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vesicular lesions produced in guinea pigs by a staphylococcus aureus strain.a bacterium isolated from vesicular lesions on foot pads of guinea pigs reproduced lesions similar to those seen in experimental infections of guinea pigs with foot-and-mouth disease virus. (fmdv). these bacterial lesions were produced with an inactivated fmdv suspension. identification as staphylococcus aureus was determined by growth characteristics on nutrient and blood agar, gram staining, fermentation of mannitol and coagulase positive reactions. in addition, the organism was sensitive to c ...19734355472
improved technique for the isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.an improved temperature-shift selection and screening method is described for the isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of foot and mouth disease virus.19734355865
observations of cattle, goats and pigs after administration of synthetic interferon inducers and subsequent exposure to foot and mouth disease virus.polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly [ri.rc]) was administered intravenously to 11 cattle and 13 goats in doses of 0.25 to 4.0, and 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg, respectively. subsequent exposure of these and untreated control animals to foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) failed to demonstrate any differences in either the course or severity of the disease. serum interferon was detected in cattle one hour after the intravenous administration of poly (ri.rc). six pigs given 4, 20, or 100 mg/kg of i ...19734356316
the inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by ethylenimine and propylenimine. 19724356372
complement-fixation analysis of four subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a.complement-fixation patterns were established for four subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by block assays against homologous and heterologous antiserum. inhibition of fixation by excess antigen was observed in most homologous systems but rarely in the heterologous systems. the heterologous antibody titers were, in all instances, considerably lower than those for the homologous systems. although relatively high dilutions of antiserum may be desirable for subtyping, higher concentrations of ...19734356470
structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19734356689
derivatives of aziridine as inactivants for foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines. 19734356910
[determination of the correspondence of epizootic strains of the foot-and-mouth disease virus to the cultured ones]. 19734356958
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus with ethylenimine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was inactivated by ethylenimine (ei) at three concentrations and two temperatures. comparison of inactivation kinetics and the antigenic and immunogenic potency of ei and n-acetylethylenimine (aei)-inactivated fmdv indicates that ei has nearly optimal characteristics as an inactivant for fmdv vaccine preparation. although aei-inactivated fmdv has proved to be a potent specific immunogen, an equivalent percentage of ei inactivated fmdv at substantially faster r ...19734357652
the effect of rifampicin, actinomycin d and mitomycin c on poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus replication. 19734357749
the influence of relative humidity on the stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus in aerosols from milk and faecal slurry. 19734360318
comparative electrophoretic studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus proteins. 19744360391
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (a review of the foreign literature)]. 19734361327
[detection of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in slaughter products]. 19734361329
[ensuring sterility in culturing the foot-and-mouth disease virus by frenkel's method]. 19734361330
[accumulation of specific foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies in the ascitic fluid of white rats]. 19734362264
immunological activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus purified by polyethylene glycol precipitation. 19734362322
studies of the foot-and-mouth disease virus sub-types using antigens inactivated by gamma radiations. 19734362323
the detection of foot-and mouth disease virus antigens in infected cell cultures by immuno-peroxidase techniques. 19744362406
sodium dodecylsulfate-dependent anomalies in gel electrophoresis: alterations in the banding patterns of foot-and-mouth disease virus polypeptides. 19744363849
proceedings: the immunizing potency of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines for swines. 19744364055
the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in african buffalo with non-transference of infection to domestic cattle. 19744364599
association of foot-and-mouth disease virus replicase with rna template and cytoplasmic membranes. 19744364882
foot-and-mouth disease virus: plaque reduction neutralization tests. 19744365185
neutralizing activity in the serum and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid of cattle after exposure to foot-and-mouth disease virus and subsequent re-exposure. 19744365187
[the density of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in cscl solutions]. 19734365551
chromatographic preparation of purified structural proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19744365645
a study of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains by complement fixation. i. a model for the fixation of complement by antigen-antibody mixtures.an examination was made of the relations between antigen, antibody and fixation of complement with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). it was found that complement fixation in this system follows the same principles as models developed in other antigen/antibody systems. the assumption that there is a relation of direct proportionality between the amount of complement fixed and the amount of antiserum reacting with constant antigen was found to be incorrect. an alternative method was proposed fo ...19744367223
