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foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a protease mediates cleavage in attenuated sabin 3 poliovirus vectors engineered for delivery of foreign antigens.poliovirus vectors are being studied as potential vaccine delivery systems, with foreign genetic sequences incorporated as part of the viral genome. the foreign sequences are expressed as part of the viral polyprotein. addition of proteolytic cleavage sites at the junction of the foreign polypeptide and the viral proteins results in cleavage during polyprotein processing. the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a to mediate proteolytic cleavage in the context of poliovirus vectors wa ...19968892938
increase of murine splenic natural antibody-secreting cells after cyclophosphamide treatment.administration of a low sub-immunosuppressive dose of cyclophosphamide (cy) to naive mice induced a marked increase in the number of splenic cells forming natural antibodies against unrelated antigens such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, keyhole limpet hemocyanin, horseradish peroxidase, or bovine serum albumin, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay spot technique. these results suggest that in mice there exists a repertoire of b cells forming natural antibodies which is restrai ...19968906754
peptide display on functional tailspike protein of bacteriophage p22.the tailspike protein (tsp) of salmonella typhimurium p22 bacteriophage is a multifunctional homotrimer, 6 copies of which are non-covalently attached to the capsid to form the virion tail in the last reaction of phage assembly. an antigenic peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), aa 134-156 of protein vp1, has been joined to the carboxy terminus of tsp, and produced as a fusion protein in escherichia coli directed by the trp promoter. the resulting fusion protein is soluble, stable, non ...19968918257
antigenically profound amino acid substitutions occur during large population passages of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with amino acid substitutions next to the highly conserved r-g-d motif were isolated following large population passages of the virus (n. sevilla and e. domingo, 1996, j. virol., in press). reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies which recognize different epitopes within site a was abolished or highly diminished in the mutants. this provides direct evidence of a drastic antigenic change occurring in the absence of selection by antibodies. molecular mo ...19968918927
antigenicity of a viral peptide displayed on beta-galactosidase fusion proteins is influenced by the presence of the homologous partner protein.several beta-galactosidase fusion proteins have been constructed containing the entire vp1 protein from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) [corchero et al. (1996) j. biotechnol. in press]. the antigenicity of the major immunodominant site a (13 amino acids in length) within the vp1 protein has been studied in competitive elisa using a panel of seven monoclonal antibodies elicited against the whole virus and recognizing b-cell epitopes within this site. none of the fusion proteins is able to rep ...19968931330
construction of a chimeric theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus containing the leader gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader coding region (lb) was cloned into a full-length cdna of the da strain of theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (tmev) replacing the complete l coding region of tmev. this construct, pdafssc1-lb, was engineered to contain cleavage sites, at the 3' end of the lb coding region, for both the fmdv lb and the tmev 3c proteases. transcripts derived from this construct were translated in a cell-free system. analysis of the translation products showed ef ...19968941332
genetic lesions associated with muller's ratchet in an rna virus.the molecular basis of muller's ratchet has been investigated using the important animal pathogen foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). clones from two fmdv populations were subjected to serial plaque transfers (repeated bottleneck events) on host bhk-21 cells. relative fitness losses were documented in 11 out of 19 clones tested. small fitness gains were observed in three clones. one viral clone attained an extremely low plating efficiency, suggesting that accumulation of deleterious mutations h ...19968951375
converging antigenic structure of a recombinant viral peptide displayed on different frameworks of carrier proteins.a peptide reproducing the g-h loop amino acid sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 protein was fused to the solvent-exposed c-terminus of the bacteriophage p22 tailspike protein [carbonell and villaverde (1996) gene, in press], a homotrimeric polypeptide with a strong beta-helical structure. this fusion does not interfere with the biological activities of the phage tail. the antigenic profile of the complex antigenic site a within the g-h loop has been determined by competitive elisa wit ...19968955340
[mechanism of retaining stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during manufacturing dried concentrated preparations].removal of moisture from concentrated virus suspensions in a sequential manner using ultrafiltration, active ventilation and vacuum dehydration of concentrated powders enables us to obtain preparations with a residual content of moisture less than 1%, while the structure and properties of fmd virus are retained. mechanism of inactivation of fmd virus in drying is attributed to electrophysical processes associated with development of electric potentials in evaporated objects due to directional mo ...19968967068
immunogenicity of an aphthovirus chimera of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus.an oligodeoxynucleotide coding for amino acids 139 through 149 of antigenic site a (asa) of the vp1 capsid protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus c3 serotype (fmdv c3) was inserted into three different in-frame sites of the vesicular stomatitis virus new jersey serotype (vsv-nj) glycoprotein (g) gene cdna present in plasmid pkg97 under control of the bacteriophage t7 polymerase promoter. transfection of these plasmids into cv1 cells coinfected with the t7 polymerase-expressing vaccinia viru ...19968970972
structural analysis of the interaction of the pyrimidine tract-binding protein with the internal ribosomal entry site of encephalomyocarditis virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus rnas.initiation of translation of a subset of eukaryotic mrnas results from internal ribosomal entry. this process is exemplified by encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), which contains an internal ribosomal entry site (ires) within its 5' nontranslated region that is approximately 450-nt long and consists of a series of stem-loops designated h-l. we have previously identified a cellular 58-kda polypeptide that binds specifically to this ires and that is implicated in its function as the pyrimidine trac ...19968972770
a recombinant, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) motif from foot-and-mouth disease virus binds mammalian cells through vitronectin and, to a lower extent, fibronectin receptors.the cell-binding abilities of a recombinant, rgd-containing peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been characterized in hela and bhk cells. this peptide represents the aa sequence of the solvent-exposed g-h loop of protein vp1 which is involved in cell recognition and infection. the efficiency of the viral motif in promoting cell attachment and spreading is comparable to that shown by fibronectin or vitronectin. cell binding is inhibited by a monoclonal antibody directed against ...19968973352
