 cell ...200717436641
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection induces proteolytic cleavage of ptb, eif3a,b, and pabp rna-binding proteins.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection induces major changes in the host cell including the shutoff of cellular protein synthesis. here, protein extracts from fmdv-infected cells have been used to monitor changes in the profile of rna-binding factors interacting with regulatory regions of the viral rna. relevant differences have been detected in the pattern of interaction with proteins prepared from either infected or uninfected cells with rna probes encompassing the internal ribosome ent ...200717445855
immune responses of pigs to commercialized emulsion fmd vaccines and live virus challenge.the immune response to structural and non-structural proteins (nsps) was studied on sequential serum samples in swine from o/taiwan/97 fmdv challenge studies, outbreaks and after vaccination. the results showed that pigs vaccinated with a commercial vaccine prior to or after infection maintained high neutralizing antibody titers with gradual decline from peak titers over the duration of this study. however, neutralizing antibody titers in non-vaccinated pigs only reached moderate levels 2-4 week ...200717445957
characterization of a cyanobacterial rnase p ribozyme recognition motif in the ires of foot-and-mouth disease virus reveals a unique structural element.translation initiation driven by internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements is dependent on the structural organization of the ires region. picornavirus ires are organized in structural domains, in which the terminal stem-loops participate in functional rna-protein interactions. however, the mechanistic role performed by the central domain during internal initiation has not been elucidated yet. here we show that the foot-and-mouth-disease virus ires contains a structural motif that serves in v ...200717449727
microarray-based molecular detection of foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease viruses, using padlock probes.the world organization for animal health (office international des epizooties, oie) includes the diseases caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), as "diseases notifiable to the oie". foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks have severe economical as well as social effects and cannot be differentiated from the diseases caused by the other two viruses on the basis of clinical symptoms. efficient laboratory techniques ...200717451815
foot-and-mouth disease virus crosses the placenta and causes death in fetal lambs.eighteen pregnant sheep, six at 45 days gestation and twelve at 75 days gestation, were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o ukg 34/2001. two sheep from each gestational group were killed at 2, 4, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). three sheep, pregnant for 75 days at infection, were killed at 17 and 18 dpi. real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and virus isolation (vi) were used to detect viral rna and infectious virus, respectively, in fetal tis ...200717459409
performance of a foot-and-mouth disease virus reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with amplification controls between three real-time instruments.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a member of the picornavirus family, possessing an 8-kb single-stranded rna genome of positive polarity. it is highly contagious among several livestock species and can lead to severe economic consequences, as evidenced by the uk outbreak in 2001. the usage of real-time polymerase chain reaction has facilitated rapid detection of fmdv. several real-time pcr instruments are available with various capabilities, such as portability and high sample volume a ...200717459827
enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by a combination of type i and ii porcine interferons.previously, we showed that type i interferon (alpha/beta interferon [ifn-alpha/beta]) can inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in cell culture, and swine inoculated with 10(9) pfu of human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine ifn-alpha (ad5-pifn-alpha) were protected when challenged 1 day later. in this study, we found that type ii pifn (pifn-gamma) also has antiviral activity against fmdv in cell culture and that, in combination with pifn-alpha, it has a synergistic antiviral ...200717459931
molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a and o isolated in argentina during the 2000-2002 epizootic.during 2000-2002 a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epizootic affected argentina and spread across the country resulting in more than 2500 outbreaks. in order to study the evolution of the fmd viruses (fmdv) and help with disease control measures, a genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis was performed of 43 field isolates representative of the epizootic. the nucleotide sequence of the vp1-coding region was determined for the viruses and used in this study. two serotype a lineages, a/arg/ ...200717475419
