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enteroviral meningitis in northern jordan: prevalence and association with clinical findings.during the summer-autumn of 1999, 390 specimens of cerebrospinal fluid were taken from infants and children younger than 15 years of age. they were suspected of having meningitis and were admitted to princess rahma hospital, northern jordan. they were investigated for the presence of enteroviruses using shell vial culture and indirect immunofluorescence assays. most cases (46.9%) occurred in children younger than 1 year of age in which males represented 71.9%. the common symptoms were fever, vom ...200211782931
echovirus 4 and type 1 diabetes mellitus.to determine the association between exposure to enteroviruses and type 1 diabetes.200111905853
design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship of pyridyl imidazolidinones: a novel class of potent and selective human enterovirus 71 inhibitors.when skeletons of win compounds were used as templates, computer-assisted drug design led to the identification of a novel series of imidazolidinone derivatives with significant antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (ev 71), the infection of which had resulted in about 80 fatalities during the 1998 epidemic outbreak in taiwan. in addition to inhibiting all the genotypes (a, b, and c) of ev 71 in the submicromolar to low micromolar range, compounds 1 and 8 were extensively evaluated against a ...200211931618
molecular analysis of the echovirus 18 prototype: evidence of interserotypic recombination with echovirus 9.echovirus 18 (ev18) is one of the echovirus serotypes associated with human diseases and in particular aseptic meningitis. to facilitate studies of the molecular epidemiology of ev18 and the evolution of enteroviruses in general, the complete nucleotide (nt) sequence was determined for the echovirus 18 prototype strain (metcalf, ev18m). excluding the poly a sequence, the genome consists of 7410 nt divided into a 740 nt 5' untranslated region (5' utr), a 6567 nt long open reading frame coding for ...200211955640
functional impairment and killing of human beta cells by enteroviruses: the capacity is shared by a wide range of serotypes, but the extent is a characteristic of individual virus strains.direct infection of beta cells could explain the diabetogenic effect of enteroviruses. primary adult human beta cells are susceptible to coxsackievirus infections, which could result in impaired beta-cell function or cell death (coxsackieviruses b3, b4, b5) or both, or no apparent immediate adverse effects (coxsackievirus a9). we extended these studies to additional enterovirus serotypes including several echoviruses, some of which have been associated clinically with the development of type i ( ...200212107750
[intrathecal synthesis pattern of immunoglobulins in meningoencephalitis epidemic due to echovirus 9].epidemics of meningoencephalitis due to echovirus 9 were commonly occurred when a children population become susceptible for the first time in front the virus.200212436393
molecular and biological analysis of echovirus 9 strain isolated from a diabetic child.the full-length infectious cdna clone was constructed and sequenced from the strain dm of echovirus 9, which was recently isolated from a 6-week-old child at the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes. parallel with the isolate dm, the full-length infectious cdna clone of the prototype strain echovirus 9 barty (barty-inf), was constructed and sequenced. genetic relationships of the sequenced echo 9 viruses to the other members of the human enterovirus type b species were studied by phylogenetic analy ...200312601761
developmental distribution of coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor localized in the nervous system.mouse coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (mcar), which was isolated from the nerve growth cone-enriched fraction of newborn mouse brains, is a member of immunoglobulin-super family, and functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule. we observed the expression of mcar in embryos to adult tissues by means of immunohistochemical analysis with a peptide antibody. mcar expression was first detected in the embryonic ectoderm in the uterus on embryonic day 6.5 (e6.5). then it was strongly expressed ...200312763576
deletion of pe38 attenuates acmnpv genome replication, budded virus production, and virulence in heliothis virescens.the pe38 gene product of autographa californica m nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv) has been shown to be involved in transcriptionally transactivating viral genes and augmenting viral dna replication in transient assays. to assess the role of pe38 during infection, we generated a knockout virus, delta pe38-e9/e9, in which the pe38 open reading frame was replaced with that of the green fluorescent protein. we compared mutant and wild-type (wt) viral replication in insect cell culture and virulence in ...200312781710
