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a high proportion of anti-peptide antibodies recognize foot-and-mouth disease virus particles.synthetic peptides representing the amino acid sequence 141-160 of the structural protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) elicit virus-neutralizing antibody. absorption of anti-peptide sera with purified virus particles removed all detectable virus-binding and neutralizing activity, and reduced the elisa titres against the homologous peptide by 31-41%. the proportion of anti-peptide antibodies that also recognized virus was unaffected by whether the peptide had been inoculated free, c ...19882844657
qualitative and quantitative differences in the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens and synthetic peptides.in cross-immunization studies using foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigens and a synthetic peptide, from a region within virus coat protein vp1, it has been shown that intact virus will prime the immune system for intact virus, virus subunits and synthetic peptide but not for disrupted virus. in contrast, peptide will prime for a response to peptide and virus subunits but not to intact virus or disrupted virus. furthermore, studies on antibody populations in anti-virus and anti-peptide ant ...19882844964
relationship of p220 cleavage during picornavirus infection to 2a proteinase sequencing.infection of hela cells by poliovirus results in an abrupt inhibition of host cell protein synthesis. it is thought that the mechanism of this inhibition involves proteolytic cleavage of the p220 component of the cap-binding protein complex, thereby causing functional inactivation of the cap-binding protein complex and preventing capped (cellular) mrnas from binding ribosomes. current data suggest that the viral proteinase 2a indirectly induces p220 cleavage via alteration or activation of a sec ...19882845133
leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus is required for cleavage of the p220 component of the cap-binding protein complex.suppression of host protein synthesis in cells infected by poliovirus and certain other picornaviruses involves inactivation of the cap-binding protein complex. inactivation of this complex has been correlated with the proteolytic cleavage of p220, a component of the cap-binding protein complex. since picornaviral rna is not capped, it continues to be translated as the cap-binding protein complex is inactivated. the cleavage of p220 can be induced to occur in vitro, catalyzed by extracts from in ...19882845152
[neutralization of foot-and-mouth disease virus o1 campos by antibodies induced by a synthetic peptide].foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), contains a positive single-stranded rna enclosed in a protein capsid. previous studies have shown that a synthetic peptide located at the carboxyterminal end of vp1 of fmdv strain o1 kaufbeuren (o1k) at the amino acid positions 144-159, and coupled to klh was able to elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs and protected them against challenge with the homologous virus (8, 15). fmdv strain o1 campos (o1 ca) has a similar amino acid sequenc ...19882845477
a comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, complement fixation and virus isolation for foot and mouth disease diagnosis.a total of 205 epithelial tissue samples were examined for the presence of foot and mouth disease virus by either the complement-fixation (cf) test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and/or by virus isolation in bovine thyroid or kidney cell cultures. the virus was isolated from 134 of the 201 (67%) specimens. samples, from which virus was isolated, were termed virus-positive samples. the cf test detected viral antigen in 30 (24%) of 123 virus-positive samples, whereas the elisa detected ...19882845633
prediction of three-dimensional models for foot-and-mouth disease virus and hepatitis a virus.atomic models of foot-and-mouth disease virus and hepatitis a virus have been predicted using amino acid sequence alignments with the known structures of mengo virus and human rhinovirus 14. the structural models are consistent with results of biochemical and immunological studies. the two viruses appear to have surface features exceedingly different than those of other picornaviruses. they also have large hydrophobic cavities within vp1 suggesting that it may be possible to inhibit their infect ...19882845659
coupling of foot-and-mouth disease virus to sheep red blood cells using tannic acid for immunological assays.a technique for coupling foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to tanned sheep red blood cells (srbc) is reported. different parameters influencing the procedure were studied. subtypes c2, c3, o1 and a24 were used as antigens, and guinea pig hyperimmune sera obtained were tested for specific antibody in passive hemagglutination (ph), passive hemagglutination inhibition (phi) and passive immune hemolysis (pil) assays. fresh and srbc stored in alsever's solution showed similar behavior when used as ...19882846600
a continuous bovine kidney cell line for routine assays of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a continuous bovine kidney cell line, lf-bk, arose from primary bovine calf kidney cells that survived infection with a temperature-sensitive mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus. no virus was recovered after the first passage. cells of passage 48 were inoculated into two steers which remained healthy and did not develop neutralizing antibodies to the virus. the karyotype of cells of the 53rd and 87th passages was similar and revealed that the cells were markedly transformed. the modal number ...19882847400
[is the arg-gly-asp sequence the site for foot-and-mouth disease virus binding with cell receptor?].the arg-gly-asp sequence is being found in an increasing wide range of proteins with "adhesive" function. studying a series of synthetic peptide fragments of vp1 protein of fmdv, we showed that peptides containing the arg-gly-asp sequence, but not control peptides, inhibited fmdv binding to pig kidney cells in vitro, thus indicating participation of that sequence in fmdv binding to host cells.19882847760
opsonization-enhanced phagocytosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.using isolated peritoneal adherent cells, in which monocytes and macrophages dominate, the uptake and destruction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was enhanced by the opsonization with mab of particular epitope specificity. this was seen under conditions in which virus infectivity was not neutralized, as determined by in vitro assay. activation of macrophages in vivo further enhanced the uptake of opsonized virus, presumably by increasing the percentage of phagocytosing cells. the enhanced ...19882847979
rapid correlation between field isolates and vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus.antigenic relationships between field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus and available vaccine strains can be rapidly determined by elisa. the most suitable vaccine strain to control an outbreak caused by the field isolate can then be quickly identified. the classical method of subtyping strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus should be replaced with a nomenclature which describes the relationship between a strain and the most antigenically closely related vaccine strain.19882848376
