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a new immunoassay of serum antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus using quantum dots and a lateral-flow test strip.a fast and ultrasensitive test-strip system combining quantum dots (qds) with a lateral-flow immunoassay strip (lfias) was established for detection of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) antibody. the highly luminescent water-soluble carboxyl-functionalized qds were used as the signal output and were conjugated to streptococcal protein g (spg), which was capable of binding to immunoglobulin g (igg) from many species through an amide bond to capture the target pprv iggs. the pprv n protein, ...201727783124
development of a gexp-multiplex pcr assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of six cattle viruses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), bovine viral diarrheal (bvdv), bovine rotavirus (brv), and bovine herpesvirus 1 (ibrv) are common cattle infectious viruses that cause a great economic loss every year in many parts of the world. a rapid and high-throughput genomelab gene expression profiler (gexp) analyzer-based multiplex pcr assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of these six cattle viruses. six pairs ...201728166243
development of multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six dna and rna viruses from clinical samples of sheep and goats.multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and pcr protocols were developed and subsequently evaluated for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in sheep and goats. specific primers for three dna viruses and three rna viruses, including foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), sheeppox virus (sppv), goatpox virus (gtpv) and orf virus (orfv) were used for testing procedure. a s ...201728111057
artificially designed recombinant protein composed of multiple epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate.concerns regarding the safety of inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine have been raised since it is produced from cultured live fmd virus (fmdv). to overcome this issue, recombinant protein has been studied as an alternative vaccine.201728228147
an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the identification of antibodies to senecavirus a in swine.senecavirus a (sva), a member of the family picornaviridae, genus senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded rna virus closely related to members of the cardiovirus genus. sva was originally identified as a cell culture contaminant and was not associated with disease until 2007 when it was first observed in pigs with idiopathic vesicular disease (ivd). vesicular disease is sporadically observed in swine, is not debilitating, but is significant due to its resemblance to foreign animal ...201728202026
investigation of the role of protein kinase d in human rhinovirus replication.picornavirus replication is known to cause extensive remodelling of golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes and a number of the host proteins involved in the viral replication complex have been identified, including oxysterol binding protein (osbp) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase iii beta (pi4kb). since both osbp and pi4kb are substrates for protein kinase d (pkd) and pkd is known to be involved in the control of golgi vesicular and lipid transport, we hypothesised that pkd played a role in ...201728228588
picornavirus rna is protected from cleavage by ribonuclease during virion uncoating and transfer across cellular and model membranes.picornaviruses are non-enveloped rna viruses that enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. because they lack an envelope, picornaviruses face the challenge of delivering their rna genomes across the membrane of the endocytic vesicle into the cytoplasm to initiate infection. currently, the mechanism of genome release and translocation across membranes remains poorly understood. within the enterovirus genus, poliovirus, rhinovirus 2, and rhinovirus 16 have been proposed to release their geno ...201728166307
lithium chloride inhibits early stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in vitro.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, swine, and sheep. fmd vaccine is the traditional way to protect against the disease, which can greatly reduce its occurrence. however, the use of fmd vaccines to protect early infection is limited. therefore, the alternative strategy of applying antiviral agents is required to control the spread of fmdv in outbreak situations. as previously reported, licl ha ...201728390158
proof-of-concept study: profile of circulating micrornas in bovine serum harvested during acute and persistent fmdv infection.changes in the levels of circulating micrornas (mirnas) in the serum of humans and animals have been detected as a result of infection with a variety of viruses. however, to date, such a mirna profiling study has not been conducted for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection.201728388926
safe and cost-effective protocol for shipment of samples from foot-and-mouth disease suspected cases for laboratory diagnostic.an essential step towards the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the identification of circulating virus strains in endemic regions to implement adequate outbreak control measures. however, due to the high biological risk and the requirement for biological samples to be shipped frozen, the cost of shipping samples becomes one of major obstacles hindering submission of suspected samples to reference laboratories for virus identification. in this study, we report the ...201728387065
chimeric virus-like particles elicit protective immunity against serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that can affect cloven-hoofed animal species, leading to severe economic losses worldwide. therefore, the development of a safe and effective new vaccine to prevent and control fmd is both urgent and necessary. in this study, we developed a chimeric virus-like particle (vlp) vaccine candidate for serotype o fmdv and evaluated its protective immunity in guinea pigs. chimeric vlps w ...201728365796
insights into jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6): a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cells.the jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) has had a convoluted history, and recent reports indicating a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection have further complicated the functionality of this protein. it was first identified as the phosphatidylserine receptor on the cell surface responsible for recognizing phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells resulting in their engulfment by phagocytic cells. subsequent study revealed a nuclear subcellular ...201728364140
adjuvanticity of a ctla-4 3' utr complementary oligonucleotide for emulsion formulated recombinant subunit and inactivated vaccines.cytotoxic t-lymphocyte antigen 4 (ctla-4) is recognized as a critical inhibitory regulator of t-cell proliferation and activation, opposing the action of cd28-mediated co-stimulation. interfering or blocking ctla-4 can result in continuous t-cell activation required for the full immune response to pathogenic microbes and vaccines. to test if nucleic acid-based ctla-4 inhibitors could be developed into a novel adjuvant, we designed two oligonucleotides, cmd-1 and cmd-2, with the sequences complem ...201728359618