insights into rna virus mutant spectrum and lethal mutagenesis events: replicative interference and complementation by multiple point mutants.rna virus behavior can be influenced by interactions among viral genomes and their expression products within the mutant spectra of replicating viral quasispecies. here, we report the extent of interference of specific capsid and polymerase mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) on replication of wild-type (wt) rna. the capsid and polymerase mutants chosen for this analysis had been characterized biochemically and structurally. upon co-electroporation of bhk-21 cells with wt rna and a te ...200717481660
evaluation of laboratory tests for sat serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus with specimens collected from convalescent cattle in zimbabwe.during a field study in zimbabwe, clinical specimens were collected from 403 cattle in six herds, in which the history of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination and infection appeared to be known with some certainty. five herds had reported outbreaks of disease one to five months previously but clinical fmd had not been observed in the sixth herd. a trivalent vaccine (south african territories [sat] types 1, 2 and 3) had been used in some of the herds at various times either before and/or afte ...200717496271
immunization of dna vaccine encoding c3d-vp1 fusion enhanced protective immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus.because foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) remains a great problem to many livestock of agricultural importance, safe, effective vaccines are in great need. dna vaccine would be a promising candidate but the design remains to be optimized. vp1 gene of fmdv strain o/es/2001 was linked to three copies of either porcine or murine c3d or four copies of a 28-aa fragment of murine c3d containing the cr2 receptor binding domain (m28). the resultant plasmids encoding c3d/m28-vp1 fusion or only vp1 as c ...200717497212
chimeric tymovirus-like particles displaying foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein epitopes and its use for detection of fmdv-nsp antibodies.expression of physalis mottle tymovirus (phmv) coat protein (cp) in escherichia coli (e. coli) was earlier shown to self-assemble into empty capsids that are nearly identical to the capsids formed in vivo. aminoacid substitutions were made at the n-terminus of wild-type phmv cp with single or tandem repeats of infection related b-cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural proteins (nsps) 3b1, 3b2, 3ab, 3d and 3abd of lengths 48, 66, 49, 51 and 55, respectively to produce ...200717499404
improvement of a commercial foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by supplement of quil model animal experiment a, icr mice were immunized with ovalbumin (ova) adjuvanted with quil a or mineral oil or their combination (quil a+oil). in model animal experiment b, icr mice were immunized with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigens or with a commercially available oil adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine (type o) alone or mixed with quil a. after that, serum samples were collected to analyze specific igg and igg subclasses igg1, igg2a, igg2b, and igg3. in experimen ...200717509735
structural analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease: a viable target for antiviral drugs?foot-and-mouth disease virus causes a major global agricultural problem that is difficult to control with existing vaccines. structural analyses of the viral 3c protease not only have provided fresh insights into the catalytic mechanism of an unusual class of chymotrypsin-like cysteine proteases, but also are generating valuable information to drive the quest for effective antiviral therapies.200717511659
molecular typing of a new foot-and-mouth disease virus in egypt. 200717513836
sequential structures provide insights into the fidelity of rna replication.rna virus replication is an error-prone event caused by the low fidelity of viral rna-dependent rna polymerases. replication fidelity can be decreased further by the use of mutagenic ribonucleoside analogs to a point where viral genetic information can no longer be maintained. for foot-and-mouth disease virus, the antiviral analogs ribavirin and 5-fluorouracil have been shown to be mutagenic, contributing to virus extinction through lethal mutagenesis. here, we report the x-ray structure of four ...200717517631
guinea pig-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered receptor recognition can productively infect a natural host.we report that adaptation to infect the guinea pig did not modify the capacity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to kill suckling mice and to cause an acute and transmissible disease in the pig, an important natural host for this pathogen. adaptive amino acid replacements (i(248)-->t in 2c, q(44)-->r in 3a, and l(147)-->p in vp1), selected upon serial passages of a type c fmdv isolated from swine (biological clone c-s8c1) in the guinea pig, were maintained after virus multiplication in swin ...200717522230
