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herd reproduction ratio and time-space analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in peru in 2004.the herd reproductive ratio (rh) and spatio-temporal clustering were estimated in the 2004 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in peru. the epidemic lasted 39 days and involved 26 herds. movement of cattle was restricted, all susceptible species within a 25-km buffer zone were revaccinated, and infected animals with clinical signs of fmd were killed or destroyed to control and eradicate the disease. the rh declined from 5.3 on the second day of the epidemic to 1.31 on the 25th day. spatio-temp ...200818631231
the crystal structure of coxsackievirus b3 rna-dependent rna polymerase in complex with its protein primer vpg confirms the existence of a second vpg binding site on picornaviridae polymerases.the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) is a central piece in the replication machinery of rna viruses. in picornaviruses this essential rdrp activity also uridylates the vpg peptide, which then serves as a primer for rna synthesis. previous genetic, binding, and biochemical data have identified a vpg binding site on poliovirus rdrp and have shown that is was implicated in vpg uridylation. more recent structural studies have identified a topologically distinct site on the closely related foot-an ...200818632861
crystal structure of coxsackievirus b3 3dpol highlights the functional importance of residue 5 in picornavirus polymerases.the crystal structure of the coxsackievirus b3 polymerase has been solved at 2.25-a resolution and is shown to be highly homologous to polymerases from poliovirus, rhinovirus, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses. together, these structures highlight several conserved structural elements in picornaviral polymerases, including a proteolytic activation-dependent n-terminal structure that is essential for full activity. interestingly, a comparison of all of the picornaviral polymerase structures show ...200818632862
specific n-terminal protein labelling: use of fmdv 3c pro protease and native chemical ligation.we report an effective strategy for generating n-terminal cysteinyl proteins by proteolytic cleavage using the enzyme 3c pro, suitable for a wide range of applications via native chemical ligation.200818633492
multiplexed molecular assay for rapid exclusion of foot-and-mouth disease.a nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from fmdv infection in cattle, sheep and swine. the fmdv "look-alike" diagnostic assay panel contains 5 pcr and 12 reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) signatures for a total of 17 simultaneous pcr amplifications for 7 diseases plus ...200818634827
topology of evolving, mutagenized viral populations: quasispecies expansion, compression, and operation of negative selection.the molecular events and evolutionary forces underlying lethal mutagenesis of virus (or virus extinction through an excess of mutations) are not well understood. here we apply for the first time phylogenetic methods and partition analysis of quasispecies (paq) to monitor genetic distances and intra-population structures of mutant spectra of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) quasispecies subjected to mutagenesis by base and nucleoside analogues.200818637173
generation and characterization of an npro-disrupted marker bovine viral diarrhea virus derived from a bac cdna.in vitro studies showed that n(pro) protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) interferes with cellular antiviral defense. to understand the role of n(pro) protein in successful viral invasion of the host and establishment of the lifetime persistence, an infectious n(pro)-disrupted virus with a noncytopathic (ncp) background is desired. in this study, an n(pro)-disrupted cdna, pbsd1-n(pro)/egfp2a, was constructed based on an infectious full-length bac cdna clone of ncp bvdv strain sd1, pbsd1. ...200818555541
evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the sat serotypes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in south africa. vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (as) adjuvanted vaccines containing the south african territories (sat) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlli ...200818575060
evaluation of fta cards as a laboratory and field sampling device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and serotyping by rt-pcr and real-time rt-pcr.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) samples transported to the laboratory from far and inaccessible areas for serodiagnosis pose a major problem in a tropical country like india, where there is maximum temperature fluctuation. inadequate storage methods lead to spoilage of fmdv samples collected from clinically positive animals in the field. such samples are declared as non-typeable by the typing laboratories with the consequent loss of valuable epidemiological data. the present study evaluated ...200818584888
variation in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a associated with epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks in the 2001 epizootic in argentina.a mixed binomial bayesian regression model was used to quantify the relation between nucleotide differences in the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a, and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreaks from which the viruses were obtained between january and december 2001 in argentina. an increase in the probability of different nucleotides between isolates was associated with a longer time between isolation dates, a greater distance between isolation locations, an increa ...200818599847
therapeutic application of rna interference against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important animal disease because of the speed of its transmission. routine vaccination may not be effective for early protection in an outbreak situation. small interfering rna (sirna) can be used in a rapid and effective antiviral approach. however, sirna has limitations when used in disease prevention, such as a short duration of action. in this study, we have demonstrated that treatment with sirna after fmd virus (fmdv) infection has an antivira ...200818601955
heparan sulfate-binding foot-and-mouth disease virus enters cells via caveola-mediated endocytosis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. virus, which is virulent for susceptible animals, infects cells via four members of the alpha(v) subclass of cellular integrins. in contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some fmdv serotypes results in the loss of viral virulence in the animal, accompanied by the loss of virus' ability to use integrins as receptors. these avirulent viral variants acquire positively charge ...200818614639
minority report: hidden memory genomes in hiv-1 quasispecies and possible clinical implications.the rna viruses replicate as complex distributions of closely related genomes termed viral quasispecies. the behavior of the evolving quasispecies and its response to selective pressures such as antiviral treatment is influenced by the ensemble of mutants that compose the viral population. one such influence is the presence of minority subpopulations in the mutant spectra of viral quasispecies. biologically relevant mutants have long been known to be present as minority components of replicating ...200818615120