outbreaks of aseptic meningitis associated with echoviruses 9 and 30 and preliminary surveillance reports on enterovirus activity--united states, 2003.aseptic or viral meningitis is the most common type of meningitis and is associated with an estimated 26,000--42,000 hospitalizations each year in the united states. enteroviruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. echovirus 9 (e9) and echovirus 30 (e30) have been associated frequently with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis. during march 2003, several state public health departments noted increased reports of aseptic meningitis and, as of august 7, seven states (arizona, california, ...200312917581
studies of a coxsackie virus antigenically related to echo 9 virus and associated with an epidemic of aseptic meningitis with exanthem. 195813523073
echo 9 virus infections in eastern canada: clinical and laboratory studies. 195813523503
echo-9 virus exanthema. 195813538749
epidemic virus meningitis due to echo 9 virus in newfoundland. 195813561219
cases of meningo-encephalitis due to the coxsackie a-like echo 9 virus. 195813602961
neuropathogenicity of non-polio enteroviruses with special reference to echo 9 virus. 195813619950
[studies on pathogenicity of echo-9-virus represented by adaptation experiments with the k 696 strain of echo-9-virus]. 195913642771
echo-9 virus antibody titrations in a hela cell system. 195913658233
a football camp outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to echo 9 virus. 196013708160
[on the problem of the neuropathogenicity of enteroviruses. experimental studies on the neuropathogenicity of various strains of echo-9 virus]. 196113735034
echo 9 virus antibody status after an epidemic period and the possible teratogenic effect of the infection. 196013739510
echo 9 virus in tissue culture observed by light and electron microscopy. 196013741583
structure and development of viruses as observed in the electron microscope. vi. echo virus, type 9.sequential stages in the development and release of echo 9 virus have been illustrated and described. it is suggested that viral particles differentiate and become oriented in columns upon a fine filamentous lattice at cytoplasmic template sites which are distinct from the endoplasmic reticulum. subsequently, virus is dispersed in the peripheral cytoplasm and gains egress from the cell through rents in the plasma membrane. complete cellular disruption with viral release may supervene. the virus ...196113741584
factors determining pathogenicity of variants of echo 9 virus for newborn mice.while some strains of echo 9 virus were found to be completely incapable of multiplying in newborn mice or even of being adsorbed by their tissues (e.g., the prototype hill strain), other naturally occurring strains readily multiplied even after inoculation of as little as 3 tcd(50) of virus. with the multiplying strains, the infection remained clinically inapparent except after inoculation of very large doses, usually in the range of 10(5) to 10(7.5) tcd(50). investigation of the question why s ...195913819536
[localization of an echo-9 virus in the tissues of infected infant mice by means of fluorescing antibodies]. 195913825871
[meningitis caused by echo 9 virus. an epidemic with 30 cases in ringkjobig country in 1958]. 195913839349
studies on an out break of echo 9 virus infection in a circumscribed population. 195913850633
[study by electron microscope of the myositis of newborn mice inoculated with echo 9 virus and observations on the structure of the virus]. 196113862084
multiplication of echo 9 virus in suspensions of human leucocytes. 196113867594
clinical, epidemiological, and virological aspects of echovirus type 9 infection in sheffield, 1960. 196213907890
[study on echo virus 9 infections].at ste. justine hospital, montreal, during the period 1957-61, echo 9 virus was isolated in 27 cases, in 20 of these during the summer of 1961. all had evidence of meningeal irritation, accompanied by fever and headache. four of the 20 patients diagnosed during the summer of 1961 had convulsions; 12 presented with a rash; and two simulated meningococcemia. of the 27 patients, two were paralyzed and one case was diagnosed as transverse myelitis. echo 9 virus was isolated from stools and from thro ...196213928026
enterovirus infections in toronto during 1962.of 37 children from toronto and surrounding districts who developed aseptic meningitis during summer 1962, 17 excreted echo 9 virus in feces and/or cerebrospinal fluid, 12 of whom showed rising or elevated echo 9 antibody levels in paired sera. a further two patients yielded echo 14 virus from cerebrospinal fluid, one of whose feces also contained this virus, and both patients showed rising echo 14 antibody titres. morbilliform rashes without rhinitis or conjunctivitis were encountered in three ...196313932159
relationship of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis to recovery of echo 9 virus. 196214020082
a description of echo-9 virus infection in cultured cells. i. the cytopathic effect. 196414103199
a description of echo-9 virus infection in cultured cells. ii. cytochemical observations. 196414119168
poliomyelitis-like disease in 1960: mumps and echo 9 virus infections. a combined scottish study. 196414143394
