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detection of t1-oligonucleotides of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna [correction of dna] by silver staining.viral (v) rna was isolated from purified foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol treatment, digested by rnase t1 and separated by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). the oligonucleotides were detected by silver staining. about 45 micrograms of vrna corresponding to about 100 ml of infectious bhk-21 cell culture fluid yielded a pattern of nearly 20 bands sufficient to differentiate between the fmd viruses.19901698016
freeze-drying foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens. i. infectivity studies.the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains type o1 bfs 1860 and type a22 irq 24/64 to retain infectivity after freeze-drying with or without additives being made to virus suspensions was studied. the infectivity titres of freeze-dried antigens was assessed at intervals over a six month storage period at various temperatures and also after reconstitution to the liquid phase and storage with or without glycerination. certain additive solutions were necessary to prevent degradation of viru ...19901698805
structural and serological evidence for a novel mechanism of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus.changes resulting in altered antigenic properties of viruses nearly always occur on their surface and have been attributed to the substitution of residues directly involved in binding antibody. to investigate the mechanism of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), variants that escape neutralization by a monoclonal antibody have been compared crystallographically and serologically with parental virus. fmdvs form one of the four genera of the picornaviridae. the unenveloped i ...19901699132
sequence analysis of monoclonal antibody resistant mutants of type o foot and mouth disease virus: evidence for the involvement of the three surface exposed capsid proteins in four antigenic sites.sequence analysis of monoclonal antibody resistant mutants of type o foot and mouth disease virus has been performed. distinct clusters of amino acid substitutions conferring resistance to neutralization at each of the four previously defined antigenic sites (mccahon et al., 1989, j. gen. virol. 70, 639-645) have been identified. one site corresponds to the well-known 140-160 region of vp1, a second site is also on vp1, one site is on vp2, and the fourth site is on vp3. all of the amino acid sub ...19901699353
genetic and phenotypic variability during replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.a plaque-purified preparation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c1 (c-s8c1-1), grown in cell culture, was used to infect nonimmunized pigs. no variant genomes were detected in the average populations of 50 viruses isolated from infected animals by direct rna sequencing of the carboxy-terminal half of the vp1 gene. however, a mutant with altered phenotypic properties was present in low proportion in an infected animal. the frequency of mutants resistant to neutralization by sd6 m ...19901700543
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus by competitive elisa using a monoclonal antibody specific for the 12s protein subunit from six of the seven serotypes.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) prevention and control programs are dependent upon rapid, reliable diagnostic procedures. the widely used fmd diagnostic complement fixation (cf) procedures require a specific antiserum for each of the seven fmdv serotypes making the tests both cumbersome and difficult to standardize. an fmd diagnostic, monoclonal antibody based inhibition-elisa procedure was developed. the test uses a single monoclonal antibody (mab) that reacts with all european and south american ...19901702246
efficient recognition by rat t cell clones of an epitope of mycobacterial hsp 65 inserted in escherichia coli outer membrane protein phoe.phoe is a pore-forming protein, abundantly expressed in the escherichia coli outer membrane. previous investigations have shown the possibility of inserting antigenic determinants in cell surface-exposed regions of phoe by recombinant dna techniques without disturbing the biogenesis and the functioning of the protein. this method proved to be successful for foot-and-mouth disease virus b cell determinants. we have now shown for the first time that phoe can also be used as a carrier molecule for ...19901702727
mouse footpad langerhans cells as an indicator for safety of foot and mouth disease virus vaccines.the effect of various vaccines against foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) was tested on langerhans cell density in the footpad epidermis of mice. injection of monovalent, bivalent and trivalent fmdv vaccines caused a reduction in langerhans cell density in the murine skin, which was more marked at the center of the footpad, the site of injection, than at the periphery. testing of the various components of the vaccine showed that saponin caused a marked reduction in langerhans cells while inject ...19901702792
foot-and-mouth disease virus strains isolated from persistently infected cell cultures are attenuated for mice and cattle.it was previously reported that during serial passage of a bhk-derived cell line persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus, (termed c1-bhk-rc1) the virus became increasingly more virulent for bhk-21 cells (de la torre et al 1988). virus strains isolated from different cell passage levels were tested for virulence in mice and cattle. the results showed that in the course of persistence in bhk cells, fmdv became progressively less virulent for mice and cattle.19901964520
functional aspects of the capsid structure of mengo virus.the three-dimensional structure of the mengo virus capsid has been determined at a resolution of 3.0 a. this achievement is discussed in an historical context, and the general features of picornavirus capsid design are presented. the dynamic functional aspects of the mengo virus capsid--namely its ability to interact with specific receptors on host cells, to dissociate and release the viral genomic rna into the cellular cytoplasm, to assemble with progeny rna molecules and form new virions, and ...19901965133
foot-and-mouth disease virus in the llama (lama glama): diagnosis, transmission, and susceptibility.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was shown to be transmitted from either cattle to llamas, llamas to swine (interspecies), or llamas to llamas (intraspecies). response to fmdv varied greatly in the 6 llamas studied; 3 llamas developed generalized clinical disease with mild pyrexia, 2 after intradermolingual inoculation, and 1 after exposure to a calf infected with fmdv serotype a24. another contact llama developed vesicular lesions on all 4 extremities but no oral lesions. two contact llamas, ...19901965585
[synthesis of a 17-member peptide (143-159)--the vp(1) fragment of a(12) foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. synthesis of fragments (143-145), (146-148), 149-152), (153-155), and (156-159)]. 19901965772
[synthesis of a 17-member peptide (143-159)--the vp(1) protein fragment of a(12) foot-and-mouth disease virus. ii. condensation of fragments].a 17-membered peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence of (143-159) site of protein vp1 of a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus has been obtained by mixed anhydride method condensations of the earlier synthesized fragments. a norleucine residue has been attached, as a label, to the ends of peptides obtained. the complete deprotection was performed by hydrogenation peptides' hydrochlorides and the products were purified by hplc. the antigenic properties of the synthesized peptides are discuss ...19901965773