a study of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains by complement fixation. ii. a comparison of tube and microplate tests for the differentiation of strains.several foot-and-mouth disease virus strains were examined by complement-fixation tests in microplates and in tubes. it was established that the two systems are comparable, although greater reproducibility is obtained with tube tests. while microplate tests are a satisfactory method for the differentiation of strains, tube tests provide a more precise method for the identification of small antigenic differences.19744367224
inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replicase by frog virus 3 particles. 19744367303
differentiation of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus subtypes by double- and radial-immunodiffusion analysis. 19744368590
structure-function relationships in foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19724369223
studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus in british deer (red, fallow and roe). 19744369242
studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus in british deer (red, fallow and roe). ii. recovery of virus and serological response. 19744369243
requirement for double-stranded rna during the in vitro synthesis of rna by foot-and-mouth disease virus replicase. 19744370339
[study of the foot-and-mouth disease virus cultured on the bhk-21 cell line]. 19734370848
the effect of repeated vaccination in an enzootic foot-and-mouth disease area on the incidence of virus carrier cattle.a comparison was made of the incidence of foot-and-mouth disease virus ;carrier' cattle in an unvaccinated enzootic area and an area where routine 6-monthly vaccination with an inactivated vaccine had been carried out for 3-4 years. the incidence of carriers in the vaccinated area was 0.49% as compared to 3.34% in the non-vaccinated area. the results indicate that, provided the immune status of the vaccinated herd is maintained at a level sufficient to prevent outbreaks of clinical disease and t ...19744370898
the foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype variants in kenya.the subtype variants found in kenya in the past ten years have been studied. the type o and type sat 2 subtypes have a distinct geographical distribution which appears to be associated with livestock movement patterns. the type a viruses have a greater tendency to antigenic variation and their geographical distribution is less distinct. in type c only minor differences exist between the three viruses studied.19744371008
translation products of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected baby hamster kidney cells. 19744371593
dependence of rna replication on continuous protein synthesis in a temperature-sensitive mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19744372312
[isolation of foot-and-mouth-disease virus from organs of infected, slaughtered sheep]. 19744372987
[the effect of interferon and guanidine on the inactivation of rna of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cells]. 19734373360
a simple method for the quantification of 140s particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). 19744374160
isolation of the coat proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus and analysis of the composition and n-terminal endgroups. 19744374202
[cell susceptibility to fmdv by cell monolayers previously exposed to inactivated sendai virus (author's transl)]. 19744374909
[effect of insecticides on metabolism and susceptibility of ib-rs-2 cells to foot-and-mouth disease virus (author's transl)]. 19744374910
growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the different layers of bovine omasum in suspended cultures.when suspended cultures of bovine omasum were cultured without agitation, the epithelium soon degenerated and foot-and-mouth disease virus multiplied mainly in the corium cells. five days of preincubation were needed to reach a population of corium cells that could yield virus at a titer of 10(6.70) to 10(6.95) mean tissue culture infective doses per ml. the virus was freely released from the cells into the medium only when the degenerated epithelium was removed from the subepithelial tissue pri ...19744375435
inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. effect of edta, temperature, and interferon on the viral growth cycle. 19744375450
[role of amino acids in the formaldehyde inactivation of the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19744377336
[immunological aspects of foot-and-mouth disease virus (author's transl)]. 19734377405
[isolation and study of foot and mouth disease virus type a during the epizootic of 1973]. 19744377474
chromosome deletion and cell susceptibility to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). 19724377651
[foot-and-mouth disease in ethiopia. distribution of serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19744377719
application of immuno-peroxidase techniques for the detection of foot-and mouth disease virus antigens. 19744377950
some physical properties of purified neurotropic foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19684384410
[on the structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein]. 19674384733
a simple quantitative microtest for determination of the complement fixing activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19724401070
[activity of italian trivalent oac i-70 vaccine in relation to 3 foot-and-mouth disease viruses, argentine o1, a24, a26, c3 viruses and uruguayan o1, a24, c2 viruses]. 19724659820
foot-and-mouth disease virus: protection induced in infected mice by two orally-administered interferon inducers. brief report. 19734749257
[fluorescence immunologic and cytopathologic studies on calf kidney cell cultures and on mice brains after infection with foot and mouth disease virus]. 19664860839
[hand, foot and mouth disease--virus isolation in cell culture and the application of fluorescent antibody technic to diagnosis]. 19714947192
[new compound possessing a chemotherapeutic action with regard to experimental infection of the guinea pig by foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19664956355
foot-and-mouth disease in swine. ii. some physical-chemical characteristics of antibodies produced by chemically-treated and non-treated foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19674970561
[studies of hand, foot and mouth disease. virus isolation in an epidemic in nobeoka city in 1970]. 19714999999
studies on the carrier state of cattle exposed to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19665219023
[distribution of the types of foot-and-mouth disease virus in iran during the year 1968]. 19695400809