processing and targeting of proteins derived from polyprotein with 2a and lp4/2a as peptide linkers in a maize expression system.in the transformation of multiple genes, gene fusion is an attractive alternative to other methods, including sexual crossing, re-transformation, and co-transformation, among others. the 2a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes the co-translational "cleavage" of polyprotein and operates in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells. lp4, a linker peptide that originates from a natural polyprotein occurring in the seed of impatiens balsamina, can be split between the first and secon ...201728358924
outbreak investigations and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in south-west niger.in niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. this study aimed (i) to identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of niger. testing of cli ...201728345819
outbreak of foot and mouth disease and peste des petits ruminants in sheep flock imported for immediate slaughter in riyadh.to detect and identify the causative agent or agents of the following clinical symptoms which were fever, lack of appetite, salivation, vesiculation, erosions of the buccal mucosa, nose, and feet. the signs vary from mild to severe. the mortality rate of the disease is high. the morbidity rate reaches up to 100%. sheep also show bloody diarrhea and rapid respiration. sheep flock resident in el-kharje governorate.201728344409
antigenic and immunogenic spectrum of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain o1 campos against representative viruses of topotypes that circulated in asia over the past decade.identifying vaccine strains to control outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus that could spread to new regions is essential for contingency plans. this is the first report on the antigenic/immunogenic relationships of the south american o1/campos vaccine strain with representative isolates of the three currently active asian type o topotypes. virus neutralization tests using o1/campos post-vaccination sera derived from cattle and pigs predicted for both species acceptable cross-protection, ev ...201728343779
stabilization study of inactivated foot and mouth disease virus vaccine by size-exclusion hplc and differential scanning calorimetry.the inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has a sedimentation coefficient of 146s, is crucial to the efficacy of vaccine preparations, but extremely unstable in vitro. it is prone to dissociate into smaller particles referred to as 12s with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity; therefore, it is of great importance to find the best condition for stabilizing the fmdv. in the present work, the effects of solution ph and temperature on the dissociation of 146s was investigated a ...201728342666
quantitative assessment of the risk of release of foot-and-mouth disease virus via export of bull semen from israel.various foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strains circulate in the middle east, causing frequent episodes of fmd outbreaks among israeli livestock. since the virus is highly resistant in semen, artificial insemination with contaminated bull semen may lead to the infection of the receiver cow. as a non-fmd-free country with vaccination, israel is currently engaged in trading bull semen only with countries of the same status. the purpose of this study was to assess the risk of release of fmd viru ...201728334452
favipiravir can evoke lethal mutagenesis and extinction of foot-and-mouth disease virus.antiviral agents are increasingly considered an option for veterinary medicine. an understanding of their mechanism of activity is important to plan their administration either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. previous studies have shown that the broad spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (t-705) and its derivatives t-1105 and t-1106 are efficient inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in cell culture and in vivo. however, no mechanism for their activity ...201728322918
combined administration of synthetic rna and a conventional vaccine improves immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. we have previously reported the use of rna transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the fmdv rna as potent type-i interferon (ifn) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an fmd vaccine in mice. here, we describe the enhancing effect of rna delivery on the immunoge ...201728315707
sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) structurally modified for increased thermostability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is notoriously unstable, particularly the o and sat serotypes. consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile sat viruses have been linked to the induction of poor duration immunity and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. in-silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the inter-pentameric interface supporting increased stability. we assessed the stability of the 18 recombinant mutant virus ...201728298597
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype o isolated from gimje, republic of korea, in 2016.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o virus isolated from gimje, republic of korea, is reported here.201728280025
complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype o, isolated from gochang, republic of korea, in 2016.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype o virus isolated from gochang, republic of korea, is reported here.201728280023
purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus by heparin as ligand for certain strains.the goal of this project was to develop an easily operable and scalable process for the recovery and purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from cell culture. heparin resins hiptrap heparin hp and af-heparin hc-650 were utilized to purify fmdv o/hn/cha/93. results showed that the purity of af-heparin hc-650 was ideal. then, the o/hn/cha/93, o/tibet/cha/99, asia i/hn/06, and a/cha/hb/2009 strains were purified by af-heparin hc-650. their affinity/virus recoveries were approximately 5 ...201728260627
identification of a conserved conformational epitope in the vp2 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. vp2 is a structural protein of fmdv. in this study, a potent fmdv serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (mab) 3d9 was generated. screening of a phage-displayed random 12-peptide library revealed that mab 3d9 bound to phages displaying a consensus motif gvyxxayxw that is highly homologous to the (89)gvyxxxxxxxayxx ...201728258408
quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in india.the goal of this study was to characterize the properties and duration of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) carrier state and associated serological responses subsequent to vaccination and naturally occurring infection at two farms in northern india. despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of fmd occurred in october 2013 within a subset of animals at the farms containing juvenile-yearling heifers and steers (farm a) and adult dairy cattle (farm b). subsequent to the ...201728251837
