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[development of a method for the quantitative determination of the immunizing antigen (140s) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus].attempts were made to work out a method for measuring the amount of the 140 s antigen in virus suspensions. early postinfection sera were obtained from guinea pigs against the productional strains of the foot-and-mouth disease virus which were used in the radial immunodiffusion test. the investigated virus suspensions were concentrated 50 to 200 times and were placed in a cscl gradient for gradient centrifugation. the 140 s antigen fractions obtained were titrated in a radial immunodiffusion tes ...19853002008
guanidine-selected mutants of poliovirus: mapping of point mutations to polypeptide 2c.sequence analysis of the genomic rna of interstrain guanidine-resistant and antibody-resistant variant recombinants of poliovirus type 1 mapped the resistance of mutants capable of growth in 2.0 mm guanidine hydrochloride to a region located 3' of nucleotide 4444. this region of the viral genome specifies the nonstructural protein 2c. the sequence of genomic rna encoding 2c from six independently isolated mutants resistant to 2.0 mm guanidine was determined. all six isolates contained a mutation ...19863003395
an epitope located at the c terminus of isolated vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o induces neutralizing activity but poor protection.both whole virus particles and isolated vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o1 induce neutralizing antibodies. results obtained with pigs vaccinated with either isolated vp1 or intact particles and subsequently challenged show that neutralizing activity induced by intact virus correlates well with protection in pigs, whereas neutralizing activity induced by isolated vp1 confers little or no protection. further evidence suggests that the epitope responsible for the induction of neutralizing ...19862418152
epitope mapping of the outer structural protein vp1 of three different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.all overlapping hexapeptides of the outer structural protein vp1 of type o1, type a10, and type c1 were reacted with the appropriate anti-virus, anti-viral subunit and anti-vp1 sera. the results suggest that anti-virus sera may contain activities against viral subunit and vp1 as well as against virus. furthermore the antigenic peptides associated with the intact virion of all three serotypes are found at similar locations on their respective vp1s, and produced neutralizing activities when used f ...19862418582
[primary structure of the dna copy of the protein vp1 gene of the foot-and-mouth disease virus a22].the dna-copy of the major antigen (vp1) coding region of the fmdv a22 sero-type has been cloned and sequenced. a comparison of the respective amino acid sequence with those of other vp1 of a-serotype revealed considerable differences in the structure of antigenic determinants.19862421736
synthesis of fusion proteins containing antigenic determinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.part of the genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type 01,bfs, including the sequence encoding the capsid polypeptide vp1, was cloned in escherichia coli following a new cloning strategy. the clone containing the vp1 sequence was used for the construction of two expression plasmids encoding vp1 fusion proteins. subsequently, substantial amounts of the two vp1-beta-galactosidase fusion proteins, containing either one (amino acid region 140-160) or two (amino acid regions 140-160 and 200-2 ...19862425505
the delineation of peptides able to mimic assembled epitopes.present methods allow a detailed study of the immune system's recognition of sequential epitopes. the results so far suggest that peptides homologous with these epitopes may not fulfil the early promise of synthetic vaccines. a procedure is described which now allows the study and evaluation of assembled epitopes. using a monoclonal antibody which had been shown both to strongly neutralize foot-and-mouth disease virus, and to bind to a discontinuous epitope, peptides mimicking this epitope were ...19862426049
analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o1 brugge neutralization epitopes using monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were elicited with inactivated, purified foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type o1 strain brugge (140s) and with 12s protein subunits. each mab was tested for its capacity to bind to fmdv o1 brugge 140s virions, 12s subunits and purified vp1 by radioimmunoassay (ria) and to neutralize viral infectivity in mouse protection assays. those mabs which reacted only with 12s subunits in ria did not neutralize infectious virus. one mab, 12fe9.2.1, reacted with 140s, 12s an ...19862428926
a priori delineation of a peptide which mimics a discontinuous antigenic determinant.a technique was developed for identifying peptides with high affinity for a given antibody. by testing a monoclonal antibody directed against a discontinuous antigenic determinant on foot-and-mouth disease virus, peptides mimicking the determinant were identified even though the tertiary structure of the proteins comprising the virus capsid is unknown. the allowable variations in spacing and stereochemistry of the peptides shown to mimic this epitope suggest protein folding in which amino acid r ...19862432410
synthesis of fusion proteins with multiple copies of an antigenic determinant of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a series of four expression plasmids coding for fusion proteins containing foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) sequences was constructed. the fusion proteins contain a large part of beta-galactosidase from escherichia coli preceded (n-terminal) by 1, 2, 4 or 8 repeats of the antigenic determinant of fmdv consisting of amino acids 137-162 of the capsid polypeptide vp1. all four fusion proteins were efficiently produced in e. coli host bacteria. immunization of rabbits resulted in fmdv-specific, n ...19862436976
immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in a murine experimental model: effective thymus-independent primary and secondary reaction.the immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was studied in a murine model. in untreated control mice, the inoculation of 10,000 suckling mouse 50% lethal doses of ol campos fmdv i.p. was followed by a burst of viraemia that disappeared in less than 4 days, i.e. when the neutralizing antibodies (nab) reached titres above one neutralizing unit. in mice treated with cyclophosphamide, the curves of viraemia and nab were significantly delayed. nu/nu mice injected with fmdv had cur ...19863490436