point mutations within the betag-betah loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1k affect virus attachment to target cells.the amino acid sequence arg-gly-asp (rgd) is a highly conserved region located on the p1d protein of most sero- and subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)and participates in binding of fmdv to their target cells. in order to analyze the role of the rgd sequence in fmdv infection of cells in more detail, 13 mutations within or near the rgd sequence of virus type o1kaufbeuren were designed by using a full-length cdna plasmid. transfection of baby hamster kidney cells (bhk-21) with in vitr ...19978995624
[the use of synthetic peptides for detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in the blood from convalescent animals].peptides were synthesized, which, according to theoretical analysis of the antigenic structure of protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus types a, 0, and asia 1, corresponded to potential immunodominant protein sites. activities of the peptides were studied by solid-phase indirect radioimmunoassay on polyethylene film with purified immunoglobulins against intact fmd virus. virtually no cross reactions were observed. blood sera of cattle convalescent after fmd were tested with the fmd v ...19968999315
synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease based on a palmitoyl derivative of the vp1 protein 135-159 fragment of the a22 virus strain.the peptide palm2 135-159, a dipalmitoyl derivative of the 135-159 fragment of vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus strain a22 was synthesized. in the experiments on mice, guinea pigs and sheep palm2 135-159 possesses greater immunogenic and protective activity than the nonacylated 135-159 peptide. the synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease for use in sheep was developed on the basis of the lipopeptide. synthetic polymethylsiloxane oil was found to be a suitable adjuvant for ...19969004448
complementation of defective picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements by the coexpression of fragments of the ires.mutant forms of the encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) internal ribosome entry site (ires) have been produced and shown to be severely defective in directing internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells using the vaccinia/t7 rna polymerase system. mutants in different regions of the ires were complemented in trans by coexpression of the intact emcv ires but not by coexpression of the related ires elements from theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (another cardiovirus) or from foot-an ...19979007058
evaluation of a live-attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate.a variant of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) lacking the leader (l) coding region (a12-llv2) was previously constructed and shown to be less virulent in cattle than its wild-type parent (a12-ic). in this study, cattle were tested for their clinical and immunological responses to subcutaneous inoculation with a12-llv2 or a12-ic or to intramuscular vaccination with chemically inactivated a12-ic. five weeks postinoculation animals were challenged by intradermal inoculation in the tongue with a ...19979007062
the cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2a proteins.the primary 2a/2b polyprotein cleavage of aphtho-and cardioviruses is mediated by their 2a proteins cleaving c-terminally. whilst the aphthovirus 2a region is only 16 aa (possibly 18 aa) long, the cardiovirus 2a protein is some 150 aa. we have previously shown that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2a is able to mediate cleavage in an artificial (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase/fmdv 2a/beta-glucuronidase [cat-2a-gus]) polyprotein system devoid of any other fmdv sequences with high (approxima ...19979010280
development of tests for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle milk.the liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) and a specific isotype assay (sia) for bovine igg1 were modified to detect antibodies against fmdv isolate o1 manisa in cattle milk. samples from vaccinated animals were mostly indistinguishable from negative control cattle in the lpbe but 90% of milks from convalescent animals (which had also been vaccinated several times previously) gave positive results. the sia was able to detect 95% of cattle vaccinated up to 12 months previously, and 100% of the recov ...19979015288
biochemical characterization of fmdv a10 and a22 subtypes by page and ief.both polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) and iso-electric focusing (ief) have been standardized using the sucrose density gradient purified 146s particles of fmd virus subtypes a10 and a22. differences in the molecular weights of structural proteins (vp1, vp2 and vp3 of two subtypes (a10 and a22) of fmdv have been revealed in page but no appreciable differences in the pi of vp1, vp2 and vp3 is found in ief.19979023045
comparison of a radioactive and non-radioactive method for sequencing foot and mouth disease virus isolates.the authors compare the radioactive method of detecting foot and mouth disease virus sequence products with a non-radioactive, silver stain sequencing method. the latter was found to compare favourably to the radioactive technique for detecting such products. the silver stain sequencing method was simple and did not require expensive specialised equipment. this new approach will be particularly useful in developing countries, since the method does not depend on the availability of fresh radioact ...19969025139
the performance of southern african territories serotypes of foot and mouth disease antigen in oil-adjuvanted vaccines.the performance of selected oil adjuvants containing southern african territories (sat) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus was assayed by testing antibody levels elicited in cattle, sheep and goats, and by testing protection of cattle on challenge. various oil adjuvant formulations were tested initially in cattle and guinea pigs, and compared with a standard alhydrogel and saponin-based (as) vaccine. a commercial double oil emulsion vaccine elicited higher antibody titres and a more prolo ...19969025141
evaluation of the presence and risk of foot and mouth disease virus by commodity in international trade.potential sources of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus include semen from bulls, rams, goats and boars; embryos and ova from ruminants and pigs; meat and meat products and milk and milk products. the author discusses precautions to prevent the transmission of fmd via these commodities.19969025152
antiviral activity of crude extracts of guarea guidona.crude extracts of leaves and fruits of guarea guidona were tested for antiviral activity against pseudorabies virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus in the ib-rs-2 pig cell line and against bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) in the gbk bovine cell line. the highest nontoxic doses of extracts from fruits and leaves were 125 micrograms/ml and 500 micrograms/ml. respectively. crude extracts presented antiviral activity against pseudorabies virus with a decrease in virus titer of 3.0 log units at 500 micr ...19969033817
elf4g and its proteolytic cleavage products: effect on initiation of protein synthesis from capped, uncapped, and ires-containing mrnas.rhinovirus 2a and foot-and-mouth disease virus lb proteinases stimulate the translation of uncapped messages and those carrying the rhinovirus and enterovirus internal ribosome entry segments (ireses) by a mechanism involving the cleavage of host cell proteins. here, we investigate this mechanism using an artificial dicistronic rna containing the human rhinovirus ires as intercistronic spacer. because both proteinases cleave eukaryotic initiation factor 4g (eif4g), we examined whether the cleava ...19979042945