a novel bicistronic expression system composed of the intraflagellar transport protein gene ift25 and fmdv 2a sequence directs robust nuclear gene expression in chlamydomonas reinhardtii.chlamydomonas reinhardtii offers a great promise for large-scale production of multiple recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical and industrial interest. however, the nuclear-encoding transgenes usually are expressed at a low level, which severely hampers the use of this alga in molecular farming. in this study, the promoter of the endogenous intraflagellar transport 25 (ift25) gene of c. reinhardtii was tested for its ability to drive the expression of green fluorescent protein (gfp), which funct ...201728238082
the b cell response to foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following sequential vaccination with multiple serotypes.foot-and mouth disease virus is a highly contagious viral disease. antibodies are pivotal in providing protection against fmdv infection. serological protection against one fmdv serotype doesn't confer inter-serotypic protection. however, some historical data have shown inter-serotypic protection can be induced following sequential fmdv challenge with multiple fmdv serotypes. in this study we have investigated the kinetics of the fmdv-specific antibody secreting cell response following homologou ...201728228594
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat1 in cattle, nigeria.the knowledge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) dynamics and epidemiology in nigeria and the west africa subregion is important to support local and regional control plans and international risk assessment. foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype south african territories (sat)1 was isolated, identified and characterized from an fmd outbreak in cattle in nigeria in 2015, 35 years after the last report of fmdv sat1 in west africa. the vp1 coding sequence of the nigerian 2015 sat1 isolates dive ...201728224715
interaction between fmdv l(pro) and transcription factor adnp is required for optimal viral replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader protease (l(pro)) inhibits host translation and transcription affecting the expression of several factors involved in innate immunity. in this study, we have identified the host transcription factor adnp (activity dependent neuroprotective protein) as an l(pro) interacting protein by mass spectrometry. we show that l(pro) can bind to adnp in vitro and in cell culture. rnai of adnp negatively affected virus replication and higher levels of interferon ...201728219017
potential of electrolyzed water for disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.acidic electrolyzed water (ew) (ph 2.6-5.8) and alkaline ew (ph 11.2-12.1) were examined as potential disinfectants against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using acidic ew with ph 2.6 and alkaline ew with ph >11.7, the viral titer decreased in vitro by > 4.0 log values, 2 min after the virus was mixed with ew at a 1:10 dilution. the strong virucidal effect of acidic ew (ph 2.6), but not that of alkaline ew (>11.7), seemed to depend on the chlorine level in the solution. genetic analysis rev ...201728216545
sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of foot and mouth disease in ethiopia.foot and mouth disease (fmd), world's most important highly infectious and contagious trans-boundary animal diseases, is responsible for huge global losses of livestock production as well as severe impacts on international trade. this vesicular disease is caused by foot and mouth disease virus of the genus aphthovirus, family picornaviridae. currently fmd is major global animal health problem and endemic in africa including ethiopia. this paper systematically reviewed the sero-prevalence reports ...201728209551
a versatile 2a peptide-based bicistronic protein expressing platform for the industrial cellulase producing fungus, trichoderma reesei.the industrial workhorse fungus, trichoderma reesei, is typically exploited for its ability to produce cellulase enzymes, whereas use of this fungus for over-expression of other proteins (homologous and heterologous) is still very limited. identifying transformants expressing target protein is a tedious task due to low transformation efficiency, combined with highly variable expression levels between transformants. routine methods for identification include pcr-based analysis, western blotting, ...201728184247
in-cell shape uncovers dynamic interactions between the untranslated regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna. 201728180318
exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in libya.sporadic outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) have occurred in libya for almost fifty years. during the spring of 2013, a countrywide serosurvey was undertaken to assess the level of fmd virus circulation and identify fmd virus serotypes in the country. a total of 4221 sera were collected, comprising samples from large ruminants (lr; n=1428 samples from 357 farms) and small ruminants (sr; n=2793 samples from 141 farms). fmd sero-prevalence of nsp antibodies determined by elisa were 19.0% (2 ...201728180094
development of real-time and lateral flow strip reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assays for rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an economically important, office international des epizooties (oie) notifiable, transboundary viral disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goat. ppr virus (pprv), a negative-sense single-stranded rna virus, is the causal agent of ppr. therefore, sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of pprv are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose suspected case of ppr.201728173845
rational design and efficacy of a multi-epitope recombinant protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a in pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and outbreaks of this disease are often economically catastrophic. recently, a series of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a occurred in many countries, including china. therefore, it is necessary to develop safe and effective vaccines. we designed multi-epitope recombinant proteins a6, a7, and a8 with different three-dimensional structures and compared their immunogenicity in pigs. the ...201728161579
host microrna-203a is antagonistic to the progression of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.sam68 was previously shown to be a critical host factor for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication. microrna (mir) mir-203a is reportedly a negative regulator of sam68 expression both in vitro and in vivo. here, transfection of mir-203a-3p and mir-203a-5p mimics separately and in combination in a porcine cell line followed by fmdv infection resulted in diminished viral protein synthesis and a 4 and 6log reduction in virus titers relative to negative controls, respectively. unexpectedly, ...201728152384