inclusion bodies: specificity in their aggregation process and amyloid-like structure.the accumulation of aggregated protein in the cell is associated with the pathology of many diseases and constitutes a major concern in protein production. intracellular aggregates have been traditionally regarded as nonspecific associations of misfolded polypeptides. this view is challenged by studies demonstrating that, in vitro, aggregation often involves specific interactions. however, little is known about the specificity of in vivo protein deposition. here, we investigate the degree of in ...200818619498
experimental transmission of foot-and-mouth disease among indian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) and from buffalo to cattle.indian buffalo and cattle were infected experimentally with a serotype o strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus of buffalo origin. whereas intradermolingual inoculation of buffalo produced largely sub-clinical infection, inoculation in the dental pad produced vesicles in the mouth and on the feet. a buffalo infected via the dental pad transmitted infection to cattle and buffalo by direct contact with them for 24h. the contact-exposed buffalo developed (1) delayed-onset clinical signs, and (2) sh ...200818619607
epithelial distribution and replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna in infected pigs.although the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been extensively investigated, relatively few studies have addressed the localization of fmd virus (fmdv) and in particular its replication in relation to the typical in-vivo sites of fmd lesions. in the present study, pigs were infected experimentally with fmdv serotype o ukg 34/2001 and tissue samples were collected from 1 to 4 days post-infection. samples were stored at -70 degrees c and frozen sections were prepared for in-situ hy ...200818620703
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in fetal lambs: tissue tropism and cytokine response.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can cause transplacental infection and death in fetal lambs. this study investigates the pathogenesis of fmdv infection in ovine fetuses using in-situ hybridization (ish) to detect viral transcripts in tissue and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays to quantify the fetal cytokine response to infection. fmdv ribonucleic acid (rna) was localized mainly to the heart and skeletal muscles of fetuses and was only occasionally exp ...200818295784
residue l143 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase is a determinant of cleavage specificity.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader proteinase (l(pro)) self-processes inefficiently at the l(pro)/vp4 cleavage site lysleulys*glyalagly (* indicates cleaved peptide bond) when the leucine at position p2 is replaced by phenylalanine. molecular modeling and energy minimization identified the l(pro) residue l143 as being responsible for this discrimination. the variant l(pro) l143a self-processed efficiently at the l(pro)/vp4 cleavage site containing p2 phenylalanine, whereas the l143m ...200818305051
[the effectiveness of vaccination to prevent foot and mouth disease in several species]. 200818260556
an mhc-restricted cd8+ t-cell response is induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection and also following vaccination with inactivated fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals that carries enormous economic consequences. cd8(+) cytotoxic t lymphocytes play an important role in protection and disease outcome in viral infections but, to date, the role of the cd8(+) t-cell immune response to fmdv remains unclear. this study aimed to investigate major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i-restricted cd8(+) t-cell responses to fmdv in vaccinated and in infected cattle. an in ...200818272757
genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from afghanistan in 2003-2005.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates collected from various geographic locations in afghanistan between 2003 and 2005 were genetically characterized, and their phylogeny was reconstructed utilizing nucleotide sequences of the complete vp1 coding region. three serotypes of fmdv (types a, o, and asia 1) were identified as causing clinical disease in afghanistan during this period. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type a viruses were most closely related to isolates collected in iran ...200818278548
subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: a comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.the intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in ibrs-2 cells were analyzed. fluorescence to new svdv capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsrna. as in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of svdv capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2 ...200818279902
orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protomer vaccine displayed on t4 bacteriophage surface: 100% protection from potency challenge in mice.an orally delivered foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine has not previously been reported. by using a t4 bacteriophage nanoparticle surface gene-protein display system (t4-s-gpds), we created a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) entire capsid protein vaccine candidate. on the t4 phage surface soc site, a full length fmdv capsid precursor polyprotein (p1, 755 aa) and proteinase 3c (213 aa) derived from an infected pig of serotype o strain gd-10 (1999), were separately displayed on different t4 p ...200818289743
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against fmd virus type asia-1 and determination of antigenic variations in the field strains.twelve mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were developed against an indian vaccine strain of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia-1 wbn 117/85. the mabs were tested for their ability to bind to whole virus particle, trypsin-treated 146s (tt-146s) virus particle, sub-viral (12s and disrupted virus) antigens by elisa and to neutralize virus infectivity in cell culture. extensive characterization of mabs revealed the existence of three different groups based on the binding of non-overlappi ...200818291535
persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture revisited: implications for contingency in evolution.if we could rewind the tape of evolution and play it again, would it turn out to be similar to or different from what we know? obviously, this key question can only be addressed by fragmentary experimental approaches. twenty-two years ago, we described the establishment of bhk-21 cells persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a system that displayed as its major biological feature a coevolution of the cells and the resident virus in the course of persistence. now we report ...200818089747
foliar extracts from transgenic tomato plants expressing the structural polyprotein, p1-2a, and protease, 3c, from foot-and-mouth disease virus elicit a protective response in guinea pigs.the expression of recombinant antigens in transgenic plants is increasingly used as an alternative method of producing experimental immunogens. in this report, we describe the production of transgenic tomato plants that express the structural polyprotein, p1-2a, and protease, 3c, from foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv). p1-2a3c was inserted into the plant binary vector, pbin438, and transformed into tomato plants using agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, gv3101. the presence of p1-2a3c was confirmed by ...200818006078