identification of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus specific t-cell epitope with immunodominant characteristics in cattle with mhc serotype identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) specific t-cell epitopes within the entire polyprotein sequence of the virus, 442 overlapping pentadecapeptides were tested in proliferation assays using lymphocytes from cattle experimentally infected with fmdv. four months post-infection cells from all investigated animals (n = 4) responded by proliferation and interferon-gamma production to a peptide located on the structural protein 1d (vp1), amino acid residues 66-80. major histocompatibility ...200717540158
enhanced protective efficacy and reduced viral load of foot-and-mouth disease dna vaccine with co-stimulatory molecules as the molecular improve efficacy of dna vaccination, various approaches have been developed, including the use of plasmid expressing co-stimulatory molecules as molecular adjuvants. in this study, we investigated whether co-inoculation of a construct expressing either 4-1bbl or ox40l as the molecular adjuvant with fmdv dna vaccine, pcd-vp1, can increase immune responses and protective efficacies. compared to the group immunized with pcd-vp1 alone, the co-inoculation of either molecular adjuvant induced a hig ...200717540462
heterologous expression of fmdv immunodominant epitopes and hsp70 in p. pastoris and the subsequent immune response in mice.mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein70 (hsp70) is a major antigen with both chaperone and cytokine functions. it has been used as an adjuvant to induce or potentiate humoral and cellular immunity, both in the form of a mixture with peptide antigens, and as a fusion protein. we have evaluated the effects of hsp70 on foot and mouth virus (fmdv) subunit vaccines. fmdv vp1, and a synthetic multi-epitope fmdv (eg), and vp1-hsp70 and eg-hsp70 fusion proteins were all heterologously expressed ...200717548173
alpha interferon is a powerful adjuvant for a recombinant protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine, and an effective stimulus of in vivo immune response.the adjuvant effect of porcine interferon-alpha (poifn-alpha) was examined in swine vaccinated with a recombinant fmd protein vaccine named igg-fmdv, which contains the swine igg single heavy chain constant region and an immunogenic peptide of serotype o fmdv. the poifn-alpha gene was cloned into pcdna3 vector and the recombinant plasmid was incorporated into cationic liposomes by a dehydration and rehydration procedure to use as an adjuvant, injected together with low-dose igg-fmdv. this proced ...200717555848
comparisons of the complete genomes of two chinese isolates of a recent foot-and-mouth disease type asia 1 virus.china reported the first outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype asia 1 in chinese hong kong in march, 2005. subsequently, this type of the virus was reported from mainland of china in april 2005. up to september of 2006, it was detected in more than 15 areas of china. in this paper, the complete genomes of two chinese isolates, asia 1/hnk/cha/05 and asia 1/js/cha/05, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were sequenced and compared with some chinese sequences and reference sequences ...200717557134
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication using strand-specific quantitative rt-pcr.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a positive-sense, single stranded rna virus and its replication involves the synthesis of a negative strand intermediate. in the present study, a strand-specific quantitative rt-pcr assay was developed for analysis of fmdv replication. strand-specific detection of viral positive and negative strand rna was achieved using a high reverse transcription (rt) temperature (62 degrees c) and a tagged rt primer. in both the positive and negative strand assays, the ...200717561277
the early protective thymus-independent antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease virus is mediated by splenic cd9+ b lymphocytes.infection of mice with cytopathic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces a rapid and specific thymus-independent (ti) neutralizing antibody response that promptly clears the virus. herein, it is shown that fmdv-infected dendritic cells (dcs) directly stimulate splenic innate-like cd9(+) b lymphocytes to rapidly (3 days) produce neutralizing anti-fmdv immunoglobulin m antibodies without t-lymphocyte collaboration. in contrast, neither follicular (cd9(-)) b lymphocytes from the spleen nor b l ...200717567692
[secreted expression of nonstructural protein gene 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sf9 cells and activity analysis].entire 3abc sequence of fmdv containing a 6 x his tag coding sequence at the n-terminal was obtained through pcr amplification using a pair of specific primers, subcloned into shuttle plasmid of pmelbac-b with a melittin secretion signal sequence and finally constructed recombinant plasmid of pmel-3abc. after co-transfected the recombinant plasmid and linearized bac-n-blue dna into sf9 insect cell under intermediary agent of the cellfectin, the result showed that we have already acquired recombi ...200717578009
