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antibody prevalence to african swine fever virus, mycobacterium bovis, foot-and-mouth disease virus, rift valley fever virus, influenza a virus, and brucella and leptospira spp. in free-ranging warthog (phacochoerus africanus) populations in south africa.the warthog (phacochoerus africanus) can be used as a model for investigating disease transmission at the human, wildlife, and livestock interface. an omnivore and scavenger, a warthog moves freely between natural ecotypes, farmland, and human communities and is susceptible to diseases of zoonotic, agricultural, and conservation concern. a retrospective study using 100 individual serum samples collected from may 1999 to august 2016 was performed to determine antibody prevalence to seven pathogen ...202133635986
comparative analysis of swine leukocyte antigen gene diversity in european farmed pigs.in europe, swine represent economically important farm animals and furthermore have become a preferred preclinical large animal model for biomedical studies, transplantation and regenerative medicine research. the need for typing of the swine leukocyte antigen (sla) is increasing with the expanded use of pigs as models for human diseases and organ-transplantation experiments and their use in infection studies and for design of veterinary vaccines. in this study, we characterised the sla class i ...202134028065
short communication: preliminary observations on the serum levels of hsp70 and its correlation with serum cortisol, thyroid hormones, and acute-phase protein concentration in cattle naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the study aimed to explore the serum levels of hsp70 and identify its possible association with serum cortisol, thyroid hormones, and acute-phase protein concentrations in cattle naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. after the fmd outbreak in an organized dairy cattle farm in india, blood samples were obtained from clinically infected (n = 40) and apparently healthy (n = 30) animals. samples were processed and tested by an in-house diva assay for confirmation of fmd infecti ...202134292411
seroprevalence and molecular detection of foot and mouth disease virus in dairy cattle around addis ababa, central ethiopia.foot and mouth disease is a debilitating and highly contagious transboundary disease of cattle that can cause a huge economical loss globally. it is a notifiable disease in ethiopia, and it is thought to be causing a decrease in cattle productivity and production.202134285888
eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in france.eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in france foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild artiodactyls (mainly cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camelids and deer). before the 1980s, europe, and in particular france, regularly experienced fmd epizootics with a very high number of outbreaks. a compulsory vaccination policy has been implemented at european level. thus, every year, the french population of domestic cattle (about 20 million animals) w ...202134160957
after nasopharyngeal infection, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a rna is shed in bovine milk without associated mastitis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious aphthoviral infection of cloven-hoofed animals, inducing vesiculopustular stomatitis, pododermatitis, and thelitis. vesicular fluid represents a major pathway of virus excretion, but bovine milk is another important source of virus shedding. we describe here the time course of fmd virus (fmdv) excretion in the milk and characterize associated lesions in the mammary gland. three dairy cows were infected by nasopharyngeal instillation of fmdv and ...202134137327
effect of foot-and-mouth disease vaccination on acute phase immune response and anovulation in hanwoo (bos taurus coreanae).vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease is the most common method for preventing the spread of the disease; the negative effects include miscarriage, early embryo death, lower milk production, and decreased growth of fattening cattle. therefore, in this study, we analyze the side effects of vaccination by determining the acute immune response and ovulation rate after vaccinating cows for foot-and-mouth disease. the test axis was synchronized with ovulation using 100 hanwoo (bos taurus coreana ...202133922252
characterization of foot and mouth disease virus serotype sat-2 in swamp water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) under the egyptian smallholder production system.spontaneous mutations are a common characteristic of the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), leading to wide antigenic variations resulting in the emergence of new topotypes and lineages of fmdv, which contributes to occasional vaccination failures. the objectives of the present study were to genetically characterize fmdv isolated from water buffaloes and study the biochemical and histopathological indicators of infected animals. fifty-four water buffaloes of both sexes and different ages suffe ...202134200281
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the domestic dog (canis lupus familiaris), iran.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly infectious viral disease, recognised to affect animals in the order artiodactyla. the disease is rarely fatal in adult animals, however high mortality is associated with neonatal and juvenile infection.202133526020
adjuvant effect of saponin in an oil-based monovalent (serotype o) foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine on the antibody response in guinea pigs and cattle.to enhance the potency of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine, saponin was included in the vaccine formula. in this study, the combined effect of montanide isa 50 and saponin was evaluated. two experiments were performed in guinea pigs and one in cattle to determine the optimal antigen and saponin doses. only serotype o of foot-and-mouth disease virus (o/panasia-2 of me-sa topotype) was employed in preparation of the monovalent vaccine. all animals were immunized twice with a four-week interv ...202133871696
bi-functional gold nanocages enhance specific immunological responses of foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles vaccine as a carrier and adjuvant.virus-like particle (vlp) vaccines have become one of the dominant vaccine candidates for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). to further enhance the immunogenicity of vlp vaccines, gold nanocages (auncs) were selected as an adjuvant for the vaccine. our experiments demonstrated that auncs had little biotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and improved the uptake of vlp in bhk-21 and raw264.7 cell lines. the vlp-auncs activated dcs mainly through toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) and promoted the secretion of il-6, ...202133484882
adenovirus-vectored capsid proteins of the serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus protect guinea pigs against challenge.type a foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been detected on china's pig farms since 2015, and all suspected samples have been strain a/gdmm/cha/2013. to overcome the shortcomings of inactive fmdv vaccines, we expressed the capsid protein precursor p1-2a and mutated viral 3c protease of fmdv strain a/gdmm/cha/2013 in a replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector in this study. a significant humoral immune response, t-cell-mediated antiviral response, and mucosa-mediated antiviral res ...202032733405