the proteolytic cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 4g is prevented by eif4e binding protein (phas-i; 4e-bp1) in the reticulocyte lysate.a common feature of viral infection is the subversion of the host cell machinery towards the preferential translation of viral products. in some instances, this is partly mediated by the expression of virally encoded proteases which lead to the cleavage of initiation factor eif4g. the foot-and-mouth disease virus encodes two forms of a cysteine proteinase (l protease) which bisects the eif4g polypeptide into an n-terminal fragment containing the eif4e binding site, and a c-terminal fragment whic ...19979049313
differential restrictions on antigenic variation among antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the absence of antibody selection.clonal populations of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been serially passaged in cell culture to analyse variation in the absence of immune selection at different antigenic sites of the virus. mutant frequencies at the rna regions encoding two independent antigenic sites (sites c and d) were more than twentyfold lower than for antigenic site a (the g-h loop of vp1). correspondingly, fixation of amino acid substitutions was very restricted in sites c and d. in spite of such a restriction, neutra ...19979049411
a large-scale evaluation of peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease: lack of solid protection in cattle and isolation of escape mutants.a large-scale vaccination experiment involving a total of 138 cattle was carried out to evaluate the potential of synthetic peptides as vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease. four types of peptides representing sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c3 argentina 85 were tested: a, which includes the g-h loop of capsid protein vp1 (site a); at, in which a t-cell epitope has been added to site a; ac, composed of site a and the carboxy-terminal region of vp1 (site c); and act, in which ...19979060612
characterization of synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus provirions separates acid-mediated disassembly from infectivity.one of the final steps in the maturation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is cleavage of the vp0 protein to produce vp4 and vp2. the mechanism of this cleavage is unknown, but it is thought to function in stabilizing the virus particle and priming it for infecting cells. to investigate the cleavage process and to understand its role in virion maturation, we engineered synthetic fmdv rnas with mutations at ala-85 (a85) and asp-86 (d86) of vp0, which border the cleavage site. bhk cells trans ...19979060641
an analysis of foot-and-mouth-disease epidemics in the uk.there was a major epidemic of the foot-and-mouth-disease virus among cattle herds in the uk in 1967-68 which showed a very rapid early spread, a much slower later spread, and eventually infected 12% of herds in the core epidemic area. a simple discrete-time version of a susceptible-latent-infectious-removed epidemiological model is used to generate a set of estimates of the transmission rate. this parameter has high values over the first few days, then the values are lower and they subsequently ...19979080685
structural comparison between retro-inverso and parent peptides: molecular basis for the biological activity of a retro-inverso analogue of the immunodominant fragment of vp1 coat protein from foot-and-mouth disease virus.antibodies induced against intact foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) particles bind to the retro-inverso analogue of fragment 141-159 of the viral coat protein vp1 of fmdv, variant a, equally well as to the parent peptide. a conformational investigation of this retro-inverso peptide was carried out by nmr spectroscopy and restrained molecular modeling in order to identify the structural basis for the antigenic mimicry between these retro-inverso and parent peptides. in 100% trifluoroethanol a w ...19979095678
foot and mouth disease virus concentration and purification by affinity chromatography.foot and mouth disease virus, (fmdv) from a crude cell lysate was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography with heparin as a ligand. the virus eluted from an heparin-ultrogel a4r column at 1m sodium chloride in 10 mm sodium phosphate buffer, ph 7.0, while most cell protein and albumin did so at lower concentrations of sodium chloride in the same buffer. purity of the eluted fraction containing the virus was assessed by sds-page, hplc, ultracentrifugation, and uv absorption spectrum. ...19969100360
functional expression of a cattle mhc class ii dr-like antigen on mouse l cells.cattle dra and drb genes, cloned by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, were transfected into mouse l cells. the cattle dr-expressing l-cell transfectant generated was analyzed serologically, biochemically, and functionally. sequence analysis of the transfected drb gene clearly showed showed that it was drb3 allele drb3(*)0101 , which corresponds to the 1d-ief-determined allele drbf3. 1d-ief analysis of the transfectant confirmed that the expressed dr product was drbf3. functional i ...19969110933
infectivity assays of foot-and-mouth disease virus: contact transmission between cattle and buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in the early stages of infection.no differences were observed between cattle and indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) in terms of temperature, viraemia or virus replication in the pharyngeal area, during the acute phase of foot-and-mouth disease. like cattle, the indian buffalo became infected and excreted virus before any clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease developed. the disease was transmitted from cattle to buffalo and vice versa, during the acute stage of infection, as if the animals had been of the same species, presumab ...19979123797
baculovirus expressed 2c of foot-and-mouth disease virus has the potential for differentiating convalescent from vaccinated animals.determining whether animals have been infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus or vaccinated is important because infected animals frequently become carriers of the virus, shed it intermittently and thus may be the source of new outbreaks of the disease. we had shown previously that the sera of convalescent animals contain antibodies to 2c, a highly conserved non-structural protein, whereas the sera of vaccinated animals do not. this is explained by observation that 2c is retained on the membr ...19979128860
dexamethasone inhibits virus production and the secretory iga response in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid in cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus were treated with dexamethasone to suppress the immune system in an attempt to influence the level of virus recovery from oesophageal pharyngeal (probang) samples. twelve carrier cattle were assigned to one of three groups: control; 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone; and 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone. groups 2 and 3 were injected intramuscularly three times weekly for 3 weeks with dexamethasone between days 33 and 56 post-infection with foot-and-mou ...19979129595
