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studies of a coxsackie virus antigenically related to echo 9 virus and associated with an epidemic of aseptic meningitis with exanthem. 195813523073
echo 9 virus infections in eastern canada: clinical and laboratory studies. 195813523503
echo-9 virus exanthema. 195813538749
epidemic virus meningitis due to echo 9 virus in newfoundland. 195813561219
cases of meningo-encephalitis due to the coxsackie a-like echo 9 virus. 195813602961
neuropathogenicity of non-polio enteroviruses with special reference to echo 9 virus. 195813619950
echo-9 virus antibody titrations in a hela cell system. 195913658233
experimental variation in mouse virulence of echo 9 virus. 195914416622
an outbreak of disease believed to have been caused by echo 9 virus. 195914419127
[studies on pathogenicity of echo-9-virus represented by adaptation experiments with the k 696 strain of echo-9-virus]. 195913642771
factors determining pathogenicity of variants of echo 9 virus for newborn mice.while some strains of echo 9 virus were found to be completely incapable of multiplying in newborn mice or even of being adsorbed by their tissues (e.g., the prototype hill strain), other naturally occurring strains readily multiplied even after inoculation of as little as 3 tcd(50) of virus. with the multiplying strains, the infection remained clinically inapparent except after inoculation of very large doses, usually in the range of 10(5) to 10(7.5) tcd(50). investigation of the question why s ...195913819536
[localization of an echo-9 virus in the tissues of infected infant mice by means of fluorescing antibodies]. 195913825871
[meningitis caused by echo 9 virus. an epidemic with 30 cases in ringkjobig country in 1958]. 195913839349
studies on an out break of echo 9 virus infection in a circumscribed population. 195913850633
a football camp outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to echo 9 virus. 196013708160
echo 9 virus antibody status after an epidemic period and the possible teratogenic effect of the infection. 196013739510
echo 9 virus in tissue culture observed by light and electron microscopy. 196013741583
structure and development of viruses as observed in the electron microscope. vi. echo virus, type 9.sequential stages in the development and release of echo 9 virus have been illustrated and described. it is suggested that viral particles differentiate and become oriented in columns upon a fine filamentous lattice at cytoplasmic template sites which are distinct from the endoplasmic reticulum. subsequently, virus is dispersed in the peripheral cytoplasm and gains egress from the cell through rents in the plasma membrane. complete cellular disruption with viral release may supervene. the virus ...196113741584
[study by electron microscope of the myositis of newborn mice inoculated with echo 9 virus and observations on the structure of the virus]. 196113862084
multiplication of echo 9 virus in suspensions of human leucocytes. 196113867594
[on the problem of the neuropathogenicity of enteroviruses. experimental studies on the neuropathogenicity of various strains of echo-9 virus]. 196113735034
[study on echo virus 9 infections].at ste. justine hospital, montreal, during the period 1957-61, echo 9 virus was isolated in 27 cases, in 20 of these during the summer of 1961. all had evidence of meningeal irritation, accompanied by fever and headache. four of the 20 patients diagnosed during the summer of 1961 had convulsions; 12 presented with a rash; and two simulated meningococcemia. of the 27 patients, two were paralyzed and one case was diagnosed as transverse myelitis. echo 9 virus was isolated from stools and from thro ...196213928026
a serological survey of antibodies to selected enteroviruses.sera from various population groups in liberia, colombia, peru and southern louisiana, usa, have been studied for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to the following enteroviruses: poliovirus type 1, coxsackie viruses b5 and a9, and echo viruses e6 and e9. the results obtained indicate that these viruses are world-wide in distribution and that infection (though not necessarily disease) occurs at an early age. variations in antibody patterns occur, most notably with coxsackie b5 virus. envir ...196214453374
echo 9 virus infection and congenital abnormalities: a negative report. 196214456823
clinical, epidemiological, and virological aspects of echovirus type 9 infection in sheffield, 1960. 196213907890
relationship of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis to recovery of echo 9 virus. 196214020082
enterovirus infections in toronto during 1962.of 37 children from toronto and surrounding districts who developed aseptic meningitis during summer 1962, 17 excreted echo 9 virus in feces and/or cerebrospinal fluid, 12 of whom showed rising or elevated echo 9 antibody levels in paired sera. a further two patients yielded echo 14 virus from cerebrospinal fluid, one of whose feces also contained this virus, and both patients showed rising echo 14 antibody titres. morbilliform rashes without rhinitis or conjunctivitis were encountered in three ...196313932159
echo 9 virus infection or galactosemia. 196414169654
echo 9 virus infection and congenital malformations. 196414198229
kindergarten outbreak of an exanthematous disease caused by echovirus type 9. 196414206732
factors affecting echo-9 virus recovery from cerebrospinal fluid. 196414224771