integrating genetic and epidemiological data to determine transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus.estimating detailed transmission trees that reflect the relationships between infected individuals or populations during a disease outbreak often provides valuable insights into both the nature of disease transmission and the overall dynamics of the underlying epidemiological process. these trees may be based on epidemiological data that relate to the timing of infection and infectiousness, or genetic data that show the genetic relatedness of pathogens isolated from infected individuals. genetic ...200818230598
construction and immune response characterization of a recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid precursor protein (p1) and a multiepitope peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the most contagious and devastating disease of livestock. our previous studies demonstrated that tk(-)/gg(-)/p1(+), a recombinant expressing the fmdv capsid precursor protein (p1) based on attenuated pseudorabies virus (prv) tk(-)/gg(-), could be used as a recombinant vaccine to protect pigs against both pseudorabies and fmd. however, because the p1 expression cassette is inserted into the gg locus of the genome of prv tk(-)/gg(-), this bivalent vaccine cannot be ...200818246420
a bayesian evaluation of six diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease for vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle.the sensitivity and specificity of six elisa tests for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) to discriminate between sero-converted (for non-structural fmd virus proteins) and non-sero-converted cattle were evaluated for vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle. since none of the tests could be considered as a proper reference test and for about half of the tested sera the true status (sero-converted or not for non-structural proteins, i.e. presence of antibodies) of the animals was unknown, a bayesian analysi ...200818455817
the effects of il-6 and tnf-alpha as molecular adjuvants on immune responses to fmdv and maturation of dendritic cells by dna vaccination.various approaches have been developed to improve efficacy of dna vaccination, such as the use of plasmid expressing cytokine as a molecular adjuvant. in this study, we investigated whether co-inoculation of a construct expressing either il-6 or tnf-alpha as the molecular adjuvant with fmdv dna vaccine, pcd-vp1, can increase immune responses. compared to the group immunized with pcd-vp1 alone, the co-inoculation with either molecular adjuvant induced a higher ratio of igg2a/igg1, higher levels o ...200818462845
interleukin-15 enhance dna vaccine elicited mucosal and systemic immunity against foot and mouth disease virus.aerosol transmission of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is believed to be an important route of infection. induction of mucosal response is thought to be effective way against such infection. various approaches have been developed including the use of molecules adjuvant and polymers delivery for the mucosal delivery of dna vaccine. in this study, using low molecular weight chitosan as a delivery vehicle, we investigated whether co-administration intranasally of the fmdv dna vaccine, pcd-vp1 ...200818462848
[construction and eukaryotic expression of recombinant plasmid encoding fusion protein of goat complement c3d and foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1].we constructed a recombinant plasmid encoding vp1 gene of o type foot-and-mouth disease virus fused to a molecular adjuvant, goat complement c3d gene. the goat c3d gene was cloned and three copies were tandem-linked with the linker (g4s)2 sequence. vp1 gene of o type foot-and-mouth disease virus was linked to three tandem repeats of c3d through the linker sequence and cloned into puc19 to obtain the recombinant plasmid puc19-vp1-c3d3. the vp1-c3d3 fusion gene was then subcloned into the eukaryot ...200818464602
[cloning and expression of 3c protease gene from foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cell].the 3c protease from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv 3cpro) is critical for viral pathogenesis, has vital roles in both processing of the polyprotein precursor and rna replication, and is a potential anti-viral drug target. in the study, 3c gene of fmdv from serotype asia i was obtained through polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and subcloned into baculovirus transfer vector pmelbac-b. the recombinant transfer plasmid and linearized baculovirus dna were co-transfected into sf9 insect cell, and ...200818479056
comparative study of experimental foot-and-mouth disease in cattle (bos indicus) and buffaloes (bubalis bubalus).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious diseases affecting wide range of host species with variable severity and decreased productivity. the present study was undertaken to compare the clinical and leucocytic changes in indigenous indian cattle and buffaloes experimentally infected with fmd virus (fmdv) asia 1. a mild type of disease was observed in the cattle, more so in buffaloes infected with fmdv. difference in terms of type, site and healing of lesion was observed between ...200818491212
development and characterization of a bovine serum evaluation panel as a standard for immunoassays based on detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease viral non-capsid proteins.the widespread perception of the effectiveness of applying tests based on the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viral non-capsid proteins (ncps) to assess virus circulation irrespective of vaccination triggered the demand for international standards to evaluate the comparative performance of the upcoming assays against the oie index test developed at the pan american foot-and-mouth disease center, paho/who. to this end, a panel was developed composed of 34 cattle sera ...200818499275
foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing in cattle using homologous and heterologous challenge strains: precision of the "protection against podal generalisation" test.the level of protection conferred by foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines in primovaccinated animals primarily depends on the potency of the vaccine and the relatedness of the vaccine strain and circulating field isolate. the "gold standard" fmd vaccine potency test is the in vivo test performed in the target species. the objective of the study was to determine the precision of the in vivo "protection against podal generalisation" (ppg) fmd vaccine potency test in cattle using homologous (vacci ...200818499310
diagnostic specificity of a real-time rt-pcr in cattle for foot-and-mouth disease and swine for foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever based on non-invasive specimen collection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and classical swine fever virus (csfv) are highly contagious and can cause great economic losses when introduced into disease-free regions. accurate estimates of diagnostic specificity (sp) are important when considering the implementation of surveillance for these agents. the purpose of this study was to estimate diagnostic sp of a real-time reverse-transcriptase pcr assay developed for detection of fmdv in cattle and domestic swine and csfv in domestic swine ...200818499360
expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in silkworm-baculovirus expression system and its utilization as a subunit vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of livestock that causes severe economic loss in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. although the traditional inactivated vaccine has been proved effective, it may lead to a new outbreak of fmd because of either incomplete inactivation of fmdv or the escape of live virus from vaccine production workshop. thus, it is urgent to develop a novel fmdv vaccine that is safer, more effective and more economical than traditional vaccines.200818509464
immune responses of recombinant adenovirus co-expressing vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus and porcine interferon alpha in mice and guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this study, we constructed and characterized the immune responses and vaccine efficacy conferred by the recombinant adenovirus co-expressing vp1 of fmdv and porcine interferon alpha as fusion protein (rad-pifnalpha-vp1). six groups of female balb/c mice each with 18 were inoculated subcutaneously twice 2-week intervals with the recombinant adenoviruses. the results show ...200818511133
comparative genomics of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from india sampled over the last two decades.this study deals with a comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of twenty-one serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) field viruses isolated over a period of two decades from india, two vaccine strains and seven exotic sequences. the indian viruses could be grouped in to three distinct lineages at the entire coding region, evolving independently probably under differential selection pressure as evident from the lineage-specific signatures identified. this comparison revealed 80% o ...200818511143
partial sequence analysis of vp1 of indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1.nucleotide sequence of 3' end of vp1 (1d region) was determined using rt-pcr amplified dna of 31 foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia-1 field isolates originating from 11 different geographically distinct states of india during the period 1987-2000. these field strains exhibited an average of 7.5% divergence among them and were found to be divergent from the indian vaccine strains asia-1 wbn 117/85, ind 8/79, and ind 63/72, by an average 5.9, 14.8, and 7.4% divergence, respectively. phy ...200818512139
emergency vaccination of sheep against foot-and-mouth disease: significance and detection of subsequent sub-clinical infection.this study has quantified the level of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication and shedding in vaccinated sheep and correlated this to the severity of clinical signs, the induction of antibodies against fmdv non-structural proteins (nsps) and the transmission of virus to in-contact vaccinated sentinel sheep. to mimic an emergency vaccination regime in the field, sheep were vaccinated with o(1) manisa vaccine and 4 or 10 days later were indirectly challenged with aerosols from o(1) ukg fm ...200818513836
production of monoclonal antibodies against whole virus particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o and a and their potential use in quantification of intact virus for vaccine manufacture.a double antibody sandwich elisa for quantification of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) whole virus particle was developed using two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against fmd virus (fmdv) serotype o and a. the antibody binding epitopes were characterized. the two mabs reacted with all of the tested fmdv strains. the use of these two mabs in the sandwich elisa will allow the quantification of fmd whole virus particles during vaccine manufacture.200818513841
enhanced immune response of dna vaccine (vp1-pcdna) adsorbed on cationic plg for foot and mouth disease in guinea pigs.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is the major constraint to international trade in livestock and animal products. though conventional vaccine has shown to provide protection, it has several limitations, like short duration of immunity and poor cell mediated immune response compared to dna vaccines, which are known to induce both cell mediated as well as humoral responses. the present work envisages the production of dna vaccine construct with partial 1d gene (coding for vp1) of fmdv type 'a' and stu ...200818516668
passive immunization of pigs with bispecific llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease and porcine immunoglobulin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that occasionally causes outbreaks in europe. we aim to develop an immunotherapy that confers rapid protection against fmd in outbreak situations. for this purpose, we previously isolated llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs) binding to fmdv or porcine immunoglobulin (pig). the pig binding vhhs can be genetically fused to other vhhs, resulting in so-called vhh2s. as compared to non-pig binding vhhs such v ...200818534789
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in infected pigs by rt-pcr four weeks after challenge. 200818540035
high potency vaccines induce protection against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus.in a series of three homologous and eight heterologous challenge experiments, it was shown that high potency vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype a can induce protection even against heterologous challenge infection with viruses that give low r-values with the vaccine strains. the challenge virus specific neutralizing antibody response on the day of challenge (21 days post vaccination) generally correlated with protection.200818313814
dramatic improvement in fmd dna vaccine efficacy and cross-serotype antibody induction in pigs following a protein boost.to overcome the low and slow development of humoral antibody often observed with dna vaccines we applied a prime-boost strategy. when fmd dna vaccine p1-2a3c3d and pgm-csf primed pigs were boosted with inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigen and recombinant 3d (without adjuvant) an average 36-fold increase in the fmdv antibody response was observed compared to conventional vaccination, that included a log(10) virus neutralising titre increase. most remarkably, a significant level ...200818321615
prospects for rapid diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in the field using reverse transcriptase-pcr. 200818326844
modelling foot-and-mouth disease: a comparison between the uk and denmark.whilst the uk 2001 fmd (foot-and-mouth disease) outbreak provides an extremely rich source of spatio-temporal epidemic data, it is not clear how the models and parameters from the uk can be translated to other scenarios. here we consider how the model framework used to capture the uk epidemic can be applied to a hypothetical fmd outbreak in denmark. whilst pigs played a relatively minor role in the uk epidemic (being the infected animal on just 18 farms), they dominate the danish livestock lands ...200818328581
chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses: evaluation of their efficacy as potential marker vaccines in cattle.previous work in pigs, has demonstrated that full protection against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccines, in which the vp1 g-h loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. if proven to be effective in other economically important species such as cattle, such vaccine constructs could be trialed as potential marker vaccines. here, we determine if g-h loop chimera fmdv vaccines can: (i) protect c ...200818342409
sequence analysis of the protein-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/hk/2001.the nucleotide sequence of the protein-coding region of foot-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) strain o/hk/2001 was determined and compared with the sequences of other fmdvs that were registered in genbank. the protein-coding region was 6966 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 2322 amino acid residues. comparison of the nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other isolates indicated that o/hk/2001 belonged to the cathay topotype. a genomic coding region nucleot ...200818343054
in situ protein folding and activation in bacterial inclusion bodies.recent observations indicate that bacterial inclusion bodies formed in absence of the main chaperone dnak result largely enriched in functional, properly folded recombinant proteins. unfortunately, the molecular basis of this intriguing fact, with obvious biotechnological interest, remains unsolved. we have explored here two non-excluding physiological mechanisms that could account for this observation, namely selective removal of inactive polypeptides from inclusion bodies or in situ functional ...200818351678
interferon-alpha production by swine dendritic cells is inhibited during acute infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (ifns). we have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (dcs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong type i ifn (ifn-alpha and ifn-beta) response, indicating that dcs may play a critical role in the innate response to the virus. in vivo, fmdv induces lymphopenia and reduced t-cell proliferative responses to mitogen, v ...200818355124
accuracy of models for the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic.since 2001 models of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease, supported by the data from the uk epidemic, have been expounded as some of the best examples of problem-driven epidemic models. these claims are generally based on a comparison between model results and epidemic data at fairly coarse spatio-temporal resolution. here, we focus on a comparison between model and data at the individual farm level, assessing the potential of the model to predict the infectious status of farms in both the shor ...200818364313
pathogenic characteristics of the korean 2002 isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pigs and cattle.experimental infection of susceptible cattle and pigs showed that the o/skr/as/2002 pig strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an infection that is highly virulent and contagious in pigs but very limited in cattle. pigs directly inoculated with, or exposed to swine infected with, strain o/skr/as/2002 showed typical clinical signs, including gross vesicular lesions in mouth and pedal sites. in addition, fmdv was isolated from, and fmdv genomic rna was detected in, blood, serum, nasa ...200818384806
serological survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wildlife in eastern africa and estimation of test parameters of a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for buffalo.in this study we estimate the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in wildlife from eastern and central africa. sera were sourced from between 1994 and 2002 from a rinderpest surveillance program. our study compared a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cedi test) with a virus neutralization test. the study shows that there is only a low seroprevalence of fmdv in sampled nonbuffalo species. the seroprevalence in the cape buffalo was high for sat2, lower for ...200818385460
chemical and biomimetic total syntheses of natural and engineered mcoti cyclotides.the naturally-occurring cyclic cystine-knot microprotein trypsin inhibitors mcoti-i and mcoti-ii have been synthesised using both thia-zip native chemical ligation and a biomimetic strategy featuring chemoenzymatic cyclisation by an immobilised protease. engineered analogues have been produced containing a range of substitutions at the p1 position that redirect specificity towards alternative protease targets whilst retaining excellent to moderate affinity. furthermore, we report an mcoti analog ...200818385853
[gene cloning of ligand binding domain of porcine beta3 as fmdv receptor and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].to clone and express the ligand binding domain (lbd) cdna of porcine integrin beta3 as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) receptor and prepare its polyclonal antibody.200818394343
assessment of suitability of two serotype a candidate vaccine strains for inclusion in fmd vaccine in india.the recent type a foot and mouth disease virus field isolates recovered in india are shown to be antigenically quite divergent from the in-use vaccine strain (ind 17/82), warranting the selection of a suitable vaccine strain which can cover this diversity in antigenic spectrum. in earlier studies employing neutralization test with anti-146s rabbit sera raised against eight candidate vaccine strains, ind 81/00 and ind 40/00 belonging to genotype vii were found to offer the best antigenic coverage ...200818394827
foot-and-mouth disease virus concentrations in products of animal origin.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals which can have devastating economic consequences. maintaining an fmd-free status is a priority for non-endemic countries, which restrict importation of animals and animal products from countries in which the disease is present or sporadic, thus presenting a considerable barrier to international trade. this review examines the concentration of fmd virus in animal tissues during the viraemic stage of disease and i ...200818397496
incursions of foot-and-mouth disease virus into europe between 1985 and 2006.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the biggest threats to animal health in european countries. in the last 22 years (1985-2006), fmd has occurred 37 times in 14 european countries. serotype o was most frequently involved in these outbreaks followed by a, c and asia 1. sometimes, epidemics were very limited and at other times, they were the cause of devastating economic losses. in most cases (22/37), the origin of the outbreaks could not be determined. for some of these outbreaks, however, ro ...200818397506
the importance of quality assurance/quality control of diagnostics to increase the confidence in global foot-and-mouth disease control.the last decade international trade in animals and animal products was liberated and confidence in this global trade can increase only if appropriate control measures are applied. as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostics will play an essential role in this respect, the food and agriculture organization european commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (eufmd) co-ordinates, in collaboration with the european commission, several programmes to increase the quality of fmd diagnostics. ...200818397507