diagnostic and epitope mapping potential of single-chain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a, sat1, and sat3.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wildlife animals and an outbreak can cause severe losses in milk production, reduction in meat production and death amongst young animals. several parts of asia, most of africa, and the middle east remain endemic, thus emphasis on improved fmd vaccines, diagnostic assays, and control measures are key research areas. fmd virus (fmdv) populations are quasispecies, which pose serious implications in vaccine design and efficacy where an ...202032851044
application of median lethal concentration (lc50) of pathogenic microorganisms and their antigens in vaccine development.lack of ideal mathematical models to qualify and quantify both pathogenicity, and virulence is a dreadful setback in development of new antimicrobials and vaccines against resistance pathogenic microorganisms. hence, the modified arithmetical formula of reed and muench has been integrated with other formulas and used to determine bacterial colony forming unit/viral concentration, virulence and immunogenicity.202032539814
seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease virus infection in some wildlife and cattle in bauchi state, nigeria.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is an important transboundary viral disease of both domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals characterized by high morbidity with devastating consequence on the livestock worldwide. despite the endemic nature of fmd in nigeria, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease at the wildlife-livestock interface level. to address this gap, blood samples were collected between 2013 and 2015 from some wildlife and cattle, respectively, within and around the yankari ...202032257095
the role of african buffalo in the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in sympatric cattle and buffalo populations in kenya.quantitative knowledge on the contribution of african buffalo to the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in east africa is lacking, and this information is essential for the design of control programs in the region. the objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of fmdv in buffalo, including the role of buffalo in the circulation of fmdv in livestock populations. we collected blood and oropharyngeal fluids from 92 wild buffalo and 98 sympatric cattle in central k ...202032303117
characterization of sat2 foot-and-mouth disease 2013/2014 outbreak viruses at the wildlife-livestock interface in south africa.the southern african territories (sat)-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses (fmdv) are endemic to the greater kruger national park (knp) area in south africa, where they are maintained through persistent infections in african buffalo. the occurrence of fmdv within the greater knp area constitutes a continual threat to the livestock industry. to expand on knowledge of fmdv diversity, the genetic and antigenic relatedness of sat2-type viruses isolated from cattle during a fmd outbreak in mpumalanga ...202031984622
production of foot-and-mouth disease virus sat2 vp1 protein.the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) differ on the surface exposed regions on the vp1, 2 and 3 proteins. amongst the three, the vp1 protein has been produced the most for use in serotyping assays for some of the euro-asian serotypes. in this study the vp1 protein of the fmdv sat2/zim/7/83 was expressed in escherichia coli bl21 cells in luria broth and enpresso® b media in shake flasks. production was further developed and the vp1 protein was produced at 2.15 g l-1 in fed-ba ...202031912326
a wide-ranging antiviral response in wild boar cells is triggered by non-coding synthetic rnas from the foot-and-mouth disease virus genome.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious viral disease that affects multiple cloven-hooved hosts including important livestock (pigs, cattle, sheep and goats) as well as several wild animal species. crossover of fmdv between domestic and wildlife populations may prolong virus circulation during outbreaks. the wild boar (sus scrofa) is considered a reservoir of various pathogens that can infect other wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. as wild boar and ...202032851049
clinical validation of two recombinase-based isothermal amplification assays (rpa/raa) for the rapid detection of african swine fever virus.african swine fever (asf), caused by african swine fever virus (asfv), is a devastating infectious disease of domestic pigs and wild boars, and has tremendous negative socioeconomic impact on the swine industry and food security worldwide. it is characterized as a notifiable disease by world organisation for animal health (oie). no effective vaccine or treatment against asf has so far been available. early detection and rapid diagnosis are of potential significance to control the spread of asf. ...202032793160
first isolation of foot and mouth disease virus from wild boars in the middle east.domestic pigs are susceptible to foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection and suffer from severe clinical disease. our knowledge on the clinical manifestations of fmd in and its transmission by wild boars (sus scrofa) is very limited. during an fmd outbreak in the golan heights in 2018, wild boars grazing in close proximity to cattle were observed showing lameness. infectious fmdv was isolated from throat and heart tissues of two young wild boars with fmd clinical signs. this is the first r ...202032034998
seroprevalence and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in chad.this study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in domestic ruminants and at characterizing the virus strains circulating in four areas of chad (east batha, west batha, wadi fira and west ennedi). the study was carried out between october and november 2016. a total of 1,520 sera samples (928 cattle, 216 goats, 254 sheep and 122 dromedaries) were collected randomly for fmd serological analyses. nine epithelial tissue samples were also collected from cattle showi ...202031845545
enhanced protective immune response of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine through dna-loaded virus-like particles.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. virus-like particles (vlps) can induce a robust immune response and deliver dna and small molecules. in this study, a vlp-harboring pcdna3.1/p12a3c plasmid was generated, and the protective immune response was characterized. guinea pigs were injected with vlps, naked dna vaccine, dna-loaded vlps, or phosphate-buffered saline twice subcutaneously at four-week intervals. ...202032165331
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of 3a truncated negative marker foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious, economically significant disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by fmd virus (fmdv) of the picornaviridae family. vaccination of susceptible animals with inactivated virus vaccine is the standard practice for disease control. the prophylactic use of the inactivated vaccines has reduced the disease burden in many countries endemic to fmd. in the process of implementation of the mass vaccination program and disease eradication, it is essential ...202032002597