structure of the complex of an fab fragment of a neutralizing antibody with foot-and-mouth disease virus: positioning of a highly mobile antigenic loop.data from cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography have been combined to study the interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype c (fmdv-c) with a strongly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) sd6. the mab sd6 binds to the long flexible gh-loop of viral protein 1 (vp1) which also binds to an integrin receptor. the structure of the virus-fab complex was determined to 30 a resolution using cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis. the known structure of fmdv-c, and of the sd ...19979130694
duration of the foot-and-mouth disease virus antibody response in mice is closely related to the presence of antigen-specific presenting cells.natural and experimental hosts infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) develop a long-lasting immune response that is closely related to the presence of anti-fmdv antibodies (ab). we show here that spleen cells from animals which had been infected 3 or more months previously induced an anti-fmdv-ab response in untreated animals which lasted more than 210 days after cell transfer. persistence of infectious virus was excluded since virus isolation or detection of the viral genome by pcr ...19979152419
identification of noncytopathic equine rhinovirus 1 as a cause of acute febrile respiratory disease in horses.equine rhinovirus 1 (erhv1) is a recognized cause of acute febrile respiratory disease in horse, although the virus is rarely isolated from such animals, despite seroprevalence rates as high as 50% in some horse populations. recently, erhv1 has been shown to be most closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus, raising questions as to its disease associations in horses. we report that erhv1 infection was the likely cause of two separate outbreaks of severe febrile respiratory disease which in ...19979157156
[bacterial synthesis of immunogenic epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused either to human necrosis factor or to hepatitis b core antigen].using recombinant dna technology, construction and bacterial expression of genes was carried out which code for hybrid proteins, human tumor necrosis factor and hepatitis b core protein fused to immunogenic epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus, strains a22 and o1-194. hybrids of tumor necrosis factor with foot-and-mouth disease antigenic determinants protected laboratory animals against the experimental challenge with a homologous strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus. hybrid protein that c ...19979157845
phenotypic features of bhk-21 cells used for production of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.bhk-21 c13 monolayer and suspension cells were investigated with regard to some phenotypic features which could bear on the quality of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen produced in them. despite good viability, suspension cells differed from monolayer cells in fundamental features of susceptibility to fmdv. most important, fmd virus particles grown in suspension cells at high passage levels were shown to be largely degraded following inactivation with an aziridine compound. suspension ...19979167010
conformational preferences of a peptide corresponding to the major antigenic determinant of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for peptide-vaccine approaches.the conformational preferences in solution of a peptide corresponding to the gh loop of the vp1 capsid protein from the foot-and-mouth disease virus were examined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism. the gh loop is the major antigenic determinant of the virus and participates in cell attachment through an integrin-like arg-gly-asp sequence. the synthetic peptide, corresponding to residues gly132 to ser162 of the vp1 capsid protein of the serotype o, is largely disordered ...19979169027
foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected but not vaccinated cattle develop antibodies against recombinant 3ab1 nonstructural protein.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines induce antibodies against structural and some nonstructural proteins present in vaccine preparations. to differentiate between fmdv-infected and vaccinated animals, we developed immunochemical assays capable of detecting antibodies against a fmdv nonstructural protein. recombinant nonstructural 3ab1 protein was expressed in e.coli and in insect cells and used to detect anti-3ab1 antibodies. elisa and western blot analysis showed that sera from cattle infecte ...19979170505
characteristic in vitro evolution pattern of foot and mouth disease virus a81/castellanos/arg/87.the in vitro evolution of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) a/81/castellanos/arg/87 (a/castellanos/87) was studied by partial biological and biochemical characterization of viral populations selected after 25 passages on secondary fetal bovine kidney cell monolayers. these passages were performed in the presence or absence of immune pressure exerted in the form of antiviral polyclonal serum. while the viral populations passaged in the absence of immune pressure acquired characteristics such as ...19979175254
total and isotype humoral responses in cattle vaccinated with foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunogen produced either in bovine tongue tissue or in bhk-21 cell suspension cultures.the anti-foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serum antibody activity of protected and non protected animals immunized with inactivated fmdv originated in either bovine tongue tissue (bttv vaccines) or bhk-21 cell suspension cultures (bhkv vaccines) was evaluated. the results show that 80-100% of the bttv immunized and only 40-60% of the bhkv immunized animals with liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (lp elisa) serum titres of 1.5-1.7 u, were protected against the challenge with any of the four ...19979178462
tissue culture adaptation of foot-and-mouth disease virus selects viruses that bind to heparin and are attenuated in cattle.isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) exist as complex mixtures of variants. two different serotype o1 campos preparations that we examined contained two variants with distinct plaque morphologies on bhk cells: a small, clear-plaque virus that replicates in bhk and cho cells, and a large, turbid-plaque virus that only grows in bhk cells. cdnas encoding the capsids of these two variants were inserted into a genome-length fmdv type a12 infectious cdna and used to produce chimeric viruses ...19979188578
cellular and humoral immunity to foot-and-mouth disease virus and its non-structural proteins in infected swine. 19979191317
cellular immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19979191319
evolution subverting essentiality: dispensability of the cell attachment arg-gly-asp motif in multiply passaged foot-and-mouth disease virus.aphthoviruses use a conserved arg-gly-asp triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. here we report that this triplet-which is also a widespread motif involved in cell-to-cell adhesion-can become dispensable upon short-term evolution of the virus harboring it. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which was multiply passaged in cell culture, showed an altered repertoire of antigenic variants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. ...19979192645
a cyclic disulfide peptide reproduces in solution the main structural features of a native antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a cyclic disulfide peptide corresponding to the g-h loop sequence 134-155 [replacement tyr136 and arg153 with cys] of the capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolate c-s8c1 was examined by proton 2d-nmr spectroscopy in water and in 25% hfip/water. in water, nmr data supported the presence of a non-canonical turn in the central, conserved cell adhesion rgd motif and suggested the presence of a nascent helix in the c-terminal part, stabilized and slightly extended upon additi ...19979218170