molecular cloning and sequence determination of the genomic regions encoding protease and genome-linked protein of three picornaviruses.to investigate the degree of similarity between picornavirus proteases, we cloned the genomic cdnas of an enterovirus, echovirus 9 (strain barty), and two rhinoviruses, serotypes 1a and 14lp, and determined the nucleotide sequence of the region which, by analogy to poliovirus, encodes the protease. the nucleotide sequence of the region encoding the genome-linked protein vpg, immediately adjacent to the protease, was also determined. comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences with ...19863512851
fixation of mutations in the viral genome during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease: heterogeneity and rate variations.rates of fixation of mutations during the evolution of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) c1 in nature have been estimated by hybridization of viral rna to cloned cdnas representing defined fmdv genome segments, and comparison of the selected rnas by t1 rnase oligonucleotide fingerprinting. values ranged from less than 0.04 x 10(-2) to 4.5 x 10(-2) substitutions per nucleotide per year (s/nt/yr), depending on the time period and the genomic segment considered. rates for viral structural pro ...19863034729
relationship of theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses to the cardiovirus genus of picornaviruses.sequence analysis of vp1 in the da strain of theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses (tmev) showed that 13 of the first 23 n-terminal amino acids were identical to those in the corresponding protein of encephalomyocarditis virus. there was little similarity to the corresponding vp1 sequences of poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3, coxsackievirus b3, human rhinoviruses 2 and 14, human hepatitis a virus or foot-and-mouth disease virus. these results, as well as serological relationships detected by imm ...19863034822
bacterially expressed antigenic peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid elicits variable immunologic responses in animals.a fusion protein consisting of beta-galactosidase (gz) to which was attached at its n-terminus the amino acid sequence corresponding to residues 142-160 of the immunogenic protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been expressed in e. coli. a chemically synthesized section of dna corresponding to the amino acid sequence 142-160 was inserted into a vector (pxy410) designed to express fusion proteins with the carboxy terminal 1015 amino acids of gz. the hybrid protein immunopurified b ...19863005401
protective effect of interferon on infections with hand, foot, and mouth disease virus in newborn mice.the protective effect of interferon on infection with coxsackievirus type a 16 (ca-16) or enterovirus type 71 (ev-71) in newborn mice was examined. subcutaneous administration of murine interferon (muifn-alpha/beta) into the infected mice produced a protective effect against infection with ca-16 or ev-71. it was found that the time of administration of muifn was important in relation to the cycle of infection. protection was observed when muifn was given once daily for several days, from one day ...19863005425
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins.defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in escherichia coli as fusions to the n-terminal part of the ms2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible lambda pl promoter. all constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. these antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in 35s-labeled extracts from foo ...19863005640
biochemical characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease virus strain attenuated for cattle. brief report.wild-type, virulent (a-24 cruzeiro subtype) foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), a related attenuated strain and revertants of the attenuated strain were examined by titration on primary bovine kidney (pbk) and baby hamster kidney (bhk-21) cells, as well as, by infection of unweaned mice. wild type virus grew equally well in all three systems, whereas the attenuated strain had a titer 2-3 log lower in pbk cells than in the other 2 assays. within 9 successive passages in bhk-21 cells the attenuat ...19863006639
comparative studies on growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus types 0 and asia 1 in bhk-21 razi cells.growth pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus types 0 and asia 1 in bhk-21 razi cells was compared; while type 0 virus grew in high titre, asia 1 virus was produced in low titre. inhibition of host protein synthesis in type 0 virus-infected cells was more pronounced than in asia 1 virus-infected cells. foot-and-mouth disease virus type 0 infected cells showed higher lactic dehydrogenase activity when compared to asia 1 virus. a significant decrease in virus yield was observed when actinomycin d ...19862878583
host cell modulation of foot-and-mouth disease virus procapsid synthesis.bhk21 (clone 13s) cells of high (bhk-sh) and low (bhk-sl) passage number were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subtypes a24, a25 and c3. while the amount of virus specific rna produced in bhk-sh cells was 25% of that in bhk-sl cells and the virion production was 27% (c3) to 53% (a24) lower, the synthesis of viral proteins was comparable, associated with an accumulation of procapsids in bhk-sh cells. the results suggest that changes in viral infection pattern with increasing bhk2 ...19863024386
further characterization of a morphogenetic mutant of the foot-and-mouth disease virus.in this paper we describe further characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) temperature-sensitive mutant, ts 139. this mutant was very sensitive to heat inactivation, suggesting that its viral particles are somehow altered. the electrophoretic analysis of ts 139 structural proteins indicated that vp2 has an altered mobility. furthermore, two known protein precursors of vp2, vp0 and p88, were shown to be altered, as was p64, which supports a vp2 precursor role for p64. the ts 139 ...19863026109
antigenic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes with monoclonal antibodies.the capsid structures of the 7 serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been compared utilizing a series of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies which were previously shown to recognize at least 4 distinct epitopes on type a12 virus. a radioimmune binding assay using radioactively labeled antigens and the monoclonal antibodies revealed that certain conformation dependent epitopes are conserved among a subtypes, while some continuous epitopes are conserved among a subtypes as well as other fm ...19863026110