[familial epidemic of exanthematc disease due to echo 9 virus]. 196414257464
[on the frequency of antibody fixing complement for adenovirus and for echo 9 virus among the personnel of a hospital complex]. 196414308969
poliomyelitis-like disease in 1960: mumps and echo 9 virus infections. a combined scottish study. 196414143394
a description of echo-9 virus infection in cultured cells. i. the cytopathic effect. 196414103199
a description of echo-9 virus infection in cultured cells. ii. cytochemical observations. 196414119168
[a case of paralytic disease caused by echo 9 virus]. 19655827616
[summer epidemic of an exanthematous disease induced by echo 9 virus in infants]. 19665909653
[studies on echo-9 virus. i. serological variation of echo-9 (hill) virus under the influence of temperature]. 19665933500
an epidemic of echo 9 virus meningitis in auckland. 19665225621
change in chang liver cells from virus susceptibility to resistance mediated by persistent infection with echovirus type 9. 19664960050
acute ascending polyradiculomyelitis. associated with echo 9 virus. 19674292732
outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to echo-9 virus. 19676047550
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia associated with echo 9 virus infection. 19676024218
[studies on echo 9 virus. ii. biological properties of the "cold" mutant]. 19684969559
[studies on echo 9 virus. 3. studies on the genetic stability of serological properties of echo 9 "hot" mutant]. 19684970249
genetic characteristics of echovirus type 9 strains: selection and characterization of variants. 19684971355
echovirus type 9 meningitis epidemic in kyushu during the summer of 1967. 19684973508
glomerulonephritis induced in mice by echo 9 virus. 19684881780
central nervous system disease in humans due to simultaneous epidemics of echovirus type 9 and western encephalomyelitis virus infection in alberta. 19685657183
an outbreak among children of aseptic meningitis caused by echovirus type 9. a clinical and serological study. 19685706051
echovirus 9 meningoencephalitis in infants and children. 19695818907
genetic characteristics of echovirus type 9 strains: association of mouse virulence with other genetic markers. 19694977661
effect of echo 9 virus infection on tuberculin sensitivity. 19694987091
epidemiologic, clinical and virological findings of exanthematous summer grippe due to echo 9 virus in tokushima district, japan. 19705489630
[epidemics of echo-9 virus meningitis in avignon region]. 19705470843
laboratory studies of epidemic strains of echovirus 9. 19714996500
aseptic meningitis due to echovirus type 9. 19725026336
epidemic of echovirus type 9 infection. certain clinical and epidemiologic features. 19734510097
severe neonatal illness associated with echo 9 virus infection. 19734700731
antiviral activity of a pyrazino-pyrazine derivative.the 2,3-dihydroxy-6-bromo-pyrazino-[2,3-beta]-pyrazine is a substance selected during the antiviral screening of pyrazino-pyrazine derivatives. the compound shows antiviral activity in vitro against measles, ndv, some influenza viruses and against herpes simplex and zoster, infectious canine hepatitis and vaccinia viruses. it had no effect on echo 9 virus. therapeutic trials showed activity also on herpetic keratoconjunctivitis experimentally induced in rabbits.1975169110
echo 9 infection in pregnant women with suspected rubella.both rubella virus and echovirus 9 (echo 9) were epidemic in scotland during the summer of 1973; both viruses can cause a mild febrile illness with rash. sera from 286 rubella-negative pregnant women were tested for neutralizing antibodies to echo 9 virus; 40 women had antibody titres suggestive of recent infection. prospective studies on the outcome of these pregnancies are in progress but preliminary results suggest no connexion between fetal damage and echo 9 infection.19751127119
[echo-9 virus infections in the records of the provincial hospital for infectious diseases of the mecidal academy in gdaƄsk]. 19751178566
fatal neonatal pneumonia caused by echovirus type 9. 1977910771
[b and t lymphocytes in peripheral blood of children with infections caused by echovirus 9]. 1977304572
nuclear abnormalities in muscle regenerating after echo 9 virus infection in mice. 1978203663
echovirus-associated polyarthritis. report of a case with synovial fluid and synovial histologic characterization.a patient with fever, myalgias, and acute polyarthritis in whom echovirus 9 was isolated from throat and rectal swab specimens is described. all symptoms resolved spontaneously over a one week period except for the arthritis which required three months for complete recovery. a mildly inflammatory synovial fluid and histologic picture were observed. attempts to isolate the virus from synovial fluid and synovium during acute illness were unsuccessful.1978737022
a study of infections and illnesses in a day nursery based on inclusion-bearing cells in the urine and infectious agent in faeces, urine and nasal secretion.during an epidemic-free period of nearly 2 years infections and illnesses were followed in a group of small children (2-3 1/2 years) in a day nursery. the incidence of illness was fairly low, 6.3 per child and year. the viral infections were followed by means of the inclusion reaction in the urine and isolation of virus, and the bacterial by culture of nasal secretion. in 60% of the cases the viral infection was accompanied by illness. in 57 cases of illness there were 27 (47%) with merely virus ...1979231298
