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evidence of activation and suppression during the early immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus causes a serious disease of livestock species, threatening free global trade and food security. the disease spreads rapidly between animals, and to ensure a window of opportunity for such spread, the virus has evolved multiple mechanisms to subvert the early immune response. the cycle of infection in the individual animal is very short, infection is initiated, disseminated throughout the body and infectious virus produced in <7 days. foot-and-mouth disease virus has ...201121501424
development and validation of a prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 2c'3ab-based immunochromatographic strip to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals.abstract:201121513550
rna structural domains in non-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus genome trigger innate immunity in porcine cells and mice.induction of type i interferons (ifn-α/β) in response to viral infection is a crucial step leading to the antiviral state in the host. viruses produce dsrna during their replication cycle that is sensed as non-self by host cells through different receptors. a signalling cascade is then activated to block viral replication and spread. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a picornavirus, highly sensitive to ifn, causing one of the world's most important animal diseases. in this study, we showed ...201121525336
an experimental infection in pigs using a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan.in this study, we carried out an experimental infection in pigs using a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan to analyze clinical manifestation, antibody response and virus sedding patterns in pigs. we found that the virus was virulent in pigs, producing a synchronous disease in the inoculated pigs and efficient spread to direct contact pigs. these results are useful for epidemiologically investigating the 2010 epidemic in japan and improving the measures for cont ...201121532260
identification of the role of rig-i, mda-5 and tlr3 in sensing rna viruses in porcine epithelial cells using lentivirus-driven rna interference.pathogen recognition receptors are essential for antiviral host immune responses. these specialized receptors detect conserved viral compounds and induce type i interferons (ifn) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. here we evaluated the contribution of rig-i, mda-5 and tlr3 to the recognition of classical swine fever (csfv), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and influenza a virus (iav) to ifn-β responses in the porcine epithelial cell line pk-15. to this end, we i ...201121539869
development of one-step multiplex rt-pcr method for simultaneous detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a, and asia 1 circulating in vietnam.a one-step multiplex rt-pcr method using new primers was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of vietnamese fmdv serotypes o, a, and asia 1 directly from clinical samples. the rt-pcr method used a cocktail of one universal minus-sense primer designed in the 2b gene and three serotype-specific plus-sense primers designed in the hypervariable regions of the capsid vp1 coding gene of fmdv. these serotype-specific primer pairs amplified 658, 535, and 427bp pcr products corres ...201121550367
relationship between clinical signs and transmission of an infectious disease and the implications for control.control of many infectious diseases relies on the detection of clinical cases and the isolation, removal, or treatment of cases and their contacts. the success of such "reactive" strategies is influenced by the fraction of transmission occurring before signs appear. we performed experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle and estimated this fraction at less than half the value expected from detecting virus in body fluids, the standard proxy measure of infectiousness. th ...201121551063
[construction and expression of a coxsackievirus a16 vp1 gene plasmid which delivered by live attenuated salmonella.]aim: to develop a coxsackievirus a16 (cox a16) vp1 gene plasmid which delivered by live attenuated salmonella. methods: the plasmid which expressed vp1 protein of coxa16 was constructed by gene recombination. cellular expression was assessed by western bloten analysis. then the recombinant attenuated salmonella which harboring the plasmid were constructed by electro transformation. results: coxa16 vp1 gene sequence was inserted into a eukaryotic expression plasmid. vp1 protein was detected in th ...201121557905
foot and mouth disease virus polyepitope protein produced in bacteria and plants induces protective immunity in guinea pigs.the goal of this project was to develop an alternative foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccine candidate based on a recombinant protein consisting of efficient viral epitopes. a recombinant gene was designed that encodes b-cell epitopes of proteins vp1 and vp4 and t-cell epitopes of proteins 2c and 3d. the polyepitope protein (h-pe) was produced in e. coli bacteria or in n. benthamiana plants using a phytovirus expression system. the methods of extraction and purification of h-pe proteins from bact ...201121568869
analysis of the acute phase responses of serum amyloid a, haptoglobin and type 1 interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.abstract: a series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". the host response to infection was investigated through measurements of the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (apps) serum amyloid a (saa) and haptoglobin (hp), as well as the bioactivity of type 1 interferon (ifn) in serum of infected anim ...201121592356
phylogenetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o circulating in the andean region of south america during 2002-2008.at present, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has been successfully controlled in most territories of south america, where only ecuador and venezuela remain as endemic countries. in this context, the precise characterization of circulating viruses is of utmost importance. this work describes the first molecular epidemiology study performed with the complete vp(1)-coding region of 114 field isolates of fmd virus (fmdv) type o, collected in the andean countries mainly during 2002-2008. sequences were a ...201121601999
control of foot-and-mouth disease. 201121602410
high cleavage efficiency of a 2a peptide derived from porcine teschovirus-1 in human cell lines, zebrafish and mice.when expression of more than one gene is required in cells, bicistronic or multicistronic expression vectors have been used. among various strategies employed to construct bicistronic or multicistronic vectors, an internal ribosomal entry site (ires) has been widely used. due to the large size and difference in expression levels between genes before and after ires, however, a new strategy was required to replace ires. a self-cleaving 2a peptide could be a good candidate to replace ires because o ...201121602908
comparative complete genome analysis of indian type a foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates.comparative complete genome analysis of 17 serotype a indian field isolates representing different genotypes and sub-lineages is presented in this report. overall 79% of amino acids were invariant in the coding region. chunk deletion of nucleotide was observed in s and l fragment of 5'-utr. more variability which is comparable to that of capsid coding region was found in l and 3a region. functional motifs and residues critical for virus biology were conserved most. polyprotein cleavage sites acc ...201121604149