antiviral activity of ovine interferon tau 4 against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically important disease in most parts of the world and new therapeutic agents are needed to protect the animals before vaccination can trigger the host immune response. although several interferons have been used for their antiviral activities against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), ovine interferon tau 4 (ovifn-τ4), with a broad-spectrum of action, cross-species antiviral activity, and lower incidence of toxicity in comparison to other type і inter ...201728137623
targeting of aberrant αvβ6 integrin expression in solid tumors using chimeric antigen receptor-engineered t cells.expression of the αvβ6 integrin is upregulated in several solid tumors. in contrast, physiologic expression of this epithelial-specific integrin is restricted to development and epithelial re-modeling. here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a chimeric antigen receptor (car) that couples the recognition of this integrin to the delivery of potent therapeutic activity in a diverse repertoire of solid tumor models. highly selective targeting αvβ6 was achieved using a foot and mout ...201728129120
genome variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the short period of the 2010 epidemic in japan.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly contagious and has a high mutation rate, leading to extensive genetic variation. to investigate how fmdv genetically evolves over a short period of an epidemic after initial introduction into an fmd-free area, whole l-fragment sequences of 104 fmdvs isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan, which continued for less than three months were determined and phylogenetically and comparatively analyzed. phylogenetic analysis of whole l-fragment sequences sh ...201728110786
development of a blocking elisa using a monoclonal antibody to a dominant epitope in non-structural protein 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus, as a matching test for a negative-marker vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a devastating animal disease. strategies for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (diva) remain very important for controlling disease. development of an epitope-deleted marker vaccine and accompanying diagnostic method will improve the efficiency of diva. here, a monoclonal antibody (mab) was found to recognize a conserved "aeknple" epitope spanning amino acids 109-115 of non-structural protein (nsp) 3a of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv; o/tibe ...201728107470
foot-and-mouth disease virus infection suppresses autophagy and nf-кb antiviral responses via degradation of atg5-atg12 by 3c(pro).autophagy-related protein atg5-atg12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication. previous reports show that atg5-atg12 positively or negatively regulates type i interferon (ifn-α/β) pathway during virus infection. in this study, we found that fmdv infection rapidly induced lc3 lipidation and gfp-lc3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in pk-15 cells. along wi ...201728102839
detection and molecular characterization of foot and mouth disease viruses from outbreaks in some states of northern nigeria 2013-2015.control measures for foot and mouth disease (fmd) in nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating fmd virus (fmdv) serotypes/strains. in 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported fmd outbreaks in four states (kaduna, kwara, plateau and bauchi) in northern nigeria. fmdv non-structural protein (nsp) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of ...201728097814
balanced secretion of anti-cea × anti-cd3 diabody chains using the 2a self-cleaving peptide maximizes diabody assembly and tumor-specific cytotoxicity.adoptive transfer of genetically engineered human cells secreting bispecific t-cell engagers has shown encouraging therapeutic effects in preclinical models of cancer. however, reducing the toxicity and improving the effectiveness of this emerging immunotherapeutic strategy will be critical to its successful application. we have demonstrated that for gene-based bispecific antibody strategies, two-chain diabodies have a better safety profile than single-chain tandem scfvs (single-chain variable f ...201728075428
development of a feature and template-assisted assembler and application to the analysis of a foot-and-mouth disease virus genotyping microarray.several rt-pcr and genome sequencing strategies exist for the resolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). while these approaches are relatively straightforward, they can be vulnerable to failure due to the unpredictable nature of fmdv genome sequence variations. sequence independent single primer amplification (sispa) followed by genotyping microarray offers an attractive unbiased approach to fmdv characterization. here we describe a custom fmdv microarray and a companion feature and temp ...201728045937
adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine confers early and full protection against fmdv o1 manisa in swine.a human adenovirus (ad5) vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o1-manisa subunit vaccine (ad5-o1man) was engineered to deliver fmdv o1-manisa capsid and capsid-processing proteins. swine inoculated with ad5-o1man developed an fmdv-specific humoral response as compared to animals inoculated with an empty ad5-vector. vaccinated animals were completely protected against homologous challenge at 7 or 21 days post-vaccination. potency studies exhibited a pd50 of about 10(7) pfu/animal while a d ...201728039799
determinants of the vp1/2a junction cleavage by the 3c protease in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor, p1-2a, is cleaved by fmdv 3c protease to yield vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a. cleavage of the vp1/2a junction is the slowest. serotype o fmdvs with uncleaved vp1-2a (having a k210e substitution in vp1; at position p2 in cleavage site) have been described previously and acquired a second site substitution (vp1 e83k) during virus rescue. furthermore, introduction of the vp1 e83k substitution alone generated a second site change at the vp1/2a junctio ...201727902359
efficacy of accelerated hydrogen peroxide(®) disinfectant on foot-and-mouth disease virus, swine vesicular disease virus and senecavirus a.in a laboratory, disinfectants used to inactivate pathogens on contaminated surfaces and to prevent spread of diseases often have adverse side effects on personnel and the environment. it is, therefore, essential to find safer, fast-acting and yet effective disinfectants. the objective of this study was to evaluate an accelerated hydrogen peroxide(®) (ahp(®) )-based disinfectant against high consequence foreign animal disease pathogens such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and swine vesicu ...201727886439
evidence of vp1 of duck hepatitis a type 1 virus as a target of neutralizing antibodies and involving receptor-binding activity.the vp1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a major target of neutralizing antibodies and is responsible for viral attachment to permissive cells via an rgd motif. vp1 of duck hepatitis a type 1 virus (dhav-1) does not contain any rgd motif. to investigate the antibody and receptor-binding properties of dhav-1, vp1 has been expressed as a his fusion protein (his-vp1) in baculovirus system. sera against his-vp1 raised in rabbits effectively neutralized dhav-1 infection in vitro ...201727816429