further characterization of an rna defective mutant of the foot-and-mouth disease virus.in this paper a further characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) temperature-sensitive mutant, ts 6, is described. this mutant presents a defective rna synthesis at non-permissive temperature (npt) by comparison to the wt capacity. however, a low level of viral rna synthesis (below 10%) was sufficient to achieve an almost normal protein synthesis including a normal pattern of protein cleavage. in addition, morphogenetic precursor particles, 14s and 75s, are formed, indicating th ...19882848384
crossover regions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) recombinants correspond to regions of high local secondary structure.the rna genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was analysed for the degree of inverted complementarity and thus potential secondary structure using the procedure of pustell and kafatos [nucleic acids res (1982) 10: 4765-4782]. regions of crossover in 42 fmdv recombinants [king et al. (1985) virus res 3: 373-384; saunders et al. (1985) j virol 56: 921-929] and regions lacking crossovers were assigned an average secondary structure score against which the number of observed recombinants was ...19882848475
serological and biochemical analysis of some recent type a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from the middle east.in 1986 and 1987 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a was isolated from outbreaks of disease in saudi arabia and iran. selected virus isolates were antigenically distinct from the prototype a22 virus strain (a22/iraq/64), but were serologically related to each other. however, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that whilst the respective saudi arabian structural polypeptides were homogeneous, those from an iran isolate were distinct. direct sequencing of part of the p-1d (vp1) ge ...19882850938
single dilution elisa for detection of serum antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.a single dilution blocking elisa was developed and evaluated for measuring serum antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). basic parameters of the assay were established and a positive-negative threshold determined from testing 176 specific antibody negative sera from australian cattle. sera collected from immunised animals in thailand were tested by elisa and virus-neutralisation (vn) tests and the results compared. a positive correlation between elisa and vn titres was recorded for each ...19882852874
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth-disease virus. i. synthesis of protective peptides from the major immunogenic region of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth virus type o1k].a series of overlapping peptides with the sequence of the immunodominant region of vp1 protein of fmdv strain o1k have been synthesized by the classical solution method. peptides were purified by standard methods and used for immunization of guinea pigs. it is shown that the 136-152 and 136-148 segments provide antiviral protection in guinea pigs, both in the free state and conjugated with an immunogenic carrier. results with uncoupled peptides indicated that these segments may form not only b-, ...19882852937
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. ii. synthesis of protective peptides from the major immunogenic region of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a22].earlier we found that the immune response and antiviral protection from fmdv can be achieved by immunization with uncoupled fmdv peptides. in a search of approaches to animal protection from fmdv a22 strain we prepared a series of peptides corresponding to the putative antigenic determinants. synthetic 131-149 and 140-149 sequences afforded 50 to 80% protection, both in the free state and conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. we believe that the 140-149 segment is so far the smallest peptid ...19882852938
minimum number of cells required for reconstitution of a foot-and-mouth disease virus-carrier cell culture.a serial cell plating experiment has been designed to determine the minimum number of cells, isolated from a culture persistently infected with a virus, required to reconstruct the carrier state. for cell line c1-bhk-rc1, consisting of bhk-21 cells persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus type c (isolate c-s8c1), more than 10(3) cells derived from one monolayer were needed to reinitiate a stable, fmdv-producing carrier culture. thus, the fmdv-bhk-21 cell system cannot be explained ...19882855980
evidence for more than one important, neutralizing site on foot-and-mouth disease virus. brief report.using polyclonal sera raised against foot-and-mouth disease virus in susceptible animals, evidence was obtained for the existence of at least one further important antigenic site in addition to the neutralizing site on vp1 140-160.19882453185
genetic and immunogenic variations among closely related isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus.genetic heterogeneity among closely related isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been measured by direct sequencing of the vp1-coding-region rna for three new fmdvs of serotype c1 and by additional sequences of rna from previously reported isolates, all belonging to a single episode of disease [sobrino et al., gene 50 (1986) 149-159]. in the ten viruses compared, eight different vp1 are represented. the changes include amino acid substitutions at a critical antigenic determinant o ...19882453395
antigenic sites on foot-and-mouth disease virus type a10.a set of monoclonal antibodies was used to isolate nonneutralizable foot-and-mouth disease virus variants, and the rnas of the variants were sequenced. cross-neutralization studies and mapping of the amino acid changes indicated two major antigenic sites. the first site was trypsin sensitive and included the vp1 140 to 160 sequence. the second site was trypsin insensitive and included mainly vp3 residues. two minor sites were located near vp1 169 and on the c terminus of vp1. comparison with pol ...19882455819
immunization against foot-and-mouth disease with synthetic peptides representing the c-terminal region of vp1.foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge experiments in guinea-pigs and immunoassays with a range of peptides equivalent to either or both of the sequences 141 to 158 and 200 to 213 of vp1 showed the most effective structure, in terms of protection, to be one in which both 'sites' were present with a minimum of additional amino acids. an 80 residue peptide comprising amino acids 134 to 213 was considerably less effective than 40 or 45 residue peptides. the major site for the induction of protectio ...19882457649
extensive antigenic heterogeneity of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c.the antigenic behavior of 46 field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c has been studied with a panel of 24 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) prepared against fmdv c1 or fmdv c3 indaial. reactivities were assayed by immunodot, immunoelectrotransfer blot, and neutralization of infectivity. the epitopes recognized by the 10 nonneutralizing mabs are conserved in all isolates analyzed. in contrast, extreme antigenic heterogeneity is documented with regard to reactivity with 14 ma ...19882460992
orientation of epitopes influences the immunogenicity of synthetic peptide dimers.the immunogenicity of synthetic peptide dimers based on epitope sequences derived from the mycobacterial 65-kda antigen and the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 protein was examined in inbred mice. the analysis was directed towards the potential helper role of a t cell stimulatory mycobacterial epitope (65-85) with respect to poorly immunogenic sites either from the same molecule (422-436) or from vp1 (141-160). the 65-85 repeat homodimer induced an antibody response in cba/ca but not in ...19882464496