[diversity of receptor recognition site of type asial foot-and-mouth disease virus].foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) initiates infection by binding to integrin receptors via a highly conserved arg-gly-asp (rgd) sequence found in the g-h loop of the structural protein vp1. however, fmdv is an rna virus, which harbors the evolutionary potential to render the rgd motif dispensable upon changes in constant environment. we studied mutation of rgd motif upon short-time passages fmdv asial/js/china/2005 field strain in different host.201121604558
the importance of fmdv localisation in lymphoid tissue.foot-and-mouth disease virus, a highly contagious pathogen that can cause lameness, low weight and decreased milk production, is a scourge of agricultural livestock around the world. although the acute phase of infection is rarely fatal, infection may persist in animals that have apparently recovered, creating a viral reservoir that some fear could contribute to the spread of disease. we have used an array of molecular techniques to search for traces of virus in tissues from the mouths and throa ...201121616546
rapid screening swine foot-and-mouth disease virus using micro-elisa system.in order to tackle both regional and global foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) epdimics, we hereby develop a rapid microfluidic thermal lens microscopic method to screen swine type o fmdv with good efficiency. the scheme has great merits in terms of field portability, sample volume, assay time, analytical sensitivity, and test reproducibility.201121617821
multiplex rt-pcr detection and microarray typing of vesicular disease viruses.a vesicular disease multiplex reverse transcription (rt)-pcr with an accompanying microarray assay was developed for simultaneous detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv). the multiplex rt-pcr successfully detected viral rna from a collection of 49 strains of vesicular viruses, including multiple strains from all seven serotypes of f ...201121620898
genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle.farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. a complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. however, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforw ...201121621277
[early steps of picornavirus infection].picornaviridae is a large family of viruses that cause a variety of infectious diseases in humans and animals. it includes important viruses such as poliovirus, hepatisis a virus and foot and mouth disease virus. early steps of infection play important roles in determining the host range and the target organs for each virus. here, i review the recent advances in the studies of cellular receptors for picornaviruses, mechanisms of cell entry and viral uncoating.201122916565
bacterial toxin fusion proteins elicit mucosal immunity against a foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen when administered intranasally to guinea pigs.peptides corresponding to the foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 g-h loop are capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in some species but are considered relatively poor immunogens, especially at mucosal surfaces. however, intranasal administration of antigens along with the appropriate delivery vehicle/adjuvant has been shown to induce mucosal immune responses, and bacterial enterotoxins have long been known to be effective in this regard. in the current study, two different carrier/adjuvant a ...201122312350
immune response in goats to different payloads of fmdv monovalent vaccine: protection against virulent challenge and development of carrier status.the relationship of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen payload and number of dose of vaccine conferring protection against virus challenge in goats was studied. goats vaccinated with oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccines containing different antigen payloads with or without booster resisted virulent challenge at 21 days post-vaccination or 7 days after booster respectively. however, localized sub-clinical infection was observed in two vaccinated goats on 35 days post-challenge. rna coul ...201122282634
comparison of ires and f2a-based locus-specific multicistronic expression in stable mouse lines.efficient and stoichiometric expression of genes concatenated by bi- or multi-cistronic vectors has become an invaluable tool not only in basic biology to track and visualize proteins in vivo, but also for vaccine development and in the clinics for gene therapy. to adequately compare, in vivo, the effectiveness of two of the currently popular co-expression strategies - the internal ribosome entry site (ires) derived from the picornavirus and the 2a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus ( ...201122216134
detection and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings.a total of 1501 oral swab samples from pakistan, afghanistan and tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between july 2008 and august 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna. the oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets in pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in afghanistan (n=61) and both the live animal markets in tajikistan (n=120) all tested negative. however, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from gondal and 11 of ...201122212855
tissue culture independent transformation of the forage crop sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea l.): an easy method towards generation of transgenics.a transformation system which is free of in vitro plant regeneration following agrobacterium infection is established for the forage legume, sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea l.) where in the entire embryo axis of the germinating seed was used as the target tissue for transformation. after standardization of transformation conditions, the cotyledonary node of the embryo axis was infected with agrobacterium host lba 4404 harboring the recombinant vector pcambia 2301. the bivalent 1d gene of the two maj ...201123573040
self replicating gene vaccine carrying p1-2a gene of fmdv serotype o and its effects on the immune responses of cattle.dna vaccines are considered as alternatives to live attenuated ones for those diseases like foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) where the production and application of live vaccines have been found unsuccessful. however, stability of dna and the quantity of antigen expressed are the major limitation with naked dna vaccines. to address these issues self replicating gene vaccine construct was made for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type 'o' and studied. the vector for vaccine construct, designated a ...201123637502
florfenicol impairs the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice.florfenicol is a new type of broad-spectrum antibacterial that has been used in veterinary clinics. it showed immunosuppressive activity on the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o in mice. in the present study, balb/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with fmdv serotype o antigen on days 1 and 14. beginning on day 21, mice were treated with a single daily oral dose of florfenicol (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. on day 28, b ...201121428714