experimental infections using the foot-and-mouth disease virus o/jpn/2010 in animals administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in japan.the effectiveness of a vaccine preserved for emergency use in japan was analyzed under experimental conditions using cows and pigs in order to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of the emergency vaccination performed in the 2010 epidemic in japan. cows and pigs were administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in japan at 3 or 30 days before virus infection (dbv) and were subsequently infected with the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o/jpn/2010, which was isolated in the 2010 e ...201727773883
an integrative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus carriers in vietnam achieved through targeted surveillance and molecular epidemiology.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a major constraint to transboundary trade in animal products, yet much of its natural ecology and epidemiology in endemic regions is still poorly understood. to address this gap, a multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic fmd in vietnam. within the study space, it was found that 22.3% of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with fmd virus (fmdv), of which 10.8% were persistent, asym ...201726301461
eradication of transboundary animal diseases: can the rinderpest success story be repeated?a matrix system was developed to aid in the evaluation of the technical amenability to eradication, through mass vaccination, of transboundary animal diseases (tads). the system involved evaluation of three basic criteria - disease management efficiency, surveillance and epidemiological factors - each in turn comprised of a number of elements (17 in all). on that basis, 25 tads that have occurred or do occur in southern africa and for which vaccines are available, in addition to rinderpest (inco ...201726104982
review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus affects livestock worldwide. there are seven different serotypes, each with a diversity of topotypes, genetic lineages and strains. some lineages have different properties that may contribute to sporadic spread beyond their recognized endemic areas. the objective of this study was to review the most significant fmd epidemiological events that took place worldwide between 2007 and 2014. severe epidemics were caused by fmd virus (fmdv) lineage o/asia/mya-98 in ja ...201725996568
foot-and-mouth disease in red deer - experimental infection and test methods performance.the aim of this study was to evaluate a number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) test methods for use in red deer. ten animals were intranasally inoculated with the fmd virus (fmdv) o ukg 11/2001, monitored for clinical signs, and samples taken regularly (blood, serum, oral swabs, nasal swabs, probang samples and lesion swabs, if present) over a 4-week period. only one animal, deer 1103, developed clinical signs (lesions under the tongue and at the coronary band of the right hind hoof). it tested ...201725907028
early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. early detection of fmd virus (fmdv) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of fmdv rna in infected animals, related to the aerogenous nature of the virus. in the current study, air from rooms housing individual (n = 17) or two groups (n = 4) of cattle experimentally infected with fdmv a24 cruzeiro of different virulen ...201726303975
production of japanese encephalitis virus antigens in plants using bamboo mosaic virus-based vector.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is among the major threats to public health in asia. for disease control and prevention, the efficient production of safe and effective vaccines against jev is in urgent need. in this study, we produced a plant-made jev vaccine candidate using a chimeric virus particle (cvp) strategy based on bamboo mosaic virus (bamv) for epitope presentation. the chimeric virus, designated bj2a, was constructed by fusing jev envelope protein domain iii (ediii) at the n-terminu ...201728515719
a bivalent dendrimeric peptide bearing a t-cell epitope from foot-and-mouth disease virus protein 3a improves humoral response against classical swine fever virus.three dendrimeric peptides were synthesized in order to evaluate their immunogenicity and their potential protection against classical swine fever virus (csfv) in domestic pigs. construct 1, an optimized version of a previously used dendrimer, had four copies of a b-cell epitope derived from csfv e2 glycoprotein connected to an also csfv-derived t-cell epitope through maleimide instead of thioether linkages. construct 2 was similarly built but included only two copies of the b-cell epitope, and ...201728571760
development of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2.porcine circovirus virus type ii (pcv2) is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (pdns), and necrotizing pneumonia. rapid diagnosis tool for detection of pcv2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (pcv2 real-time rpa assay) and rpa combined with lateral flow dipstick (pcv2 rpa lfd assay) were developed ta ...201728424790
synonymous codon usage analysis of hand, foot and mouth disease viruses: a comparative study on coxsackievirus a6, a10, a16, and enterovirus 71 from 2008 to 2015.enterovirus 71 (ev71) and coxsackievirus a16 (cva16) have been considered major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) throughout the world for decades. in recent years, coxsackievirus a6 (cva6) and coxsackievirus a10 (cva10) have raised attention as two other serious pathogens of hfmd. the present study focused on the synonymous codon usage of four viruses isolated from 2008 to 2015, with particular attention on p1 (encoding capsid proteins) and p2-p3 regions (both encoding non-struct ...201728602802
development of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip based on hsp70 for the rapid detection of echinococcus granulosus in sheep.echinococcus granulosus is the causative pathogen of cystic echinococcosis, a serious disease endangering human and animal health. in this study, an immunochromatographic strip was developed based on the recombinant protein heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) for the serological detection of e. granulosus. the protocol completes within 20min requiring no specialized equipment or chemical reagents, while specificity tests confirmed no cross-reactivity with positive serum of fasciola hepatica, haemonchu ...201728576342
a naturally occurring recombinant enterovirus expresses a torovirus deubiquitinase.enteroviruses (evs) are implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. in this study, a novel enterovirus (enterovirus species g [evg]) (evg 08/nc_usa/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample from a neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified by using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. the viral genome shares 75.4% nucleotide identity with a prototypic evg strain (pev9 ukg/410/73). remarkably, a 582-nucleotide insertion, flanked by 3c(pro) cleavage sites at the 5' and 3 ...201728490584