rapid diagnosis of encephalomyocarditis virus infections in pigs using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) is widespread and the economic losses caused by an emcv outbreak in pig holdings and the similarity between a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and an emcv infection in young piglets stress the need for a rapid, specific and broad diagnostic assay. an alternative to the time-consuming seroneutralisation assay, currently used for the characterisation of emcv, is described. an emcv specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), using primers ...19979220393
the solution structure of the immunodominant and cell receptor binding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a, variant a.abstract: the solution structure of a 20 amino acid long peptide corresponding to the region 141-160 of the envelope protein vp1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a, variant a, has been determined by a combination of nmr experiments and computer calculations. the peptide contains both the immunodominant epitope as well as the sequence (rgd) used by the virus to bind the cell receptor in the initial stages of infection. these two sites have been shown to partially overlap. one hun ...19969225248
the solution conformational features of two highly homologous antigenic peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a, variant a and usa, correlate with their serological properties.the solution structure of a peptide corresponding to the vp1 region 141-160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a variant usa has been studied by nmr and computer calculations and compared with the results from a study on a highly homologous peptide deriving from serotype a, variant a. the two peptides differ in their serological behavior and contain the immunodominant epitope of the virus which partly overlaps with its receptor binding region. distance constraints, derived both from ...19969225249
[seroprevalence of viral infections in llamas (lama glama) in the republic of argentina].this study reports the seroprevalence of bovine viral infections in llamas (lama glama) in argentina. this is the first study made in the country including 390 llamas and testing antibodies against eight viruses. samples were collected from nine farms distributed in three different provinces: buenos aires, córdoba and jujuy. the samples were tested for antibodies against eight viruses known to infect cattle: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine adenovirus ...19979229724
computer simulations to identify in polyproteins of fmdv ok1 and a12 strains putative nonapeptides with amino acid motifs for binding to bola class i a11 and a20 haplotype molecules.the computer program "findpatterns" was used to search fmdv- (ok1 and a12 strains) coded structural and nonstructural proteins for the availability of putative proteasome-generated nonapeptides with motifs reported for bola class i a11 and a20 haplotypes. these bola class i a11 and a20 nonapeptide motifs are identical to motifs of nonapeptides that interact with the peptide binding grooves of hla class i b35 and b27 haplotypes, respectively. the computer findpattern program was used to analyze t ...19979237351
differentiation of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.a strategy for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using multiple primers was developed to detect and to differentiate the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) simultaneously, quickly and accurately. the development of the test was carried out on virus isolates grown in tissue culture prior to cdna synthesis and pcr using various sets of primers. primers p33 and p32 were used for the consensus pcr to detect fmdv regardless of the serotype. positive cdna was ...19979274816
preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1.eight clones of hybrid cells secreting monoclonal antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1 were prepared; three of them neutralized viral infection. the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies was analyzed by various immunoenzyme assays using 146s viral particles, trypsin-treated 146s particles, 12s particles, and certain viral polypeptides. the epitopes unique for virus type asia-1 and conservative among several types were detected on the surface of viral particles. epitopes on t ...19979275286
antigenic features of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype asia1 as revealed by monoclonal antibodies and neutralization-escape mutants.neutralizable antigenic sites/epitopes of serotype asial foot-and-mouth disease virus (strain ind63/72) were identified using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and their neutralization-escape mutants. relative affinity/reactivity of the mabs for viral (both native and trypsin-cleaved) and subviral antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) showed dominance of trypsin-sensitive and conformation-dependent neutralizable antigenic sites. characterization of neutralization escape mutants identi ...19979282776
natural adaption to pigs of a taiwanese isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19979290197
[use of protease 3c and foot-and-mouth disease virus rna polymerase hybrid proteins, synthesized in escherichia coli, for diagnosis]. 19979297102
nucleotide sequence of the p1 region of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o1 caseros.it has been shown that variation of antigenic site i in vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) plays an important role in the antigenic diversification of this virus. however, the o1 campos strain is able to efficiently cross-protect cattle against the o1 caseros strain, despite having a different sequence in the site i. in this paper we report and compare the p1 coding region for the capsid proteins of fmdv o1 caseros and o1 campos. the deduced amino acid sequence showed a total of 31 amino ...19979311571
plasmid dna encoding replicating foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes induces antiviral immune responses in swine.dna vaccine candidates for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) were engineered to produce fmd virus (fmdv) particles that were noninfectious in cell culture or animals. the prototype plasmid, pwrm, contains a cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-driven genome-length type a12 cdna followed by the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation site. bhk cells transfected with this plasmid produced virus, but the specific infectivity of pwrm was much lower than that achieved with in vitro-generated rna genomes ...19979311823
foot-and-mouth disease virus and poliovirus particles contain proteins of the replication complex.nonstructural proteins 2c, 3cd, 3c, and 3d, and the cellular protein actin, are present in highly purified preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and poliovirus. they remain bound in variable amounts to the rnas when the rnas are extracted from the viruses with phenol or phenol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) and, for fmdv, when the rna is released from the particles by a lowering of the ph below 7. rna prepared by these methods is rapidly degraded at 37 degrees c, particularly in the ...19979311848
contamination of animal products: the minimum pathogen dose required to initiate infection.when an animal product contains a low level of contamination (perhaps less than the minimum infective dose of a pathogen as determined experimentally), the theoretical probability remains that if a large number of animals are exposed to that product, at least one animal in the group will become infected. such an infected animal could start an outbreak of the disease. these aspects, therefore, should be considered when risk assessments are performed. foot and mouth disease virus in milk is used a ...19979329105