cdna-cloning and expression of vp1-specific sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a5 and o1.the rna genome of foot- and mouth disease virus strains a5 westerwald and o1 lausanne has been reverse-transcribed and cloned in lambdaphages or plasmids. identification of cdna-clones containing vp1-specific sequences was achieved by hybridization, restriction mapping, and sequence analysis. vp1-coding cdna-fragments were subcloned into the expression vector pex which led to synthesis of fusion proteins with beta-galactosidase. these fusion proteins reacted with anti-vp1 antibodies on a western ...19901966357
[primary structure of the 3'-terminal region of the rna-polymerase gene in foot-and-mouth virus a22].this study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the primary structure of the 3' end gene of rna polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus a22 550. reported are isolation and purification of the virus, isolation of rna, synthesis of cdna, experience obtained from cloning as well as analysis of hybridisation and isolation of plasmid dna. nucleotide sequences, characterised by specific clones, were tested for potential needle structures. also described are homology comparisons among fmd v ...19901966358
investigation of the influence of peptide-carrier conjugation on the immunological activity of vp1-peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1-kaufbeuren.we found coupling of short sequences of vp1 to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh) by means of glutaraldehyde to be a very complex phenomenon which could only be controlled by strict standardization of components and reaction conditions. considering the results, we may conclude that big immunogenic proteins, like klh, are advantageous for achieving sufficient and specific antibody response with neutralizing activity. when using klh, we did not find simple dependence of immunogenicity or neutralizing ...19901966359
synthetic peptides against foot-and-mouth disease--immunization with vp1-peptides of type o1-kaufbeuren.coupled synthetic peptides, representing the sequences of amino acids 130-160, 141-160 and 145-160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1k protein vp1, induced virus-binding and virus-neutralizing antibody response in guinea pigs, rabbits, and pigs. we also detected antibody response in guinea pigs after immunization with uncoupled peptides and in cattle with 21 aa-peptide-keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (-klh). the best results were obtained from 21 aa-peptide-klh and 31 aa-peptide with or without klh or ...19901966360
inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in skimmed milk with propionic acid, citric acid and hydrogen peroxide.in order to protect farm animals from infections such as foot and mouth disease (fmd) and tuberculosis, the pasteurisation of milk and milk products designated for the feeding of animals is compulsory in switzerland. nowadays, milk products are often treated chemically with acids or with hydrogen peroxide in order to keep bacterial contamination low. the capacity of these chemical treatments to inactivate fmd virus in skimmed milk within 6 h at 5 degrees c was tested in this study. the results i ...19901966751
a study of antigenic variants of foot and mouth disease virus type a in india between 1977 and 1985.the structural polypeptides of thirty-three field isolates of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) collected in india between 1977 and 1985 were analysed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. they were placed in eleven groups based on their patterns and compared with results of conventional serological (virus neutralisation and complement fixation) tests. variation occurred in the structural proteins of the viruses isolated between 1977 and 1981; however, the polypeptide patterns of viruses ...19901966752
inactivation of viral agents in bovine serum by gamma irradiation.cell culture origin or suckling mouse brain origin viruses of akabane disease, aino, bovine ephemeral fever, swine vesicular disease, hog cholera, bluetongue, and minute virus of mice were each suspended in bovine serum. aliquots (1 ml) were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60co source while at -68 degrees c. aliquots (100-ml) of serum from a steer experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus were similarly irradiated. the samples were assayed for infectivity in ce ...19902123735
foot-and-mouth disease virus protease 3c induces specific proteolytic cleavage of host cell histone h3.in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells, the disappearance of nuclear protein histone h3 and the simultaneous appearance of a new chromatin-associated protein termed pi can be observed (p. r. grigera and s. g. tisminetzky, virology 136:10-19, 1984). we sequenced the amino terminus of protein pi and showed that pi derives from histone h3 by proteolytic cleavage. the 20 n-terminal amino acid residues of histone h3 are specifically cleaved off early during infection. truncated histone ...19902153239
attenuation of mengo virus through genetic engineering of the 5' noncoding poly(c) tract.the murine cardioviruses, such as the mengo and encephalomyocarditis viruses, and the bovine aphthoviruses, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, are distinguished among positive-strand rna viruses by the presence of long homopolymeric poly(c) tracts within their 5' noncoding sequences. although the specific lengths (60-350 bases) and sequence discontinuities (for example, uridine residues) that sometimes disrupt the homopolymer have served to characterize natural viral isolates, the biological ...19902153940
protection of cattle and swine against foot-and-mouth disease, using biosynthetic peptide vaccines.a single dose of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus protein 1 (vp1) peptide, expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein with 190 amino acids (aa) of the le' protein of the tryptophan operon of e coli, elicited an immune response in steers sufficient to withstand the challenge of exposure to animals with acute fmd. the 58-micrograms dose of viral peptide, composed of a segment of the vp1 from the a12 strain (a12) of fmd virus (fmdv; a12-32dimer) in a tandem repeat configuration of aa137 th ...19902154148
foot-and-mouth disease virus protease 3c inhibits cellular transcription and mediates cleavage of histone h3.foot-and-mouth disease virus protease 3c is essential for the processing of the viral precursor polyprotein. it is shown here to also inhibit gene expression in baby hamster kidney cells after transient expression from transfected cdna fragments. protease 3c could not be detected by indirect immunofluorescence in contrast to other cdna-encoded virus proteins, but protein synthesized de novo 16 hr after transfection could be detected by radioimmunoprecipitation. the cellular translation apparatus ...19902154880
neutralizing antibodies to all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicited by synthetic peptides.uncoupled peptides from all seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein vp1 have been used to elicit neutralizing antibody responses in guinea-pigs. the responses were largely serotype specific, although some significant cross-neutralization was observed. dimeric tandem peptides have also been used to simultaneously elicit neutralizing antibodies to two different fmdv serotypes. the possible existence of structural features common to the b-cell neutralization sites or the guin ...19902155177