fmd vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in european disease control policy.most foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the oie manual and, for europe, in the european pharmacopoeia, and for the eu member states in compliance with directive 2001/82/ec of the european parliament and of the council of 6 november 2001 on the community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by directive 2004/28/ec. most of the r ...200818397508
epidemiological patterns of foot-and-mouth disease worldwide.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a clinical syndrome in animals due to fmd virus that exists in seven serotypes, whereby recovery from one sero-type does not confer immunity against the other six. so when considering intervention strategies in endemic settings, it is important to take account of the characteristics of the different serotypes in different ecological systems. fmd serotypes are not uniformly distributed in the regions of the world where the disease still occurs. for example, the cum ...200818397509
evading the host immune response: how foot-and-mouth disease virus has become an effective pathogen.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. in this review, we discuss the mechanisms fmdv has evolved to counteract the host innate and adaptive immune responses and the role of viral proteins in this process. the viral leader proteinase, l pro, limits the host innate response by inhibiting the induction of interferon beta (ifn beta) mrna and blocking host cell translation. a second viral proteinase, 3c pro, may affect host cell trans ...200818400012
rate of foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission by carriers quantified from experimental data.upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. these carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. an analysis was carried out using data from previously published experiments in order to quantify the transmission rate parameter beta of fmdv infection from carriers to susceptible animals. the parameter beta was estimated at 0.02 ...200818419650
transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the united kingdom in 2007.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus causes an acute vesicular disease of domesticated and wild ruminants and pigs. identifying sources of fmd outbreaks is often confounded by incomplete epidemiological evidence and the numerous routes by which virus can spread (movements of infected animals or their products, contaminated persons, objects, and aerosols). here, we show that the outbreaks of fmd in the united kingdom in august 2007 were caused by a derivative of fmdv o(1) bfs 1860, a virus strain h ...200818421380
quantitative risk assessment of foot-and-mouth disease introduction into spain via importation of live animals.spain has been a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-free country since 1986. however, the fmd epidemics that recently affected several european union (eu) member countries demonstrated that the continent is still at high risk for fmd virus (fmdv) introduction, and that the potential consequences of those epidemics are socially and financially devastating. this paper presents a quantitative assessment of the risk of fmdv introduction into spain. results suggest that provinces in north-eastern spain are ...200818430478
induction of protective immunity in swine by immunization with live attenuated recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing the capsid precursor encoding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes morbidity to livestock and serious economic consequences to its associated industry and therefore it is necessary to develop a safe and efficient vaccine to prevent or control this disease. a recombinant live attenuated virus vaccine, designated prv-p1, was generated by insertion of an expression cassette containing cmv promoter, fmdv p1 gene and sv 40 poly-a into the gg gene region of a live attenuated pseudorabies virus vaccine strain (tk-/gg-/lacz+). to det ...200818436351
influence of the mutant spectrum in viral evolution: focused selection of antigenic variants in a reconstructed viral quasispecies.rna viruses replicate as complex mutant distributions termed viral quasispecies. despite this, studies on virus populations subjected to positive selection have generally been performed and analyzed as if the viral population consisted of a defined genomic nucleotide sequence; such a simplification may not reflect accurately the molecular events underlying the selection process. in the present study, we have reconstructed a foot-and-mouth disease virus quasispecies with multiple, low-frequency, ...200818436553
foot-and-mouth disease in north american bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni): susceptibility, intra- and interspecies transmission, clinical signs, and lesions.there is limited information about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north american bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in these two experimental infection studies, we compared the susceptibilities of bison and elk to fmd virus (fmdv), respectively, with that of cattle; determined whether intra- and interspecies transmission could occur in bison and cattle, and elk and cattle; determined suitability of conventional available laboratory tests to ...200818436660
serotype-independent detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious vesicular disease affecting cloven hoofed animals and is considered the most economically important disease worldwide. recent fmd outbreaks in europe and taiwan and the associated need for rapid diagnostic turnaround have identified limitations that exist in current diagnostic capabilities. to aid improved diagnosis, a serotype-independent fmdv antigen capture assay was developed using antibodies directed against a highly conserved c ...200818440078
epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in landhi dairy colony, pakistan, the world largest buffalo colony.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and causes huge economic losses. this work focus on the landhi dairy colony (ldc), located in the suburbs of karachi. ldc is the largest buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). each month from april 2006 to april 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage ...200818445264
vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus using peptides conjugated to nano-beads.vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a major problem as current vaccines do not allow easy differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. furthermore, large scale production of inactivated virus poses significant risks. to address this we investigated the feasibility of using inert nano-beads that target antigen to dendritic cells (dcs) to induce immune responses against fmdv-specific synthetic peptides in sheep. our results demonstrate that while single peptides ...200818448209
enhanced mucosal immunoglobulin a response and solid protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge induced by a novel dendrimeric peptide.the successful use of a dendrimeric peptide to protect pigs against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), which causes the most devastating animal disease worldwide, is described. animals were immunized intramuscularly with a peptide containing one copy of a fmdv t-cell epitope and branching out into four copies of a b-cell epitope. the four immunized pigs did not develop significant clinical signs upon fmdv challenge, neither systemic nor mucosal fmdv replication, nor was its tran ...200818448530