health hazards to the small ruminant population of the middle east posed by the trade of sheep and goat meat.meat consumers in the middle east traditionally prefer meat from freshly slaughtered animals to that from chilled or frozen carcasses. consequently, meat trade in the middle east is based mainly upon the importation of large quantities of live animals rather than of sheep and goat carcasses. furthermore, as it seems that pathogens remain viable for longer periods of time in live animals than in meat, the probability of pathogens spreading in the middle east as a result of contaminated small rumi ...19979329108
likelihood of introducing selected exotic diseases to domestic swine in the continental united states of america through uncooked swill.to help policy makers determine the need for current regulations (which require cooking of swill prior to feeding to swine), an assessment of the likelihood of exposing domestic swine in the continental united states of america (usa) to selected foreign animal disease agents by feeding uncooked swill was carried out. the hazard was assumed to originate from contraband food items entering the usa and subsequently being discarded in household waste. such food waste may be collected by licensed was ...19979329117
antiviral activity of an extract from leaves of the tropical plant acanthospermum hispidum.incubation of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabiesvirus (prv) and bovine herpesvirus 1 during infection of cell cultures with an extract prepared from the leaves of acanthospermum hispidum impaired productive replication of these viruses in a concentration-dependent manner whereas propagation of classical swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and vaccinia virus was not affected. the 50% inhibitory concentration for cell growth (ic50) was 107 +/- 5 microliters/ml, and the concentration r ...19979330761
functional involvement of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein in translation initiation complexes with the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the synthesis of picornavirus polyproteins is initiated cap independently far downstream from the 5' end of the viral rna at the internal ribosome entry site (ires). the cellular polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (ptb) binds to the ires of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). in this study, we demonstrate that ptb is a component of 48s and 80s ribosomal initiation complexes formed with fmdv ires rna. the incorporation of ptb into these initiation complexes is dependent on the entry of the ire ...19979343186
arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-specific binding by foot-and-mouth disease viruses to the purified integrin alpha(v)beta3 in vitro.the integrin alpha(v)beta3 has been shown to act as the receptor for internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (a12), with attachment being through a highly conserved rgd motif located on the g-h loop of viral capsid protein vp1. in addition, however, we have recently shown that efficient infection of culture-grown cells by fmdv (o1bfs) requires binding to cell surface heparan sulfate. in this study, we have used a solid-phase receptor binding assay to characterize the binding by fm ...19979343190
intact eukaryotic initiation factor 4g is required for hepatitis a virus internal initiation of translation.the requirements for optimal activity of the hepatitis a virus (hav) internal ribosome entry segment (ires) differ substantially from those of other picornavirus ireses. one such difference is that, to date, the hav ires is the only one whose efficiency is severely inhibited in the presence of the picornaviral 2a proteinase. here we describe experiments designed to dissect the mechanism of proteinase-mediated inhibition of hav translation. using dicistronic mrnas translated in vitro, we show tha ...19979344915
cyclic peptides as conformationally restricted models of viral antigens: application to foot-and-mouth disease virus.conformationally restricted cyclic peptide mimics of the antigenic site a of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype c-s8c1 have been designed, first by comparison to the three-dimensional structure of the o1bfs serotype, later more accurately on the basis of x-ray diffraction data from a complex between a linear peptide reproducing site a and an fmdv-derived monoclonal antibody fab fragment. a variety of cyclization strategies have been attempted, both in solution and in the solid phase, involvin ...19959346844
a ribozyme targeted to cleave the polymerase gene sequences of different foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes.vaccinations against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has dramatically reduced the number of disease outbreaks. nevertheless, there are still many outbreaks in different regions around the world. in an effort to find new ways to control the disease, ribozymes able to cleave fmdv were designed and tested. in this work we tested the ability of frz4, a ribozyme targeted to the viral polymerase gene, to cleave polymerase sequences of several fmdv. homology analysis was used to choose target seque ...19979354267
a retro-inverso peptide corresponding to the gh loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits high levels of long-lasting protective neutralizing antibodies.peptides corresponding to the immunodominant loop located at residues 135-158 on capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) generally elicit high levels of anti-peptide and virus-neutralizing antibodies. in some instances, however, the level of neutralizing antibodies is low or even negligible, even though the level of anti-peptide antibodies is high. we have shown previously that the antigenic activity of peptide 141-159 of vp1 of a variant of serotype a can be mimicked by a retr ...19979356486
dissecting the roles of vp0 cleavage and rna packaging in picornavirus capsid stabilization: the structure of empty capsids of foot-and-mouth disease virus.empty capsids of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a22 iraq 24/64, whose structure has been solved by x-ray crystallography, are unusual for picornaviruses since they contain vp2 and vp4, the cleavage products of the protein precursor vp0. both the n terminus of vp1 and the c terminus of vp4, which pack together close to the icosahedral threefold symmetry axis where three pentamers associate, are more disordered in the empty capsid than they are in the rna-containing virus. the ordering o ...19979371640
efficient neutralization of foot-and-mouth disease virus by monovalent antibody binding.neutralization of an aphthovirus by monovalent binding of an antibody is reported. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) clone c-s8c1 was neutralized by monoclonal antibody (mab) sd6, which was directed to a continuous epitope within a major antigenic site of the g-h loop of capsid protein vp1. on a molar basis, the fab fragment was at most fivefold less active in neutralization than the intact antibody, and both blocked virus attachment to cells. neither the antibody nor the fab fragment caused a ...19979371652
characterization of an internal ribosomal entry segment within the 5' leader of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus type a rna and development of novel mlv-rev-based retroviral vectors.the murine leukemia virus (mlv)-related type c viruses constitute a major class of retroviruses that includes numerous endogenous and exogenous mammalian viruses and the related avian spleen necrosis virus (snv). the mlv-related viruses possess a long and multifunctional 5' untranslated leader involved in key steps of the viral life cycle--splicing, translation, rna dimerization, encapsidation, and reverse transcription. recent studies have shown that the 5' leader of friend murine leukemia viru ...19979382952