single-round infectious particle antiviral screening assays for the japanese encephalitis virus.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with a positive-sense single-stranded rna genome that contains a big open reading frame (orf) flanked by 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (utrs). nearly 30,000 je cases with 10,000 deaths are still annually reported in east asia. although the jev genotype iii vaccine has been licensed, it elicits a lower protection against other genotypes. moreover, no effective treatment for a je case is developed. this study constructed a pbr322- ...201728394283
isolation of single-domain antibody fragments that preferentially detect intact (146s) particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus for use in vaccine quality control.intact (146s) foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdvs) can dissociate into specific (12s) viral capsid degradation products. fmd vaccines normally consist of inactivated virions. vaccine quality is dependent on 146s virus particles rather than 12s particles. we earlier isolated two llama single-domain antibody fragments (vhhs) that specifically recognize 146s particles of fmdv strain o1 manisa and shown their potential use in quality control of fmd vaccines during manufacturing. these 146s-specific ...201728861080
development of duplex pcr for differential detection of goatpox and sheeppox viruses.clinically, sheeppox and goatpox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. a cheaper and easy method for differential diagnosis is important in control of this disease in endemic region.201728859636
emergence of an exotic strain of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus o/me-sa/ind-2001d in south-east asia in 2015.the o/middle east-south asia (me-sa)/ind-2001 lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is endemic in the indian subcontinent and has been reported in the middle east and north africa, but it had not been detected in south-east asia (sea) before 2015. this study reports the recent incursions of this viral lineage into sea, which caused outbreaks in vientiane capital of lao people's democratic republic (pdr) in april 2015, in dak nong, dak lak and ninh thuan provinces of vietnam from may to ...201728856846
rnai combining sleeping beauty transposon system inhibits ex vivo expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus vp1 in transgenic sheep cells.foot and mouth disease, which is induced by the foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), takes its toll on the cloven-hoofed domestic animals. the vp1 gene in fmdv genome encodes the viral capsid, a vital element for fmdv replication. sleeping beauty (sb) is an active dna-transposon system responsible for genetic transformation and insertional mutagenesis in vertebrates. in this study, a conserved vp1-shrna which specifically targets the ovine fmdv-vp1 gene was constructed and combined with sb trans ...201728855524
cross-species hybridization of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bhk-21 cells using human and mouse oligonucleotide microarrays.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has a dual capacity to induce either acute or persistent infection in host animals. establishment of an in vitro cell model of fmdv persistent infection facilitates the study of the mechanism underlying this type of infection. in this study, we analyzed gene expression profiles of both acute and persistent infections using cross-species microarrays. our data suggest that human microarrays are more efficient than mouse microarrays in hybridization with cdna fro ...201728854794
enrichment of viral nucleic acids by solution hybrid selection with genus specific oligonucleotides.despite recent advances, our knowledge of potential and rare human pathogens is far from exhaustive. current molecular diagnostic tools mainly rely on the specific amplification of marker sequences and may overlook infections caused by unknown and rare pathogens. using high-throughput sequencing (hts) can solve this problem; but, due to the extremely low fraction of pathogen genetic material in clinical samples, its application is only cost-effective in special, rather than routine, cases. in th ...201728852181
genome sequences of seven foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates collected from serial samples from one persistently infected carrier cow in vietnam.several foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) carrier cattle were identified in vietnam by the recovery of infectious virus from oropharyngeal fluid. this report contains the first near-complete genome sequences of seven viruses from sequential samples from one carrier animal collected over the course of 1 year. the characterization of within-host viral evolution has implications for fmdv control strategies.201728839030
defining the relative performance of isothermal assays that can be used for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this study describes the first multiway comparison of portable isothermal assays for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), benchmarked against real-time reverse transcription rt-pcr (rrt-pcr). the selected isothermal chemistries included reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) and reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (rt-rpa). the analytical sensitivity of rt-lamp was comparable to rrt-pcr (10(1) rna copies), while rt-rpa was o ...201728837842
adaption of fmdv asia-1 to suspension culture: cell resistance is overcome by virus capsid alterations.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease with catastrophic economic impact for affected countries. bhk21 suspension cells are preferred for the industrial production of fmdv vaccine antigen, but not all virus strains can be successfully propagated in these cells. serotype asia-1 is often affected by this phenomenon. in this study, the asia-1 strain shamir was used to examine viral, cellular and environmental factors that contribute to resistance to cell culture infe ...201728820470
galectin-8 activates dendritic cells and stimulates antigen-specific immune response elicitation.galectin-8 (gal-8) is a mammalian β-galactoside-binding lectin, endowed with proinflammatory properties. given its capacity to enhance antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, we investigated whether gal-8 was also able to promote apc activation to sustain t cell activation after priming. both endogenous [dendritic cells (dcs)] and bone marrow-derived dcs (bmdcs) treated with exogenous gal-8 exhibited a mature phenotype characterized by increased mhc class ii (mhcii), cd80, and cd86 surface ex ...201728811319
protective effects of high-potency fmdv o1 manisa monovalent vaccine in cattle challenged with fmdv o/skr/2010 at 7 or 4 days post vaccination.serotype o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus belonging to the sea topotype continues to be a significant problem in the eastern asia region, with outbreaks in japan and south korea resulting in the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in recent years. high-potency o1 manisa vaccine was previously shown to provide protection in cattle 21days post vaccination (dpv) following challenge with a representative virus, o/skr/2010. this study tested the ability of the o1 manisa vaccine to protect ...201728789849