development of vaccines toward the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most economically and socially devastating diseases affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. although mortality is usually low in adult animals, millions of animals have been killed in efforts to rapidly control and eradicate fmd. the causing virus, fmd virus (fmdv), is a highly variable rna virus occurring in seven serotypes (a, o, c, asia 1, sat 1, sat 2 and sat 3) and a large number of subtypes. fmdv is one of the most infectious agents kno ...201121434805
antiviral activity of bovine type iii interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most serious threats to the livestock industry. despite the availability of a vaccine, recent outbreaks in disease-free countries have demonstrated that development of novel fmd control strategies is imperative. here we report the identification and characterization of bovine (bo) interferon lambda 3 (ifn-++3), a member of the type iii ifn family. expression of boifn-++3 using a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (ad5-boifn-++3) yielde ...201121435672
viral genome segmentation can result from a trade-off between genetic content and particle stability.the evolutionary benefit of viral genome segmentation is a classical, yet unsolved question in evolutionary biology and rna genetics. theoretical studies anticipated that replication of shorter rna segments could provide a replicative advantage over standard size genomes. however, this question has remained elusive to experimentalists because of the lack of a proper viral model system. here we present a study with a stable segmented bipartite rna virus and its ancestor non-segmented counterpart, ...201121437265
phylogenomics and molecular evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this report describes the use of bayesian methods to analyze polyprotein coding region sequences (n = 217) obtained from genbank to define the genome-wide phylogeny of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). the results strongly supported the monophyly of five fmdv serotypes, o, a, asia 1, c, and sat 3, while sequences for the two remaining fmdv serotypes, sat 1 and sat 2 did not separate into entirely distinct clades. the phylogenomic tree revealed three sister-group relationships, serotype o + as ...201121448588
skin as a potential source of infectious foot and mouth disease aerosols.this review examines whether exfoliated, virus-infected animal skin cells could be an important source of infectious foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) aerosols. infectious material rafting on skin cell aerosols is an established means of transmitting other diseases. the evidence for a similar mechanism for fmdv is: (i) fmdv is trophic for animal skin and fmdv epidermis titres are high, even in macroscopically normal skin; (ii) estimates for fmdv skin cell aerosol emissions appear consistent wi ...201121450741
a highly sensitive detection for foot-and-mouth disease virus by gold nanopariticle improved immuno-pcr.abstract: background: foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is one of the most contagious of all artiodactyl animal diseases, and its infection has an obvious ability to spread over long distances and to contribute to epidemics in fmd-free areas. a highly sensitive and specfic method is required to detect fmdv. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a bio-barcode assay (bca) technique for detecting clinical samples of fmdv. methods: highly sensitive gold nanopariticle (gnp) improved immuno -pcr (g ...201121453461
viewpoint: factors involved in type i interferon responses during porcine virus infections.since type i interferon (ifn-i) is considered a potent antiviral defence mechanism, it is not surprising that during evolution viruses have development of various mechanisms to counteract ifn-i induction or release. despite this, certain virus infections are associated with very high levels of systemic ifn-i. one explanation for this observation is the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc), which are able to produce high levels of ifn-i despite the presence of viral ifn-i antagonists. e ...201121458079
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs using antibody-detecting sandwich elisa.the presence of serum antibodies for nonstructural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can differentiate fmdv-infected animals from vaccinated animals. in this study, a sandwich elisa was developed for rapid detection of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) antibodies; it was based on an escherichia coli-expressed, highly conserved region of the 3abc nonstructural protein of the fmdv o/tw/99 strain and a monoclonal antibody derived from the expressed protein. the diagnostic sensitivi ...201121467761
closed ampoule isothermal microcalorimetry for continuous real-time detection and evaluation of cultured mammalian cell activity and responses.closed ampoule isothermal microcalorimetry (imc) is a simple, powerful, nondestructive, and convenient technique that allows continuous, real-time detection and evaluation of cultured cell activity and responses. at a selected set temperature, imc measures the heat flow between a sample and a heat sink and compares it to the heat-flow between a thermally inactive reference and the heat sink. since heat flow rates are proportional to the rates of chemical reactions and changes of state, imc provi ...201121468980
comparative sequence analysis of representative foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes from southeast asia.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in mainland southeast asia where up to seven genetically distinct viral lineages co-circulate (o/sea/mya-98, o/sea/cam-94, o/me-sa/panasia, o/me-sa/panasia-2, o/cathay, a/asia/sea-97, and serotype asia 1). the aim of this study was to analyse the sequence variability between representative complete genomes for these seven lineages. the genome sequences varied from 8130 to 8192 nucleotides in length and shared nucleotide identities ranging from 91.8 to 78.9 ...201121479678
foot-and-mouth disease in feral swine: susceptibility and transmission.experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in feral swine are limited, and data for clinical manifestations and disease transmissibility are lacking. in this report, feral and domestic swine were experimentally infected with fmdv (a24-cruzeiro), and susceptibility and virus transmission were studied. feral swine were proved to be highly susceptible to a-24 cruzeiro fmd virus by intradermal inoculation and by contact with infected domestic and feral swine. typical clinical signs in fera ...201121418546
pan-serotypic detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using a minor groove binder probe reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.a novel assay for the pan-serotypic detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was designed using a 5' conjugated minor groove binder (mgb) probe real-time rt-pcr system. this assay targets the 3d region of the fmdv genome and is capable of detecting 20 copies of a transcribed rna standard. the linear range of the test was eight logs from 2 × 10¹ to 2 × 108 copies and amplification time was approximately 2 h. using a panel of 83 rna samples from representative fmdv isolates, the diagnostic ...201121419170
genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o in pakistan and afghanistan, 1997-2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and afghanistan; serotypes o, a and asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with fmdv type o usually being the most common. in the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the fmdv capsid protein vp1 from virus samples were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the serotype o fmd viruses circulating in pakistan and afghanistan between 1997 and 2009 revealed the presence of at least three different lineage ...201121419880
Tempo and mode of inhibitor-mutagen antiviral therapies: a multidisciplinary approach.The continuous emergence of drug-resistant viruses is a major obstacle for the successful treatment of viral infections, thus representing a persistent spur to the search for new therapeutic strategies. Among them, multidrug treatments are currently at the forefront of pharmaceutical, clinical, and computational investigation. Still, there are many unknowns in the way that different drugs interact among themselves and with the pathogen that they aim to control. Inspired by experimental studies w ...201121911373
Establishment of a Stable Cell Line Coexpressing Dengue Virus-2 and Green Fluorescent Protein for Screening of Antiviral Compounds.This study aimed to generate a stable cell line harboring subgenomic dengue virus replicon and a green fluorescent gene (DENV/GFP) for a cell-based model to screen anti-DENV compounds. The gene-encoding envelope protein of DENV-2 was deleted and then replaced with fragments of the GFP gene and a foot-and-mouth-disease virus 2A-derived cleavage site. The human cytomegalovirus immediate early and antisense hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequences were added at the 5'- and 3'-ends. An internal ribo ...201122068705
increased efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease capsid subunit vaccine expressing nonstructural protein 2b is associated with a specific t cell response.we previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a24 capsid subunit vaccine, ad5-a24, expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (cmv) can protect swine and bovines against homologous challenge, but in a similar approach using swine vaccinated with an ad5-vectored fmdv o1 campos vaccine, ad5-o1c, the animals were only partially protected when challenged at 21 days post-vaccination (dpv). recently, we demonstrated that inclusion of th ...201122027486
Formation of higher-order FMDV 3Dpol complexes is dependent on elongation activity.The replication of many viruses involves the formation of higher-order structures or replication 'factories'. We show that the key replication enzyme of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, forms fibrils in vitro. Although there are similarities with previously characterised poliovirus polymerase fibrils, FMDV fibrils are narrower, composed of both protein and RNA and, importantly, are only seen when all components of an elongation assay are present. Furthermore ...201122156531
Investigation of serum protein profiles in sheep naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.This study was carried out to determine serum protein profiles in naturally infected sheep with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The study material consisted of twelve healthy and 36 sheep with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). FMD had been diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings and results of serological examination. Serotypes serologically detected in the FMDV-infected sheep were as follows: O (n = 11), A (n = 8) and mixed infection with serotypes O, A and Asia-1 (n = 17).The total protei ...201122059288
virus survival in slurry: analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses.farm slurry can be highly contaminated with viral pathogens. the survival of these pathogens within slurry is important since this material is often distributed onto farm land either directly or after heat treatment. there is clearly some risk of spreading pathogens in the early stages of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three dif ...201122226541
development and laboratory evaluation of two lateral flow devices for the detection of vesicular stomatitis virus in clinical samples.two lateral flow devices (lfd) for the detection of vesicular stomatitis (vs) virus (vsv), types indiana (vsv-ind) and new jersey (vsv-nj) were developed using monoclonal antibodies c1 and f25vsvnj-45 to the respective vsv serotypes. the performance of the lfds was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia and cell culture passage derived supernatants of vsv. the collection of test samples included 105 positive for vsv-ind (92 vesicular epithelial suspensions and 13 cell ...201122230813
a mutant of asia 1 serotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of an important antigenic epitope in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the availability of a vaccine for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is crucial for the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). because traditional inactivated vaccines may contain trace nonstructural proteins interfering with the diva, we hypothesized that mutant fmdv with deletion of immunodominant epitopes may be valuable. our previous study has generated a full-l ...201121358757
rt-pcr evaluation for identification and sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan.fmd clinically positive 250 tissue samples (mouth and hoof epithelium and vesicle swabs, tongue tissue) and 175 secretion samples (milk, saliva, serum, plasma) were evaluated by rt-pcr for the diagnosis of fmd with different pair of universal and serotype-specific primers from 2006 to 2007 in punjab, pakistan. universal primer pair p1/p2 from vp1 gene detected fmd in 182 out of 250 (72.8%) tissues and 92 out of 175 (52.6%) secretion samples, while universal primer 1f/1r from 5'utr region detecte ...201120031216
low diversity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype c virus in kenya: evidence for probable vaccine strain re-introductions in the field.most viruses are maintained by complex processes of evolution that enable them to survive but also complicate efforts to achieve their control. in this paper, we study patterns of evolution in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype c virus isolates from kenya, one of the few places in the world where serotype c has been endemic and is suspected to remain. the nucleotide sequences encoding the capsid protein vp1 from eight isolates collected between 1967 and 2004 were analysed for patterns of sequ ...201120334728
foot-and-mouth disease: the question of implementing vaccinal control during an epidemic.the question of whether or not to use vaccines during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) has interested veterinary administrators for many decades. this review assesses the historical uses, successes and failures of vaccinal control, and addresses the questions of where, how, and when to use vaccination against fmd. approaching the problem in this manner can aid in identifying which tools are likely to be most effective during an epidemic, and how successful a given contingency plan mig ...201120350828