nlrp3 inflammasome activation by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection mainly induced by viral rna and non-structural protein 2b.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a positive-strand rna virus of the family picornaviridae. early studies show that some viruses of picornaviridae, such as emcv and ev71, induce nlrp3 inflammasome activation. our current study demonstrates that fmdv induces the secretion of caspase-1 and interleukin 1 beta (il-1β), as well as activates the nlrp3 inflammasome in a dose- and time-dependent manner. meanwhile, nlrp3 inflammasome can suppress fmdv replication during virus infection. both fmdv rn ...202031840571
soluble fmdv vp1 proteins fused with calreticulin expressed in escherichia coli under the assist of trigger factor16 (tf16) formed into high immunogenic polymers.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious pathogen propagating among cloven-hoofed animals. as a major immunogenic protein, vp1 plays a pivotal role in the induction of neutralizing antibodies, which therefore is an ideal target for developing subunit vaccines. in current study, four prokaryotic expression clones (rv4c, rc4v, rv5f and rf5v) were constructed by fusing truncated calreticulin (crt) (120-250 aa or 120-308 aa) at the n/c terminal of vp1 gene, and co-expressed with ch ...202031739054
construction, expression and evaluation of recombinant vp2 protein for serotype-independent detection of fmdv seropositive animals in egypt.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is one of the most devastating viral pathogens of cloven-hoofed animals. the detection of antibodies (ab) against fmdv structural proteins (sp) using virus neutralization test (vnt) and liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpbe) is the standard procedure in use for monitoring seroconversion in animals post vaccination, the prevalence of infection-surveillance, proving clinical cases and seronegative status of fmdv-free/naïve-animals prior transportation. however, due ...201931300744
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant proteins consisting of multiple epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with flagellin.many recent studies have shown that flagellin fused to heterologous antigens can induce significantly enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses through its adjuvant activity. therefore, in this study, two key b cell epitopes and a truncated vp1 (δvp1) protein from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were expressed as flagellin fusion proteins in different patterns. specifically, δvp1 and two duplicates of two key b cell epitopes (2×b1b2) were fused separately to the c-terminus of flagellin ...201930888465
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus empty-capsid-like particle with improved acid stability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hoofed animal species. the fmdv capsid is highly acid labile and viral particles lose their immunogenicity when they disassemble at mildly acidic phs. the viral capsid of fmdv serotype o is more sensitive than those of other serotypes, making it more difficult to acquire enough empty-capsid-like particles in the acidic insect cell environment for research. in this study, novel fmdv mut ...201930808570
hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles as delivery vehicle of foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles induce persistent immune responses in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute and febrile infectious disease, which can cause great economic losses. virus-like particles (vlps) as an advantageous antigen can induce significant specific immune response. to improve immunity of vlps, especially, make it induce persistent immune response, the hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (hmsns) as a potential nano-adjuvant were synthesized and loaded the fmd virus (fmdv) vlps. they were injected into guinea pigs and the specific immune respo ...201930701562
foot and mouth disease virus serological study of dromedary camels in oman.the potential role of camels in the epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in oman was investigated. sera from local dromedaries (n = 151) that graze with animals (cattle and small ruminants) positive for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) non-structural protein antibody (nsp-ab) were tested for the detection of fmdv nsp-ab. the samples were tested using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) , a rapid immunochromatographic assay and a solid-phase celisa for the det ...201932286571
serological and phylogenetic characterization of foot and mouth disease viruses from uganda during cross-sectional surveillance study in cattle between 2014 and 2017.here, we report the results of a cross-sectional study designed to monitor the circulation and genetic diversity of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) in uganda between 2014 and 2017. in this study, 13,614 sera and 2,068 oral-pharyngeal fluid samples were collected from cattle and analysed to determine fmdv seroprevalence, circulating serotypes and their phylogenetic relationships. circulation of fmdv was evidenced by the detection of antibodies against non-structural proteins of fmdv or viral ...201931127983
persistent infection of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) with foot-and-mouth disease virus: limited viral evolution and no evidence of antibody neutralization escape.african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) are the principal "carrier" hosts of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). currently, the epithelia and lymphoid germinal centers of the oropharynx have been identified as sites for fmdv persistence. we carried out studies in fmdv sat1 persistently infected buffaloes to characterize the diversity of viruses in oropharyngeal epithelia, germinal centers, probang samples (oropharyngeal scrapings), and tonsil swabs to determine if sufficient virus variation is gene ...201931092573
phylogeographical and cross-species transmission dynamics of sat1 and sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in eastern africa.understanding the dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), an endemic and economically constraining disease, is critical in designing control programmes in africa. this study investigates the evolutionary epidemiology of sat1 and sat2 fmdv in eastern africa, as well as between cattle and wild african buffalo. bayesian phylodynamic models were used to analyse sat1 and sat2 vp1 gene segments collected between 1975 and 2016, focusing on the sat1 and sat2 viruses currently circulating in eas ...201931074125
rapidly assessing the risks of infectious diseases to wildlife species.predicting the likelihood of rare events is increasingly demanded by risk managers. a key challenge is dealing with different types of uncertainty, including epistemic uncertainties (lack of knowledge), stochasticity (inherent randomness) and natural variation. one potentially catastrophic event which is impacted by high levels of all three of these uncertainty types is the transmission of livestock pathogens to wildlife, particularly for endangered species. there is often a lack of basic inform ...201930800356