conformational variability of a picornavirus capsid: ph-dependent structural changes of mengo virus related to its host receptor attachment site and disassembly.the structure of mengo virus had been determined from crystals grown in the presence of 100 mm phosphate buffer at ph 7.4. it is shown that mengo virus is poorly infectious at the phosphate concentration similar to that in which it was crystallized. maximal infectivity is achieved at 10 mm phosphate or less in physiological saline. the phosphate effect is ameliorated when the ph is lowered to 4.6. although it has not been possible to study the crystal structure of the virus at low phosphate conc ...19902155508
structural refinement and analysis of mengo virus.the structure of mengo encephalomyelitis virus was refined at 3 a resolution with a final r-factor of 0.221 and a root-mean-square deviation from idealized bond lengths of 0.019 a for 10 a to 3 a data with f greater than or equal to 3 sigma(f). the hendrickson-konnert refinement was restrained by the phases derived from the molecular replacement averaging procedure and constrained by the icosahedral symmetry of the virus. the virus consists of 60 protomers each having three major subunits, vp1, ...19902156078
comparison of vaccine strains and the virus causing the 1986 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in spain: epizootiological analysis.rnas of the most recent foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in spain (a5sp86) during the 1986 outbreak, and of the three vaccine strains in use at that time in that country, have been compared. although these viruses are serologically indistinguishable, differences have been found among them by t1 fingerprinting. this genetic heterogeneity affects the immunogenic vp1 gene, with amino acid changes located at the carboxyterminal end of the molecule. vp1-coding sequences obtained have been compar ...19902156389
the detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses using solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization.thirteen complementary dna (cdna) probes were used to detect the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna extracted from cell cultures. when labelled with 32p, these probes enabled the detection of 1 pg of fmdv-rna, or 1 virus copy per cell. two fmdv a12 probes that coded for the leader, structural protein vp1 region and part of the polymerase gene respectively, showed no hybridization with other closely related picornaviruses. differentiation between fmdv serotypes a, o and c was pos ...19902156879
heterotypic protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding to three serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.synthetic peptide vaccines of the general sequence cys-cys(200-213)-pro-pro-ser-(141-158)-pro-cys-gly, where the numbered residues refer to vp1 sequences of three different strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus, have been evaluated in cattle and guinea pigs. high levels of serotype-specific (homotypic) antiviral and antipeptide antibody were produced with each peptide. the a- and o-serotype peptides provided complete protection of guinea pigs against their respective virus challenges. the c-se ...19902157884
infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus derived from a cloned full-length cdna.a full-length cdna plasmid of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been constructed. rna synthesized in vitro by means of a bacteriophage sp6 promoter inserted in front of the cdna led to the production of infectious particles upon transfection of bhk-21 cells. these particles were also found to be highly infectious for primary bovine kidney cells as well as for baby mice. the difficulty in cloning the foot-and-mouth disease virus cytidyl tract in escherichia coli was circumvented by joining two sep ...19902159523
immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in an experimental murine model. ii. basis of persistent antibody reaction.a murine model was used to study the mechanisms involved in the prolonged immune response to live and inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the antibody response elicited by the infection persisted throughout the entire life of the animal, while immunization with inactivated virus induced a transient response. the administration of inactivated virus in a water-in-oil emulsion increased antibody titres to values as high as those obtained by infection. there was a high correlation betwe ...19902160145
intracellular expression and processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursors using vaccinia virus vectors: influence of the l protease.cdna cassettes of fmdv have been constructed which encode the capsid precursor (p1-2a) alone or with the proteases l and 3c which are required for processing of this precursor to the products 1ab, 1c, and 1d. these cassettes have been analyzed using in vitro transcription and translation reactions and within cells using recombinant vaccinia viruses. processing of the precursors occurred more efficiently in cells than in cell-free systems but similar properties were observed. it was not possible ...19902161149
cultivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk21 cells grown in microcarrier culture system.when bhk21 cells were grown according to the microcarrier's system, they reached the highest concentration in 72 hrs. the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in bhk21 microcarrier culture increased 10 times compared with the conventional monolayer culture in rolling bottles.19902161995
identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in vaccinated cattle by antibodies to non-structural virus proteins.antibodies raised in cattle against foot-and-mouth disease virus by vaccination or by experimental infection were distinguished. vaccination elicited only antibodies to virus capsid proteins and the polymerase 3d. virus replication in cattle elicited additional antibodies directed against the non-structural proteins 2b, 2c, 3ab1, and/or 3c irrespective of prior vaccination or whether the cattle exhibited symptoms of disease. non-permissive mice inoculated with virus responded in the same way, in ...19902163574
isotype responses of infected, virus-vaccinated and peptide-vaccinated cattle to foot-and-mouth disease virus.an elisa to measure bovine serum immunoglobulin isotypes (igg1, igg2, igm and iga) specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) or for synthetic fmdv peptides is described. sera from cattle infected by fmdv, vaccinated with conventional inactivated virus vaccines or vaccinated with synthetic peptides were examined using this assay. generally igg subclasses dominated the antibody responses of all groups after an early igm response had waned. an exception to this pattern was seen in the case o ...19902163575
identification of a nucleotide deletion in parts of polypeptide 3a in two independent attenuated aphthovirus strains.a set of antisera specific for each viral polypeptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to provide a full comparison of polypeptides of two strains attenuated for cattle with respect to their parental virulent strains. both attenuated strains, belonging to serotypes o1 campos and c3 resende, were obtained through serial passages of the corresponding virulent strains in chicken embryos. although mutations were scattered throughout the genome, both attenuated strains showed an electrophoret ...19902164734
estimation of 140s particles in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine by using the computer analyzing system.the quantity of 140s particles in inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine samples produced in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine production center (fmd vaccine production center) in thailand was estimated by the sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and optical density analysis by using the computer applying system. the soft ware; chromato data system (cds) (nihon chromato works co., ltd. japan) which is prepared for the analysis of chromatography, was applied for the estimation of 14 ...19902166853
synthesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in insect cells using baculovirus expression vectors.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) cdna cassettes containing sequences encoding the capsid precursor p1-2a with and without those encoding the proteases l and 3c were introduced into autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acmnpv) expression vectors. procapsid proteins 1ab, 1c and 1d were produced in cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses, when l and 3c were present in the constructs, indicating that these fmdv proteases were active in insect cells. unlike p1 processing in pol ...19902167924
the effect of peptides containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequence on the adsorption of foot-and-mouth disease virus to tissue culture cells.sequencing of the vp1 of a large number of subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has revealed the presence of a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) sequence located in a highly exposed region. this sequence has been shown to be essential for the interaction of certain extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins with a superfamily of cell-surface receptors called integrins. we have examined the effects of synthetic peptides containing the rgd sequence on the binding of eight d ...19902168107
antigenic analysis of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from the middle east, 1981 to 1988.during the period 1981-88 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o continued to be isolated from outbreaks in the middle east. field isolates submitted to the world reference laboratory have been examined in relation to reference strains by either complement fixation, virus neutralization or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. most isolates were related to the european type o1 reference strains although strains emerging in late 1987 and 1988 were more closely related to o1/manisa. in addit ...19902168609
functional analysis of the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.mutagenesis of the large untranslated sequence at the 5' end of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus revealed that a region of approximately 450 nucleotides preceding the open reading frame of the viral polyprotein is involved in the regulation of translation initiation at two internal start sites. variations in two domains of this region reduced the translation efficiency up to 10-fold, whereas an intermediate segment seemed to be less essential. a pyrimidine-rich sequence preceding the s ...19902168956
a cellular 57 kda protein binds to two regions of the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a ribosome-associated 57 kda protein from rabbit reticulocytes was linked to the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus by mild uv-irradiation. binding studies with different rna fragments revealed that this protein interacts with two distinct sites within the translational control region. one site is located approximately 400 nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon and the second binding site could be confined to 60 nucleotides preceding this codon. ...19902169432
foot-and-mouth disease virus subtyping by sequencing vp1 genes.in order to use nucleotide sequencing for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) diagnostic subtyping, it is necessary to shorten the time required for preparation of suitable templates. the time required for analysis was reduced by use of the viral rna present in the total rna extract of tissue from infected cattle as a template in the sanger sequencing reaction. results are now available within 3 days. the sequences determined encode capsid protein vp1 and therefore major neutralization epitopes. ...19902169671
the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for its physical and biological properties.the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been solved at a resolution of 2.9 a by x-ray diffraction techniques. the overall structural organisation of the particle is similar to that seen in other picornaviruses but there are several unique features. many of these help to explain its characteristic physical and biological properties. in particular the canyon or pit found at the surface of other picornaviruses is lacking, which has important implications for cell attachment and the proces ...19902169674
use of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen in liquid-phase blocking elisa.a liquid-phase blocking elisa is used by the world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease for the quantification of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. the potential for using inactivated fmdv antigens in the assay has been assessed by titrating bovine convalescent sera to all seven serotypes and comparing the titres obtained with live or inactivated antigens. the titres were similar indicating that either live or inactivated antigens can be used in the liquid-phase blocking eli ...19902170435
a region of the 5' noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna directs efficient internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells: involvement with the role of l protease in translational control.plasmids encoding bicistronic mrnas have been constructed and used to identify a region from the 5' noncoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) which directs efficient internal initiation of protein synthesis within cells. the loss of about 30 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' terminus or about 50 nt from the 3' terminus of the 435-nt region completely abolished the activity of this region. the expression of the fmdv l protease severely inhibited the expression of other genes unless they ...19902170677
unique amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus from a persistent infection in cell culture.maintenance of a persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in bhk-21 cells involves a coevolution of cells and virus (j. c. de la torre, e. martínez-salas, j. díez, a. villaverde, f. gebauer, e. rocha, m. dávila, and e. domingo, j. virol. 62:2050-2058, 1988). the resident fmdv undergoes a number of phenotypic changes, including a gradual decrease in virion stability. here we report the nucleotide sequence of the p1 genomic segment of the virus rescued after 100 passages of the car ...19902170684
a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) elisa, using monoclonal antibodies and detecting specifically antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and c. i. method and characteristics.a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the detection of antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, and c1 detmold. for each strain two monoclonal antibodies directed against different antigenic sites of fmdv were used. the assay used either infectious, not inactivated antigen or inactivated antigen. we concluded that the ctb-elisa was sensitive, type-specific, and more reproducible (p less th ...19902173248
a complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) elisa, using monoclonal antibodies and detecting specifically antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease types a, o and c. ii. application.the complex-trapping-blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was evaluated to detect antibodies directed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, and c1 detmold. log10 serum titres of uninfected, unvaccinated cattle (n = 100) were less than 1.80 in the ctb-elisa. sera from cattle vaccinated with either monovalent or trivalent vaccines were tested in both the ctb-elisa and the serum neutralisation test (snt); titres in both tests correlated positiv ...19902173249