difference in the level of interferon gamma mrna transcripts on stimulation of cattle and buffalo mononuclear cells with foot and mouth disease virus-antigen: a possible role of sequence variation in promoter region.in an attempt to resolve the claim that buffaloes differ from cattle in disease progression, this study was undertaken to compare the mitogen (cona) or antigen (foot and mouth disease virus) induced expression levels of interferon gamma (ifn-γ mrna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) by real-time quantitative pcr. in general, the levels of ifn-γ mrna were lower in buffaloes than in crossbred cattle. significantly higher levels of ifn-γ mrna were also observed in crossbred cattle when i ...201120541234
direct typing and molecular evolutionary analysis of field samples of foot-and-mouth disease virus collected in viet nam between 2006 and 2007.in this study, we used universal or duplex serotype-specific (o and asia 1) rt-pcr to analyze clinical field samples of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) or virus isolates collected in viet nam between 2006 and 2007. we found viral serotypes o and asia 1 circulating concurrently during this period. direct sequencing of type-specific rt-pcr products revealed the existence of three different topotypes of serotype o: southeast asia (sea), middle east-south asia (me-sa), and cathay. of these, sea ...201120667669
multiple invasions of o1 fmdv serotype into israel revealed by genetic analysis of vp1 genes of israeli's isolates from 1989 to 2007.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), one of the most dangerous viruses affecting cloven-hoofed animals, comprises seven serotypes that do not mutually cross-protect, with a total of about 80 subtypes. the middle east is an fmd-endemic region, with repeated fmd outbreaks and in spite of its compulsory vaccination policy in israel, outbreaks occur repeatedly. in order to compare the israeli isolates, the complete viral vp1 genes of representative viruses isolated during the major outbreaks from 19 ...201120702050
modelling foot-and-mouth disease virus dynamics in oral epithelium to help identify the determinants of lysis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed livestock; of interest here is the difference in lytic behaviour that is observed in bovine epithelium. on the skin around the feet and tongue, the virus rapidly replicates, killing cells, and resulting in growing lesions, before eventually being cleared by the immune response. in contrast, there is usually minimal lysis in the soft palate, but virus may persist in tissue long after the animal has recov ...201120725794
meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination.the objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of fmd emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret the results. peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. clinical protection and virological protection against fmd were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of ...201120869130
experimental infection of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) with sat-1 and sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the potential role of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) sat types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. in two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a sat-1 or sat-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-i ...201126353052
molecular characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from pakistan, 2005-2008.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is endemic in pakistan where three virus serotypes are present (o, a and asia 1). fifty-eight clinical samples collected between 2005 and 2008 from animals with suspected fmd in various locations in pakistan were subjected to virus isolation on primary cell culture, antigen elisa and real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr). viruses were isolated from 32 of these samples and identified as fmdv type o (n = 31) or type a ( ...201126353051
epidemiology of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in china.this manuscript provides insight into the epidemiology of serotype asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in china. the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of this serotype, which china reported for the first time after 47 years in 2005, suggests that it may have become endemic in the region.201126353050
the integration of molecular tools into veterinary and spatial epidemiology.at the interface of molecular biology and epidemiology, the emerging discipline of molecular epidemiology offers unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases through the investigation of infectious agents at the molecular level. molecular tools can increase our understanding of the factors that shape the spatial and temporal distribution of pathogens and disease. both spatial and molecular aspects have always been important to the field of infectious disease epidemiology, but recently n ...201122748175
porcine type i interferon rapidly protects swine against challenge with multiple serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. current inactivated vaccines require approximately 7 days to induce protection, but before this time vaccinated animals remain susceptible to disease. previously, we demonstrated that intramuscular (im) inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (ad5) vector containing a porcine interferon α gene (pifnα) can protect swine challenged 1 day later by intradermal (id) injection with f ...201020874428
improved immune response by id-pvac: a secretory dna vaccine construct delivered by plg micro particles against foot and mouth disease in guinea pigs.foot and mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks usually have devastating effects on the economy of countries were disease is endemic due to direct and indirect cost; most of them related to international trade embargoes of animals and animal products. although currently used inactivated vaccine provides protection, it has several drawbacks like short duration of immunity, and the requirement for containment facilities. a dna vaccine construct which expresses the secretary antigens, delivered through micr ...201020884037
recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing p12a and 3c of fmdv can partially protect piglets against fmdv challenge.one of the crucial factors for evaluation of an effective genetically engineered vaccine is whether susceptible animals are protected from virus challenge after vaccination. in this study, a recombinant pseudorabies virus (prv-p12a3c) that expressed capsid precursor polypeptide p12a and nonstructural protein 3c of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was used as a vaccine. the expression of p12a3c and its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against fmdv challenge were measured. humoral and cel ...201020947111
development and validation of a lateral flow immunoassay using colloidal gold for the identification of serotype-specific foot-and-mouth disease virus o, a and asia 1.a lateral flow immunoassay (lfi) was developed to identify and diagnose foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes o, a and asia 1. antibodies obtained from rabbits and guinea pigs immunized with cell-culture-adapted virus strains (o/cha/99, a/gs/lx/66, asia 1/chn/05) and suckling-mouse adapted virus strains (o/av99(l), a/av88(l), asia 1/ynbs/58) were used as capture antibodies. the diagnostic kit included three immunochromatographic strips of types o, a and asia 1, and the type-specific resu ...201020951743