thermal inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk using high-temperature, short-time pasteurization.previous studies of laboratory simulation of high temperature, short time pasteurization (htst) to eliminate foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in milk have shown that the virus is not completely inactivated at the legal pasteurization minimum (71.7 degrees c/15 s) but is inactivated in a flow apparatus at 148 degrees c with holding times of 2 to 3 s. it was the intent of this study to determine whether htst pasteurization conducted in a continuous-flow pasteurizer that simulates commercial ope ...200717582103
differential factor requirement to assemble translation initiation complexes at the alternative start codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna contains two in-frame aug codons separated by 84 nt that direct translation initiation of the viral polyprotein. the mechanism of initiation at the ires-proximal aug codon (aug1) has been previously analyzed, whereas no data on factor requirements for aug2 have been reported. here, using the method of 48s translation initiation complex reconstitution, we show that eif1 is indispensable in forming the 48s initiation complex at aug2. in contrast, it redu ...200717592045
development and validation of a 3abc indirect elisa for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected from vaccinated animals.non-structural protein (nsp) 3abc antibody is considered to be the most reliable indicator of present or past infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vaccinated animals. an indirect elisa was established, using purified his-tagged 3abc fusion protein as antigen, for detection of the antibody response to fmdv nsp 3abc in different animal species. the method was validated by simultaneous detection of the early antibody responses to nsp and structural protein (sp) in fmdv asia 1 infec ...200717601688
bacterial magnetic particles (bmps)-pei as a novel and efficient non-viral gene delivery system.non-viral methods of gene delivery, especially using polyethylenimine (pei), have been widely used in gene therapy or dna vaccination. however, the pei system has its own drawbacks, which limits its applications.200717605136
immunogenicity of plasmids encoding p12a and 3c of fmdv and swine this paper, two recombinant plasmids (pvir-p12ail18-3c and pvir-p12a-3c) containing foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid polypeptide, 3c coding regions of o/ny00 and using/or not swine il18 as a genetic adjuvant were constructed, and evaluated for their ability to induce humoral and cellular responses in mice and swine. in addition, the ability to protect swine against homologous virus challenge was examined. mice and swine were given booster vaccination twice and once, respectively, an ...200717606304
complete nucleotide sequence of a chinese serotype asia1 vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the full-length nucleotide sequence of the chinese vaccine strain asia1/ynbs/58 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was determined. the results showed that the complete genome of ynbs/58 is 8,164 nucleotides (nt) in length including a 1,061-nt 5' untranslated region (utr), a 6,990-nt open reading frame (orf), and a 113-nt 3' utr. genome sequences of asia1/ynbs/58 and other known fmdv strains were compared. the homology analysis indicated that non-structural proteins are more conserved than st ...200717619135
a recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid proteins precursor p1-2a of fmdv and vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus: a trivalent vaccine candidate.pseudorabies (pr), foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and porcine parvovirus disease are three important infectious diseases in swine worldwide. the gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (prv) has been used as a live-viral vector to develop multivalent genetic engineering vaccine. in this study, a recombinant prv, which could co-express protein precursor p1-2a of fmdv and vp2 protein of ppv, was constructed using prv tk(-)/ge(-)/lacz(+) mutant as the vector. after homologous recombination and plaque purifi ...200717628752
[genome sequencing and analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus asia1/ynbs/58 strain].the full-length genomic sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia1/ynbs/58 strain was determined by rt-pcr and compared with other 17 reference strains. the results showed that the complete genome of asia1/ynbs/58 was 8164nt long including a 1061-nt 5' untranslated region (utr), a 6990-nt open reading frame (orf), and a 113-nt 3'utr. the homology analysis indicated that the utr regions and non-structural proteins were more conserved than the structural proteins in fmdv. vp1 exhibited ...200717969860