genetic determinants of virulence between two foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates which caused outbreaks of differing severity.individual foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains reveal different degrees of infectivity and pathogenicity in host animals. the differences in severity among outbreaks might be ascribable to these differences in infectivity among fmdv strains. to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, we estimated the infectivity of o/jpn/2000 and o/jpn/2010, which caused outbreaks of markedly different scales, in cell lines, holstein cattle, and suckling mice. viral growth of t ...201931413173
common vole (microtus arvalis) and bank vole (myodes glareolus) derived permanent cell lines differ in their susceptibility and replication kinetics of animal and zoonotic viruses.pathogenesis and reservoir host adaptation of animal and zoonotic viruses are poorly understood due to missing adequate cell culture and animal models. the bank vole (myodes glareolus) and common vole (microtus arvalis) serve as hosts for a variety of zoonotic pathogens. for a better understanding of virus association to a putative animal host, we generated two novel cell lines from bank voles of different evolutionary lineages and two common vole cell lines and assayed their susceptibility, rep ...201931513859
development and utilization of vhh antibodies derived from camelus dromedarius against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute, highly contagious, and economically devastating viral disease of domestic and wildlife species. for effective implementation of fmd control program, there is an imperative need for developing a rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostics which help in the identification of serotypes involved in the outbreaks. the humoral immune response of the camelidae is unique since in these animals 75% of circulating antibodies are constituted by heavy-chain antibodie ...201829527970
in this issue - september 2018: identification of commercial piggeries using aerial photographs and image analysis • destruction of foot-and-mouth disease virus in carcases in the field • size of the australian goat industry • p4 and fertility after ai in extensively managed bos indicus cattle • antimuellerian hormone levels not recommended in young bitches • a sarcoma on an echidna beak. 201830152066
characterization of naturally occurring, new and persistent subclinical foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vaccinated asian buffalo in islamabad capital territory, pakistan.the convalescent subclinical carrier state of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection has been thoroughly investigated; contrastingly, the subclinical form of new infections of vaccinated and naïve hosts is recognized, but poorly understood. to investigate the natural dynamics of subclinical fmdv infections, a prospective, 12-month, longitudinal study was conducted in vaccinated asian buffalo (bubalus bubalis) under natural conditions in pakistan, where fmdv is hyperendemic. oropharyngeal ...201830035376
prevalence of foot and mouth disease virus in apparently healthy buffaloes brought to islamabad slaughterhouse in pakistan.this study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) slaughtered at islamabad slaughterhouse, pakistan. sera and oro-pharyngeal (op) fluid were collected from 630 healthy buffaloes. these animals originated from various livestock markets from 14 districts of punjab. the age of animals ranged from 1 to 15 years. sera were analyzed using fmd virus (fmdv) nonstructural proteins (nsp) and indirect elisa. the sero-prevalence of fmd w ...201833601788
foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind 2001 lineage outbreak in vaccinated holstein friesian cattle in saudi arabia in 2016.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious viral infection of large ruminants. despite the massive application of vaccines against fmdv, several outbreaks are still being reported in africa and asia.201830706772
virus-like particles of recombinant pcv2b carrying fmdv-vp1 epitopes induce both anti-pcv and anti-fmdv antibody responses.mixed infection of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is devastating to swine populations. to develop an effective vaccine that can protect the pigs from the infection of pcv2 and fmdv, we used the neutralizing b cell epitope region (aa 135-160) of fmdv to replace the regions aa 123-151 and aa 169-194 of the pcv2b cap protein to generate a recombinant protein designated as capfb. the capfb protein was expressed in escherichia coli system and the purified cap ...201830338355
mutation in the vp2 gene of p1-2a capsid protein increases the thermostability of virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important, global disease of cloven-hoofed animals. the conventional vaccine could bring down the incidence of disease in many parts of the world but has many limitations and in india, the disease is enzootic. more promisingly, the alternate vaccine candidates, virus-like particles (vlps) are as immunogenic as a native virus but are more labile to heat than the live virus capsids. to produce stable vlps, a single amino acid residue was mutated at 9 ...201830136205
genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o lineage ind-2001d collected in vietnam in 2015.in 2015, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus lineage ind-2001 was detected for the first time in southeast asia. this report contains the first near-complete genome sequence of a viral isolate from this lineage collected from an outbreak in vietnam. this novel incursion has substantial implications for regional fmd control measures.201728473375
attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by engineered viral polymerase fidelity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) (3d(pol)) catalyzes viral rna synthesis. its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allow fmdv to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. in this study, we used the structure of fmdv 3d(pol) in combination with previously reported results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. in particular, we targeted trp237 within conserved ...201728515297
a replication-competent foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a luciferase reporter.bioluminescence is a powerful tool in the study of viral infection both in vivo and in vitro. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a small rna genome with a limited tolerance to foreign rna entities. there has been no success in making a reporter fmdv expressing a luciferase in infected cell culture supernatants. we report here for the first time a replication-competent fmdv encoding nanoluciferase, named as nano-fmdv. nano-fmdv is genetically stable during serial passages in cells and exhibi ...201728532601
spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in north central nigeria.this study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of fmdv serotypes, and the spatial distribution of fmdv among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the north-central nigeria.201728507418
rules of engagement between αvβ6 integrin and foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mediates cell entry by attachment to an integrin receptor, generally αvβ6, via a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (rgd) motif in the exposed, antigenic, gh loop of capsid protein vp1. infection can also occur in tissue culture adapted virus in the absence of integrin via acquired basic mutations interacting with heparin sulphate (hs); this virus is attenuated in natural infections. hs interaction has been visualized at a conserved site in two serotypes ...201728534487