protection of cattle against foot-and-mouth disease by a synthetic peptide.a chemically synthesized peptide consisting essentially of two separate regions (residues 141 to 158 and 200 to 213) of a virus coat protein (vp1) from the o1 kaufbeuren strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus was prepared free of any carrier protein. it elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protected cattle against intradermolingual challenge by inoculation with infectious virus. comparative evaluation of this peptide with a single-site peptide (residues 141 to 158) in guinea pigs su ...19863008333
a second protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genes are expressed as a polyprotein which is rapidly processed into the four primary cleavage products l, p1, p2, and p3. in secondary cleavage reactions, these are further processed into the mature proteins. the fmdv l protein is located at the n terminus of the polyprotein and is the first gene product released from the nascent polyprotein. for analysis of its biological function, the l gene was mutated by site-directed mutagenesis of cloned cdna. in vitro ...19863009894
potential for the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) to cattle.foot-and-mouth disease viruses of types sat 1 and sat 2 isolated from diseased cattle and carrier buffalo, either on the same farm or in the same ecological area within a short time of each other, were compared by t1 oligonucleotide mapping. no similarity was observed between the maps obtained, indicating that the different populations of virus were unique to each species and that no interspecies transmission had occurred.19863010415
protection of guinea pigs against local and systemic foot-and-mouth disease after administration of synthetic lipid amine (avridine) liposomes.injection of the synthetic lipid amine, avridine, in the form of liposomes, protected guinea pigs against the development of lesions from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) inoculated intradermally into the rear footpads. the animals were protected against the development of vesicles at the inoculation site as well as the systemic spread of virus. maximal protection was obtained after intracardial injection of 5-10 mg doses of liposomal avridine. lower doses yielded decreased protection. subcut ...19863010856
plaque enhancement effect of sodium thiosulfate for foot-and-mouth disease viruses.a plaque enhancement effect by the addition of sodium thiosulfate for foot-and-mouth disease viruses was demonstrated when this salt was incorporated in agar and in agarose overlay media. most of the mechanism is obscure, however, as one of the effects is that sodium thiosulfate seems to interact in a reversible manner against the plaque inhibitor action of neutral red in cellular cytoplasm. a plaque inhibitor contained in agar could be removed in some degree by the addition of this salt.19863012288
foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) experimental infection: susceptibility and immune response of adult mice.adult mice are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection only under some experimental conditions. this paper report the results of pathogenesis studies on 4 different strains of mice (cf1, c3h, nih-nude, balb-c/j) infected with the cloned and uncloned 0(1)c strain of fmdv. high virus titers were detected in blood and pancreas 12-24 h after infection (p.i.); these persisted for up to 48 h p.i. in cf1 and balb-c/j mice and 72 h p.i. in the two other mouse strains. virus titers o ...19863014713
immune protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus studied using virus-neutralizing and non-neutralizing concentrations of monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mab) against sequential or conformational epitopes on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) passively protected neonatal syngeneic (balb/c) mice at dilutions at which they could not neutralize virus infectivity in vitro. the b2, d9, 1c6 and 4c9 mab, against the group 1 (sequential) and group 2 (conformational) epitopes, protected the mice at an antibody:virion molar ratio of between 38:1 and 84:1 (12-18 times lower than that required for neutralization of virus infectivity i ...19863015780
experimental infection of vampire bats with foot and mouth disease virus. 19863016350
detection of a genome-linked protein (vpg) of hepatitis a virus and its comparison with other picornaviral vpgs.the nucleotide sequence corresponding to the p3 region of the hepatitis a virus (hav) polyprotein genome was determined from cloned cdna and translated into an amino acid sequence. comparison of the amino acid sequences of the genome-linked proteins (vpgs) of other picornaviruses with the predicted amino acid sequence of hav was used to locate the primary structure of a putative vpg within the genome of hav. the sequence of hav vpg, like those of other picornaviral vpg molecules, contains a tyro ...19863018280
exposure of sheep to natural aerosols of foot-and-mouth disease virus.sheep taken individually and allowed to inhale air being drawn along a duct from a cabinet containing pigs acutely infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus for 10 or 15 minute periods were infected by doses as low as 10 tcid50 of virus. the most consistent and reliable indicators of infection were viraemia and seroconversion. the mean times from exposure to onset of viraemia, pyrexia and the appearance of vesicular lesions were 2.5, 3.8 and 4.7 days, respectively. neither the time from exposur ...19863020658
[a hitherto unknown reaction pattern in vertebrate cells (riv). 2. the protective effect of riv particle preparations against foot-and-mouth disease in guinea pigs].further observations concerning the previously described riv-particles are reported. they were isolated from a diploid cell line of bovine origin, embryonal duck fibroblasts and bhk-21 cells. a protective effect against foot-and-mouth-disease virus in guinea pigs could be observed following inoculation with the riv-preparation of bovine origin. all 3 preparations isolated from the 3 cell lines showed immunologic cross reactions.19863020838
an electroblotting technique for assessing the integrity of the major immunogenic protein in foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines.a method has been developed whereby vp1, the major immunogenic protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus can be detected after electroblotting on nitrocellulose paper. proteins can be examined in unfractionated virus harvests and after formulation as aluminium hydroxide-adjuvanted vaccines. the limit of detection is approximately 10 ng of vp1 and up to 20 samples can be analysed simultaneously. the technique allows the integrity of vp1 to be examined in fully formulated vaccines.19863021799
a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. development and method of elisa.a liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa has been developed for the quantification of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus which may replace the virus neutralisation (vn) test. this test employs the incubation of a constant amount of antigen with a range of test serum dilutions in the liquid-phase before being assayed using a trapping elisa. thus it does not rely on the availability or growth of tissue culture cells. the assay is rapid and relatively simple to perform, reagents are used ...19863021854