echo 9 virus infection or galactosemia. 196414169654
echo 9 virus infection and congenital malformations. 196414198229
kindergarten outbreak of an exanthematous disease caused by echovirus type 9. 196414206732
factors affecting echo-9 virus recovery from cerebrospinal fluid. 196414224771
[familial epidemic of exanthematc disease due to echo 9 virus]. 196414257464
[on the frequency of antibody fixing complement for adenovirus and for echo 9 virus among the personnel of a hospital complex]. 196414308969
experimental variation in mouse virulence of echo 9 virus. 195914416622
an outbreak of disease believed to have been caused by echo 9 virus. 195914419127
a serological survey of antibodies to selected enteroviruses.sera from various population groups in liberia, colombia, peru and southern louisiana, usa, have been studied for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to the following enteroviruses: poliovirus type 1, coxsackie viruses b5 and a9, and echo viruses e6 and e9. the results obtained indicate that these viruses are world-wide in distribution and that infection (though not necessarily disease) occurs at an early age. variations in antibody patterns occur, most notably with coxsackie b5 virus. envir ...196214453374
echo 9 virus infection and congenital abnormalities: a negative report. 196214456823
buthionine sulfoximine inhibits cytopathic effect and apoptosis induced by infection with human echovirus 9.we studied the effect of buthionine sulfoximine (bso) on the replication of an isolate of human echovirus 9 (ev9) and the apoptosis induced by it in gmk cells. one hundred microm bso markedly inhibited the cytopathic effect (cpe) induced by ev9. bso also significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by ev9. bso did not influence replication of ev9 genome, but inhibited virion formation. these results suggest that the inhibition by bso of cpe and apoptosis induced by ev9 may be associated with the im ...200415168199
aseptic meningitis outbreak associated with echovirus 9 among recreational vehicle campers--connecticut, 2003.aseptic meningitis is an inflammation of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord and caused by a virus, most frequently an enterovirus. in august 2003, the connecticut department of public health (cdph) received a report of three viral meningitis cases among recreational vehicle (rv) campers staying at a campground in northeastern connecticut. cdph, assisted by cdc, conducted an investigation, which 1) identified a total of 12 cases of aseptic meningitis and 24 cases of enterovirus-like i ...200415306755
detection of enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, and chlamydia pneumoniae in atheromas.to investigate the presence of infectious agents in human atherosclerotic arterial tissues. atherosclerotic plaques were removed from 128 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy or other bypass procedures for occlusive disease, and from twenty normal arterial wall samples, obtained from transplant donors with no history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, or hyperlipidemia. using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) or reverse transcription-pcr, these samples were analyzed for the presence of ...200415650686
characterization of nonpolio enteroviruses recovered from patients with aseptic meningitis in korea.we attempted to characterize nonpolio enteroviruses recovered from korean patients with aseptic meningitis.200515812181
[safety, stability and immunogenicity of an oral dna vaccine against newcastle disease].mice and 3-day-old chickens were orally inoculated with the recombinant attenuated salmonella typhimurium strain zj111 carrying pcdna3-f expression plasmid encoding the fusion protein of newcastle disease virus (ndv). the results showed that zj111/pcdna3-f was relatively safe. the recombinant plasmid pcdna3-f was stable within the host stain zj111 in vitro and in vivo as shown by restriction enzyme analysis and pcr identification of the f gene. in an experimental vaccination study, 3-day-old chi ...200315969031
vaccinia virus uracil dna glycosylase interacts with the a20 protein to form a heterodimeric processivity factor for the viral dna polymerase.the vaccinia virus e9 protein, the catalytic subunit of the dna polymerase holoenzyme, is inherently distributive under physiological conditions, although infected cells contain a highly processive form of the enzyme. the viral a20 protein was previously characterized as a stoichiometric component of the processivity factor, and an interaction between a20 and e9 was documented in vivo. a20 has been shown to interact with d4, the virally encoded uracil dna glycosylase (udg), by yeast-two hybrid a ...200616326701
enterovirus surveillance--united states, 2002-2004.enteroviruses are common viruses associated with diverse clinical syndromes, ranging from minor febrile illness to severe, potentially fatal conditions (e.g., aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and neonatal enteroviral sepsis). a total of 68 enterovirus serotypes are recognized, including 65 nonpolio enteroviruses. individual serotypes have different temporal patterns of circulation and can be associated with different clinical manifestations. this report describes trends ...200616484979