rapid engineering of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine and challenge viruses.there are seven antigenically distinct serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), each of which has intratypic variants. in the present study, we have developed methods to efficiently generate promising vaccines against seven serotypes or subtypes. the capsid-encoding gene (p1) of the vaccine strain o1/manisa/turkey/69 was replaced with the amplified or synthetic genes from the o, a, asia1, c, sat1, sat2, and sat3 serotypes. viruses of the seven serotype were rescued successfully. each ch ...201728566375
a synonymous mutation at bovine alpha vitronectin domain of integrin host receptor (itgav) gene effect the susceptibility of foot-and-mouth disease in crossbred cattle.integrins are one of the major biologically active proteins responsible for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)- host interaction. out of various heterodimeric integrins discovered, αvβ6 heterodimer serves as the chief receptor for fmdv host tropism. earlier studies reported that, snps at beta 6 subunit (itgb6) were associated with the occurrence of the diseases in cattle. in this study we report the association between a synonymous snp (rs719257875) at bovine alpha vitronectin domain of integri ...201728567614
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o strain yntba from yunnan province of china.yntba is a rabbit-passaged attenuated strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o. here, we announce the complete genome sequence of yntba, which provides data for further studies on replication, virulence, its determinants, and cell and host tropism of yntba.201728572308
bifunctional enzyme jmjd6 contributes to multiple disease pathogenesis: new twist on the old story.jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (jmjd6) is a non-heme fe(ii) 2-oxoglutarate (2og)-dependent oxygenase with arginine demethylase and lysyl hydroxylase activities. its initial discovery as a dispensable phosphatidylserine receptor (psr) in the cell membrane of macrophages for phagocytosis was squashed by newer studies which revealed its nuclear localization and bifunctional enzymatic activity. though its interaction with several nuclear and cytoplasmic target proteins has been demonstrated, th ...201728587176
chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against the 2c and 3abc nonstructural proteins induced by infecting pigs with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (clias) has been accepted in recent years, although their use for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) diagnostics has not been reported. full-length 3abc and 2c proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from vaccinated pigs. the recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two clias ...201728592628
first detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/ind-2001d in vietnam.in recent years, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o, topotype middle east-south asia (me-sa), lineage ind-2001d has spread from the indian subcontinent to the middle east, north africa, and southeast asia. in the current report, we describe the first detection of this lineage in vietnam in may, 2015 in đắk nông province. three subsequent outbreaks caused by genetically related viruses occurred between may-october, 2015 after which the virus was not detected in clinical outbreaks for ...201728599321
evaluation of gaussia luciferase and foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a translational interrupter chimeras as polycistronic reporters for transgene expression.the gaussia princeps luciferase is used as a stand-alone reporter of transgene expression for in vitro and in vivo expression systems due to the rapid and easy monitoring of luciferase activity. we sought to simultaneously quantitate production of other recombinant proteins by transcriptionally linking the gaussia princeps luciferase gene to other genes of interest through the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a translational interrupter sequence.201728606077
recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (ad5- fmd) were made for three indian vaccine virus serotypes o, a and asia 1. constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid and viral 3c protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (bos indicus). purified ad5-fmd viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×10(9) pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×10(9) pfu/animal per serotype) vaccin ...201728619144
preserved immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine based on foot-and-mouth disease virus particles with improved stability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. vaccines based on inactivated fmdv virions provide a useful tool for the control of this pathogen. however, long term storage at 4°c (the temperature for vaccine storage) or ruptures of the cold chain, provoke the dissociation of virions, reducing the immunogenicity of the vaccine. an fmdv mutant carrying amino acid replacements vp1 n17d and vp2 h145y isolated pre ...201728619156
inter-laboratory validation of foot-and-mouth disease diagnostic capability in germany.germany has been free from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) without vaccination since 1992, but diagnostic capability at regional laboratories is maintained for fmdv exclusion in suspect cases and as surge capacity for outbreak preparedness. a proficiency test was initiated in 2015 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 20 regional veterinary laboratories. a panel of two identical samples of fmdv genome for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), four lyophilize ...201728619169
immunogenicity of t7 bacteriophage nanoparticles displaying g-h loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes severe economic losses worldwide. the g-h loop of the fmdv vp1 structural protein is the major neutralizing antigenic site. however, a fully protective g-h loop peptide vaccine requires the addition of promiscuous th sites from a source outside vp1. thus, we demonstrated the potential of t7 bacteriophage based nanoparticles displaying a genetically fused g-h loop peptide (t7-gh) as a fmdv vaccine can ...201728622860
t135i substitution in the nonstructural protein 2c enhances foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3a plays an important role in viral replication, virulence, and host range. it has been shown that deletions of 10 or 19-20 amino acids in the c-terminal half of 3a attenuate serotype o and c fmdvs, which replicate poorly in bovine cells but normally in porcine-derived cells, and the c-terminal half of 3a is not essential for serotype asia1 fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells. in this study, we constructed a 3a deletion fmdv mutant based ...201728634750
comparison of different inactivation methods on the stability of indian vaccine strains of foot and mouth disease virus.in this study, the efficiency of binary ethyleneimine (bei) in combination with formaldehyde (fa) and glutaraldehyde (gta) in inactivating the indian fmdv vaccine strains is compared. the acceptable safety of virus inactivation was faster and the inactivation rates were increased many-folds with combination of inactivants than bei alone. fmdv a was inactivated rapidly than the other two serotypes with bei + fa combination. inactivation plots were linear for all the serotypes irrespective of inac ...201728645721