efficacy of a high potency o1 manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus of o/sea/mya-98 lineage in sheep.potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. however, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. to determine the efficacy of a high potency (>6pd50) fmd virus (fmdv) o1manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a het ...201728780422
direct detection and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in east africa using a field-ready real-time pcr platform.effective control and monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) relies upon rapid and accurate disease confirmation. currently, clinical samples are usually tested in reference laboratories using standardized assays recommended by the world organisation for animal health (oie). however, the requirements for prompt and serotype-specific diagnosis during fmd outbreaks, and the need to establish robust laboratory testing capacity in fmd-endemic countries have motivated the development of simple di ...201728758346
g3bp1 interacts directly with the fmdv ires and negatively regulates translation.rna-protein interactions play a pivotal role in the function of picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (ires) elements. here we analysed the impact of ras gtpase sh3 domain binding protein 1 (g3bp1) in the ires activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). we found that g3bp1 interacts directly with three distinct sequences of the ires element using rna electrophoretic mobility-shift assays. analysis of the interaction with domain 5 indicated that the g3bp1 binding-site is placed at the si ...201728755480
evaluating the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour against foot-and-mouth disease virus within a bsl4 biosafety facility.an evaluation was made of the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide vapour (hpv) against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in a biosafety facility. biological indicators (bis) were produced using three serotypes of fmdv, all with a titre of ≥10(6) tcid50 per ml. fifteen bis of each serotype were distributed across five locations, throughout a 30-m(3) airlock chamber, producing a total of 45 bis. thirty-five percent hpv was generated and applied using a bioquell vaporization module located in the c ...201728736948
uncleaved 2a-peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus can display foreign epitope-tag at the virion surface.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid precursor protein p1-2a is cleaved by viral-encoded 3c protease (3c(pro)) to generate vp0, vp3, vp1 and 2a proteins. it was reported earlier that substitution of a single amino acid residue within the 2a peptide sequence (l2p) blocked the 3c(pro) mediated vp1/2a cleavage and produced 'self-tagged' fmdv particles containing uncleaved 2a-peptide. to determine whether the uncleaved 2a-peptide can function as a target structure to harbour and display exogen ...201728734763
adjuvantation of inactivated foot and mouth disease virus vaccine with il-15 expressing plasmid improves the immune response in guinea pigs.foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven footed animals. vaccination using inactivated virus is followed to control the disease. as the immune response conferred by the inactivated vaccine is short lived, there is a need for an alternate vaccine with increased duration of immunity. inclusion of adjuvant which enhances b and t cell responses is one of the strategies to increase the duration of immune responses of the vaccine. interleukin 15 is one such a cytokine whi ...201728734743
antigenic variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o during serial cytolytic passage.the emergence and disappearance of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) during a field outbreak occurs periodically due to the volatile nature of its genome. in the present analysis, change in antigenic behavior of serotype o fmdv during the serial cytolytic passage in the absence of immune pressure was observed. initially, the isolate showed a poor antigenic match (relationship value <0.3) with the serotype o vaccine strain and upon serial passage increase in relationship v ...201728718047
development of real-time and lateral flow dipstick recombinase polymerase amplification assays for rapid detection of goatpox virus and sheeppox virus.goatpox virus (gtpv) and sheeppox virus (sppv), which belong to the capripoxvirus (capv), are economically important pathogens of small ruminants. therefore, a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for detection of gtpv and sppv is necessary to accurately and promptly control these diseases.201728716095
emergence and whole-genome sequence of senecavirus a in colombia.in 2015 and 2016, senecavirus a (sva) emerged as an infectious disease in brazil, china and the united states (us). in a colombian commercial swine farm, vesicles on the snout and coronary bands were reported and tested negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), but positive for sva. the whole-genome phylogenetic analysis indicates the colombian strain clusters with the strains from the united states, not with the recent sva strains from brazil.201728714178
identification of a conformational neutralizing epitope on the vp1 protein of type a foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. in recent years, outbreaks of serotype a fmd have occurred in many countries. high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of fmdv serotype a and protect against future pandemics. in this study, we generated a serotype a fmdv-specific pot ...201728711695
isolation, identification and retrospective study of foot-and-mouth disease virus from affected mithun (bos frontalis) in north-eastern india.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes substantial and perpetual economic loss. apart from the contagious nature of the disease, the fmd virus can establish in a "carrier state" among all cloven-hoofed animals. the mithun (bos frontalis), popularly called the "cattle of mountain," is found in the geographically isolated, hilly region of north-east india: arunachal pradesh, nagaland, manipur and mizoram. despite the geographical inaccessibility, ...201728707820
negative regulation of hepatic inflammation by the soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.host immune response is tightly controlled by negative regulators to avoid excessive immune reactions for homeostasis. some pathogens may take advantage of host negative regulating system to evade host defense. our previous report showed that foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vp1 inhibited tnf-α- and sev-induced type i interferon response via interaction with cellular protein soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin). conversely, tnf-α- or sev-induced type i interferon respon ...201728706517