marker studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19695400816
effect of storage at -20 degrees c on the infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus type o. 19695400817
typing of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19705533714
[identification of types of foot-and-mouth disease virus. nong-saraï, thailand]. 19705533933
[change in resistance of mice against a viral infection by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide. infection of growing mice with foot-and mouth disease virus]. 19715549668
[carbohydrate metabolism in a culture of embryonic kidney epithelium of swine infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19675600608
[thermostabile inhibitor against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pig serum. iv. relationship to antibody production after inoculation]. 19675628220
[the biological activity of mixtures of foot-and-mouth disease virus and serums in animal experiments on mice pretreated unspecifically (cattle spleen extract)]. 19675633606
[determination of the electrophoretic mobility of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in agar gel by radioactivity measurements]. 19675634254
influence of litter size, age, variation, and selective breeding of mice on susceptibility to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19685637929
foot-and-mouth disease virus in semen of bulls and its transmission by artificial insemination. 19685680978
urine ph changes in cattle infected with foot-and-mouth-disease virus. 19695813745
[experiments with immunization of mice with experimentally increased nonspecific resistance against the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19655855404
serological variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in iran (1963-1966). 19665994043
further information on the persistence of infective foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle exposed to virulent virus strains. 19665995671
[type variations in the foot-and-mouth disease virus during an epizootic]. 19666011615
location of neutralizing epitopes defined by monoclonal antibodies generated against the outer capsid polypeptide, vp1, of foot-and-mouth disease virus a12.the epitopes of six monoclonal antibodies generated against type a12 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 or its largest cyanogen bromide fragment (13 kd) were characterized. five of these monoclonal antibodies neutralized viral infectivity. solid-phase and competitive antigen binding assays using virion-derived antigens or a biosynthetic vp1 polypeptide identified two distinct neutralizing epitopes. one epitope was located between amino acid residues 145-168 of vp1 and the other between amin ...19846085200
biotechnological approach to a new foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine.major contributions towards the development of an absolutely safe fmdv vaccine are evident. with the identification of vp1 as the immunogenic protein, it is possible to manufacture a subunit vaccine via biotechnology. dna sequences encoding the vp1 protein can be introduced into a bacterium with ease; under the appropriate conditions, large amounts of vp1 can be produced in a short time. the accumulation of amino acid sequences generated by recombinant dna techniques allows identification of ant ...19846085855
[electrical properties of the foot-and-mouth disease virus].it has been shown that the electron microscopy method can be used for characteristics of the electric properties of foot-and-mouth disease virus. the appearance of simultaneous positive and negative staining during the negative staining of virus preparations with 3-4% ptv solution shows the presence of full virions of constant poles designated as positively and negatively stained areas of protein coat surface. the lateral orientation of virions on the film at routine conditions of preparation an ...19846087939
inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine strains by activation of virus-associated endonuclease.a new inactivation process for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been developed. this process is based on the activation of the fmdv endonuclease by incubation of unfractionated viral suspension or purified virions at 37 degrees c in the presence of high concentrations of monovalent cations such as k+, cs+ or nh4+ at ph 8.5. this procedure completely inactivated several fmdv vaccine strains yielding preparations having similar amounts of 140s particles to untreated controls. the inactivati ...19846088682
heterogeneity of the polyribocytidylic acid tract in aphthovirus: biochemical and biological studies of viruses carrying polyribocytidylic acid tracts of different lengths.in this paper we report a study of a sample of foot-and-mouth disease virus carrying two polyribocytidylic acid [poly(c)] tracts of different lengths. by plaque purification in tissue culture, we isolated two populations of particles, one carrying the long poly(c) tract and the other carrying only the short homopolymer. the fingerprints of both viruses were indistinguishable from each other and from that of the virus present in the original sample, suggesting that the main difference between the ...19846088803
nucleotide sequence and genome organization of foot-and-mouth disease virus.a continuous 7802 nucleotide sequence spanning the 94% of foot and mouth disease virus rna between the 5'-proximal poly(c) tract and the 3'-terminal poly(a) was obtained from cloned cdna, and the total size of the rna genome was corrected to 8450 nucleotides. a long open reading frame was identified within this sequence starting about 1300 bases from the 5' end of the rna genome and extending to a termination codon 92 bases from its polyadenylated 3' end. the protein sequence of 2332 amino acids ...19846089122
the stability and potency of vaccines prepared from inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus concentrates.the stability of 146s particles in concentrates of foot-and-mouth disease virus stored at 4 degrees c was similar to that of 146s particles in a conventional virus preparation. proteolytic degradation of vpl was not observed in the stored conventional virus preparation or inhibitor-supplemented concentrate but was observed in a supplement-free concentrate. the potencies of vaccines made from the conventional and concentrated preparations and stored in parallel at 4 degrees c appeared to decrease ...19846090464