dendritic cell internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: influence of heparan sulfate binding on virus uptake and induction of the immune response.dendritic cells (dc), which are essential for inducing and regulating immune defenses and responses, represent the critical target for vaccines against pathogens such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). although it is clear that fmdv enters epithelial cells via integrins, little is known about fmdv interaction with dc. accordingly, dc internalization of fmdv antigen was analyzed by comparing vaccine virus dominated by heparan sulfate (hs)-binding variants with fmdv lacking hs-binding capacit ...200818448534
use of continuous results to compare elisas for the detection of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.six tests for detection of antibodies against the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were compared at an international workshop in brescia, italy in 2004 on the basis of dichotomous test results. however, as results from all of these assays were also available on a continuous scale, validation was extended by calculating and subsequently analysing the receiver-operator characteristic (roc) curves and likelihood ratios (lr) for each test method. for the purposes of the ...200818450336
potential of antiviral therapy and prophylaxis for controlling rna viral infections of livestock.with intensification of trade, livestock are increasingly exposed to severe animal diseases caused by a range of rna viruses. recent prime examples include outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), peste des petits ruminants, rift valley fever and bluetongue. to minimise their impact, controlling the spread of virus is of utmost importance. good quality, reliable vaccines exist for some, although not all, of these diseases, but suffer from a set of drawbacks, not the least of which being the ti ...200818035428
cedivac-fmd can be used according to a marker vaccine principle.in this study, we investigated whether cedivac-fmd, an emergency vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), is suitable for use conjointly with a screening program intended to confirm freedom from disease in vaccinated herds based on evidence of virus replication in vaccinates. different sets of sera were tested using the ceditest fmdv-ns elisa for the detection of antibodies against non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus. during a vaccine safety study, serum samples were collected from ...200818035508
foot-and-mouth disease virus forms a highly stable, edta-resistant complex with its principal receptor, integrin alphavbeta6: implications for infectiousness.the initial stage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection is virus binding to cell surface integrins via the rgd motif in the gh loop of the vp1 capsid protein. as for all ligand/integrin interactions, the initial contact between fmdv and its integrin receptors is cation dependent and hence inhibited by edta. we have investigated this binding process with rgd-containing peptides derived from the vp1 capsid protein of fmdv and discovered that, upon binding, some of these peptides form hi ...200818045932
experimental studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1, responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china.this study was carried out to investigate the biological characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strain asia-1 china/2005, which is responsible for the 2005 epidemic in china. the result showed that this strain is not host restricted, and could not only cause fmd in cattle and sheep but also in pigs by either inoculation or direct contact.200818155114
repeated bottleneck transfers can lead to non-cytocidal forms of a cytopathic virus: implications for viral extinction.several biological subclones of a biological clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been subjected to many plaque-to-plaque (serial bottleneck) transfers in cell culture. at transfer 190 to 409, clones underwent a transition towards a non-cytolytic (nc) phenotype in which the virus was unable to produce plaques, representing at least a 140-fold reduction in specific infectivity relative to the parental biological clone. nc clones, however, were competent in rna replication and establi ...200818158159
optimization strategy for plasmid dnas containing multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by cis-expression with il-2.to optimize previous candidate dna vaccine, a cis-expression plasmid dna encoding two genes, human il-2 and multiple-epitopes genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was constructed with internal ribosome entry site (ires) from encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) and intramuscularly inoculated into mice at 1-week interval. specific antibodies in serum and cytokines (il-2, il-4 and ifn-gamma) from splenocytes were detected by indirect elisa. splenocytes proliferation rate was determined by a s ...200818191307
expression of heterologous genes in oncolytic adenoviruses using picornaviral 2a sequences that trigger ribosome skipping.insertion of picornaviral 2a sequences into mrnas causes ribosomes to skip formation of a peptide bond at the junction of the 2a and downstream sequences, leading to the production of two proteins from a single open reading frame. adenoviral protein ix is a minor capsid protein that has been used to display foreign peptides on the surface of the capsid. we have used 2a sequences from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and porcine teschovirus 1 (ptv-1) to express protein ix (pix) and green f ...200818198369
dynamics of picornavirus rna replication within infected cells.replication of many picornaviruses is inhibited by low concentrations of guanidine. guanidine-resistant mutants are readily isolated and the mutations map to the coding region for the 2c protein. using in vitro replication assays it has been determined previously that guanidine blocks the initiation of negative-strand synthesis. we have now examined the dynamics of rna replication, measured by quantitative rt-pcr, within cells infected with either swine vesicular disease virus (an enterovirus) o ...200818198379
molecular and phylogenetic analyses of bovine rhinovirus type 2 shows it is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus.bovine rhinovirus 2 (brv2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family picornaviridae. a nearly full-length cdna of the brv2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence determined. brv2 possesses a putative leader proteinase, a small 2a protein and a poly(c) tract, which are characteristic of aphthoviruses. alignment of brv-2 and fmdv polyproteins showed that 41% of amino acids were identical within the p1 region. furthermo ...200818201745
functional analysis of picornavirus 2b proteins: effects on calcium homeostasis and intracellular protein trafficking.the family picornaviridae consists of a large group of plus-strand rna viruses that share a similar genome organization. the nomenclature of the picornavirus proteins is based on their position in the viral rna genome but does not necessarily imply a conserved function of proteins of different genera. the enterovirus 2b protein is a small hydrophobic protein that, upon individual expression, is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and the golgi complex, reduces er and golgi complex ca(2+) ...200818216106