polioviruses and other enteroviruses isolated from faecal samples of patients with acute flaccid paralysis in australia, 1996-2004.acute flaccid paralysis (afp) is the most common clinical presentation of acute poliovirus infection, occurring in 0.1-1% of infected cases. afp surveillance has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild poliovirus. this study aims to review the significance of all enteroviruses, including polioviruses, isolated from patients with afp in australia between 1996 and 2004.200616737480
[cloning of f gene of newcastle disease virus heb02 isolate and the study of its dna vaccine].in order to amplify f gene of ndv heb02 strain, one pair of primers was designed according to the genbank sequence, and a 1.66 kb f gene fragment was obtained by rt-pcr. sequence analysis indicated that the homologies of the nucleotide sequence of heb02 strain to those of f48 e9, la sota and clone30 strains were 88.1%, 84.9% and 83.8% respectively. the expression plasmid psv-f was constructed by inserting the f gene into the pvax1 vector, and transfected into the cultured cos 7 cell line via lip ...200616755925
molecular typing of enteroviruses associated with viral meningitis in cyprus, 2000-2002.human enteroviruses are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases affecting many different organ systems. although infection is usually asymptomatic, infections of the central nervous system manifested as meningitis or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem, especially during outbreaks. in this study, samples from 218 patients diagnosed with enteroviral meningitis between january 2000 and december 2002 were analysed in order to assess the epidemiology of human enterovir ...200616849723
comparison of multiple shell vial cell lines for isolation of enteroviruses: a national perspective.isolation of enterovirus in cell culture is still utilized by clinical laboratories, for vaccine research, and for identifying serotypes for disease surveillance. use of a combination of cell lines is recommended yet this practice has not been rigorously examined for shell vials.200616884950
enterovirus meningitis in greece from 2003-2005: diagnosis, csf laboratory findings, and clinical manifestations.enteroviruses (evs) are the most commonly identified cause of aseptic meningitis. rapid detection and characterization of ev meningitis is essential in making decisions for patient management and treatment. a total of 52 cases of acute aseptic meningitis that occurred from march 2003 to april 2005 were investigated for evs using viral culture and/or molecular methods directly in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). evs were detected in 21 out of 52 (40.4%) patients using reverse transcription-pcr (rt- ...200616960900
molecular and epidemiologic analysis of enterovirus b neurological infection in argentine children.human enteroviruses are one of the major causes of central nervous system (cns) infections in pediatrics.200616982209
anti-enterovirus activity and structure-activity relationship of a series of 2,6-dihalophenyl-substituted 1h,3h-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazoles.despite the fact that enteroviruses are implicated in a variety of human diseases, there is no approved therapy for the treatment of enteroviral infections. here, a series of 2,6-dihalophenyl-substituted 1h,3h-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazoles with anti-enterovirus activity is reported. the compounds elicit potent activity against coxsackievirus a9, echovirus 9 and 11 and all six strains of coxsackievirus b. a structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the presence of substituents at pos ...200717194441
molecular characterization of enteroviruses isolated from patients with aseptic meningitis in korea, 2005.enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of aseptic meningitis. in 2005, an outbreak of aseptic meningitis occurred in seoul, korea, which appeared to be caused by certain enterovirus strains. this study analyzed the clinical isolates from 24 different aseptic meningitis patients at our center from january to september 2005. serotyping using type-specific antisera, rt-pcr, and direct sequencing of the 5' noncoding and vp1 regions were carried out. the serotyping study identified 15 cox ...200717238012
genetic and phenotypic diversity of echovirus 30 strains and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.several enterovirus serotypes should be considered as potentially diabetogenic. the capacity of an enterovirus to kill or impair the functions of human beta-cells can vary among the strains within a given serotype as shown previously for echovirus 9 and 30 (e-30). the evolution of e-30 has also shown patterns correlating with the global increase of type 1 diabetes incidence. in the present study, antigenic properties of a set of e-30 isolates were investigated and the results correlated with the ...200717516516