foot-and-mouth disease resurfaces in britain. 200717972385
enhancement of serological immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by a supplement made of extract of cochinchina momordica seeds.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. vaccination against fmd is a routine practice in many countries where the disease is endemic. this study was designed first to investigate the extract of the seeds of momordica cochinchinensis (lour.) spreng. (ecms) for its adjuvant effect on vaccination of inactivated fmdv antigens in a guinea pig model and then to evaluate the supplement of ecms in oil-emulsified fmd vaccines for its immunopotentiation ...200717942610
in vivo footprint of a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site reveals differences in accessibility to specific rna structural elements.internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements were described in picornaviruses as an essential region of the viral rna. understanding of ires function requires a detailed knowledge of each step involved in the internal initiation process, from rna folding and ires-protein interaction to ribosome recruitment. thus, deciphering ires accessibility to external agents due to rna structural features, as well as rna-protein protection within living cells, is of primary importance. in this study, two che ...200717947530
co-ordinate expression of glycine betaine synthesis genes linked by the fmdv 2a region in a single open reading frame in pichia pastoris.the genes encoding the two enzymes choline monooxygenase (cmo) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (badh) of glycine betaine synthesis in suaeda salsa were cloned and fused with the 2a region of foot-and-mouth disease virus in a single open reading frame. the fused genes were placed under the control of the alcohol oxidase (aox1) promoter in ppic3b and transformed into p. pastoris gs115. the expression of the fused genes in p. pastoris and the ability of recombinant yeasts to tolerate environment ...200717955192
genetic characterisation of the recent foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a/irn/2005.according to the world reference laboratory for fmd, a new subtype of fmdv serotype a was detected in iran in 2005. this subtype was designated a/irn/2005, and rapidly spread throughout iran and moved westwards into saudi arabia and turkey where it was initially detected from august 2005 and subsequently caused major disease problems in the spring of 2006. the same subtype reached jordan in 2007. as part of an ongoing project we have also detected this subtype in pakistan with the first positive ...200718001482
[establishment of a colloid gold-immunochromatography assay for detection of type asia i foot-and-mouth disease virus].to establish a colloid gold-immunochromatography assay (gica) for detecting type asia i foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).200717988582
[development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against vp1 protein of asiai type foot-and-mouth virus].to prepare the monoclonal antibodies against vp1 protein of type asiai foot-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and identify the characterization.200717988586
immune responses of two recombinant adenoviruses expressing vp1 antigens of fmdv fused with porcine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in the present report, we constructed and characterized the immune responses conferred by two recombinant adenoviruses expressing vp1 epitopes (three amino acid residues 21-60, 141-160 and 200-213 in vp1, designated vpe) or vp1 protein of fmdv fused with porcine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (named rad-gmcsf-vpe and rad-gmcsf-vp1). seven groups of female ...200717980939
the nsp immune response of vaccinated animals after in-field exposure to fmdv.the aim was to examine the immune response (ir) to non-structural proteins (nsps), in order to assess the validity of the detection of antibodies to nsps as a means of diagnosing foot and mouth disease (fmd infection) infection when vaccinated populations are in close contact with clinically sick animals. the study was performed during fmd outbreaks in israel in january 2004; the ir was examined in vaccinated dairy and feedlot cattle herds under natural field exposure to fmdv, and in vaccinated ...200717981376
protective immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus by vaccination with a dna vaccine expressing virus-like display antigenic protein on the surface of virus-like particles (vlps) presents a potentially powerful strategy for vaccine development. we genetically engineered the major capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) into the predominant epitope c of hbv core gene to yield a chimeric core-vp1 vlp. the vlp was successfully expressed in hela cells transfected with core-vp1 dna construct. compared with a regular vp1 dna construct, immunization with core-vp1 dna induced significant ...200717931113