class i mhc-restricted cytotoxic t cells efficiently recognize haemagglutinin that is defective in protein folding and cell surface expressions.cytotoxic t-cell recognition of an engineered variant of the influenza viral haemagglutinin (ha), expressed in vaccinia virus, was investigated. we show that the insertion of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunogenic peptide into the ha results in major disruption of its higher order structure with intracellular rather than cell surface localization accompanying the loss of conformational epitopes detected by antibody. in contradistinction to antibody, recognition of the chimaeric molecu ...19882467191
studies on the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna using microinjection.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna, isolated as virion rna from purified virus particles or as total rna from infected cells, has been microinjected into nuclei and cytoplasms of bhk cells. when injected directly into the nucleus fmdv rna was not infectious, whereas cytoplasmic injection resulted in a high proportion of productive infections. infectivity microinjection assays on dilution series of various fmdv rnas showed that both single-stranded positive sense 35s rna and double-stranded ...19882448416
3d gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus. conservation by convergence of average sequences.the nucleotide sequence of the 3d (polymerase) gene of eight epidemiologically related isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c1 is reported. the genetic heterogeneity of 3d rna is compared with that of the vp1-coding rna of the same viruses. regression lines of substitutions per nucleotide that distinguish any pair of viruses as a function of the time interval between the corresponding isolations show: (1) the slope (substitutions/nucleotide per month) is 2.1 times larger for the ...19883225850
response to foot-and-mouth disease vaccines in newborn calves. influence of age, colostral antibodies and adjuvants.oil-emulsified (oe) and aqueous (aq) vaccines were prepared with the same batch of inactivated a24 8345 foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). calves born to vaccinated dams did not respond to the aq vaccine 30 or 90 days post partum. when the oe vaccine was used on a similar group of calves, no responses were elicited up to 21 days post partum. however, calves 30 or more days old responded like adult cattle to the oe vaccine. when the oe vaccine was used in colostral antibody-free calves 3-30 day ...19882828089
role of epidermal langerhans cells in viral infections.langerhans cells function as highly potent antigen-presenting cells in the epidermis. in the last few years, their role in viral infections has been studied in various experimental systems. they have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of a number of infections of viral origin. these include vaccinia virus, human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus, foot and mouth disease virus and human retrovirus infections. studies on the effect of various factors, that are known to modulate the a ...19883063231
genetic manipulation of major p-fimbrial subunits and consequences for formation of fimbriae.the influence of genetic manipulation of the structural genes coding for major p-fimbrial subunits on the formation of fimbriae in escherichia coli was studied. deletion of two regions that code for hypervariable parts of the p fimbrillin resulted in strong reduction or total absence of fimbria production. replacement of deleted amino acids by other amino acid residues restored the formation of fimbriae. the hypervariable regions may be important for biogenesis of fimbriae by imposing correct sp ...19882903858
vp1 of serotype c foot-and-mouth disease viruses: long-term conservation of sequences.the nucleotide sequences of the vp1-coding regions of several isolates of serotype c3 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were determined. the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those of serotype c1 fmdv. the results provide evidence for two different lineages of fmdv c3 and document the potential for both long-term conservation and rapid evolution of fmdv.19882831408
neutralization sites of type o1 foot-and-mouth disease virus defined by monoclonal antibodies and neutralization-escape virus variants.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were derived from mice infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus type o1 brugge (fmdv 01b) or immunized with inactivated virions (140 s) or viral subunits (12 s). a total of 19 neutralizing mabs were characterized of which 17 recognized conformationally determined epitopes and two recognized amino acid sequences on isolated vp1. neutralizing mabs were used to select antigenic variants of fmdv o1b. based on cross-neutralization and binding assays with mabs the varian ...19882827379
experimental infection of eland (taurotrages oryx), sable antelope (ozanna grandicomis) and buffalo (syncerus caffer) with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the course of experimental infection of a type sat 1 fmdv strain was studied in buffalo, sable antelope and eland following tongue inoculation and contact and has been compared with that in cattle. all species became infected, although disease was less severe in the game animals and larger amounts of virus were required to infect game animals than cattle. neutralizing antibody titres were high and were maintained for an extended period in buffalo, sable antelope and eland. the carrier state was ...19892584449
translational fusions with fragments of the trpe gene improve the expression of a poorly expressed heterologous gene in escherichia coli.a series of plasmids expressing fusions between the trpe gene product, anthranilate synthase component i and the major immunogen (vp1) of foot and mouth disease virus were constructed such that increasing amounts of the 3' end of trpe were deleted. deletions removing up to 70% of trpe had little effect on the quantity of fusion protein expressed, while the number of molecules appeared to increase. larger deletions led to a steady decrease in both the quantity of fusion protein produced and in th ...19892674321
generation of a sheep x mouse heterohybridoma cell line (1c6.3a6t.1d7) and evaluation of its use in the production of ovine monoclonal antibodies.a stable aminopterin-sensitive sheep x mouse heterohybridoma cell line (1c6.3a6t.1d7) for use in the generation of sheep monoclonal antibodies is described. the line was first constructed by fusing the mouse myeloma line, nso, to normal sheep lymphocytes obtained from the efferent lymphatic vessel of a cannulated popliteal lymph node. the line was rendered sensitive to aminopterin through a combination of irradiation and treatment with the anti-metabolite drug 6-thioguanine. characterisation of ...19892760466
analysis of neutralizing antigenic sites on the surface of type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus.a series of seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) directed against type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to generate neutralization-resistant variants. both plaque reduction neutralization and microneutralization assays showed that the variants were no longer neutralized by the nmabs used to generate them, although some of the variants still reacted with the nmabs at high antibody concentrations. results of cross-neutralization studies by both plaque reduction neutralization ...19892467993