escape mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus selected by monoclonal antibodies directed to a trypsin-sensitive neutralization epitope.five monoclonal antibodies (moabs) against indian reference/vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus subtype a22 (ind17/77) and a guinea pig antibody against a synthetic peptide representing amino acids (aa) 136-151 of vp1 polypeptide of a22 virus were used in the study. all the antibodies either failed to react or showed a reduced reactivity with trypsin-treated (tt)-146 s virus particles in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and could neutralize the infectivity of the refer ...19979385400
one-tube and one-buffer system of rt-pcr amplification of 1d gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates.a method of reverse transcription (rt) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of 1d (vp1) gene of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus using one reaction mixture containing both avian myeloblastosis virus (amv) reverse transcriptase (rtase) and tfl dna polymerase is described. the procedure was time saving, made use of a single buffer for both rt and subsequent amplification and performed better than the two-step procedure usually conducted with moloney murine leukemia virus (mmlv) rtas ...19979385403
the non-structural polyprotein 3abc of foot-and-mouth disease virus as a diagnostic antigen in elisa to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle.a diagnostic assay to differentiate antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection from those induced by vaccination was developed. the test is an indirect-trapping elisa which uses a monoclonal antibody to trap the non-structural 3abc-fmdv polypeptide expressed in e. coli. experimental and field sera from naive, vaccinated and infected cattle were examined. using the established threshold of 0.20 optical density units, the sensitivity of the assay was 100%, as all the exper ...19979413510
a similar pattern of interaction for different antibodies with a major antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for intratypic antigenic variation.the three-dimensional structures of the fab fragment of a neutralizing antibody raised against a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c1, alone and complexed to an antigenic peptide representing the major antigenic site a (g-h loop of vp1), have been determined. as previously seen in a complex of the same antigen with another antibody which recognizes a different epitope within antigenic site a, the receptor recognition motif arg-gly-asp and some residues from an adjacent helix partic ...19989420281
specific interactions between human integrin alpha v beta 3 and chimeric hepatitis b virus core particles bearing the receptor-binding epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus.purified integrin alpha v beta 3 was used in solid-phase binding studies with chimeric hepatitis b cores which carry the rgd-containing loop of vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). high levels of specific binding between the integrin and the particles were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. the binding was mn2+ cation dependent and could be competed with fibronectin, vitronectin, and the peptide grgdspk. particles in which the rgd motif had been mutated to rge fai ...19979426454
molecular analysis of foot-and-mouth disease type o viruses isolated in saudi arabia between 1983 and 1995.partial nucleotide sequence of the capsid polypeptide coding gene 1d (vp1) was determined for 68 serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated between 1983 and 1995 from outbreaks occurring in saudi arabia. the sequences were compared with previously published sequences: 14 viruses of middle eastern origin (isolated between 1987 and 1991); and with four vaccine virus strain sequences, three originating from the middle east (o1/turkey/manisa/69, o1/sharquia/egypt/72 and o1/israel/2/85) and o ...19979440443
[a simple method for rna isolation and purification].rnas from escherichia coli cells, syrian hamster kidney cells, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and newcastle disease virus were isolated using glass fiber filters gf/f or gf/c. the rna was reversibly adsorbed on the filters in the presence of 2 m guanidine thiocyanate and 50% ethanol (or isopropanol) and eluted with water. the fraction composition of the isolated rna depended on the guanidine thiocyanate and alcohol concentrations in the adsorption and washing procedures. the rna preparations obta ...19979441599
protective immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus with vp1 expressed in transgenic plants.it has been reported recently that genes encoding antigens of bacterial and viral pathogens can be expressed in plants in a form in which they retain native immunogenic properties. the structural protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has frequently been shown to contain critical epitopes, has been expressed in different vectors and shown to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies and protection in experimental and natural hosts. here we report the production of transformed plant ...19989445079
titration calculations of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsids and their stabilities as a function of ph.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a non-enveloped picornavirus, is sensitive to acidic conditions. at ph values below 7 the icosahedral virus capsid, formed from 60 copies of a protomer containing four polypeptides (vp1 to 4), dissociates into 12 pentamers, releasing the viral rna. evidence suggests that this acid lability may assist fmdv cell entry via an endosomal pathway. calculations of titration curves and ph-stability profiles are presented for three different strains of fmdv, o1bfs, a1 ...19989466910
a structural model of picornavirus leader proteinases based on papain and bleomycin hydrolase.the leader (l) proteinases of aphthoviruses (foot-and-mouth disease viruses) and equine rhinovirus serotypes 1 and 2 cleave themselves from the growing polyprotein. this cleavage occurs intramolecularly between the c terminus of the l proteinases and the n terminus of the subsequent protein vp4. the foot-and-mouth disease virus enzyme has been shown, in addition, to cleave at least one cellular protein, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4g. mechanistically, inhibitor studies and sequence analysis ...19989472614
antigenic variation in foot and mouth disease virus type asia 1 isolates circulated during 1993-95 in india.the antigenic variation in foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is very high. the effective strategy to control the foot and mouth disease (fmd) in india which is a habitat of four serotypes o, a, c and asia 1, is by regular vaccination, using the vaccine strain most suitable for the local situation. india is an endemic country with the disease being widely distributed. selection of vaccine strain should therefore need the information on the circulating viruses. asia 1 causes the second largest n ...19979482590
differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth disease using a panel of recombinant, non-structural proteins in elisa.a profiling elisa was developed to detect antibody to the non-structural (ns) proteins lb, 2c, 3a, 3d, and the polyprotein 3abc, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the assay was used to examine panels of sera from naive cattle, and from experimentally infected or vaccinated animals. all sera from cattle experimentally infected with any of the seven serotypes of fmdv were positive for antibody to 2c, 3a, 3d and 3abc, and the majority were positive for lb. the three categories of sera could b ...19989491499