essential role of antigen-presenting cell-derived baff for antibody responses.antigen-presenting cells (apc) are directly involved in survival, growth and differentiation of naive b cells and in immunoglobulin class switch recombination. less is known about the contribution of apc to memory b cell responses. we employed an in vitro model to investigate the secondary humoral response against foot-and-mouth disease virus, with cells from a natural host of the virus - the pig. this response is t cell-dependent. under conditions of limited t cell help, defined as a low t-to-b ...200717935087
epidemiologic and virologic investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease, southern vietnam, 2005.during 2005, 764 children were brought to a large children's hospital in ho chi minh city, vietnam, with a diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. all enrolled children had specimens (vesicle fluid, stool, throat swab) collected for enterovirus isolation by cell culture. an enterovirus was isolated from 411 (53.8%) of the specimens: 173 (42.1%) isolates were identified as human enterovirus 71 (hev71) and 214 (52.1%) as coxsackievirus a16. of the identified hev71 infections, 51 (29.5%) were c ...200718217559
[an efficient tool for the construction of multiple-cistronic vectors: fmdv 2a].recently, cancer therapy with mutiple genes has been attached with great attention. however, at present there is no efficient tool to construct multiple-cistrons. the large sizes and the imbalance in expression of most traditional tools, such as ribosome entry sites (ireses),greatly block their wide employment in the construction of multiple cistronic gene therapy vectors. the self-cleaving peptide 2a from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a very small size, and more importantly, high clea ...200718051849
[eukaryonization of t7 rna polymerase prokaryotic expression system and development of its couple expression system].to make transcription of the target gene be driven by t7 rna polymerase (t7 rnap) in the eukaryotic cells, and the transcripts be cap-independent translated. firstly, the t7 rnap was introduced into eukaryotic cells by two methods: (1) the bhk-21 cells were contransfected by the plasmid expressing t7 rnap and piers-egfp-et vector; (2) by transfection of the cell line stably expressing t7 rnap. the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element from fmdv was cloned into the downstream of the t7 prom ...200718051880
[establishment of indirect elisa diagnose based on the vp1 structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in pigs].the complete gene encoding the structural protein of fmdv(vp1) was subcloned into expression vector pproex-ht, resulting in the fusion expression plasmid pproexht-vp1. after transformed into e. coli bl21(de3) and induced by iptg, the fusion protein was expressed in high level. western blot was performed to confirm that the expressed fusion protein could specifically react with antiserum against fmdv. based on the fusion protein further purified, a novel indirect elisa (vp1-elisa) was developed t ...200718051883
application of modelling to determine the absence of foot-and-mouth disease in the face of a suspected use disease modelling to inform a response team about the number of animals per herd/flock to be examined, and the start date and duration of clinical surveillance required to be confident that foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was not present on an island in new zealand with a population of approximately 1,600 cattle, 10,000 sheep and a small number of pigs, goats and alpacas.200718059646
[molecular cloning and characteristics of cdna encoding pig beta6 subunit for fmdv receptor].in order to study the roles of integrin beta6 in foot-and-mouth disease virus infection, pig integrin beta6 was firstly molecularly cloned from rna of the tongue and lung of recovered pig infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv), and was compared with the beta6 gene of other animals available in genbank at nucleotide and amino acid leves. genebank association number of the beta6 gene is ef432729. pig integrin beta6 gene (2367bp) encodes a polypeptide of 788 amino acids co ...200718064756
non-structural protein 3a for differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease infected and vaccinated animals in haryana (india).there are severe international trade restrictions on foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) affected areas. because of endemic nature of fmd, india started fmd control programme (fmd-cp) using mass vaccination in selected states including haryana (year 2003). although no significant incidence of the disease was reported after launching fmd-cp in the state but in order to participate in international trade of animal and animal products, veterinary authorities have to prove that there is no fmd virus (fmdv) ...200718035976