novel low-molecular-weight synthetic vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease containing a potent b-cell and macrophage activator.most synthetic peptide vaccines described to date are effective only in combination with proteins and freund's adjuvant. the work describes a novel completely synthetic virus peptide vaccine, which consists of a synthetic activator of b cells and macrophages, covalently linked to an amphiphilic alpha-helical t-cell epitope. the low-molecular-weight vaccine of 3.4 kda developed against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is composed of a synthetic vp1 (135-154) with a sequence homologous to an fm ...19892470215
molecular dynamics of the alpha-helical epitope of a novel synthetic lipopeptide foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine.a novel synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) peptide vaccine consisting of a synthetic b-cell and macrophage activator covalently linked to an amphiphilic alpha-helical t-cell epitope was developed. the low molecular weight vaccine of 3400 daltons is composed of virus vp1 antigenic determinant and the immunologically active lipotripeptide tripalmitoyl-s-glyceryl-cysteinyl-seryl-serine (p3css) as built-in adjuvant. the vaccine, tripalmitoyl-s-glyceryl-cysteinyl-seryl-seryl-fmdv-vp1 (vp1 ...19892470437
host cell selection of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a22 iraq 24/64 adapted to grow in bhk monolayer cells induced antibodies which neutralized many isolates belonging to the a serotype. plaque-purified virus isolated from this stock also induced broadly reactive antibodies, showing that this property is not due to the combined response to a mixture of variants in the original stock virus. however, viruses obtained by passage in suspension bhk cells of either the monolayer cell-adapted virus or a virus cloned fr ...19892471782
epitope mapping of foot-and-mouth disease virus with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.epitopes of strain a22 iraq 24/64 of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been mapped with monoclonal antibodies (mabs). three methods were used: (i) an indirect elisa using an overlapping set of peptides, (ii) production of neutralization escape variants against each mab and (iii) sequencing of neutralization escape variants. the study has shown that the virus has at least three overlapping liner neutralizing epitopes within a major antigenic site on vp1. the presence of a second, conformational s ...19892471783
evidence for at least four antigenic sites on type o foot-and-mouth disease virus involved in neutralization; identification by single and multiple site monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies raised against type o foot-and-mouth disease virus have been characterized on the basis of their reactivity with a panel of single site monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants which had defined three antigenic sites. five antibodies neutralized all these mutants, but by selecting further single site mutants with one of these antibodies it was possible to define a fourth site involved in virus neutralization. two monoclonal antibodies still neutralized these mutan ...19892471793
neutralizing epitopes of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. identification and characterization of three functionally independent, conformational sites.eleven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced to the o1bfs 1860/67 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), and were characterized for their ability to bind viral and subviral antigens in different elisa tests and to neutralize heterologous type o isolates. neutralization escape variants of the homologous virus, isolated under pressure from five of these mabs, were used in cross-neutralization tests with all of the 11 antibodies. these studies identified three functionally ...19892471811
neutralizing epitopes of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus. ii. mapping three conformational sites with synthetic peptide reagents.four neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs), recognizing three functionally independent, conformational sites on type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) failed to react with immobilized structural proteins or synthetic peptides but bound to the isolated capsid protein vp1 and peptides in solution. inhibition elisa techniques were, therefore, applied using peptide antigens and anti-peptide sera to block mab binding to virus particles, permitting the identification of those portions of the v ...19892471812
antigenic comparison of different foot-and-mouth disease virus types using monoclonal antibodies defining multiple neutralizing epitopes on fmdv a5 subtypes.thirteen monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were elicited with a5 spain-86 virus, the cause of the most recent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) outbreak in spain. the mabs were tested for ability to bind 140s virions and 12s protein subunits by liquid-phase radioimmunoassay (ria), and to bind vp1 capsid protein by western immunoblot assay. one of the thirteen mab was virion (140s) specific, seven recognized 140s and 12s subunits, one bound to 140s, 12s and vp1 and four were 12s specific. these mabs ...19892473578
[recombinant plasmids containing hybrid protein genes with antigenic determinants of the foot and mouth virus].plasmids have been constructed which contain genes coding for fused proteins including beta-galactosidase or human leukocyte interferon alpha 2 and monomeric or pentameric form of the main antigenic determinant of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype 01k. expression of the hybrid genes has been studied. it is shown that fused proteins, containing beta-galactosidase and the antigenic determinant (monomer or pentamer), interact specifically with anti-fmdv anti-sera and with antibodies ...19892473757
implications of a quasispecies genome structure: effect of frequent, naturally occurring amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we provide evidence that the quasispecies nature (extreme genetic heterogeneity) of foot-and-mouth disease virus is relevant to the virus evading an immune response. a monoclonal antibody neutralizing the viral infectivity (clone sd6) recognizes an epitope located around a highly conserved sequence (amino acid sequence arg-gly-asp-leu-ala at positions 141-145) in the capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c1. the amino acid substitutions ala-138----thr and leu-147----ile ...19892474821
helper t-cell determinants in vaccine design.mice belonging to the h-2d haplotype do not respond to the 141-160 peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein vp1. however, when defined 'foreign' helper t-cell determinants from ovalbumin or sperm whale myoglobin are added they do respond. these observations are likely to have important implications for the design of peptide vaccines.19892476143
serological prospects for peptide vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus.antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 141 to 160 amino acid sequence of the protein vp1 of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) neutralize a wider range of type o isolates than anti-virion serum. extending this peptide at the amino terminus reduced the number of strains neutralized by the antipeptide sera. reactions with antisera to peptides representing non-contiguous native sequences showed that it was also possible to increase the number of strains effectively neutraliz ...19892479714