a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus. ii. application.the liquid-phase blocking sandwich elisa has been evaluated for the serological study of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the titres recorded for sera from a population of more than 300 british uninfected, unvaccinated cattle which were examined against each of the seven immunologically distinct fmdv types were less than 1 in 40. a positive correlation between elisa and vn titres was recorded for sera either vaccinated or involved in outbreaks of fmdv. the overall regressi ...19863021855
the genome-linked proteins of aphthoviruses: specific immunoprecipitation of the three species detected on virus rna and identification of possible precursors.synthetic peptides have been made corresponding to the c-terminal portion of each of the three presumptive genome-linked proteins (vpgs) of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a10. antisera against each of these peptides efficiently precipitated only the homologous vpg, and the reactions were inhibited by prior absorption with homologous, but not heterologous synthetic peptide. the peptide antisera precipitated a number of proteins from infected cell extracts with mol. wt. of 100, 84, 56, 36, 27, ...19863023531
theiler's virus genome is closely related to that of encephalomyocarditis virus, the prototype cardiovirus.theiler's virus causes a persistent demyelinating infection of the mouse central nervous system. our study of the molecular mechanism of persistence led us to sequence 1925 nucleotides located at the 3' end of the viral genome. we observed extensive homologies between this region and the corresponding region of encephalomyocarditis virus, the prototype cardiovirus, and only some homologies with the 3' ends of foot-and-mouth disease virus, rhinovirus, and poliovirus genomes.19863023668
embryo transfer as a means of controlling the transmission of viral infections. vii. the in vitro exposure of bovine and porcine embryos to foot-and-mouth disease virus.when 169 zona pellucida-intact bovine embryos were exposed to 10(6) pfu/ml of foot-and-mouth disease virus and then washed, no infectious virus was detected on any of the embryos. fmd viral infectivity was found, however, in association with 14 of 42 hatched (zona pellucida-free) bovine embryos and in a small number of zona pellucida-intact porcine embryos. the porcine embryos were assayed individually and in groups of 8 embryos. four of the 124 individual embryos and 2 of the 9 groups of embryo ...198616726224
proceedings - embryo transfer in the canadian cattle industry status of disease transmission studies and thier relationship to the international movement of bovine embryos.the current, generally accepted approach to formulating health requirements for the international movement of embryos is to base them on the health status of the male and female donor animals. the alternative approach of basing them on the health status of the embryos themselves has been blocked by the lack of scientific information about the potential of the early embryo to transmit agents of infectious disease. consequently, most research into infectious disease transmission by embryos has had ...198617422615
hexokinase activity as marker to assess time of harvest of foot-and-mouth disease virus in bhk21 cl13 cell cultures.hexokinase (b.c. 2.7.1.1) activity as a marker enzyme during fmd viral infection has been observed spectrophotometrically in a system coupled with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, in supernatants of bhk(21)cl(13) suspension as well as anchored cell culture at a minimum of 10(4) infective virus particles/ml. specific activity increased with virus concentration in culture supernatants and abruptly decreased with a fall in virus titer, as has been noted by tcid/50,146 s concentration, and enzyme- ...198618555368
ribavirin cures cells of a persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro.ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1h-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) eliminates foot-and-mouth disease virus from persistently infected cell cultures. the latter are 10-fold more sensitive to ribavirin than lytically infected cells. in treated cells no viral rna or proteins could be detected by dot-blot hybridization to cdna probes, virus and rna infectivity assays, or immunofluorescence. a potential application of the drug for the treatment of animals carrying the virus is suggested.19873023704
detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: a sensitive, rapid and reliable technique for primary diagnosis.a highly sensitive indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay suitable for adoption as the routine diagnostic and typing test for foot-and-mouth disease virus of all seven serotypes is described. the assay uses rabbit and guinea pig antisera raised against inactivated 146s virus antigens. strong homotypic and minimal heterotypic reactions with both whole virion 146s and derived virion subunit 12s antigens achieved a detection sensitivity approximately 125 times that of the complement fi ...19872825310
[cdna cloning of foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19872829769
[preparation of the 35s ribonucleic acid of foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19872829770
[in vitro translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus ribonucleic acid]. 19872829771
[differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses by counterimmunoelectrophoresis].studied were the opportunities for employing the method of counter immunoelectrophoresis (cie) to differentiate f. m. d. viruses of different origin, comparing the results obtained with those reached through the immunodiffusion test (idt). it was found that cie could be used successfully for the serotyping of f. m. d. viruses, the method being as precise as idt, however, the results are recorded at the 90th minute, while idt requires at least 24 hours to read the results.19872830709
cell mediated immunity to foot and mouth disease virus vaccine in buffaloes. 19872831140
[immunologic relations between the foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates a5 westerwald 1951 and a5 bernbeuren 1984]. 19872820373
potential secondary and tertiary structure in the genomic rna of foot and mouth disease virus.the nucleotide sequence of the 5' untranslated region of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), serotype a10 has been determined. this completes the first total genomic sequence for any one serotype of fmdv. analysis of the sequence to the 3' side of the poly (c) tract reveals the presence of a 24 nucleotide repeated motif which has homologies with a sequence located upstream of the transcriptional initiation site from several mammalian fibrinogen genes. the function of this element in fmdv is unc ...19872821491