downregulated expression of metallothionein and its clinicopathological significance in hepatocellular carcinoma.aim: metallothionein (mt) protein is related to different stages of development and progression of various tumors in humans. the aim of the present study was to investigate expression and localization of mt and their association with clinicopathological characteristics in hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc). methods: histological specimens of 400 hcc with corresponding non-cancerous liver tissues were stained for mt (e9), p53 and ki-67 by immunohistochemical staining using tissue microarrays. rna exp ...200717517078
identification of antibacterial and antiviral activities of novel fused 1,2,4-triazine esters.the in vitro biological activities of novel derivatives of methyl and ethyl 2-(4-oxo-8-aryl-2h-3,4,6,7-tetrahydroimidazo[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazin-3-yl)acetates (3a, 3d-j) have been evaluated and are reported. the final heterobicycles (3a-j) were obtained from monocyclic 1-aryl-2-hydrazonoimidazolidines (2a-f) by addition and cyclization reaction with fumaric acid esters. in particular, compounds 3d and 3e were found to exhibit comparable antibacterial potencies in vitro as that of ampicillin. hetero ...200717572093
echovirus 15 and autumn meningitis outbreak among children, patras, greece, 2005.enteroviruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis, presenting in epidemic or endemic form.200717662647
isothiazole derivatives as antiviral agents.we recently described the synthesis and antiviral activity of the compounds 5-phenyl-3-(4-cyano-5-phenylisothiazol-3-yl) disulphanyl-4-isothiazolecarbonitrile and s-(4-cyano-5-phenylisothiazol -3-yl)-o-ethyl thiocarbonate, which were found to be effective against both hiv-1 (iiib) and hiv-2 (rod). we have now evaluated these compounds against both rna and dna viruses, obtaining high selectivity indexes for poliovirus 1 (si: 223 and 828, respectively) and echovirus 9 (si: 334 and 200, respectivel ...200718046960
maternal infection leads to abnormal gene regulation and brain atrophy in mouse offspring: implications for genesis of neurodevelopmental disorders.prenatal viral infection has been associated with development of schizophrenia and autism. our laboratory has previously shown that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (e9) administration of influenza virus. we hypothesized that late second trimester infection (e18) in mice may lead to a different pattern of brain gene expression and structural defects in the developing offspring. c57bl6j mice were infected ...200818248790
identification of polymerase and processivity inhibitors of vaccinia dna synthesis using a stepwise screening approach.nearly all dna polymerases require processivity factors to ensure continuous incorporation of nucleotides. processivity factors are specific for their cognate dna polymerases. for this reason, the vaccinia dna polymerase (e9) and the proteins associated with processivity (a20 and d4) are excellent therapeutic targets. in this study, we show the utility of stepwise rapid plate assays that (i) screen for compounds that block vaccinia dna synthesis, (ii) eliminate trivial inhibitors, e.g. dna inter ...200818621425
dopamine and serotonin levels following prenatal viral infection in mouse--implications for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.prenatal viral infection has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. it has previously been demonstrated that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (e9) and middle-late second trimester (e18) administration of influenza virus. neurochemical analysis following infection on e18 using this model has revealed significantly altered levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacet ...200818693086
activation of the maternal immune system alters cerebellar development in the offspring.a common pathological finding in autism is a localized deficit in purkinje cells (pcs). cerebellar abnormalities have also been reported in schizophrenia. using a mouse model that exploits a known risk factor for these disorders, maternal infection, we asked if the offspring of pregnant mice given a mid-gestation respiratory infection have cerebellar pathology resembling that seen in these disorders. we also tested the effects of maternal immune activation in the absence of virus by injection of ...200918755264
echovirus type 9 is an important cause of viral encephalitis among infants and young children in kuwait.the role of enteroviruses in encephalitis is not fully established.200919081296
anti-enterovirus 71 activity screening of chinese herbs with anti-infection and inflammation activities.antipyretic and toxin-eliminating traditional chinese herbs are believed to possess antiviral activity. in this study, we screened extracts of 22 herbs for activity against enterovirus 71 (ev71). we found that only extracts of houttuynia cordata thunb. could neutralize ev71-induced cytopathic effects in vero cells. the 50% inhibitory concentration of h. cordata extract for ev71 was 125.92 +/- 27.84 mug/ml. antiviral screening of herb extracts was also conducted on 3 genotypes of ev71, coxsackiev ...200919222118