adoption of the 2a ribosomal skip principle to tobacco mosaic virus for peptide display.plant viruses are suitable as building blocks for nanomaterials and nanoparticles because they are easy to modify and can be expressed and purified using plants or heterologous expression systems. plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and nanowires, and for biomedical imaging applications. fluorescent protein fusions have been instrumental for the tagging of plant virus particles. the monomeric non-oxygen-dependent fl ...201728702043
enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsids.analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. while measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. determining the immunoglobulin (ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will fa ...201728689695
inhibition of viral replication by small interfering rna targeting of the foot-and-mouth disease virus receptor integrin β6.in animals, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) causes symptoms such as fever, limping and the development of blister spots on the skin and mucous membranes. rna interference (rnai) may be a novel way of controlling the fmd virus (fmdv), specifically by targeting its cognate receptor protein integrin β6. the present study used rnai technology to construct and screen plasmids that expressed small interfering rna molecules (sirnas) specific for the integrin β6 subunit. expression of green fluorescence pr ...201728672992
foot-and-mouth disease virus induces lysosomal degradation of host protein kinase pkr by 3c proteinase to facilitate virus replication.the interferon-induced double-strand rna activated protein kinase (pkr) plays important roles in host defense against viral infection. here we demonstrate the significant antiviral role of pkr against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and report that fmdv infection inhibits pkr expression and activation in porcine kidney (pk-15) cells. the viral nonstructural protein 3c proteinase (3c(pro)) is identified to be responsible for this inhibition. however, it is independent of the well-known protei ...201728662438
molecular mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus targeting the host antiviral response.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of an acute vesicular disease affecting pigs, cattle and other domestic, and wild animals worldwide. the aim of the host interferon (ifn) response is to limit viral replication and spread. detection of the viral genome and products by specialized cellular sensors initiates a signaling cascade that leads to a rapid antiviral response involving the secretion of type i- and type iii-ifns and other antiviral cytokines with antiproliferative ...201728660175
differential replication of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality.adult c57bl/6j mice have been used to study foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) biology. in this work, two variants of an fmdv a/arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (a01nl) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a lethal virus (a01l) caused death within 24-48h independently of the dose used. both viruses caused a systemic infection with pathological changes in the exocrine pancreas. virus a01l reached higher viral ...201728647507
comparison of different inactivation methods on the stability of indian vaccine strains of foot and mouth disease virus.in this study, the efficiency of binary ethyleneimine (bei) in combination with formaldehyde (fa) and glutaraldehyde (gta) in inactivating the indian fmdv vaccine strains is compared. the acceptable safety of virus inactivation was faster and the inactivation rates were increased many-folds with combination of inactivants than bei alone. fmdv a was inactivated rapidly than the other two serotypes with bei + fa combination. inactivation plots were linear for all the serotypes irrespective of inac ...201728645721
t135i substitution in the nonstructural protein 2c enhances foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3a plays an important role in viral replication, virulence, and host range. it has been shown that deletions of 10 or 19-20 amino acids in the c-terminal half of 3a attenuate serotype o and c fmdvs, which replicate poorly in bovine cells but normally in porcine-derived cells, and the c-terminal half of 3a is not essential for serotype asia1 fmdv replication in bhk-21 cells. in this study, we constructed a 3a deletion fmdv mutant based ...201728634750
immunogenicity of t7 bacteriophage nanoparticles displaying g-h loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv).foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes severe economic losses worldwide. the g-h loop of the fmdv vp1 structural protein is the major neutralizing antigenic site. however, a fully protective g-h loop peptide vaccine requires the addition of promiscuous th sites from a source outside vp1. thus, we demonstrated the potential of t7 bacteriophage based nanoparticles displaying a genetically fused g-h loop peptide (t7-gh) as a fmdv vaccine can ...201728622860
inter-laboratory validation of foot-and-mouth disease diagnostic capability in germany.germany has been free from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) without vaccination since 1992, but diagnostic capability at regional laboratories is maintained for fmdv exclusion in suspect cases and as surge capacity for outbreak preparedness. a proficiency test was initiated in 2015 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 20 regional veterinary laboratories. a panel of two identical samples of fmdv genome for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), four lyophilize ...201728619169
preserved immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine based on foot-and-mouth disease virus particles with improved stability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. vaccines based on inactivated fmdv virions provide a useful tool for the control of this pathogen. however, long term storage at 4°c (the temperature for vaccine storage) or ruptures of the cold chain, provoke the dissociation of virions, reducing the immunogenicity of the vaccine. an fmdv mutant carrying amino acid replacements vp1 n17d and vp2 h145y isolated pre ...201728619156
recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (ad5- fmd) were made for three indian vaccine virus serotypes o, a and asia 1. constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (fmdv) capsid and viral 3c protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (bos indicus). purified ad5-fmd viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×10(9) pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×10(9) pfu/animal per serotype) vaccin ...201728619144
evaluation of gaussia luciferase and foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a translational interrupter chimeras as polycistronic reporters for transgene expression.the gaussia princeps luciferase is used as a stand-alone reporter of transgene expression for in vitro and in vivo expression systems due to the rapid and easy monitoring of luciferase activity. we sought to simultaneously quantitate production of other recombinant proteins by transcriptionally linking the gaussia princeps luciferase gene to other genes of interest through the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a translational interrupter sequence.201728606077
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