safety and efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines containing endonuclease-inactivated virions.inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by means of virion-associated endonuclease was found to be suited to the production of safe and potent vaccines, which proved to be equal or better than those containing formaldehyde or ethyleneimine in guinea-pig potency tests. first order inactivation kinetics were regularly shown, with half life values which varied according to the different temperatures used. inactivation brought about extensive degradation of fmdv rna, while it did not adv ...19872823495
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus has been crystallized with the objectives of (1) determining the composition and conformation of the major immunogenic site(s) and (2) comparing its structure with those of the related polio, rhino and mengo viruses, representing the other three genera of the picornaviruses. most of the work has been done with virus strain o1bfs 1860, which crystallized as small rhombic dodecahedra of maximum dimension 0.3 mm. virus recovered from crystals was infectious, and was ind ...19872824786
conformational alteration in foot-and-mouth disease virus virion capsid structure after complexing with monospecific antibody.a mechanism of neutralization of virus infectivity by antibody is described and related to the immune defences in vivo. the interaction of a particular monoclonal antibody with homologous foot-and-mouth disease virus alters the conformation of the virions to permit penetration of staining reagents. a consequence of this structural alteration is that the rna genome becomes susceptible to dissociation from the capsid proteins. this mechanism of virus neutralization is irreversible and therefore pr ...19873028937
peptide vaccine--a new approach to a safer foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine.a synthetic peptide, of which the region of the major antigenic determinant of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o1k located on the coat protein vp1 consists, was coupled to different protein carriers. comparing the potency of the conjugates to elicit neutralising antibodies it has been shown that klh was the best carrier protein. using different amounts of peptide a (aa 144-aa 159) the dependence of neutralising antibody response on the amount of injected peptide has been demonstrated. pept ...19873032213
subtyping of european foot-and-mouth disease virus strains by nucleotide sequence determination.the vp1-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains from 18 recent european outbreaks and of 9 strains isolated more than 20 years ago and used in part as vaccines were determined by direct cdna sequencing. comparison of the sequences revealed that most of the isolated outbreak viruses are closely related to the vaccine strains used. isolates from the italian epizootic of 1984 to 1985 correspond, for example, to the vaccine strain a5 parma 62; the outbreak in 1984 in bernbeuren, feder ...19873033288
all foot and mouth disease virus serotypes initiate protein synthesis at two separate augs.translation of the foot and mouth disease virus genome in vitro and in vivo indicated that all seven serotypes initiate protein synthesis at two separate augs. sequence analysis of the region surrounding these augs has shown that the efficiency with which the initiating aug is recognized is dependent on the flanking nucleotides. however, in vitro, the major factor determining which aug is used is the concentration of mg2+.19873033601
multiple variants in foot-and-mouse disease virus (fmdv) populations: the achilles heel for peptide and rec. dna vaccines?variants of type a10 fmdv were isolated by passage of virus in bhk-cells in the presence of a neutralizing anti-peptide serum or monoclonal antibodies. these variants which were no longer neutralized by the particular anti-peptide serum or monoclonal antibody were easily obtained from (crude) virus populations ("cattle" virus and bhk-adapted virus). the rapidity of isolation (in two or three passages) suggested that these variants are already present in normal virus populations. all (plaque puri ...19873034708
challenging settled opinions in classic foot-and-mouth disease vaccine preparation.in a previous study we challenged the generally accepted opinion that inactivation of fmdv by formaldehyde (fa) is an (unsafe) non-linear process. our data showed that under proper conditions inactivation will be linear without "tailing-off". for more than forty years two other fixed beliefs existed with respect to fmd vaccine preparation: virus must first be adsorbed to al(oh)3-gel before being inactivated. concentrations of formaldehyde are critical and must be within a very narrow range. unti ...19873034709
liposome encapsulated subunit (vp1) and virion vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease.subunit vaccine prepared from vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) types 0 and asia 1 protected guinea pigs against fmd and also induced high levels of antibody. liposomes have been used as a safe and potent immunological adjuvant for fmd vaccines. vaccines prepared from inactivated virus types 0 and asia 1 encapsulated in liposomes protected guinea pigs against challenge with homologous virus and showed good antibody response in pigs on a small scale field trial.19872886019
surface structure and rna-protein interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the surface structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and the interaction of the individual capsid proteins with the virus rna have been examined using modification reagents. by measuring the extent of modification of the lysine residues of intact and disrupted virus particles and the 12s protein subunit with bolton & hunter reagent it was found that 54% of the residues of vp1, 15% of the residues of vp2 and 37% of the residues of vp3, equivalent to five, two and four lysine residues resp ...19873035064
effect of lysosomotropic compounds on early events in foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.the effect of three lysosomotropic compounds, chloroquine, monensin and nh4cl, on the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a12 was studied. viral replication was almost totally inhibited by 0.5 mm chloroquine, 50 microm monensin, or 25 mm nh4cl. monensin and nh4cl affected replication when added either before or within the first hour of infection. chloroquine, however, still inhibited viral replication when added up to 2.5 h after infection. assays of binding of radiolabeled v ...19873037820