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. iii. immunogenic properties of synthetic peptides of the sequence of the immunodominant region of vp1 proteins of the o1k and a22 strains of foot-and-mouth virus].immunogenic and protective properties of uncoupled and klh-conjugated peptides covering the sequence of the immunodominant region of vp1 proteins of the o1k and a22 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been studied. the uncoupled peptides 136-148 o1k, 136-152 o1k, 131-149 a22 and 140-149 a22 were shown to be immunogenic in guinea pigs and induced 50-100% protection against homologous virus. on the other hand, the a22 specific peptides, in contrast to the o1k peptides, were not immunogeni ...19892480134
selection of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the absence of antibodies, as revealed by an in situ assay.antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c (isolate c-s8c1) were selected upon serial passage of the virus in cell culture in the absence of anti-fmdv antibodies. the variants rose from frequencies of less than 10(-2) in the initial plaque-purified fmdv c-s8c1 preparation, to 0.1 to 1 in three passaged populations. the proportion of antigenic variants was quantified using a new in situ plaque immunotest. a nitrocellulose filter is applied to the agar overlay of a fmd ...19892481712
identification of virus neutralizing epitopes on naturally occurring variants of type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus.four naturally occurring antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a12 were examined for their capacity to be neutralized by a number of monoclonal antibodies (mab) which recognize different sites on the virus surface. the vp1 coding region of the rna genome was sequenced and amino acid changes were determined for the variants. one of the neutralizing sites accounted for the differing antigenic properties of the variants and the epitope was mapped to amino acid residues 150-156 of ...19892483013
a possible homology between immunodeficiency virus p24 core protein and picornaviral vp2 coat protein: prediction of hiv p24 antigenic sites.with the use of a sensitive sequence comparison algorithm, a homology has been suggested between the primary structures of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) p24 core protein and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmd) vp2 coat protein. since the fmd sequence is homologous to picornaviral vp2 sequences with known three-dimensional architecture and since the siv p24 sequence can be convincingly aligned with that from human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), it was possible to predict an eight-stranded bet ...19892498082
extensive cell heterogeneity during persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.coevolution of viruses and the host cells occurred in bhk-21 cell cultures persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (j. c. de la torre, e. martínez-salas, j. diez, a. villaverde, f. gebauer, e. rocha, m. dávila, and e. domingo, j. virol. 62:2050-2058, 1988). in the present report we provide evidence of an extreme phenotypic heterogeneity of the cells, which was generated in the course of persistence. a total of 248 stable cell clones isolated from fmdv carrier cultures at e ...19892535753
protective and immunostimulating activity of a low dose of cyclophosphamide in the experimental infection of mice with foot-and-mouth disease virus.administration to mice of a low, non-immunosuppressive dose of cyclophosphamide 4 days before infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus decreases viral replication, enhances the immune response against the virus and prevents pancreatic damage.19892536333
the three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus at 2.9 a resolution.the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been determined at close to atomic resolution by x-ray diffraction without experimental phase information. the virus shows similarities with other picornaviruses but also several unique features. the canyon or pit found in other picornaviruses is absent; this has important implications for cell attachment. the most immunogenic portion of the capsid, which acts as a potent peptide vaccine, forms a disordered protrusion on the virus surface.19892537470
manipulation of antipeptide immune response by varying the coupling of the peptide with the carrier protein.antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides of two regions of the surface protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus. the peptides were conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin via c- or n-terminal amino acid residues by use of different coupling agents. the fine specificity of the resulting antibodies was determined by pepscan methods. in general, amino acid residues specific for antibody recognition tended to be located opposite to those used for coupling with the carrier protein. depe ...19892538727
resistance to foot-and-mouth disease virus mediated by trans-acting cellular products.upon serial passage of bhk-21 cells persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c-s8c1, cells with increased resistance to the virus were selected (j. c. de la torre, e. martinez-salas, j. diez, and e. domingo, j. virol. 63:59-63, 1989). two highly resistant cell clones, 74a11 and 74d12, were transformed to puromycin resistance (purr) and were fused to bhk-21 cells transformed to neomycin resistance (neor). the hybrid neor purr cells showed the specific resistance to fmdv c-s8 ...19892539526
the nucleotide sequence of the structural-protein-coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat3.the nucleotide sequence coding for the structural proteins and nonstructural protein p2a has been determined for a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolated in africa. this virus, serotypically designated sat3 (south african territories type 3), shows about 60% homology at the nucleotide level to prototype viruses from the o, a and c serotypes of fmdv. the highest region of variability was shown in structural protein vp1, presumably a consequence of its position on the surface of the virus an ...19892541051
the suitability of different microtitre plates for detection of antibody to virus antigens by indirect elisa.to optimize enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for the detection of virus-specific antibodies, a range of commercially available microtitre plates was evaluated for their ability to bind virus antigen. rinderpest virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus were investigated as target antigens. binding capacity for antigen, binding ratios (attachment of specific antibody versus that of non-immune antibody) and the variation in the results of the tests within and between plates were measured. ...19892541132
t cell-dependent induction of antibody against foot-and-mouth disease virus in a mouse model.nude and normal balb/c mice were primed by intravenous inoculation of purified, infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a24, strain cruzeiro. frequency estimation of antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (asc) and thy 1+ t cells in the spleens of immunized mice identified that the igm response was similar for both nude and normal mice, whereas substantial numbers of both igg asc and thy 1+ cells were present in normal mice only. in contrast, nude and normal mouse sera both contai ...19892543745