abnormal differentiation, hyperplasia and embryonic/perinatal lethality in bk5-t/t transgenic mice.the cell-of-origin has a great impact on the types of tumors that develop and the stem/progenitor cells have long been considered main targets of malignant transformation. the sv40 (sv40-simian virus 40) large t and small t antigens (t/t), have been targeted to multiple-differentiated cellular compartments in transgenic mice. in most of these studies, transgenic animals develop tumors without apparent defects in animal development. in this study, we used the bovine keratin 5 (bk5) promoter to ta ...200919272531
development and validation of an immunogold chromatographic test for on-farm detection of prrsv.an immunochromatographic test strip was developed to detect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv). the test uses two gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies: d5 against recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rn) and e9 against recombinant m protein (rm). in the test, prrsv binds to a mixture of d5 and e9 labeled with colloidal gold; the complexes move through a membrane and are captured by rabbit anti-rm and anti-rn antibodies at a test line, producing a reddish-purple band because o ...200919427332
inhibition of vaccinia virus replication by peptide aptamers.a20 protein is a major component of the vaccinia virus replication complex. it binds to the dna polymerase e9, the uracil dna glycosylase d4 and the primase/helicase d5, three proteins that are essential for viral dna synthesis. the identification of molecules able to interact with the replication complex and inhibit its activity is a promising strategy for the design of new anti-orthopoxvirus drugs. in this study, we used a yeast genetic approach to select, from combinatorial libraries, 8-mers ...200919428604
[aseptic meningitis season caused by enteroviruses in 2007: molecular-epidemiological aspects].analysis of manifestation of epidemic process of aseptic meningitis and causes of its activation using molecular genetic methods.200919459473
abnormal expression of myelination genes and alterations in white matter fractional anisotropy following prenatal viral influenza infection at e16 in mice.prenatal viral infection has been associated with the development of schizophrenia and autism. our laboratory has previously shown that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (e9) and late second trimester (e18) administration of influenza virus. we hypothesized that middle second trimester infection (e16) in mice may lead to a different pattern of brain gene expression and structural defects in the developing ...200919487109
vitronectin receptors, alpha v integrins, are recognized by several non-rgd-containing echoviruses in a continuous laboratory cell line and also in primary human langerhans' islets and endothelial cells.previously published data suggest that the rgd-recognizing integrin, alphavbeta3, known as the vitronectin receptor, acts as a cellular receptor for rgd-containing enteroviruses, coxsackievirus a9 (cav-9) and echovirus 9 (e-9), in several continuous cell lines as well as in primary human langerhans' islets. as this receptor is also capable of binding the ligands by a non-rgd-dependent mechanism, we investigated whether vitronectin receptors, alpha v integrins, might act as receptors for other ec ...201019776235
9-arylpurines as a novel class of enterovirus inhibitors.here we report on a novel class of enterovirus inhibitors that can be structurally described as 9-arylpurines. these compounds elicit activity against a variety of enteroviruses in the low microm range including coxsackie virus a16, a21, a24, coxsackie virus b3, and echovirus 9. structure-activity relationship (sar) studies indicate that a chlorine or bromine atom is required at position 6 of the purine ring for antiviral activity. the most selective compounds in this series inhibited coxsackie ...201019924996
molecular identification of enteroviruses including two new types (ev-98 and ev-107) isolated from japanese travellers from asian countries.of 58 enterovirus strains isolated from japanese travellers returning from asian countries, eight were non-serotypable with existing antisera. by sequencing a part of the vp1 region, six of these strains were typed as echovirus 9, enterovirus (ev)-73, ev-79 or ev-97. the nucleotide identity of the vp1 region of isolate t92-1499 to all enterovirus prototypes was <70 %. the vp1 sequence of isolate tn94-0349 was closely related to coxsackievirus (cv)-a9 (73.3 % nucleotide identity), but the virus c ...201019955564
enteroviruses in spain over the decade 1998-2007: virological and epidemiological studies.human enteroviruses (hev) are the commonest cause of viral meningitis as well as other pathologies, therefore hev characterization is important both in patient management and epidemiological investigation.201020007023