b cell epitopes within vp1 of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus for detection of viral antibodies.in this study, the coding region of type o fmdv capsid protein vp1 and a series of codon optimized dna sequences coding for vp1 amino acid residues 141-160 (epitope1), tandem repeat 200-213 (epitope2 (+2)) and the combination of two epitopes (epitope1-2) was genetically cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pp(ro)exhtb and pgex4t-1, respectively. vp1 and the fused epitopes gst-e1, gst-e2 (+2) and gst-e1-2 were successfully solubly expressed in the cytoplasm of escherichia coli and wester ...201020960280
identification of a conformational epitope on the vp1 g-h loop of type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus defined by a protective monoclonal antibody.although neutralizing antigenic sites of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) can be defined by selection of monoclonal antibody (mab) escape mutants, no conformational neutralizing epitope on the major antigenic site located on the g-h loop of type asia1 fmdv has been precisely mapped. in this study, we generated a potent neutralizing mab 3e11, which recognized a conformation-dependent epitope and neutralized fmdv asia1/ys/cha/05 in vitro. importantly, a dose of 5.5 nt(50) of the mab 3e11 comple ...201020961714
identification of a conserved linear epitope on the vp1 protein of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus by neutralising monoclonal antibody 8e8.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o remains an important threat to animal husbandry worldwide, and the variability of the virus presents a major problem for fmdv vaccine design. high-affinity neutralising antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of fmdv serotype o and protect against future pandemics. we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (mab) 8e8 that potently neutralised infection of fmdv o/ys/cha/05 both in vitro and in v ...201020974198
phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding sequences of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease viruses in east africa: evidence for interserotypic recombination.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in east africa with the majority of the reported outbreaks attributed to serotype o virus. in this study, phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding region of serotype o fmd viruses from kenya and uganda has been undertaken to infer evolutionary relationships and processes responsible for the generation and maintenance of diversity within this serotype. fmd virus rna was obtained from six samples following virus isolation in cell culture and in one ca ...201020731826
competition-colonization dynamics: an ecology approach to quasispecies dynamics and virulence evolution in rna viruses.a single and purified clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus diversified in cell culture into two subpopulations that were genetically distinct. the subpopulation with higher virulence was a minority and was suppressed by the dominant but less virulent one. these two populations follow the competitioncolonization dynamics described in ecology. virulent viruses can be regarded as colonizers because they killed the cells faster and they spread faster. the attenuated subpopulation resembles competit ...201020798818
genetic characterization of the cell-adapted panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/fujian/cha/5/99 isolated from swine.according to office international des epizooties (oie) bulletin, the panasia strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was invaded into the people's republic of china in may 1999. it was confirmed that the outbreaks occurred in tibet, hainan and fujian provinces. in total, 1280 susceptible animals (68 cattle, 1212 swine) were destroyed for the epidemic control.to investigate the distinct biological properties, we performed plaque assay, estimated the pathogenicity in suckling mice and determ ...201020807416
study of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus dna vaccine containing structural genes of serotype o in a genome backbone of serotype asia 1 in guinea pigs.since foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes display a great genetic and antigenic diversity, there is a constant requirement to monitor the performance of fmdv vaccines in the field with respect to their antigenic coverage. to avoid possible antigenic changes in field fmdv isolates during their adaptation to bhk-21 cells, a standard step used in production of conventional fmdv vaccines, the custom-made chimeric conventional or dna vaccines, in which antigenic determinants are replaced wi ...201020822311
alternative way to test the efficacy of swine fmd vaccines: measurement of pigs median infected dose (pid50) and regulation of live virus challenge dose.foot-and -mouth disease to pigs is serious recently around the world. "vaccination prevention" is still an important policy. oie specifies 10,000 tcid50(0.2 ml) of virulent virus for challenge test in pigs to test the potency of fmd vaccine by intradermal route inoculating the virus in the heel bulbs of one foot or by intramuscular route administering into one site of the neck behind the ear. convenience and speediness are available in the process of potency test of commercial fmd vaccine. we se ...201020822547
two-dimensional heteronuclear saturation transfer difference nmr reveals detailed integrin αvβ6 protein-peptide interactions.we report the first example of peptide-protein heteronuclear two-dimensional (2d) saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (std nmr). this method, resulting in dramatically reduced overlap, was applied to the interaction of the integrin αvβ6 with a known peptide ligand and highlights novel contact points between the substrate and target protein.201020838674
specific detection of rinderpest virus by real-time reverse transcription-pcr in preclinical and clinical samples from experimentally infected cattle.a highly sensitive detection test for rinderpest virus (rpv), based on a real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr)system, was developed. five different rpv genomic targets were examined, and one was selected and optimized to detect viral rna in infected tissue culture fluid with a level of detection ranging from 0.59 to 87.5 50% tissue culture infectious doses (tcid(50)) per reaction depending on the viral isolate. the strain sensitivity of the test was validated on 16 rpv strains belonging ...201020844216
a mutant of infectious asia 1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus with the deletion of 10-amino-acid in the 3a protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype asia 1 is one of the most predominant endemic serotypes in china. our previous study has generated a full-length cdna clone (pbsas) of an asia 1 serotype fmdv (as1/cha/05) isolated from bovine. to further study the properties of this virus, a mutant in the 3a region of the cdna clone (pbsas-3a10d), containing the deletion at position 93-102 of the 3a protein of as1/cha/05, was generated by pcr and cloning. after synthesis of rna in vitro and transfect ...201020844943