proteolytic processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus polyproteins expressed in a cell-free system from clone-derived transcripts.all picornaviral genes are expressed as a single, large polyprotein, which is proteolytically processed into the system produces functional proteins, including viral protease 3c, which plays a major role in processing the precursor proteins. to study the function of the two putative proteases 3c and leader (l) in processing, we constructed several cdna plasmids encoding various regions of the fmdv type a12 genome. these plasmids, containing fmdv cdna segments under the control of the t7 promoter ...19873041041
immune response to uncoupled peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus.uncoupled synthetic peptide representing the sequence of amino acids 141-160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) protein vp1 induced a virus-neutralizing antibody response in guinea-pigs. this response required incomplete freund's adjuvant (ifa) for the primary inoculation and was dependent on the presence of an added cysteine residue with an unblocked sulphydryl group at the carboxy-terminus. secondary immunization could be carried out in the absence of adjuvant. a study of the relative acti ...19873034769
immunoglobulin profiles in nasal and buccal secretions from normal crossbred calves after vaccination with inactivated virus and/or experimental exposure to foot-and-mouth disease virus type asia i. 19872827446
in vitro immune serum-mediated protection of pig monocytes against african swine fever virus.serum samples from pigs that had recovered from infection with a dominican republic isolate of african swine fever virus (asfv) were mixed with dilutions of the virus, then assayed in microcultures of normal pig mononuclear leukocytes to determine whether the samples contained antibodies that protected monocytes against the virus. protection was determined by the difference in titer (log10) between virus mixed with healthy pig serum and virus mixed with immune pig serum, using 50% cytopathogenic ...19873631688
serologic survey of viral antibodies in the peruvian alpaca (lama pacos).sera from more than 100 alpacas (lama pacos) from the peruvian southern sierra were examined for antibodies to 8 viruses known to infect other domestic animals. on the basis of these serologic findings and previously published serologic or clinical data, it is now known that the alpaca can be infected with the following viruses: parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, bluetongue virus, border disease virus, influenza a virus, rotavirus, rabies virus, vesicular ...19873826854
gtp-binding domain: three consensus sequence elements with distinct spacing.a sequence comparison of nine functionally different gtp-binding protein families has yielded further information on the general characterization of the conservation and importance of amino acid sequences in the gtp-binding domain, including a consensus sequence composed of three consensus elements gxxxxgk, dxxg, and nkxd with consensus spacings of either 40-80 or approximately equal to 130-170 amino acid residues between the first and second elements and approximately 40-80 amino acid residues ...19873104905
antigenic comparison of the polypeptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes and other picornaviruses.the cross-reactivity of proteins coded for by the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was assessed by reaction of infected cell lysates with polyclonal and monospecific antisera against the structural and nonstructural proteins of fmdv type a12 strain 119ab. it was shown that the homologous polypeptides from most serotypes are antigenically related. the least cross-reactivity occurred between vp1, vp3, and the protease (3c) of type a12 and south african territories types 1 and ...19872437694
neutralization of foot-and-mouth disease virus can be mediated through any of at least three separate antigenic sites.seven neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were used to characterize 30 escape mutants of a type o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (o1 kaufbeuren) selected with the five most active antibodies. three non-overlapping antigenic sites were found by elisa and cross-neutralization studies. within two of the sites the epitopes of two or more monoclonal antibodies overlapped. two of the sites were conformation-dependent and could not be detected on virus subunits or isolated denatured polypeptides. th ...19872438378
non-responsiveness to a foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide overcome by addition of foreign helper t-cell determinants.study of the immune response to synthetic antigens has shown that uncoupled peptides can realize their potential as vaccines only if they contain domains that react with helper t-cell receptors and ia antigens in addition to antibody binding sites. here we consider whether genetically restricted non-responsiveness to an uncoupled peptide could be overcome by synthesizing a peptide with an additional helper t-cell epitope from a different protein. we demonstrate that h-2d mice, which are non-resp ...19872444892
[synthetic peptides simulating the protective epitopes of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o and a].in a search of novel approaches to cattle protection from foot-and-mouth disease we have prepared a series of peptides from the major antigenic region 130-160 of the vp1 protein. the 144-159 peptide as well as 141-152, 141-148, 148-159 segments (strain o1k) were inactive in all in vitro and in vivo experiments on virus inhibiting. on the other band, synthetic 136-152, 136-148 o1k sequences as well as 131-149, 140-149 a22 sequences afforded 50 to 100% protection, both in the free state and conjug ...19872445357
improved immunogenicity of a peptide epitope after fusion to hepatitis b core protein.synthetic vaccines for viral diseases can use defined regions of viral proteins as immunogens: the peptide sequence of amino acids 141-160 of the vp1 protein of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) elicits virus-neutralizing antibodies to protect guinea pigs, cattle and pigs either when coupled to a carrier protein or when administered in liposomes or in incomplete freund's adjuvant. the immune response to these peptides is much lower than that to complete virus particles and the same sequence fu ...19872446137
reactivity with monoclonal antibodies of viruses from an episode of foot-and-mouth disease.a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) raised against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotype c1 (fmdv c-s8c1) and 11 mabs raised against other fmdvs have been used to evaluate the reactivity of 14 isolates of fmdv of serotype c1 (series fmdv c-s), 12 of them from one disease episode (spain 1979-1982). the assays used were immunoelectrotransfer blot, immunodot and neutralization of infectivity. none of the isolates could be clearly distinguished by its reactivity with 6 non-neutraliz ...19872446442