[synthetic immunogenic complexes containing a peptide from the surface protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus].synthetic constructions containing a peptide antigenic determinant (c-terminal peptide 205-213 of the surface vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus, o1k strain), glucosaminylmuramayl dipeptide (gmdp), and polyionic synthetic carriers were prepared. the polymerized peptide and peptide-bsa conjugates were synthesized as well. among the constructions obtained only peptide-bsa conjugate proved to be highly immunogenic. application of synthetic constructions to design immunogenic complexes ...19902173604
protection of guinea-pigs against foot-and-mouth disease virus by immunization with a phoe-fmdv hybrid protein.a hybrid protein was constructed containing two antigenic determinants of the structural protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus, inserted in a cell surface-exposed region of escherichia coli outer membrane protein phoe. immunization of guinea-pigs with partially purified protein resulted in high levels of neutralizing antibodies and complete protection against challenge with the virus.19902174595
international bank for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine: stability studies with virus concentrates and vaccines prepared from them.an international bank foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine has been established at the pirbright laboratory of the afrc institute for animal health. the bank is based on concentrated virus preparations stored in the gaseous phase of liquid nitrogen and is capable of producing up to 0.5 million cattle doses of each of five common strains of the virus (fmdv) for the member nations of the bank. this paper describes the initial and subsequent testing of the virus concentrates and vaccines prepared f ...19902174597
freeze-drying foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens. ii. for use in the elisa.live and inactivated preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains 01 bfs 1860 and a22 irq 24/64 were freeze-dried in the presence or absence of additive solutions and assessed for their reactivity by elisa at intervals over a six month storage period at various temperatures and also after reconstitution and subsequent storage with or without glycerination. the type specificity of all antigen preparations was maintained throughout the study period and the potency of antigens, judged by ti ...19902175750
quantification of intact 146s foot-and-mouth disease antigen for vaccine production by a double antibody sandwich elisa using monoclonal antibodies.a double antibody sandwich (das) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to quantify 146s antigen of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain a10 holland grown in suspension cultures of surviving bovine tongue epithelium. when virus harvests were incubated with trypsin--which affects vp1, the most immunogenic structural protein of fmdv--the concentration of 146s antigen as determined by elisa was reduced by greater than 90%. therefore, the test detected essentially only those v ...19902178351
evaluation of the use of chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates in solid-phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa).fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates were used in direct and trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for the detection of mouse igg and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the detection limits for both antigens were compared using different combinations of enzymes and substrates. various times and concentrations of chemicals were used to obtain maximum sensitivity for both systems. similar sensitivities were found using fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates. tetramethyl benzidine ...19902178352
[virus carriers in foot-and-mouth disease. review].fmdv infection can cause a long lasting virus carrier state in the oesophageal-pharyngeal (op) region of cattle, sheep, goats, african buffalo, wildebeest and kudu. virus can be recovered from op fluids with low titres for several months up to more than 2 years. during this time phases of positive virus recovery are interrupted by negative phases. the number of virus carriers decreases as time progresses. the virus carrier state is always accompanied by fmdv antibodies in serum and op fluid. vac ...19902191649
immunological properties of hepatitis b core antigen fusion proteins.the immunogenicity of a 19 amino acid peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been shown to approach that of the inactivated virus from which it was derived after multimeric particulate presentation as an n-terminal fusion with hepatitis b core antigen. in this report we demonstrate that rhinovirus peptide-hepatitis b core antigen fusion proteins are 10-fold more immunogenic than peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and 100-fold more immunogenic than uncoupled peptide wi ...19902320575
a t cell epitope in vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus is immunodominant for vaccinated cattle.synthetic peptides representing regions of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain 01 kaufbeuren were screened for their ability to stimulate proliferation of pbmc from virus vaccinated cattle. sites were identified at residue 21-40 (peptide fmdv32) and in the region c-terminal to residue 161. cells responding to fmdv32 were mhc class ii-restricted, cd4+ and secreted il-2. thus, this region is defined as a th site. of 19 virus vaccinated friesian cattle, 89% (17/19) responded to p ...19911702816
identification of neutralizing antigenic sites on vp1 and vp2 of type a5 foot-and-mouth disease virus, defined by neutralization-resistant variants.five neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) obtained against type a5 spain-86 foot-and-mouth disease virus were used to generate a series of neutralization-resistant variants. in vitro and in vivo assays showed that the variants were fully refractory to neutralization by the selecting nmab. on the basis of cross-neutralization and binding assays, two neutralizing antigenic sites have been located on the virus surface; one, located near the c-terminus of vp1, displayed a linear epitope, and t ...19911707983
function of idiotypic networks in vivo: immunisation with idiotype-bearing (id1) antibody induces further production of id1 antibody.injection of balb/c mice with an anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) monoclonal antibody (mab) apparently induced the idiotype network to produce more anti-fmdv (idiotype-bearing) antibody, as determined by hybridoma production. anti-idiotype antibodies were also induced, detected by binding directly to the mab used for the immunizations (the "immunising" antibody). many of the anti-idiotype antibodies were directed against regions in or near the paratope of the immunising mab, since they c ...19911708353
chimeric polioviruses that include sequences derived from two independent antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induce neutralizing antibodies against fmdv in guinea pigs.five poliovirus recombinants containing sequences corresponding to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigenic sites were constructed. viable virus was recovered from four of these plasmids, in which the vp1 beta b-beta c loop (antigenic site 1) of poliovirus type 1 sabin had been replaced with sequences derived from the vp1 beta g-beta h loop (antigenic site 1) of fmdv o1 kaufbeuren (o1k), chimera o1.1 (residues 141 to 154), chimera o1.2 (residues 147 to 156), and chimera o1.3 (residues 140 t ...19911709696
antigenic stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus variants on serial passage in cell culture.two neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab)-resistant variants selected from an isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a5 were repeatedly passaged in cell culture and monitored for susceptibility to neutralization by the selecting mab. a variant isolated with a mab to a conformational epitope (1-og2) lost resistance in 20 passages, while a variant isolated with a mab to a linear epitope (1-ha6) persisted for 30 passages. in both cases, the virus population emerging after passage was ...19911645803