the cell attachment site on foot-and-mouth disease virus includes the amino acid sequence rgd (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid).the amino acid sequence rgd (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) is highly conserved in the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), despite being situated in the immunodominant hypervariable region between amino acids 135 and 160. rgd-containing proteins are known to be important in promoting cell attachment in several different systems, and we report here that synthetic peptides containing this sequence are able to inhibit attachment of the virus to baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells. inhi ...19892543752
[primary structure of the a22 rna polymerase gene of the foot and mouth disease virus].complete nucleotide sequence of gene rna polymerase for the foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a22 has been determined.19892545214
modification of foot-and-mouth disease virus after serial passages in the presence of antiviral polyclonal sera.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) shows a remarkable antigenic variability. like other rna viruses, this virus has a high rate of mutation. it has been proposed that selection exerted by the host's antibodies could play a major role in the rapid evolution of fmdv. the present work reports the selection of fmdv antibody-resistant populations (nr), after serial passages of cloned fmdv a24 cruzeiro strain on secondary monolayers of bovine fetal kidney cells in the presence of subneutralizing anti ...19892548330
sequences of capsid protein vp1 of two type a foot-and-mouth disease viruses.we have sequenced the nucleotides of the regions that encode the capsid protein vp1 of the foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) a5bernbeuren/1984 and a iran/1987. amino acid sequences and secondary protein structures are provided. both proteins consist of 212 amino acids. the sequences and secondary structures are compared to those of fmdv a22/cccp/64, a strain previously endemic in the near east. nucleotide divergency among the three sequences is highest for fmdv a5bernbeuren/1984 (18% compare ...19892548339
evaluation of techniques to demonstrate foot-and-mouth disease virus in bovine tongue epithelium: comparison of the sensitivity of cattle, mice, primary cell cultures, cryopreserved cell cultures and established cell lines.tongue epithelia infected with each of the 7 serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were used to evaluate in vivo and in vitro systems for the detection of fmdv. cattle inoculated by the intradermal route in the tongue (idl) and suckling mice inoculated intraperitoneally were compared for susceptibility to fmdv with freshly prepared bovine thyroid cell cultures; cultures from cryopreserved bovine thyroid, bone marrow, mammary gland, myocardium, tongue, ovary and kidney cells; cultures ...19892549683
antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection associated (via) antigen: use of a bioengineered via protein as antigen in an elisa.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus infection associated (via) antigen (viral rna polymerase) in cattle sera, was developed using a bioengineered via (biovia) protein antigen. compared with the classical immunodiffusion test, with viral rna polymerase purified from infected cell cultures as antigen, this elisa was more sensitive. however, depending on the cattle population examined, sera with antibodies to viral rna polymerase, ...19892549685
characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies generated against foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.a series of seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) against type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was used to induce polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-ids) in rabbits. the anti-ids were semi-purified through isotype affinity columns and assayed by solid-phase radioimmunoassay for cross-reactivity. nmabs which map to the same epitope on the virion appear to contain a common idiotype, and the corresponding anti-ids competitively inhibited the virus-nmab reaction. using a m ...19892550021
assay sensitivity and differentiation of monoclonal antibody specificity in elisa with different coating buffers.buffers of different ph and ionic strength were employed as coating buffers for antigen adsorption to microtitre plates. their efficiency for coating plates with rinderpest virus (rpv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigens was studied by elisa with polyclonal and monoclonal antibody preparations. while the adsorption and detection of rpv antigen with polyclonal antiserum was highly dependent on the ionic strength and ph of coating buffer, adsorption of antigenically active fmdv antige ...19892551906
development of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain characterisation--a review. 19892552629
foot-and-mouth disease virus-neutralizing antibodies induced in mice by anti-idiotypic antibodies.a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nmab) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was used as antibody-1 (ab1) to induce anti-idiotypic antibodies (a-idab) in rabbits. the rabbit a-idab (ab2) were isolated on protein a-sepharose, followed by cycles of separation on idiotype and isotype affinity columns. the specificity of the ab2 for the paratope of ab1 was determined by direct binding to ab1 in solid-phase radioimmunoassay (sp-ria), and by competition ria (c-ria) with virus for binding to the ab ...19892553588
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus-neutralizing idiotypes from immune bovine and swine with anti-murine idiotype antibody probes.rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies (a-idab) induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) neutralizing mab were used as probes to identify anti-fmdv id in immune serum from bovine and swine. in a competitive ria, at least two of the a-idab exhibited a dose-dependent capacity to compete with labeled virus for anti-fmdv antibodies from a convalescent bovine serum. these a-idab were immobilized on activated sepharose and used to isolate anti-viral id from bovine, swine, and murine fmdv immune sera. ...19892553817
comparison of a liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa and a serum neutralization test to evaluate immunity in potency tests of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.sera from cattle vaccinated against either foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains a10 holland, o1 bfs, or c1 detmold were tested in a serum neutralization test (snt) and a liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa (lbe), and the titers were compared with the results of intradermolingual challenge tests. the lbe test results were significantly more reproducible (p less than 0.005) than the snt results. the correlation coefficients between snt and lbe were 0.91 for fmdv strains a10 holland and o1 ...19892553819
specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions in foot-and-mouth disease virus polyprotein processing.a series of transcripts derived from fmdv cdna plasmids containing defined regions of the genome were translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. the products were analysed directly or following incubation with an fmdv-infected cell processing extract. processing by the l proteinase at the l/1a cleavage site occurred when most of the p1-2a protein was absent. substitution of sequences upstream of the 2c/3a cleavage site showed that the 3c proteinase was also able to cleave at an entirely ...19892554577