detection of genome, antigen, and antibodies in oral fluids from pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (ofs). detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome in swine ofs has previously been demonstrated. virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing fmdv, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine of. the objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of fmdv in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and fmdv ...201728408775
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection inhibits lgp2 protein expression to exaggerate inflammatory response and promote viral replication.the role of the innate immune protein lgp2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) in fmdv-infected cells remains unknown. here, we demonstrate the antiviral role of lgp2 during fmdv infection. fmdv infection triggered lgp2 mrna expression but reduced protein expression. overexpression of lgp2 suppressed fmdv replication, and the inflammatory response was significantly inhibited by lgp2 in virus-infected cells. the n-terminal dexdc and the c-terminal regulatory domain regions of lgp2 were esse ...201728406479
phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus o/panasia in vietnam 2010-2014.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is endemic in vietnam, a country that plays an important role in livestock trade within southeast asia. the large populations of fmdv-susceptible species in vietnam are important components of food production and of the national livelihood. in this study, we investigated the phylogeny of fmdv o/panasia in vietnam, reconstructing the virus' ancestral host species (pig, cattle or buffalo), clinical stage (subclinical carrier or clinically affected) and geographi ...201728403902
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle against heterologous challenge with a field virus from the o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage collected in north africa.outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north africa (2013) and the gulf states (2013) of the middle east have been caused by a fmd viral lineage (o/me-sa/ind-2001) that was before 2013 restricted to the indian sub-continent. this study was undertaken to assess the in vivo efficacy of a fmd virus emergency vaccine type o1 manisa against heterologous challenge with a representative field virus (o/alg/3/2014) from this emerging lineage. this widely available vaccine was selected since in vitr ...201728396208
preclinical diagnosis: predicting its ability to improve control of farm-to-farm foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) can cause large disruptive epidemics in livestock. current eradication measures rely on the rapid clinical detection and removal of infected herds. here, we have evaluated the potential for preclinical diagnosis during reactive surveillance to reduce the risk of between farm transmission. we used data from transmission experiments in cattle where both individual animal samples, such as blood, probang, saliva or nasal swabs, and herd level samples, such as air samples ...201728330886
production of japanese encephalitis virus antigens in plants using bamboo mosaic virus-based vector.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is among the major threats to public health in asia. for disease control and prevention, the efficient production of safe and effective vaccines against jev is in urgent need. in this study, we produced a plant-made jev vaccine candidate using a chimeric virus particle (cvp) strategy based on bamboo mosaic virus (bamv) for epitope presentation. the chimeric virus, designated bj2a, was constructed by fusing jev envelope protein domain iii (ediii) at the n-terminu ...201728515719
a bivalent dendrimeric peptide bearing a t-cell epitope from foot-and-mouth disease virus protein 3a improves humoral response against classical swine fever virus.three dendrimeric peptides were synthesized in order to evaluate their immunogenicity and their potential protection against classical swine fever virus (csfv) in domestic pigs. construct 1, an optimized version of a previously used dendrimer, had four copies of a b-cell epitope derived from csfv e2 glycoprotein connected to an also csfv-derived t-cell epitope through maleimide instead of thioether linkages. construct 2 was similarly built but included only two copies of the b-cell epitope, and ...201728571760
development of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2.porcine circovirus virus type ii (pcv2) is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (pdns), and necrotizing pneumonia. rapid diagnosis tool for detection of pcv2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (pcv2 real-time rpa assay) and rpa combined with lateral flow dipstick (pcv2 rpa lfd assay) were developed ta ...201728424790
synonymous codon usage analysis of hand, foot and mouth disease viruses: a comparative study on coxsackievirus a6, a10, a16, and enterovirus 71 from 2008 to 2015.enterovirus 71 (ev71) and coxsackievirus a16 (cva16) have been considered major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) throughout the world for decades. in recent years, coxsackievirus a6 (cva6) and coxsackievirus a10 (cva10) have raised attention as two other serious pathogens of hfmd. the present study focused on the synonymous codon usage of four viruses isolated from 2008 to 2015, with particular attention on p1 (encoding capsid proteins) and p2-p3 regions (both encoding non-struct ...201728602802
development of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip based on hsp70 for the rapid detection of echinococcus granulosus in sheep.echinococcus granulosus is the causative pathogen of cystic echinococcosis, a serious disease endangering human and animal health. in this study, an immunochromatographic strip was developed based on the recombinant protein heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) for the serological detection of e. granulosus. the protocol completes within 20min requiring no specialized equipment or chemical reagents, while specificity tests confirmed no cross-reactivity with positive serum of fasciola hepatica, haemonchu ...201728576342
a naturally occurring recombinant enterovirus expresses a torovirus deubiquitinase.enteroviruses (evs) are implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. in this study, a novel enterovirus (enterovirus species g [evg]) (evg 08/nc_usa/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample from a neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified by using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. the viral genome shares 75.4% nucleotide identity with a prototypic evg strain (pev9 ukg/410/73). remarkably, a 582-nucleotide insertion, flanked by 3c(pro) cleavage sites at the 5' and 3 ...201728490584
single-round infectious particle antiviral screening assays for the japanese encephalitis virus.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with a positive-sense single-stranded rna genome that contains a big open reading frame (orf) flanked by 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (utrs). nearly 30,000 je cases with 10,000 deaths are still annually reported in east asia. although the jev genotype iii vaccine has been licensed, it elicits a lower protection against other genotypes. moreover, no effective treatment for a je case is developed. this study constructed a pbr322- ...201728394283