fitness alteration of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutants: measurement of adaptability of viral quasispecies.we document the rapid alteration of fitness of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mutants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. both mutants showed a selective disadvantage in bhk-21 cells when passaged in competition with their parental fmdv. upon repeated replication of the mutants alone, they acquired a selective advantage over the parental fmdv and fixed additional genomic substitutions without reversion of the monoclonal antibody-resistant phenotype. thus, variants that were ...19911645804
comparison of the immune response elicited by infectious and inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus in mice.the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) elicited by infection or immunization with inactivated virus in adult mice was examined. a model of adoptive transfer of immunocompetent cells was used for this purpose. the results presented here indicate that both short- and long-term secondary immune responses elicited by high doses of inactivated virus are indistinguishable, at the humoral or cellular level, from that observed after infection. the responses to inactivated or infectio ...19911649903
a preliminary study of the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus using in situ hybridization.five adult guinea pigs were inoculated intraepithelially in the right hindfoot pad with foot-and-mouth disease virus. animals were euthanatized with carbon dioxide at 4, 10, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-inoculation. generalized disease developed in the guinea pigs, as evidenced by depression and inappetance by 24 hours post-inoculation and by the formation of vesicles in the noninoculated hindfoot pad by 48 hours post-inoculation. by in situ hybridization, using a 500 base pair biotinylated rna pro ...19911650051
correlations between the conformations elucidated by cd spectroscopy and the antigenic properties of four peptides of the foot-and-mouth disease virus.the conformational features of four related antigenic peptides (a, b, c and usa) from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (vp1; 141-160 of serotype a, subtype 12), assessed by cd, were found to correlate with the serological properties of these peptides. the cd spectra of the four peptides, obtained under cryogenic and solvent titration conditions, were consistent with three conformational components (a left-handed extended helix, an alpha-helix and a 3(10) helix) for peptides a and c and fo ...19911651235
putative papain-related thiol proteases of positive-strand rna viruses. identification of rubi- and aphthovirus proteases and delineation of a novel conserved domain associated with proteases of rubi-, alpha- and coronaviruses.a computer-assisted comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences of (putative) thiol proteases encoded by the genomes of several diverse groups of positive-stranded rna viruses and distantly related to the family of cellular papain-like proteases is presented. a high level of similarity was detected between the leader protease of foot-and-mouth-disease virus and the protease of murine hepatitis coronavirus which cleaves the n-terminal p28 protein from the polyprotein. statistically significa ...19911652473
immunological evaluation of the multiple antigen peptide (map) system using the major immunogenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the multiple antigenic peptide (map) system for presenting epitopes to the immune system has been studied with an immunogenic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) peptide comprising amino acids 141-160 of protein vp1. neutralizing antibody responses known to protect guinea-pigs against challenge infection were obtained with a single inoculation of 0.8-4 micrograms of peptide, presented as an octamer or a tetramer, whereas 20 micrograms of a dimer were required to evoke a similar level of antibody ...19911652552
two mechanisms of antigenic diversification of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the amino acid replacements that underlay the diversification of the main antigenic site a (vp1 residues 138 to 150) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c have been identified. sixteen new vp1 sequences of isolates from 1926 until 1989 belonging to subtypes c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, and unclassified are reported. the reactivities in enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assays of capsid protein vp1 with a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize sites a or c (the vp ...19911653494
fixation of mutations at the vp1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus. can quasispecies define a transient molecular clock?the number of nucleotide (nt) substitutions found in the vp1 gene (encoding viral capsid protein) between any two of 16 closely related isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been quantified as a function of the time interval between isolations [villaverde et al., j. mol. biol. 204 (1988) 771-776]. one of them (isolate c-s12) includes some replacements found in isolates that preceded it and other replacements found in later isolates. the study has revealed alternating periods of rap ...19911653754
the capsid protein-encoding sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus o2brescia.nucleotide sequences encoding the four capsid proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype o2brescia/1947 have been determined. these and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those of a subtype o1 virus strain. the nucleotide sequences differed at 259 positions, causing only 35 amino acid changes. vp4 and vp2 differed by 2.4 and 1.8%, whereas vp1, known as major viral antigen, and vp3 differed by 8% and 5.5%, respectively. the differences occur mainly in protein domains not in ...19911656918
cleavage of foot-and-mouth disease virus polyprotein is mediated by residues located within a 19 amino acid sequence.the 2a region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polyprotein is only 16 amino acids in length. during synthesis of the fmdv polyprotein a primary proteolytic processing event occurs between the 2a and 2b regions of the polyprotein. the activity responsible for this cleavage is not known but it is thought that either an unidentified virus-encoded proteinase may be responsible, or that 2a acts as a substrate for a host cell proteinase. a series of recombinant fmdv polyproteins has been con ...19911658199
comparison of the 5' and 3' untranslated genomic regions of virulent and attenuated foot-and-mouth disease viruses (strains o1 campos and c3 resende).the complete 5' and 3' non-coding regions of two attenuated south american foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine strains, o1c-o/e and c3r-o/e, and their corresponding virulent parental strains, o1 campos and c3 resende, have been cloned from polymerase chain reaction-amplified primary cdna. differences observed in the derived nucleotide sequences between attenuated and virulent viruses seem not to affect regulatory signal structures, supporting the theory that genetic variations, primarily ...19911658210
interaction of a cellular 57-kilodalton protein with the internal translation initiation site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a cellular 57-kda protein (p57) that binds specifically to the internal translation initiation site in the 5' untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna was detected in cell extracts of different mammalian species by uv cross-linking. the protein binds to two distinct sites of the translation control region which have as the only common sequence a uuuc motif. the first binding site consists of a conserved hairpin structure, whereas the second binding site contains an essential pyrim ...19911658355