study of the genetic heterogeneity of sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-saharan africa with specific focus on east africa.the epidemiology of serotype sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-saharan africa by phylogenetic analysis using the 1d gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to east africa, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. the genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between east, southern and south-western africa. one lineage was unique to west africa. ...200718453238
john burns brooksby cbe: 25 december 1914 - 17 december 1998.john brooksby was an outstanding veterinary virologist, who worked at the animal virus disease research institute, pirbright, for 40 years, for 16 of which he was director of the institute. he will be remembered for his contributions to the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease, for his discovery of four new types, for the classification of subtypes and for fundamental studies of the virus. as deputy director and director he was responsible for programmes on fundamental investigations of foot-and- ...200718543463
fred brown: 31 january 1925 - 20 february 2004.fred brown was a major figure in british and international virology during most of the latter half of the twentieth century. he brought to the subject a rigorous and critical attitude acquired during his early training in chemistry. in addition, he was passionately interested in the practical application of his work and that of others to the prevention and alleviation of disease. he always believed that his research would make a significant contribution to the welfare of agricultural livestock. ...200718543464
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in egypt.we describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype a virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in egypt. phylogenetic analysis of vp1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent fmd virus isolates from east africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the middle east.200718258017
uncertainty of measurement for competitive and indirect elisas.a method for the estimation of the uncertainty of measurements for gaussian outcomes of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is described using competitive and indirect foot and mouth disease (fmd) elisas. assay repeatability was determined by random effects analysis of variance, and the normality of the residuals was checked. the standard errors of the individual predicted values were transformed into confidence intervals around the corresponding observed values and further transformed int ...200718293613
[cloning and sequence analysis of cdna encoding porcine alphav subunit for fmdv receptor].receptors play a crucial role in determining the pathogenesis and tissue tropism of virus. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been showed to use four integrins, alphavbeta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 as receptors to initiate infection. in this study, the porcine integrin alphav gene was cloned by rt-pcr from the lung tissue of healed pig infected experimently with fmdv, and compared its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence with the av gene of other animals. the 3141bp c ...200718268814
foot-and-mouth disease - quantification and size distribution of airborne particles emitted by healthy and infected pigs.there is strong evidence to suggest that foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be transmitted by airborne virus up to many kilometres from a virus source. atmospheric dispersion models are often used to predict where this disease might spread. this study investigated whether fmd virus (fmdv) aerosol has specific characteristics which need to be taken into consideration in these models. the characteristics and infectiousness of particles emitted by 12 pigs have been studied pre- and post-infection wit ...200716904353
plus- and minus-stranded foot-and-mouth disease virus rna quantified simultaneously using a novel real-time rt-pcr.even though tagged rt-pcr and rtth rt-pcr have been developed to improve strand-specific detection of rna virus, these assays are not quantitative. in this study, a novel real-time rt-pcr assay, which combines the benefits of both the tagged and rtth rt-pcr has been developed to quantify the strand-specific rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the tagged-primers plus a taqman probe located within the highly conserved viral 3d region were used. the in vitro synthesized minus-and plus-stran ...200716927127
dna vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease via electroporation: study of molecular approaches for enhancing vp1 antigenicity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) affects susceptible livestock animals and causes disastrous economic impact. immunization with plasmid expressing vp1 that contains the major antigenic epitope(s) of fmdv as cytoplasmic protein (cvp1) failed to elicit full protection against fmdv challenge.200616927362