the effect of antiserum quality on strain specificity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus by the neutralization reaction.the factors affecting the virus strain specificity of antibody to foot an mouth disease virus prepared by a variety of protocols in several species were evaluated by neutralization tests. the time at which the serum was taken, the antigen dose given, whether or not revaccination had occurred and the animal species in which the sera were prepared, did not appear to affect the strain specificity of serum prepared to inactivated antigens when measured in neutralization tests, probably because of th ...19846090465
[effects of temperature and inactivators on strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus in colombia]. 19846091209
induction of antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus in presensitized mouse spleen cell cultures.cultures of spleen cells from immunized mice were stimulated in vitro by soluble preparations of purified foot-and-mouth disease virus. virus-specific antibody, as detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was produced by immune spleen cells but not by normal, nonimmune cells. the optimal specific response was obtained with 1 microgram of virus per ml of culture; as the virus concentration was increased, the production of specific antibody was reduced. for very low concentrations of viru ...19846092687
a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in epithelial tissues.a rapid double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been used for the identification and type differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses in epithelial tissue samples submitted for diagnosis from the field. no difficulty was experienced in the direct typing of freshly harvested epithelium from recently ruptured vesicles by the complement fixation (cf) test or elisa. the elisa was more sensitive and specific, but proved no more efficient than the traditional cf test ...19846093338
nucleotide sequence of the vp1 gene of the foot-and-mouth disease virus strain a venceslau.the vp1 coat protein of fmdv strain a venceslau (aven) consists of 213 amino acid residues. serum neutralization tests demonstrated that strain aven is closely related to strain a argentina/79 (a79) but significantly different from strain a24cruzeiro (a24). there is a strong correlation between the amino acid sequences and the serological data. nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses of vp1 showed that serologically related viruses (aven and a79) differ less in this region of the genome than ...19846096217
an indirect sandwich enzyme labelled immunosorbent assay for the detection of foot and mouth disease virus immunizing antigen in tissue culture harvests.the optimum conditions for an indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for foot and mouth disease virus 140s antigen assay are described. factors which could contribute to the variation in the test were investigated and a calibration coefficient for the conversion of elisa values to antigen concentration in micrograms of 140s antigen per millilitre was calculated. antigen mass in nine tissue culture harvests was estimated and these correlated well with estimates made by sucrose densit ...19846098580
the differentiation of foot and mouth disease virus strains using an indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay saturation model.sigmoid saturation curves were fitted to the results of titrations of antiserum to foot and mouth disease virus against homologous and heterologous virus strains. differentiation of strains was readily evident from the different levels of the homologous and heterologous curves. these differences could be quantified by comparison of the saturation curve parameters k and prmax. factors which affect variations in k and prmax and their biological significance were investigated by varying the first p ...19846098582
an international collaborative study on foot and mouth disease virus assay methods. 1. virus infectivity and neutralizing antibody assays.in a collaborative study sponsored by the european commission for the control of foot and mouth disease, workers in 19 laboratories participated in the early phases (1, 2 and 4). all three phases were devoted to assessments of virus infectivity and the neutralizing activity of sera. virus preparations and antisera distributed from one laboratory were tested either by 'in house' or suggested methods. analyses of the results clearly showed that whilst 'within' laboratory variation in the results o ...19846098584
reconstitution of immunosuppression mice with mononuclear cells from donors sensitized to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).passive transfer experiments were performed to serve as a basis for analyzing the immune response of adult mice to fmdv infection. animals were irradiated (750 rad: 1 lethal dose 50%) and reconstituted with allogeneic mononuclear cells from blood, spleen, thymus and peritoneal cavity from donors 2 and 8 days post-inoculation (p.i.). donors were primed with 10 000 suckling mouse 50% lethal doses of fmdv strain o1 campos. the following parameters were studied in recipient mice challenged with 10 0 ...19846098985
purification and immunogenicity of fusion vp1 protein of foot and mouth disease virus.a procedure has been developed to purify foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 surface antigens from recombinant escherichia coli. the vp1 antigens are expressed as fusion proteins derived from the e. coli trp operon and vp1 surface protein of fmdv. the procedure is capable of recovering greater than 96% of the desired product at a purity of greater than 96%. the resulting antigens induce significant levels of virus-neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and cattle as determined by a mouse prote ...19846099140
observations on the stability of foot and mouth disease vaccine antigens.the 146s particle of the foot and mouth disease virus which is used as a vaccine antigen was found to be relatively stable when stored for prolonged periods at 4 degrees c. however, stored antigens of virus strains of the sat serotypes but not of a virus strain of the type o serotype became less thermostable at 37 degrees c following 4 degrees c storage. vaccines returned from the field 10 months after they were made were shown to contain significant amounts of 146s antigen of the o, a, sat 1 an ...19836099640
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