expression, processing, and assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid structures in heterologous systems: induction of a neutralizing antibody response in guinea pigs.plasmids containing the foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein precursor (p1) and 3c protease genes or the p1 gene alone were expressed in escherichia coli. a recombinant baculovirus containing the p1 gene was also generated and expressed in spodoptera frugiperda cells. expression of the p1 and 3c genes in e. coli resulted in efficient synthesis and processing of the structural protein precursor and assembly into 70s empty capsids. this material reacted with neutralizing monoclonal anti ...19911658362
[detection of neutralizing antibodies in calves after single vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia 1 in the field].on june 20th 1984 appeared the first fmd-type asia 1 outbreak in greece. around the outbreak all susceptible animals were vaccinated with asia 1 vaccine produced by iffa mereiux. three weeks after this first vaccination blood samples have been collected and examined for neutralizing antibodies. from 101 examined calves 37 were younger than 6 months, 63 between 6-11 months and one was 12 months old. the titer of the first group was less than 1.2 in 14 and greater than 1.8 in 8 calves. by the seco ...19911659374
hepatitis a virus attachment to cultured cell lines.identification of a hepatitis a virus (hav) receptor is important for understanding hav tissue tropism and replication sites and in the design of vaccines and antiviral therapy. the attachment of hav to cultured cell lines was evaluated: calcium-dependent specific attachment of four hav strains to permissive cells occurred, whereas binding to nonpermissive cells did not. investigation of hav antigenic variant strains (neutralization escape mutants) demonstrated identical attachment properties wi ...19911659597
foot-and-mouth disease virus o1lombardy is biochemically related to o2 isolates.the capsid protein vp1-encoding rna regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates o1lombardy/1946 and o2brescia/1947 were sequenced and found to be closely related to each other and to o2normandy/1949, despite some sequence differences. the o1lombardy sequence was expected to be more closely related to those of the subtype o1 isolates of 1965 and later (e.g., o1kaufbeuren/1966), but this was not the case. the serological subtyping of both the lombardy and the kaufbeuren isolate as o1 stra ...19911663294
detection and localization of single-base sequence differences in foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes by the rnase mismatch cleavage method.the rnase mismatch cleavage method was examined for its efficiency of indicating single-base sequence differences in the capsid protein-coding regions of different foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype o1 strains. the method was found suitable for indicating such differences. rnase a as well as rnase t1 contributed to substrate conversion. examples for the cleavage of eleven different single-base mismatches in rna double-strands are now known. all virus genomes found to differ from each other exh ...19911664431
[protection from foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally-susceptible animals by a linear polymer of a synthetic peptide].linear polymer of a peptide corresponding to the fragment 142-155 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus a22(550) protein (vp1) was synthesized. whereas the monomeric peptide was only slightly immunogenic, the polymer induced virus-neutralizing antibodies in rabbits and protected 100% guinea pigs. sheep vaccinated once and cattle vaccinated twice were stable against infection with the homologous virulent foot-and-mouth disease virus.19911665331
an overview of the inactivation of fmdv and the implications when residual virus is present in vaccines.most foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are prepared by inactivating the virus with acetylethyleneimine or binary ethyleneimine. however, formaldehyde is still used by some manufacturers despite the well-documented evidence that inactivation with this reagent is not a linear or first-order reaction. recent german work provides clear evidence that almost all the outbreaks in western europe in recent years have been caused by viruses closely related to strains which were isolated more than 20 y ...19911665462
evaluation of a trapping elisa for the differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains using monoclonal antibodies.a trapping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been evaluated for the differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains using a panel of seven anti-serotype o monoclonal antibodies (mabs). the variation of results within and between tests performed on the same day and on different days was examined using three strains of fmdv. criteria for establishing antigenic differences between the strains as defined by the individual mabs are proposed based on the variability measured ...19911665700
rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in tissues by enzymatic rna amplification of the polymerase gene.direct detection of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus from infected bovine and porcine tissue was investigated using a modified polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique. a high degree of conservation was found in the genomic region coding for the viral rna polymerase among the seven fmd viral (fmdv) serotypes. an oligomeric primer pair and probe were constructed from consensus sequence data within this area. first strand cdna was synthesized using random hexamers and moloney mulv reverse trans ...19911666635
the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in filter paper eluates from pig sera or whole blood by elisa.the use of pig blood samples dried on paper discs for the detection of antibodies against fmdv by the liquid phase blocking elisa has been evaluated. the average volume of whole heparinised blood required to fully saturate 6.0 mm discs was 7.65 microliters (range 7.2 to 8.1; variation = 0.24, p = 0.05). when 200 clinically healthy animals were assessed by virus neutralisation (vn) titres up to 1/22 were recorded against types o, a and c, 97% being 1/11 or less. using elisa, results were more ske ...19911666636
enhancement of the immune response elicited with foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines by an extract of the mycobacterium sp. wall.the immunomodulating effect of an extract of the cell wall of mycobacterium sp. (wsf, vetrepharm inc., london, canada) in foot-and-mouth disease virus inactivated vaccines was tested in a murine model. the duration of immunity, protection, stimulation of immunocompetent cells acting on the long-lasting secondary response and possible tissue damage were examined. the incorporation of 10 micrograms wsf into aqueous and oil vaccines induced a high and long-lasting specific antibody response. the ne ...19911667346
[immune response in mice induced by different doses of foot-and-mouth disease virus].response against foot-and-mouth disease virus 01 campos on vaccinated female mice and suckling litter was estimated. vaccine doses ranged between 0.05 and 30 micrograms of virus. the lower dose protected 39.5% of suckling litter whereas 100% protection was achieved using the higher doses. serum neutralization indexes in females, at 45 days post vaccination, ranged from 3.60 to 4.86 for 0.05 microgram to 0.10 microgram and 4.86 to 5.50 for the high doses. although the doses were excessively high ...19911667697