pyrazole compound bpr1p0034 with potent and selective anti-influenza virus activity.influenza viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. more recently, a swine-origin influenza a (h1n1) virus that is spreading via human-to-human transmission has become a serious public concern. although vaccination is the primary strategy for preventing infections, influenza antiviral drugs play an important role in a comprehensive approach to controlling illness and transmission. in addition, a search for influenza-inhibiting drugs is particularly important in the f ...201020178582
epidemiologic features and virus isolation of enteroviruses in northern taiwan during 2000-2008.the susceptibility of five cell lines, rd, mrc-5, mk-2, hep-2 and a549, for various serotypes of human enteroviruses was evaluated. rd cells were susceptible to most serotypes of enteroviruses, especially for human enterovirus a. consequently, a high prevalence of human enterovirus a in taiwan may reflect the relative importance of rd cells in the clinical virology laboratory. however, susceptibilities of rd cells to coxsackievirus a9 and a24, and echovirus 9 and 11 were exceptionally low. alter ...201020214926
[etiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in guangzhou in 2008].to understand the etiology of hand, foot and mouth disease (hfmd) in guangzhou area in 2008.201020426938
evolutionary dynamics and temporal/geographical correlates of recombination in the human enterovirus echovirus types 9, 11, and 30.the relationship between virus evolution and recombination in species b human enteroviruses was investigated through large-scale genetic analysis of echovirus type 9 (e9) and e11 isolates (n = 85 and 116) from 16 european, african, and asian countries between 1995 and 2008. cluster 1 e9 isolates and genotype d5 and a e11 isolates showed evidence of frequent recombination between the vp1 and 3dpol regions, the latter falling into 23 (e9) and 43 (e11) clades interspersed phylogenetically with 46 3 ...201020610722
clinical features of echovirus 6 and 9 infections in children.clinical features of echovirus 6 and 9 infections in children have not been comprehensively evaluated, particularly for sporadic cases.201020729140
echoviruses are a major cause of aseptic meningitis in infants and young children in kuwait.the etiologic agents of aseptic meningitis (am) often include human enteroviruses. the role of enteroviruses causing am in young children was investigated during a 3-year period in kuwait.201020846386
vaccinia virus d4 mutants defective in processive dna synthesis retain binding to a20 and dna.genome replication is inefficient without processivity factors, which tether dna polymerases to their templates. the vaccinia virus dna polymerase e9 requires two viral proteins, a20 and d4, for processive dna synthesis, yet the mechanism of how this tricomplex functions is unknown. this study confirms that these three proteins are necessary and sufficient for processivity, and it focuses on the role of d4, which also functions as a uracil dna glycosylase (udg) repair enzyme. a series of d4 muta ...201020861259
nonpolio enterovirus and human parechovirus surveillance --- united states, 2006-2008.enteroviruses, members of the picornaviridae family, are common viruses associated with clinical manifestations ranging from mild respiratory symptoms to serious conditions, including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, neonatal sepsis, and acute flaccid paralysis. approximately 100 serotypes of nonpolio enteroviruses have been recognized, and some viruses previously classified as enteroviruses, namely echovirus 22 and 23, recently have been reclassified as human parechoviruses (hpevs), a differen ...201021150865
comparison of human parechovirus and enterovirus detection frequencies in cerebrospinal fluid samples collected over a 5-year period in edinburgh: hpev type 3 identified as the most common picornavirus type.human enteroviruses (evs) and more recently parechoviruses (hpevs) have been identified as the principal viral causes of neonatal sepsis-like disease and meningitis. the relative frequencies of specific ev and hpev types were determined over a 5-year surveillance period using highly sensitive ev and hpev pcr assays for screening 4,168 cerebrospinal fluid (csf) specimens collected from hospitalized individuals between 2005 and 2010 in edinburgh. positive csf samples were typed by sequencing of vp ...201121412796
identification of inhibitors that block vaccinia virus infection by targeting the dna synthesis processivity factor d4.smallpox was globally eradicated 30 years ago by vaccination. the recent threat of bioterrorism demands the development of improved vaccines and novel therapeutics to effectively preclude a reemergence of smallpox. one new therapeutic target is the vaccinia poxvirus processivity complex, comprising d4 and a20 proteins that enable the viral e9 dna polymerase to synthesize extended strands. five compounds identified from an alphascreen assay designed to disrupt a20:d4 binding were shown to be effe ...201121438571