rational dissection of binding surfaces for mimicking of discontinuous antigenic sites.peptide-based approaches to mimicking protein interactive regions have relied mainly on linear peptides; however, most binding sites are discontinuous and thus not easily reproducible by a linear sequence. any attempt to replicate those sites by chemical means must not only integrate all residues involved in the recognition but also provide structural organization to native-like levels. here we describe a surface mimic approach to the reconstruction of such complex molecular architectures, using ...200616931331
identification of novel foot-and-mouth disease virus specific t-cell epitopes in c/c and d/d haplotype miniature identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) specific t-cell epitopes within the non-structural protein 3d in swine, pentadecapeptides were tested in proliferation and interferon-gamma elispot assays using lymphocytes from two strains of inbred miniature pigs (c/c and d/d haplotype) experimentally infected with fmdv. lymphocytes of c/c pigs recognized peptides from three different regions in 3d, d/d lymphocytes recognized peptides from two regions, one of them being adjacent to an epitope of ...200616934904
eradication of fmd virus. 200616731710
[the immune responses of the fusion protein consisted of two copies of t-cell and b-cell epitopes of food-and-mouth disease virus vp1 type o and ltb and sti enterotoxins of escherichia coli].a nucleotides fragment 2020vp1 related to t-cell epitope (aa21-40) and b-cell epitope (aa141-160) of vp1 of food-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)type o was synthesized, and the recombined expression vector r2020-ltb-2020-sti was correctly constructed, which was used to express the fusion protein consisted of two copies of aa21-40aa141-160 of fmdv vp1 and ltb and sti enterotoxins of escherichia coli. the fusion protein with molecular weight of about 45kd was successfully expressed in e.coli bl21(de ...200616735235
[construction and identification of recombinant adenovirus containing the polyproteins coding regions of o type foot-and-mouth disease virus by homologous recombination in escherichia coli].the gene coding for the polyprotein (pp) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)was obtained by pcr from recombinant plasmid rpmd18-t/pp. the pcr product was digested with xba i and not i and inserted into the cloning site of the adenovirus shuttle vector padtrack-cmv, previously digested with the same enzymes. this recombinant shuttle plasmid was designated rpad-cmv/pp. the recombinant adenovirus vector rpad/pp was obtained by homologous recombination of plasmid rpad-cmv/pp and adenovirus skelet ...200616736581
expression of tuberculosis antigen esat-6 in nicotiana tabacum using a potato virus x-based vector.a good candidate antigen to create a therapeutic vaccine against tb is the esat-6 protein. antigens produced in plants have already been successfully used as experimental vaccines, and small single-stranded rna plant viruses have emerged as promising tools to rapidly express large amounts of foreign proteins in susceptible host plants. here, we present the expression of esat-6 protein in nicotiana tabacum using a vector based on potato virus x (pvx). the complete esat-6 open reading frame is exp ...200616644283
protection of balb/c mice against infection with fmdv by immunostimulation with cpg oligonucleotides.oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) containing unmethylated cpg motifs are potent stimulators of the innate immune system, and are capable of aborting several infections in a non-specific manner. we here report studies of the capacity of such odn to protect mice against infection with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). susceptibility of balb/c mice to infection with isolates from the different serotypes of fmdv was investigated, and, at the same time, the capacity of cpg odn to modulate the infection ...200616678920
exposure of mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) to foot and mouth disease virus.foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious acute viral disease that affects most ruminant and porcine species. during 2001, 33 serum samples were collected from mongolian gazelles (procapra gutturosa) in the eastern steppe of mongolia. samples were tested for antibodies to seven subtypes of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv). antibodies were detected in 67% of the animals, and serologic results indicated exposure to fmdv-o. this virus was present in domestic animal populations in mongolia fr ...200616699158
microarray-based identification of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a bioinformatics quality assessment.the evolution of viral quasispecies can influence viral pathogenesis and the response to antiviral treatments. mutant clouds in infected organisms represent the first stage in the genetic and antigenic diversification of rna viruses, such as foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), an important animal pathogen. antigenic variants of fmdv have been classically diagnosed by immunological or rt-pcr-based methods. dna microarrays are becoming increasingly useful for the analysis of gene expression and s ...200616709242
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