neutralization antigenic sites on type asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus defined by monoclonal antibody-resistant variants.seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) produced against serotype asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were used to select neutralization-resistant variants. seven single and six multiple antibody-resistant variants were selected to identify neutralization antigenic sites on fmdv asia-1. the variants no longer reacted with nmabs which were used to select them when tested by microneutralization test (mnt), radioimmunoassay (ria) and agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) assay. based on t ...19979495534
assessment using elisa of the herd immunity levels induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease oil vaccines.the development of a liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (lpbe) to measure antibodies (ab) produced in cattle with the o, a and c foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) types of commercial vaccines used in argentina is described. the test was specific: 99% of naïve cattle sera (n = 130) gave titres below log10 = 1.2, and none had a titre above log10 = 1.5. comparative studies with serum neutralization test (snt) using sera from cattle which received one or more vaccine doses is reported. the overa ...19989500182
the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep milk.the liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) and a specific isotype assay (sia) modified for caprine/ovine igg1 and igg2 were used to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus isolate o(1) manisa in sheep milk samples. the majority of samples from animals vaccinated 14-23 weeks previously were indistinguishable from naive sheep when tested in the lpbe but 97% were positive using the sia. all milk samples taken at 7 days after parturition from immunised animals were positive by lpbe. there ...19979504750
infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus results in a rapid reduction of mhc class i surface expression.the modulation of mhc class i molecule expression on the surface of cells as a consequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection has been examined. on cells infected with fmdv, class i expression was reduced to approximately 70% of the initial value 3 h after the infection and to 53% after 6 h. on cells depleted of surface class i complexes by acid treatment, the appearance of newly assembled class i-peptide complexes on the cell surface of non-infected cells increased immediately upo ...19989519820
antigenic structure of foot and mouth disease virus type a22 (indian isolates).variations in foot and mouth disease virus are due to amino acid substitutions in the vp1, which is a major immunogen. analysis of this hypervariable region is essential to know the antigenic structure of the serotype and is necessary to select a suitable vaccine strain. fmdv type a22 is one of the four prevailing virus types for which the vaccine is used regularly. to understand the antigenic structure of this type, carboxy- terminal region of vp1 from two field isolates and vaccine virus were ...19989536655
characterizing sequence variation in the vp1 capsid proteins of foot and mouth disease virus (serotype 0) with respect to virion structure.the vp1 capsid protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly polymorphic and contains several of the major immunogenic sites important to effective antibody neutralization and subsequent viral clearance by the immune system. whether this high level of polymorphism is of adaptive value to the virus remains unknown. in this study we examined sequence data from a set of 55 isolates in order to establish the nature of selective pressures acting on this gene. using the known molecular stru ...19989541542
analysis of the b and t cell response in guinea pigs induced with recombinant vaccinia expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins.recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) p1 and vp1 genes have been used to study the immune response induced by these viral polypeptides in guinea pigs. anti-fmdv antibodies, but not neutralizing activity, were detected in the sera from immunized animals. the results indicate that both cd4+ and cd8+ fmdv-specific t cells were induced by the vaccinia recombinants. consistently with the activation of cd4+ t cells, lymphocytes from immunized animals specifically ...19989541622
the potential of retro-inverso peptides as synthetic vaccines.retro-inverso (ri) peptides, also called all-d-retro peptides, have been shown to mimic the antigenic and immunogenic properties of l-peptides successfully. ri peptides corresponding to the loop 141-159 of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been synthesized and used to immunize rabbits and guinea pigs. these peptides induced longer-lasting and higher antibody titres in immunized animals than did the corresponding l-peptides and the antibodies cross-reacted strongly with ...19989554267
foot-and-mouth disease virus virulent for cattle utilizes the integrin alpha(v)beta3 as its receptor.adsorption and plaque formation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a12 are inhibited by antibodies to the integrin alpha(v)beta3 (a. berinstein et al., j. virol. 69:2664-2666, 1995). a human cell line, k562, which does not normally express alpha(v)beta3 cannot replicate this serotype unless cells are transfected with cdnas encoding this integrin (k562-alpha(v)beta3 cells). in contrast, we found that a tissue culture-propagated fmdv, type o1bfs, was able to replicate in nontransfecte ...19989557639
antibody response in mice inoculated with dna expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins.candidate foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) dna vaccines designed to produce viral capsids lacking infectious viral nucleic acid were evaluated. plasmid dnas containing a portion of the fmdv genome coding for the capsid precursor protein (p1-2a) and wild-type or mutant viral proteinase 3c (plasmids p12x3c or p12x3c-mut, respectively) were constructed. cell-free translation reactions programmed with pp12x3c (wild-type 3c) and pp12x3c-mut produced a capsid precursor, but only the reactions programmed w ...19989557740
study of the immunogenicity of different recombinant mengo viruses expressing hiv1 and siv epitopes.recombinant mengo viruses expressing heterologous genes have proven to be safe and immunogenic in both mice and primates, and to be able to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses (altmeyer et al., 1995, 1996). several recombinant mengo viruses expressing either a large region (aa 65-206) of the hiv1 nef gene product, or cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) epitopic regions from the siv gag (aa 182-190), nef (aa 155-178) and pol (aa 587-601) gene products were engineered. the heterologous anti ...19989561560
emergency vaccination of pigs against foot-and-mouth disease: protection against disease and reduction in contact transmission.the protective ability of two novel oil-based fmd vaccines in pigs was examined. both vaccine formulations were shown to protect pigs against airborne challenge with homologous fmdv within four days of vaccination, but not at two and three days post-vaccination. protection was associated with the induction of variable and low titre serum antibody responses. a transmission study showed that protective immunisation resulted in reduced virus excretion. vaccination at seven days, but not at four day ...19989562696
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