molecular typing and epidemiology of enteroviruses in cyprus, 2003-2007.human enteroviruses (hevs) are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases. even though usually associated with non-specific febrile illness, they are the most common cause of viral meningitis, pose a serious public health problem, especially during outbreaks. rapid detection and identification of hev serotypes, in clinical specimens is important in appropriate patients management and epidemiological investigation. a 5-year study (2003-2007) of clinical specimens from patients with vira ...201121596905
enteroviral meningitis and concurrent peripheral motor axonal polyneuropathy.enteroviral infections can cause acute flaccid paralysis resulting from anterior myelitis, but the occurrence of axonal polyneuropathy is not well described. we report an 8-year-old boy who presented with symmetric, ascending flaccid paralysis and was diagnosed with concurrent echovirus type 9 viral meningitis.201122016083
the association of recombination events in the founding and emergence of subgenogroup evolutionary lineages of human enterovirus 71.enterovirus 71 (ev71) is responsible for frequent large scale outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease worldwide, and represent a major aetiological agent of severe, sometime fatal neurological disease. ev71 variants have been classified into three genogroups (gga, ggb, ggc), the latter two further subdivided into subgenogroups, b1-b5 and c1-c5. to investigate the dual roles of recombination and evolution in the epidemiology and transmission of ev71 worldwide, we performed a large scale genetic ...201122205739
[etiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in qingdao during 2008-2009].an etiology study on hfmd in qingdao region during 2008-2009 was conducted. the virus rna were isolated from throat swabs of hfmd,the ev, ev71 and cva16 were detected by multiplex realtime rt-pcr. for those specimens with ev positive and both ev71 and cva16 negative,a reverese transcription-seminested polymerase chain reaction (rt-snpcr) was perfomed to amplify part sequence of the vp1 gene for sabsequent analysis to identify the serotype. the results indicated that ev71 and cva16 were the major ...201121998955
Synthesis and in vitro study of antiviral and virucidal activity of novel 2-[(4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanyl]acetamide derivatives.2-[(4-Methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanyl]acetamide derivatives were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds towards HEK-293 and GMK cells was evaluated. Moreover, the antiviral and virucidal activities of these compounds against human adenovirus type 5 and ECHO-9 virus were assessed. Some of the newly synthesized derivatives have the potential to reduce the viral replication of both tested viruses.201121950156
[molecular genetic echovirus 9 variants identified in patients with aseptic meningitis in russia in 2007-2009].in 2009 echovirus 9 caused a higher seasonal incidence of enterovirus infection (evi) and its several outbreaks in a number of regions of russia. analysis of the partial vp1 coding region differentiated 4 phylogenetic lineages of echoviruses 9 variants identified in patients with aseptic meningitis and evi in 2007-2009. one variant of echovirus 9 was most commonly encountered in 2009. echoviruses 9 identified in different areas, which had a high (98.2-100%) homology of nucleotide sequences of th ...201122359948
a case of fulminant hepatitis due to echovirus 9 in a patient on maintenance rituximab therapy for follicular lymphoma.rituximab is a cd20 monoclonal antibody commonly used in the treatment of haematological malignancies. it causes lymphopenia with subsequent compromised humoral immunity resulting in an increased risk of infection. a number of infections and viral reactivations have been described as complicating rituximab therapy. we report an apparently unique case of echovirus 9 (an enterovirus) infection causing an acute hepatitis and significant morbidity in an adult patient on maintenance treatment of ritu ...201526106492
several distinct types of sequence elements are required for efficient mrna 3' end formation in a pea rbcs gene.we have conducted an extensive linker substitution analysis of the polyadenylation signal from a pea rbcs gene. from these studies, we can identify at least two, and perhaps three, distinct classes of cis element involved in mrna 3' end formation in this gene. one of these, termed the far-upstream element, is located between 60 and 120 nt upstream from its associated polyadenylation sites and appears to be largely composed of a series of ug motifs. a second, termed the near-upstream element, is ...19921448074
acute meningoencephalitis associated with echovirus 9 infection in sri lanka, 2009.the aetiology of acute meningoencephalitis in sri lankan children and adults is poorly understood. this study was carried out to determine pathogens responsible for meningoencephalitis in sri lanka. a hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed using cerebrospinal fluid samples (22 adult and 17 pediatric) collected from august to december 2009 from patients clinically diagnosed with acute meningoencephalitis at two tertiary care hospitals in sri lanka. routine microbiology for bacterial p ...201525983131
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