fusion proteins with multiple copies of the major antigenic determinant of foot-and-mouth disease virus protect both the natural host and laboratory animals.proteins consisting of one, two or four copies of the amino acid sequence 137 to 162, which contains the major immunogenic site of vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus, attached to the n-terminus of beta-galactosidase have been expressed in escherichia coli cells. in guinea-pigs the protein containing one copy (p71) of the viral determinant elicited only low levels of neutralizing antibody whereas protective levels were elicited by the proteins containing two (p72) or four (p74) copies of the det ...19872447225
antigenicity and immunogenicity of synthetic peptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus.peptides reactive with two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies raised against intact foot-and-mouth disease virus a10 were identified with the aid of all overlapping (hexa)peptides of the outer structural viral protein vp1 and located on the viral surface. using this procedure, it was possible to define those amino acids within a peptide which were critical in the binding of antibody to that peptide. one eight amino acid long peptide, containing six such amino acids, was virtually indistinguishab ...19872434606
epitopes on foot-and-mouth disease virus particles. i. topology.monoclonal antibodies (mab) against an o1 suisse isolate of fmdv were used to identify epitopes on the virus particle and to determine their relative function. six major antigenic sites containing one or more epitopes were identified using competition elisa. an epitope relationship is proposed consisting of a trypsin-sensitive sequential site, termed b2/d9, from the codings for the mab which reacted with it, which was associated with virus infectivity and is probably at or near to the cell-bindi ...19872435060
[a new approach to dna synthesis from synthetic oligonucleotides. synthesis of dna coding for the repeated antigenic determinant of foot and mouth disease virus].a rapid method for assembly of dna from synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed which involves separate ligation of top- and bottom-strand oligonucleotides followed by filling in 3'-ends of the duplex formed, blunt end cloning into a specialized vector pbbv, and recovery of the synthetic dna from the recombinant plasmid by means of restriction nuclease bbvii. the method allows for many oligonucleotides to be ligated at once, with no intermediates being isolated, and any dna to be reco ...19872436628
use of outer membrane protein phoe as a carrier for the transport of a foreign antigenic determinant to the cell surface of escherichia coli k-12.phoe protein is an abundant transmembrane protein from the escherichia coli k-12 outer membrane. a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to an antigenic determinant of the c-terminal part of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus was inserted into the phoe gene in an area corresponding to a cell surface-exposed region of the phoe protein. the level of expression of the hybrid protein was normal and the protein was incorporated into the outer membrane. the vp1-epitope was exposed ...19872449378
[diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease and strain identification of the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19872831824
[foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cloned bhk-21 cell cultures with reduced serum requirements]. 19872831826
[quantitative studies of ammonium sulfate precipitation of foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19872831829
infection of cattle by airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus: minimal doses with o1 and sat 2 strains.equipment has been constructed and methods developed for exposing individual cattle to two strains of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in aerosols to determine the minimal infective dose by the respiratory route. the aerosols used were produced either artificially by a spinning-top aerosol generator, in which case they were of homogeneous small particle size (less than 3 micron in diameter) or else they were derived naturally from infected pigs, in which case the particles were heterogeneous i ...19872832913
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus. iii. evaluation of antibodies after infection and vaccination.investigations using a liquid-phase blocking sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the measurement of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in sera from sheep and from cattle are reported, and results compared with those obtained by virus neutralization (vn) tests. serum antibody titres in sheep after primary vaccination and in cattle challenged with a natural aerosol after vaccination were similar by elisa and vn. however, the antibody levels detected in sera o ...19873428376
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus with dna probes in bovine esophageal-pharyngeal fluids.infectivity and dot-blot hybridization techniques were compared for the detection of fmdv in esophageal-pharyngeal fluids from experimentally infected cows. the probe used includes the viral polymerase sequence which allows the detection of the three types of virus (a, o, and c) with equivalent sensitivity. virus was detected by dot-blot hybridization as well as by infectivity, according to sample analysis of esophageal-pharyngeal fluids extracted seven days post-infection. it was not possible t ...19882833204
analysis of neutralizing epitopes on foot-and-mouth disease virus.for the investigation of the antigenic determinant structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against complete virus were characterized by western blot (immunoblot), enzyme immunoassay, and competition experiments with a synthetic peptide, isolated coat protein vp1, and viral particles as antigens. two of the four mabs reacted with each of these antigens, while the other two mabs recognized only complete viral particles and reacted only very poorl ...19882835507
rapid selection of genetic and antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus during persistence in cattle.rapid evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is documented during persistent infections of cattle. the carrier state was established experimentally with plaque-purified fmdv of serotype c3. virus was recovered from the esophageal pharyngeal area of the animals up to 539 days postinfection. analysis of capsid proteins by electrofocusing and by electrophoretic mobility of the genomic poly(c)-rich tract suggested heterogeneity in several isolates and sequential dominance of viral subpopul ...19882835508