isolation of single-domain antibody fragments that preferentially detect intact (146s) particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus for use in vaccine quality control.intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdvs) can dissociate into specific (12s) viral capsid degradation products. fmd vaccines normally consist of inactivated virions. vaccine quality is dependent on 146s virus particles rather than 12s particles. we earlier isolated two llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs) that specifically recognize 146s particles of fmdv strain o1 manisa and shown their potential use in quality control of fmd vaccines during manufacturing. these 146s-specific ...201728861080
development of duplex pcr for differential detection of goatpox and sheeppox viruses.clinically, sheeppox and goatpox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. a cheaper and easy method for differential diagnosis is important in control of this disease in endemic region.201728859636
emergence of an exotic strain of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind-2001d in south-east asia in 2015.the o/middle east-south asia (me-sa)/ind-2001 lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is endemic in the indian subcontinent and has been reported in the middle east and north africa, but it had not been detected in south-east asia (sea) before 2015. this study reports the recent incursions of this viral lineage into sea, which caused outbreaks in vientiane capital of lao people's democratic republic (pdr) in april 2015, in dak nong, dak lak and ninh thuan provinces of vietnam from may to ...201728856846
rnai combining sleeping beauty transposon system inhibits ex vivo expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 in transgenic sheep cells.foot and mouth disease, which is induced by the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), takes its toll on the cloven-hoofed domestic animals. the vp1 gene in fmdv genome encodes the viral capsid, a vital element for fmdv replication. sleeping beauty (sb) is an active dna-transposon system responsible for genetic transformation and insertional mutagenesis in vertebrates. in this study, a conserved vp1-shrna which specifically targets the ovine fmdv-vp1 gene was constructed and combined with sb trans ...201728855524
cross-species hybridization of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bhk-21 cells using human and mouse oligonucleotide microarrays.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a dual capacity to induce either acute or persistent infection in host animals. establishment of an in vitro cell model of fmdv persistent infection facilitates the study of the mechanism underlying this type of infection. in this study, we analyzed gene expression profiles of both acute and persistent infections using cross-species microarrays. our data suggest that human microarrays are more efficient than mouse microarrays in hybridization with cdna fro ...201728854794
enrichment of viral nucleic acids by solution hybrid selection with genus specific oligonucleotides.despite recent advances, our knowledge of potential and rare human pathogens is far from exhaustive. current molecular diagnostic tools mainly rely on the specific amplification of marker sequences and may overlook infections caused by unknown and rare pathogens. using high-throughput sequencing (hts) can solve this problem; but, due to the extremely low fraction of pathogen genetic material in clinical samples, its application is only cost-effective in special, rather than routine, cases. in th ...201728852181
genome sequences of seven foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates collected from serial samples from one persistently infected carrier cow in vietnam.several foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) carrier cattle were identified in vietnam by the recovery of infectious virus from oropharyngeal fluid. this report contains the first near-complete genome sequences of seven viruses from sequential samples from one carrier animal collected over the course of 1 year. the characterization of within-host viral evolution has implications for fmdv control strategies.201728839030
defining the relative performance of isothermal assays that can be used for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this study describes the first multiway comparison of portable isothermal assays for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), benchmarked against real-time reverse transcription rt-pcr (rrt-pcr). the selected isothermal chemistries included reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) and reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (rt-rpa). the analytical sensitivity of rt-lamp was comparable to rrt-pcr (10(1) rna copies), while rt-rpa was o ...201728837842
adaption of fmdv asia-1 to suspension culture: cell resistance is overcome by virus capsid alterations.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease with catastrophic economic impact for affected countries. bhk21 suspension cells are preferred for the industrial production of fmdv vaccine antigen, but not all virus strains can be successfully propagated in these cells. serotype asia-1 is often affected by this phenomenon. in this study, the asia-1 strain shamir was used to examine viral, cellular and environmental factors that contribute to resistance to cell culture infe ...201728820470
galectin-8 activates dendritic cells and stimulates antigen-specific immune response elicitation.galectin-8 (gal-8) is a mammalian β-galactoside-binding lectin, endowed with proinflammatory properties. given its capacity to enhance antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, we investigated whether gal-8 was also able to promote apc activation to sustain t cell activation after priming. both endogenous [dendritic cells (dcs)] and bone marrow-derived dcs (bmdcs) treated with exogenous gal-8 exhibited a mature phenotype characterized by increased mhc class ii (mhcii), cd80, and cd86 surface ex ...201728811319
protective effects of high-potency fmdv o1 manisa monovalent vaccine in cattle challenged with fmdv o/skr/2010 at 7 or 4 days post vaccination.serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus belonging to the sea topotype continues to be a significant problem in the eastern asia region, with outbreaks in japan and south korea resulting in the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in recent years. high-potency o1 manisa vaccine was previously shown to provide protection in cattle 21days post vaccination (dpv) following challenge with a representative virus, o/skr/2010. this study tested the ability of the o1 manisa vaccine to protect ...201728789849
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus of o/sea/mya-98 lineage in sheep.potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. however, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. to determine the efficacy of a high potency (>6pd50) fmd virus (fmdv) o1manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a het ...201728780422
direct detection and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in east africa using a field-ready real-time pcr platform.effective control and monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) relies upon rapid and accurate disease confirmation. currently, clinical samples are usually tested in reference laboratories using standardized assays recommended by the world organisation for animal health (oie). however, the requirements for prompt and serotype-specific diagnosis during fmd outbreaks, and the need to establish robust laboratory testing capacity in fmd-endemic countries have motivated the development of simple di ...201728758346