serological probes for some foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural proteins.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o1 kaufbeuren-specific cdna fragments were subcloned into the e. coli expression vector prit.2t. fusion proteins thus produced in bacteria were purified by affinity chromatography and inoculated into rabbits. three sera thus obtained were found to be monospecific for fmdv proteins 3a, 3c, and 3d, respectively. two others were prevalently directed against protein 2c, but in addition, either to protein 2b or to protein 3a. five out of six mature nonstructural vi ...19892554586
a theoretical study of the acidification of the rhinovirus capsid.electrostatic calculations for human rhinovirus 14 indicate that histidine-base residue pairs in the region of a beta-strand interaction between pentamers may be involved in a ph-induced process that leads to the release of viral rna. other picornavirus sequences are examined for these residue pairs, a subset of which is present in enteroviruses. foot and mouth disease virus possesses one of the residue pairs, and cardioviruses, which undergo a separate ph and halide ion-induced capsid dissociat ...19892555222
hydrolysis of a series of synthetic peptide substrates by the human rhinovirus 14 3c proteinase, cloned and expressed in escherichia coli.the 3c proteins of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), have been demonstrated to be cysteine-type proteinases, involved in the processing of the respective polyproteins expressed by the monocistronic rna genome. nucleotide sequencing data have indicated that the human rhinovirus 14 (hrv-14) rna genome encodes a homologous 3c protein. the hrv-14 3c protein was purified to homogeneity from escherichia coli express ...19892555433
[antigenic structure of foot-and-mouth virus. iv. synthesis and immunogenic properties of new fragments of the vp1 protein of food-and-mouth virus strain a22].a synthesis of new fragments of vp1 protein with the specificity of a22 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus is described. immunization with the free 136-152 peptide and klh-conjugates of the peptides 136-152 and 197-213 induced 60-80% protection of guinea pigs against challenge with the a22 virus. synthetic peptides corresponding to the 10-24, 50-69 and 175-189 sequences of vp1 did not show any protective activity. we have found that uncoupled peptides 175-189 and 197-213 are able to induce a ...19892556150
protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding to three serotypes in foot and mouth disease virus. 19892558525
[use of sarcoma 180 tg cells for obtaining ascitic fluid from mice hyperimmune to the foot-and-mouth disease virus].mice immunized with fmdv c3 arg 84 antigen were inoculated intraperitoneally with sarcoma 180 tg. the ascitic fluid obtained by ventral puncture contained high titers of antibodies, similar to those obtained from serum, as determined by neutralization and elisa tests. ascitic volumes were 10 to 20 times greater than those obtainable with.19892559425
[an immunoenzyme method of isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by using beta-lactamase conjugate with virus-specific antibodies].it was shown that in was feasible to use conjugates of virus-specific antibodies and beta-lactamase from bacillus licheniformis 749/c to identify aphthosa virus antigens. the antigen titers determined by enzyme immunoassay (eia) using a beta-lactamase conjugate were 5-64 times higher than the analogous indices of the complement fixation test. unlike eia, that by using the antibody conjugates with peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase there were observed no "background" responses.19892559667
antigenic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c during propagation in the field is mainly restricted to only one structural protein (vp1).the primary structure of vp3, vp2 and vp4 capsid protein genes has been determined for six epizootiologically-related foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) isolates of serotype c1, two of which presented immunogenic differences as determined by a cross-protection assay. the results obtained have been compared with those previously reported for the corresponding vp1 genes martinez et al. (1988) gene 62, 75-84. high rates of fixation of mutations have been estimated for the four capsid protein genes ...19892560293
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth virus. v. protection of naturally susceptible animals from foot-and-mouth disease using a synthetic peptide].we have synthesized the peptide representing 135-159 vp1 sequence of a22 strain of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the synthetic peptide induced 100% protection of guinea pigs against the disease. two-fold immunization of cuttle with the peptide and single immunization of sheep induced full protection of the animals against a22 strain of fmdv.19892561049
[primary structure of the gene for vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus of asia 1 serotype].the nucleotide sequence of the cdna for the viral rna region coding for the main antigenic protein of the epidemic stomatitis virus of asia 1 serotype has been identified. the amino acid sequences in the regions of vp1 protein antigenic determinants of the serotype asia 1 virus and other serotypes viruses have been compared.19892561378
survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sausage meat products (italian salami).determination of the survival of foot- and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in fresh meat from experimentally infected swine and in several types of sausage meat (italian salami) produced according to the technology widely applied by the principal italian producers has been carried out. the purpose of the experiment was to assess if typical italian salami can be considered safe with regard to the spread of fmd through international trade. the results obtained showed: (a) high titers of fmdv were detec ...19892561953
the isoelectrofocusing technique in comparison of some sudanese type sat-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses.isoelectric focusing technique (ieft) was employed to compare type sat-1 fmd virus from sudan. results of the ieft tests were compared with available previous serological and epidemiological data on the viruses used. possible potential uses of the test, in parallel with previously available serological and epidemiological data, are discussed.19892562038
[immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle: effect of vaccination].foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most feared animal virus and vaccination still has to be used in many countries. in previous reports, using a murine model, we studied the cellular basis of immune responses against fmdv and were able to show that they are atypical. in cattle, although complete protection may be attained after only one dose of killed virus vaccine, very little is known about protection against fmdv, except for antibody responses, but practically nothing concernin ...19892562135