coevolution of cells and viruses in a persistent infection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture.virus and cells evolve during serial passage of cloned bhk-21 cells persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). these carrier cells, termed c1-bhk-rc1 (j.c. de la torre, m. dávila, f. sobrino, j. ortín, and e. domingo, virology 145:24-35, 1985), become constitutively resistant to the parental fmdv c-s8c1. curing of late-passage c1-bhk-rc1 cells of fmdv by ribavirin treatment (j.c. de la torre, b. alarcón, e. martínez-salas, l. carrasco, and e. domingo, j. virol. 61:233-235, 1 ...19882835509
comparative quantification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (146 s antigen) by sucrose and potassium-bromide density gradient centrifugation. 19882835937
use of pre-coated immunoplates and freeze-dried reagents for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease and swine vesicular disease by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).an indirect sandwich elisa is used by the world reference laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus and swine vesicular disease virus. the potential for supplying elisa 'kits' for diagnosis to other laboratories has been assessed by evaluating the reactivity of (a) immunoplates pre-coated with rabbit antisera to fmdv and svdv and (b) freeze-dried diluted reference antisera. immunoplates pre-coated using a sodium carbonate/hydrogen carbonate buffer re ...19882836457
new approaches to animal vaccines utilizing genetic engineering.control of infectious diseases in livestock is an important determinant in the success of a nation's effort to efficiently meet its need for animal products. genetic engineering offers many new options in the design of animal vaccines. monoclonal antibodies, dna cloning, recombination, and transfection are examples of techniques that facilitate innovative strategies in antigen identification, production, and delivery. this article reviews the use of genetic engineering in the production of vacci ...19882837363
use of peptides for immunization against foot-and-mouth disease.a peptide corresponding to the major immunogenic site of the protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) will elicit a protective neutralizing antibody response in guinea-pigs, cattle and pigs. the response is much greater when the peptide is presented as a linear dimer or tetramer and pigs receiving as little as 40 micrograms peptide have been protected against challenge infection. an even greater response is obtained when the peptide is presented as part of the core protein of hepatitis ...19882838987
failure of haematobia thirouxi potans (bezzi) to transmit foot-and-mouth disease virus mechanically between viraemic and susceptible cattle.in 2 separate experiments the blood-feeding fly haematobia thirouxi potans (bezzi) failed to transmit foot-and-mouth disease virus when transferred from viraemic (log 2,6-log 4,3 mld50 or tcid50/ml) to susceptible cattle. each experiment involved 2 susceptible and 2 viraemic animals housed in separate stables and 2,000-4,000 flies of which most had fed on viraemic hosts 120 min prior to transfer. furthermore, only minimal quantities of virus were isolated from free-living flies captured on exper ...19882839809
the suitability of a rolled bhk21 monolayer system for the production of vaccines against the sat types of foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. adaptation of virus isolates to the system, immunogen yields achieved and assessment of subtype cross reactivity.in an examination of 34 southern african sat-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses, all but 1 attained satisfactory levels of infectivity within 6 passages in rolled bhk21 monolayer cell cultures. however, there were marked differences between adapted viruses with respect to the mass of immunogen (146s material) produced. several isolates which consistently produced levels greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml were identified. in cross neutralization tests using post-vaccinal sera, sat-1 and sa ...19882839810
[possibilities of biophysicochemical antigen control in vaccine production using foot-and-mouth disease virus as an example (review)]. 19882840042
[the differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains of type o by serologic and biophysicochemical methods]. 19882840043
[the foot-and-mouth disease virus in ultrathin sections]. 19882840049
processing and assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus proteins using subgenomic rna.recombinant dna clones were constructed in order to study the mechanisms of proteolytic processing and assembly in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). rna transcripts from these clones were synthesized using sp6 polymerase and translated in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. efficient translation occurred in the absence of all 5' untranslated sequences and processing of the structural proteins occurred in the presence of functional 3c protease which can function in trans. the specificity of 3c protea ...19882842438
modification of the leader protein (lb) of foot-and-mouth disease virus.translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna for extended periods in rabbit reticulocyte lysates results in the appearance of a previously undescribed protein. a protein with similar properties can also be detected in bhk cells at late times after virus infection. specific immunoprecipitation has shown that this protein (lb') is closely related to the smaller of the two leader proteins, lb, although it migrates with an apparently higher mr in sds-polyacrylamide gels. the conversion of lb to l ...19882842439
gene encoding capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a quasispecies model of molecular evolution.a phylogenetic tree relating the vp1 gene of 15 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotypes a, c, and o has been constructed. the most parsimonious tree shows that fmdv subtypes and isolates within subtypes constitute sets of related, nonidentical genomes, in agreement with a quasispecies mode of evolution of this virus. the average number of nucleotide replacements per site for all possible pairs of vp1 coding segments is higher among representatives of serotype a than serotype ...19882842792
serological and biochemical analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype c3) isolated in argentina between 1981 and 1986.the evolution in the field is described for foot-and-mouth disease viruses belonging to serotype c3 in argentina between 1981 and 1986. during 1981 and 1982 only three isolations of this serotype took place, which showed minor serological and biochemical variations from the prototype strain c3 resende-brasil/55. at the beginning of 1983 an outbreak was detected in a restricted geographical region caused by strains which had important serological and biochemical differences from the prototype str ...19882844033
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