development of a foot-and-mouth disease infection model in severe combined immunodeficient mice for the preliminary evaluation of antiviral drugs.recent european guidelines facilitate the use of emergency vaccines during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease. antiviral drugs could be used as a complementary measure. this study aimed at developing a small animal model to assess the in vivo activity of early antiviral lead molecules with anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) activity in vitro. in a first attempt, several fmdv strains were titrated in balb/c mice. inoculations with o₁ manisa or c₁ noville did not induce clinical disease, wh ...201021029400
multiplex pcr for rapid detection of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus variants with amino acid deletion at position 59 of the capsid protein vp3.in india, there has been co-circulation, extinction and emergence of genotypes/lineages within serotype a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. at present an antigenically heterogeneous, unique lineage within genotype vii dominates the field outbreaks. this genetic cluster has amino acid deletion at position 59 of vp3 (vp3(59)-deletion group), considered to be critical antigenically. the emergence of this group warrants rapid and accurate detection to facilitate early planning and implementation o ...201021029752
enhancement of dna vaccine (p12a3c-pcdna) efficacy against foot-and-mouth disease by coadministration of interleukin-18-expressing (il18 pcdna) plasmid in guinea-pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. the presently used tissue-cultured inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration of immunity. as one of the approaches to develop alternative vaccines, p12a3c-pcdna (containing p12a and 3c coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus) and bovine il18 pcdna plasmids were constructed and the immune response of these constr ...201021039923
preparation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against fmdv serotype o with synthetic peptide antigen.a short linear peptide was designed according to the antigenic site analysis of vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth virus (fmdv) serotype o and synthesized as the peptide immunogen. the peptide, which covers the region from amino acid 133 to 160 of vp1 of fmdv, was linked to the n-terminal cysteine and conjugated with the carrier protein of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh). normal 6- to 8-week-old balb/c mice were immunized with the 20 μg dose conjugated peptide antigen four times. the splenocytes from ...201021050041
structural analysis provides insights into the modular organization of picornavirus ires.picornavirus rna translation is driven by the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element. the impact of rna structure on the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) ires activity has been analyzed using selective 2'hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (shape) and high throughput analysis of rna conformation by antisense oligonucleotides printed on microarrays. shape reactivity revealed the self-folding capacity of domain 3 and evidenced a change of rna structure in a defective gnra mutan ...201021056890
risk evaluation of nonvaccinated, weaned calves transported through areas under systematic foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccination.the recurrence and persistence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) could be the consequence of cyclic and massive transportation of calves. for this reason, in south america, vaccination strategies related to livestock dynamic are being promoted. in order to aid the evaluation of such strategies, a method for predicting the risk of transportation of nonvaccinated weaned calves was developed; this method combines expert opinion and empirical evidence using bayesian estimators. it was applied through ...201021071104
regulation of iga responses in cattle, humans and mice.secretory iga (siga) constitutes the largest component of the humoral immune system of the body with gram quantities of this isotype produced by mammals on a daily basis. secretory iga (siga) antibodies function by both blocking pathogen/commensal entry at mucosal surfaces and virus neutralization. several pathways of induction of iga responses have been described which depend on t cells (t cell dependent or td) pathways or are independent of t cells (t-independent or ti) and are mediated by den ...201021074276
the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in sarpang and zhemgang districts of bhutan.this study was undertaken to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the 2007 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in two districts of sarpang and zhemgang in bhutan. zhemgang district recorded a significantly higher cumulative incidence in all species (26.9%) as well as for cattle (29.3%) compared to sarpang (6.5% and 7.4%, respectively). the case fatality for cattle in zhemgang (14.1%) was significantly higher than in sarpang (3.3%). a total of 404 cattle and 73 pigs died of fmd in zhemgang, ...201021078083
promising multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus type o in swine.in order to develop a completely safe immunogen to replace the traditional inactivated vaccine, a tandem-repeat multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) type o was developed. it contained three copies each of residues 141 to 160 and 200 to 213 of vp1 of the o/china/99 strain of fmdv coupled with a swine immunoglobulin g heavy-chain constant region (scigg). the data showed that the multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine elicited high titers of anti-fmdv ...201021084463
development of a dot immunoblot method for differentiation of animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus from vaccinated animals using non-structural proteins expressed prokaryotically.five non-structural proteins (nsps) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed in e. coli to develop a dot immunoblot (dot blot) assay for the differentiation of fmdv infected animals from vaccinated animals (diva). the five nsps were 3a (24 kda), 3b (15 kda), major b-cell epitope regions of 2c (23 kda), partial 3d (44 kda) and 3abc (59 kda). the criteria for the dot blot were determined and are described as follows: a test sample is considered positive if four or more nsps demonstrat ...201021087638
phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus types o and a in malaysia and surrounding countries.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in the countries of mainland southeast asia where it represents a major obstacle to the development of productive animal industries. the aim of this study was to use genetic data to determine the distribution of fmd virus (fmdv) lineages in the southeast asia region, and in particular identify possible sources of fmdv causing outbreaks in malaysia. complete vp1 sequences, obtained from 214 samples collected between 2000 and 2009, from fmd outbreaks in six ...201021093614
fmd subunit vaccine produced using a silkworm-baculovirus expression system: protective efficacy against two type asia1 isolates in cattle.cattle vaccinated with a single dose of subunit vaccine containing the capsid and 3c proteinase coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain were protected when challenged 28 days later with a homologous virus. here, the 50% bovine protective dose (pd(50)) test was performed to assess the potency of the subunit vaccine. when challenged with two chinese isolates, the subunit vaccine could achieve 6.5 pd(50) (challenged with asia i/hnk/cha/05 strain) and 5.2 pd(50 ...201021109368
foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the type species of the aphthovirus genus within the picornaviridae family. infection of cells with positive-strand rna viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. the origin of these membranes remains unknown; however induction of the cellular process of autophagy is beneficial for the replication of poliovirus, suggesting that it might be advantageous for other picornaviruses. by using confocal microscop ...201021112602
evolutionary analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 1 isolates from east africa suggests two independent introductions from southern africa.in east africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. to enhance our appreciation of the epidemiological status of serotype sat 1 virus in the region, we inferred its evolutionary and phylogeographic history by means of genealogy-based coalescent methods using 53 vp1 coding sequence ...201021118525
an induced hypersensitive-like response limits expression of foreign peptides via a recombinant tmv-based vector in a susceptible tobacco.by using tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-based vectors, foreign epitopes of the vp1 protein from food-and-month disease virus (fmdv) could be fused near to the c-terminus of the tmv coat protein (cp) and expressed at high levels in susceptible tobacco plants. previously, we have shown that the recombinant tmv vaccines displaying fmdv vp1 epitopes could generate protection in guinea pigs and swine against the fmdv challenge. recently, some recombinant tmv, such as tmvfn20 that contains an epitope fn20 ...201021124743
immune responses to the oral administration of recombinant bacillus subtilis expressing multi-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a cholera toxin b subunit.bacillus subtilis has been engineered successfully to express heterologous antigens for use as a vaccine vehicle that can elicit mucosal and systemic immunity response. in this study, a recombinant b. subtilis expressing the b subunit of cholera toxin (ct-b) and an epitope box constituted with antigen sites from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type asia 1 was constructed and named 1a751/ctb-tepias. its capability to induce mucosal, humoral, and cellular responses in mice and guinea pigs was ...201021129406
quantitative trait loci for variation in immune response to a foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide.infectious disease of livestock continues to be a cause of substantial economic loss and has adverse welfare consequences in both the developing and developed world. new solutions to control disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. however, identifying selectable markers and the causal genes involved in disease resistance and vaccine response is not straightforward. the aims of this study we ...201021138580
the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in uganda.to study the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 african buffalos, 21 impalas (aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests (alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major national parks in uganda between 2005 and 2008. serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus ...201021143994
characterisation and epitope mapping of neutralising monoclonal antibodies to a24 cruzeiro strain of fmdv.characterisation of seven neutralising monoclonal antibodies (mabs) produced against foot-and-mouth disease virus a(24) cruzeiro revealed three reactivity groups. gr-i recognised linear epitopes where as gr-ii was conformation-dependent and trypsin-insensitive. the gr-iii was also conformation-dependent, but trypsin-sensitive. mar (mab neutralisation resistant)-mutants could only be produced against gr-i and gr-iii mabs. capsid sequence comparison of gr-i mar-mutants with parent virus revealed c ...201021144677
efficient and stable expression of gfp through wheat streak mosaic virus-based vectors in cereal hosts using a range of cleavage sites: formation of dense fluorescent aggregates for sensitive virus tracking.a series of wheat streak mosaic virus (wsmv)-based expression vectors were developed by engineering a cycle 3 gfp (gfp) cistron between p1 and hc-pro cistrons with several catalytic/cleavage peptides at the c-terminus of gfp. wsmv-gfp vectors with the foot-and-mouth disease virus 1d/2a or 2a catalytic peptides cleaved gfp from hc-pro but expressed gfp inefficiently. wsmv-gfp vectors with homologous nia-pro heptapeptide cleavage sites did not release gfp from hc-pro, but efficiently expressed gfp ...201021145088
sequence-based prediction for vaccine strain selection and identification of antigenic variability in foot-and-mouth disease virus.identifying when past exposure to an infectious disease will protect against newly emerging strains is central to understanding the spread and the severity of epidemics, but the prediction of viral cross-protection remains an important unsolved problem. for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) research in particular, improved methods for predicting this cross-protection are critical for predicting the severity of outbreaks within endemic settings where multiple serotypes and subtypes commonly co- ...201021151576
beyond the consensus: dissecting within-host viral population diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus by using next-generation genome sequencing.the diverse sequences of viral populations within individual hosts are the starting material for selection and subsequent evolution of rna viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using next-generation sequencing (ngs) performed on a genome analyzer platform (illumina), this study compared the viral populations within two bovine epithelial samples (foot lesions) from a single animal with the inoculum used to initiate experimental infection. genomic sequences were determined in duplic ...201021159860
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the non-structural 3a and 3b protein-coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype a iran 05.the a iran 05 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) subtype was detected in iran during 2005 and has proven to be highly virulent. this study was undertaken to focus on molecular and phylogenetic analysis of 3a and 3b coding-regions in the a iran 05 field isolate. to assess the genetic relatedness of a iran 05 isolate the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the 3ab region of type a fmdv isolates were compared with twenty previously described type a fmdv isolates. the phylogenetic tree ...201020706032
molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius).bactrian camels can relatively easily be infected with fmdv, but dromedary camels remain resistant even to high doses of the virus. to understand the different susceptibility between the two camel species from the standpoint of viral receptors, this work reports the sequences of the dromedary camel integrin cdnas encoding alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6 and compare them to those of other species, especially to bactrian camels. the complete coding sequences for the dromedary camel alphav, beta1 and b ...201020015555
design and optimization of a novel reverse transcription linear-after-the-exponential pcr for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a novel molecular assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was developed using linear-after-the-exponential polymerase chain reaction (late-pcr).201020028437
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