g3bp1 interacts directly with the fmdv ires and negatively regulates translation.rna-protein interactions play a pivotal role in the function of picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. here we analysed the impact of ras gtpase sh3 domain binding protein 1 (g3bp1) in the ires activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we found that g3bp1 interacts directly with three distinct sequences of the ires element using rna electrophoretic mobility-shift assays. analysis of the interaction with domain 5 indicated that the g3bp1 binding-site is placed at the si ...201728755480
evaluating the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour against foot-and-mouth disease virus within a bsl4 biosafety facility.an evaluation was made of the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide vapour (hpv) against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in a biosafety facility. biological indicators (bis) were produced using three serotypes of fmdv, all with a titre of ≥10(6) tcid50 per ml. fifteen bis of each serotype were distributed across five locations, throughout a 30-m(3) airlock chamber, producing a total of 45 bis. thirty-five percent hpv was generated and applied using a bioquell vaporization module located in the c ...201728736948
uncleaved 2a-peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus can display foreign epitope-tag at the virion surface.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor protein p1-2a is cleaved by viral-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)) to generate vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a proteins. it was reported earlier that substitution of a single amino acid residue within the 2a peptide sequence (l2p) blocked the 3c(pro) mediated vp1/2a cleavage and produced 'self-tagged' fmdv particles containing uncleaved 2a-peptide. to determine whether the uncleaved 2a-peptide can function as a target structure to harbour and display exogen ...201728734763
adjuvantation of inactivated foot and mouth disease virus vaccine with il-15 expressing plasmid improves the immune response in guinea pigs.foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven footed animals. vaccination using inactivated virus is followed to control the disease. as the immune response conferred by the inactivated vaccine is short lived, there is a need for an alternate vaccine with increased duration of immunity. inclusion of adjuvant which enhances b and t cell responses is one of the strategies to increase the duration of immune responses of the vaccine. interleukin 15 is one such a cytokine whi ...201728734743
antigenic variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o during serial cytolytic passage.the emergence and disappearance of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) during a field outbreak occurs periodically due to the volatile nature of its genome. in the present analysis, change in antigenic behavior of serotype o fmdv during the serial cytolytic passage in the absence of immune pressure was observed. initially, the isolate showed a poor antigenic match (relationship value <0.3) with the serotype o vaccine strain and upon serial passage increase in relationship v ...201728718047
development of real-time and lateral flow dipstick recombinase polymerase amplification assays for rapid detection of goatpox virus and sheeppox virus.goatpox virus (gtpv) and sheeppox virus (sppv), which belong to the capripoxvirus (capv), are economically important pathogens of small ruminants. therefore, a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for detection of gtpv and sppv is necessary to accurately and promptly control these diseases.201728716095
emergence and whole-genome sequence of senecavirus a in colombia.in 2015 and 2016, senecavirus a (sva) emerged as an infectious disease in brazil, china and the united states (us). in a colombian commercial swine farm, vesicles on the snout and coronary bands were reported and tested negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), but positive for sva. the whole-genome phylogenetic analysis indicates the colombian strain clusters with the strains from the united states, not with the recent sva strains from brazil.201728714178
identification of a conformational neutralizing epitope on the vp1 protein of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. in recent years, outbreaks of serotype a fmd have occurred in many countries. high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of fmdv serotype a and protect against future pandemics. in this study, we generated a serotype a fmdv-specific pot ...201728711695
isolation, identification and retrospective study of foot-and-mouth disease virus from affected mithun (bos frontalis) in north-eastern india.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes substantial and perpetual economic loss. apart from the contagious nature of the disease, the fmd virus can establish in a "carrier state" among all cloven-hoofed animals. the mithun (bos frontalis), popularly called the "cattle of mountain," is found in the geographically isolated, hilly region of north-east india: arunachal pradesh, nagaland, manipur and mizoram. despite the geographical inaccessibility, ...201728707820
negative regulation of hepatic inflammation by the soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.host immune response is tightly controlled by negative regulators to avoid excessive immune reactions for homeostasis. some pathogens may take advantage of host negative regulating system to evade host defense. our previous report showed that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 inhibited tnf-α- and sev-induced type i interferon response via interaction with cellular protein soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin). conversely, tnf-α- or sev-induced type i interferon respon ...201728706517
adoption of the 2a ribosomal skip principle to tobacco mosaic virus for peptide display.plant viruses are suitable as building blocks for nanomaterials and nanoparticles because they are easy to modify and can be expressed and purified using plants or heterologous expression systems. plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and nanowires, and for biomedical imaging applications. fluorescent protein fusions have been instrumental for the tagging of plant virus particles. the monomeric non-oxygen-dependent fl ...201728702043
enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsids.analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. while measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. determining the immunoglobulin (ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will fa ...201728689695
inhibition of viral replication by small interfering rna targeting of the foot-and-mouth disease virus receptor integrin β6.in animals, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes symptoms such as fever, limping and the development of blister spots on the skin and mucous membranes. rna interference (rnai) may be a novel way of controlling the fmd virus (fmdv), specifically by targeting its cognate receptor protein integrin β6. the present study used rnai technology to construct and screen plasmids that expressed small interfering rna molecules (sirnas) specific for the integrin β6 subunit. expression of green fluorescence pr ...201728672992
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