expression of an active foot-and-mouth disease virus rna polymerase in escherichia coli.the expression of a native form of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna polymerase was obtained. two oligonucleotides of 66 base pairs were used to rebuild the 5' end of the gene and to introduce the first methionine codon. the expression of the active polymerase in e. coli was achieved by inserting the gene before the tac promoter of the pkk223-3 plasmid.19911668400
rgd-containing peptides of vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) prevent virus infection in vitro.rgd-containing peptides from the immunodominant region of vp1 between amino acids 135-160 from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o1 kaufbeuren (o1k) prevented virus adsorption to piglet kidney (pk) cells. the highly conserved amino acid rgd sequence (arg.-gly.-asp.) was a prerequisite of this effect. to prevent infection with 100-200 tcid50 in 10(6) pk cells, 20-250 micrograms of each peptide should have been added.19911683122
outer membrane protein phoe as a carrier for the exposure of foreign antigenic determinants at the bacterial cell surface.phoe protein is an abundant outer membrane protein of the escherichia coli k-12 outer membrane. this protein can be used as an exposure system to produce foregin antigenic determinants and for their transport to the bacterial cell surface. the system is very flexible, since insertions varying in length and nature could be made in different cell surface-exposed regions of phoe, without interfering with the assembly process of the mutant proteins into the outer membrane. two antigenic determinants ...19911715682
[synthesis, cloning, and expression of artificial genes, coding antigenic determinants of the foot-and-mouth virus substrain a22].chemical-enzymatic synthesis and cloning in escherichia coli of double-stranded dnas, coding for simple and complex antigenic determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain a22, have been carried out. the simple antigenic determinants are a part of the viral coat protein vp1 (amino acid sequence 131-152 or 131-160) whereas the complex antigenic determinants comprise additionally the amino acid sequence 200-213 of vp1 linked to n-terminus of simple antigenic determinants through a tet ...19911716100
modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccine expressing monomer and dimer forms of foot-and-mouth disease capsid protein epitopes on surface of hybrid virus particles.modified-live, attenuated infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) hybrid virus vaccines have been constructed by inserting in the major ibrv glycoprotein giii gene chemically synthesized deoxyribonucleotide sequences encoding the bovine growth hormone signal sequence and monomeric or dimeric forms of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp 1 epitope sequences. the foreign dna sequences were inserted at the n-terminal end of the ibrv giii coding sequence and were driven by the ibrv giii promot ...19911718244
immunoglobulin vh and vk genes of the balb/c anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (o1) vp1 response: cloning, characterization and transgenic mice.hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies of different isotypes were isolated from balb/c antibody responses to the capsid protein vp1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain o1. according to antigen binding measured by elisa a weak-binding (81d10, igm) and a strong-binding antibody (113c12, igg2a) were selected. as rna sequencing of productive immunoglobulin vh and vk genes turned out, both chains of the weak-binding antibody (81d10) are encoded by germline (i.e. not mutated) genes w ...19911720503
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth virus. vi. functional segments of the immunodominant region of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth virus strains o1k and a22].b- and t-epitopes have been localized within the protective fragments of vp1 protein, viz., 136-152 of the o1k strain and 135-159 of the a22 strain of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). antibodies eliciting after immunization of various animals with the 135-159 a22 peptide are directed to different sites of the peptide. immunogenicity of fragments of the 135-159 a22 peptide on mice correlates with their activity on t-cells of the same animals and protective activity on guinea pigs. the inv ...19911722673
bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus)-based viral vector which expresses foot-and-mouth disease epitopes.a recombinant infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) vector has been constructed to express bovine growth hormone signal sequence plus a foot-and-mouth disease virus [fmdv (o1k)] capsid protein (vp1) epitope as the n-terminal sequence of an ibrv glycoprotein giii fusion protein on the surface of virus infected cells and on the surface of virus particles. sequences encoding the first 38 amino acids of ibrv giii were deleted from the recombinant to avoid redundant glycoprotein signal seque ...19911722936
modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) vaccine expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid protein epitopes on surface of hybrid virus particles. 19911725233
a cd strategy for the study of polypeptide folding/unfolding. a synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus immunogenic peptide.the circular dichroism spectrum of the 20-residue immunogenic peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (vp1; 141-160 of serotype a, subtype 12) was solvent- and temperature-dependent. careful solvent titration revealed two isodichroic points and plateaux consistent with stepwise unfolding of specific stable conformations. variable temperature studies in cryogenic solvents and urea perturbation were consistent with the existence of three conformational moieties, the left-handed extended heli ...19911726426
the mechanism of translation of cowpea mosaic virus middle component rna: no evidence for internal initiation from experiments in an animal cell transient expression system.the possibility that internal initiation of translation is responsible for the synthesis of the middle component (m) rna-encoded 95k protein of cowpea mosaic virus (cpmv) has been investigated by constructing plasmids in which the entire sequence of cpmv m rna was cloned downstream of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. expression of these plasmids in an animal cell expression system revealed that no synthesis of the proteins encoded by the downstream cpmv open reading frame takes place fr ...19911765773
virus survival in the environment.viruses pass into the environment from clinically ill or carrier hosts; although they do not replicate outside living animals or people, they are maintained and transported to susceptible hosts. population concentrations and movement, both animal and human, have been steadily increasing in this century, enhancing transmission of respiratory and enteric viruses and compounding the difficulty of preventing environmental transmission. studies on environmental survival factors of viruses have been m ...19911782426
[outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in northern benin during the 1990-1991 dry season].an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease damaged the north-benin during the 1990-1991 dry season (november to may). coming from outside the benin, it spread out very quickly in the country essentially because of trans-humant herds. no measures have been taken to limit this sickness which is endemic and which regularly exhibits outbreaks in benin. antibodies to types a, o and sat2 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus were detected in the sera during this outbreak.19911824131
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