use of in situ hybridization for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture.biotinylated complementary dna (cdna) and rna probes were prepared from a specific and highly conserved section of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome coding for the rna-dependent rna polymerase. hybridization was conducted on fmdv-infected, bovine enterovirus (bev)-infected, and noninfected swine kidney cell cultures. the detection system utilized the enzyme system streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase, the substrate phosphate, and the chromogen nitroblue tetrazolium. intense cytoplasmic ...19892562224
fimbriae of bacteroides nodosus: protein engineering of the structural subunit for the production of an exogenous peptide.the pattern of sequence variation between bacteroides nodosus fimbrial subunits of different serotypes suggests a degree of flexibility, which might be exploited for protein engineering approaches for the expression of other peptides. we have tested this using the well-characterized peptide epitope from vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), residues 144-159: lrgdlqvlaqkvartl (strain 01-bfs). using bacterial codon usage, several oligonucleotides were designed for the substitution of this se ...19892564674
hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia-1.various immunizing regimens, cell culture requirements and cell fusion conditions were examined for efficient production of hybridomas secreting anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antibodies. a highly sensitive streptavidin-biotin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used for screening of hybridomas for specific antibody production as well as for determining the serotype specificity of the antibodies. six hybridoma cell lines generating antibodies to fmdv type asia-1 (vaccin ...19892569807
type 1 fimbriae of escherichia coli as carriers of heterologous antigenic sequences.a strategy has been designed for the construction of recombinant bacterial strains which eventually may become useful as live vaccines and which may also be relevant for the preparation of conventional vaccines. the approach used is the fusion of small antigenic peptide sequences into specific segments of a protein whose location on the bacterial surface ensures that the recombinant organism is able to present the inserted antigen to the host (animal or human) infected by the bacterium. the chos ...19892576014
structure of viral b-cell epitopes.four categories of viral epitopes can be distinguished that have been designated cryptotopes, neotopes, metatopes and neutralization epitopes. specific examples of each epitope type are presented and the methods used for locating their positions in viral proteins are described. the epitopes of four well-characterized viruses, namely poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, influenza virus and tobacco mosaic virus are briefly described.19901714092
expression in yeast of amino-terminal peptide fusions to hepatitis b core antigen and their immunological properties.hepatitis b core protein (hbcag) is a potent antigen that gives both a t-cell-dependent and a t-cell-independent antibody response. it has been shown that a foreign epitope can be fused to the amino terminus of hbcag without affecting particle integrity, and that the resulting chimaeric cores retain the immunogenicity of the foreign epitope. here we describe the efficient expression in yeast of two different chimaeric cores, carrying epitopes of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) or human chori ...19901369994
heterotypic recognition of foot-and-mouth disease virus by cattle lymphocytes.lymphoproliferation against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus was examined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated cattle. ten weeks after revaccination the optimum conditions for proliferation were obtained with 1 microgram/ml of purified virus after 5 to 6 days in culture. this contrasted with the response at 20 months post-revaccination, when the response required less antigen and showed a peak response after 3 to 4 days in culture. proliferation was specific for fmd virus, ...19901689767
analysis of immune responses in the sheep to synthetic peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus using ovine polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.a 40-residue peptide incorporating residues 200-213 and 141-158 of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 capsid protein strain o1 kaufbeuren was injected uncoupled into sheep, and the immune responses analysed. direct-binding and inhibition experiments showed that the polyclonal antibody response was directed mainly against epitopes unique to the 40-residue peptide but absent from the constituent peptides containing residues 200-213 or 141-158, respectively. further confirmation of the presence of un ...19901690176
a single amino acid substitution affects multiple overlapping epitopes in the major antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype c.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c were assayed with field isolates and variant fmdvs using several immunoassays. of a total of 36 nmabs tested, 23 recognized capsid protein vp1 and distinguished at least 13 virion conformation-independent epitopes involved in neutralization of fmdv c. eleven epitopes of fmdv c-s8c1 have been located in segments 138-156 or 192-209 of vp1 by quantifying the reactivity of nmabs with synthet ...19901690261
outer membrane phoe protein of escherichia coli as a carrier for foreign antigenic determinants: immunogenicity of epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.outer membrane protein phoe of escherichia coli was used for the expression of antigenic determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus. five hybrid phoe proteins were constructed containing different combinations of two antigenic determinants of vp1 protein of the virus. the hybrid proteins were expressed in two e. coli strains and the proteins were correctly assembled into the outer membrane. the inserted epitopes were exposed at the surface of the cell and were antigenic in this phoe-associated ...19901690490
antibodies elicited by a biosynthetic peptide related to a major immunogenic area of fmdv a12.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid contains 60 copies each of four structural proteins, virus proteins 1-4. virus protein 1 (vp1) plays an important immunogenic role, being the only vp that is immunogenic as an isolated protein. even peptides representing a partial amino acid (aa) sequence of vp1 can induce protective immunity in experimental hosts. a 32 aa residue, in a tandem repeat configuration (32dimer), of sero/subtype a-12 lp ab vp1 (aa 132-168) was highly immunogenic for its homo ...19901694429
[primary structure of the gene for protein vp1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o1 isolated in the ussr].the nucleotides sequence has been determined for the viral rna and some of its cdnas coding for the major antigenic protein of the epidemic stomatitis o1-194 and o1-1618 vp1 viruses. the expressed microheterogeneity has been registered for the population of the strain o1-194.19901694961
synthetic peptides as potential vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease.advances made in our knowledge of the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus have enabled us to identify a fragment, consisting of 20 amino acids, of one of the four proteins of the particle, which elicits neutralizing antibodies in experimental animals and in cattle and pigs. the fragment has been synthesised chemically by merrifield's solid phase method and biochemically as part of different fusion proteins. the level of the immune response to the peptide, which depends critically on the wa ...19901697533
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