diagnostic evaluation of multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr microsphere array assay for detection of foot-and-mouth and look-alike disease viruses.a high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from viruses that cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. this assay simultaneously screens for five rna and two dna viruses by using multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr (mrt-pcr) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. two of the 17 primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from prev ...200818216216
a highly sensitive and specific multiplex rt-pcr to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus in tissue and food samples.three sets of primers to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) using multiplex rt-pcr were designed based on several reference nucleotide sequences, and their reaction conditions were determined. by testing ten-fold serial dilutions of fmdv, the sensitivity of multiplex rt-pcr is 100 times higher than conventional rt-pcr. meanwhile, its specificity was confirmed compared with other related vesicular disease viruses. furthermore, 30 field samples from different animals were tested, and the r ...200817987350
porcine interferon-gamma protects swine from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).porcine interferon-gamma (poifn-gamma) fused with glutathione s-transferase (gst) was expressed in escherichia coli bl(21). twenty 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to four groups. pigs in groups 1-3 were pretreated with 30 mg, 20 mg, and 10 mg recombinant poifn-gamma (rpoifn-gamma), respectively. pigs in group 4 (control) were pretreated with gst expressed by the empty plasmid. at 48h postinoculation (hpi), all swine were challenged with fmdv (serotype o). pigs pretreated with 30 mg rpo ...200817996949
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. in contrast, fmd in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. in order to investigate the pathogenesis of fmd in lambs, two groups, aged 10-14 days, were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o ukg. one group of lambs (n=8) was inoculated with fmdv in the coronary band, while the other (n=4) was infec ...200817942248
comparison of immune responses to different foot-and-mouth disease genetically engineered vaccines in guinea pigs.the p12a3c gene from fmdv (serotype o) encoding the capsid precursor protein, and the highly immunogenic gene fhg, which encodes multiple epitopes of fmdv capsid proteins, were inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors to compare different candidate genetically engineered vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). a modified live pseudorabies virus (mlprv) was also used to deliver p12a3c. guinea pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with the candidate vaccines to compare the ability to elicit i ...200817963851
rapid and differential diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, and vesicular stomatitis by a new multiplex rt-pcr assay.a highly sensitive and specific one-step multiplex rt-pcr assay has been developed and standardised for the simultaneous and differential detection of the most important vesicular viruses affecting livestock: foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). the method uses three primer sets, each one specific for the corresponding virus, selected to detect of all serotypes of fmd and vs. the detection range was confirmed by examinat ...200817964668
foot-and-mouth disease virus (o/ukg/2001) is poorly transmitted between sheep by the airborne route.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be spread by the airborne route and therefore atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to predict where the virus might spread during a disease outbreak. airborne transmission between sheep of the fmdv strain involved in the outbreak in europe in 2001 (o/ukg/2001) was studied experimentally. recipient animals were exposed to two donor sheep excreting virus for 2, 4, 6, 8 or 24 h. although fmdv was detected in air samples collected during challenge ...200817629524
evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based approach for the selection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine strains.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus exists as seven serotypes within which are numerous variants necessitating careful selection of vaccine strains. currently, a serological assay system based on the use of polyclonal vaccine antisera is widely used for this selection. however, inherent variability in the matching antisera used makes the tests poorly reproducible and difficult to interpret. in this study, we have explored the possibility of replacing or supplementing the polyclonal antibody (pab) ...200817689892
a meta-analysis quantifying transmission parameters of fmdv strain o taiwan among non-vaccinated and vaccinated pigs.our aim was to provide additional estimates of main parameters for the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain o taiwan (3/97). we used the data of previous experiments in non-vaccinated and vaccinated pigs and combined the data of experiments with the same treatment(s). first, we quantified the reproduction ratio r for the various groups using a final-size method. our final-size results predicted that vaccination with a four-fold vaccine dose (but not with a single dose) at 1 ...200817683815
immune responses of swine inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing p12a and 3c of fmdv and swine il-18.two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rfpv-p1 and rfpv-il18-2ap12a) containing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid polypeptide, 3c coding regions of o/ny00 were evaluated to determine their abilities to induce humoral and cellular responses in the presence or absence of swine il-18 as genetic adjuvant. the ability to protect swine against homologous virus challenge was examined. all swine were given booster vaccinations at 21 days after the initial inoculation and were challenged 10 days after ...200817706296
immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus in pig farms after the 1997 outbreak in taiwan.this paper reports on a retrospective study of the antibody responses to structural and non-structural proteins of fmd virus o taiwan 97 in six pig herds in taiwan in the year after the 1997 taiwanese fmd outbreak. all herds were vaccinated against fmd after the outbreak as part of the countrywide control program. three of the herds had confirmed fmd infections (herds n, o and p) and three herds remained non-infected (herds k, l and m). the serum neutralizing antibody titers and the non-structur ...200817716836
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba).a study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). two detection methods: nasba-electrochemiluminescence (nasba-ecl) and a newly developed nasba-enzyme-linked oligonucleotide capture (nasba-eoc) were evaluated. the diagnostic sensitivity of these assays was compared with other laboratory-based methods using 200 clinical samples collected from different regions of the world. assay ...200817728080
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