[effect of tannin, saponin and guanidine on the replication of echovirus 9 and its mutants]. 19807464352
acute rhabdomyolysis associated with an echovirus 9 infection.a 28-year-old long-distance runner experienced fever, chills, and brown urine 24 hours after a six-mile run. this was accompanied by a large rise in the creatine phosphokinase level and a rise in echovirus 9 titers from 1:16 to greater than 1:256 during a two-week period. a muscle biopsy specimen showed acute rhabdomyolysis, but no viral inclusion particles. muscle energy metabolism analysis demonstrated no abnormalities. the patient was treated with forced saline diuresis, and he maintained nor ...19807458499
ultrastructural degenerative changes of age-dependent echo 9 virus-induced polymyositis in infant mice.experimental inoculation of newborn nmri mice with echo virus, type 9, strain a. barty *echo 9 virus ab) resulted in diffuse polymyositis 4 days later. the disease, after a delay of 1 day, increased in intensity and was accompanied by a rapid, progressive paresis leading to death 7-11 days following infection. as early as 24-48 h after inoculation, we detected initial ultrastructural degenerative changes, characterized by segmental dilation fo the sarcoplasmic reticulum. disruption and breakage ...19816112816
a mixed epidemic associated with echovirus types 6 and 11: virologic, clinical and epidemiologic studies.during 1979, an outbreak of mixed enterovirus infections occurred in kansas city and adjacent communities. sixty-six enteroviruses and 7 adenoviruses were recovered from 73 persons in a survey hospital population. twenty-eight persons yielded echovirus type 11, 22, echovirus type 6, and 16 either echovirus type 9 or coxsackieviruses group b, types 2 and 3. this study describes some of the clinical, virologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreak. a major finding relates to the recove ...19816272570
virus infection of endothelial cells.endothelial injury is important in the pathogenesis of thrombosis, atherosclerosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and vasculitis. the ability of several common human viruses to infect cultures of endothelial cells obtained from human umbilical veins or bovine thoracic aorta was demonstrated. indicators of infection included cytopathology, viral growth curves, and antigen detection by immunofluorescence. herpes simplex virus type 1, adenovirus type 7, measles virus, and parainfluenza vi ...19816260874
[infections of the central nervous system caused by enterovirus: 223 cases seen at a pediatric hospital between 1973 and 1981].between 1973 and 1981, 223 patients were seen at hôpital sainte-justine in montreal for enteroviral infection of the nervous system. in 161 the cause was documented by isolation of an enterovirus from the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). the viruses most frequently isolated were echovirus 11 (36 isolates), echovirus 30 (24), coxsackievirus b2 (23), coxsackievirus b3 (19), echovirus 6 (18), coxsackievirus b5 (16), coxsackievirus a9 (15), echovirus 9 (13), echovirus 7 (12) and coxsackievirus b1 (11). as ...19826291736
selective inhibition of human neutrophilic chemotaxis by echo virus, type 9. virus-induced changes in membrane fluidity.by means of the excimer-forming lipid technique changes of membrane fluidity of human pmns exposed to a chemoattractant (fmlp) and/or echo virus, type 9, strain a. barty has been investigated. it was shown that preincubation of pmns with echo 9 virus results in a viral dose-dependent decrease of membrane fluidity of granulocytes exposed to fmlp. the virus-induced rigidity of cell membrane causes obviously a disturbance in the aggregation of membrane particles to form receptors, and thus can lead ...19827182838
biochemistry and pathogenicity of echovirus 9. i. characterization of the virus particles of strains barty and hill. 19827147713
age dependence of paralysis induced by echovirus type 9 in infant mice.newborn mice of different strains (including nmri) infected with 2-5 x 10(6) pfu of echovirus type 9 strain a. barty developed progressive flaccid paralysis five days after inoculation, followed by death. suckling mice injected with the same infective dose two, four, or six days after birth disclosed at most transient paresis and survived. infectivity titrations revealed in all groups a similar rate of virus multiplication exceeding 10(8) 50% tissue culture infective doses per mouse four days af ...19836854075
[changes in the membrane fluidity of human neutrophilic granulocytes under the effect of a chemoattractant (fmlp) and of echo virus, type 9, a. barty strain].preincubation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmns) with different concentrations of echo virus, type 9, strain a. barty results in viral dose- and time-dependent inhibition of chemotactic cellular response to chemoattractant (n-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine = fmlp). in the present experiments, by means of biophysical methods using excimer forming lipids (pyrendecanoic acid) the influence of fmlp and echo 9 virus on membrane fluidity of pmns was investigated. it is shown that the inc ...19836412297
analysis of the directed and nondirected movement of human granulocytes: influence of temperature and echo 9 virus on n-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine-induced chemokinesis and chemotaxis.the directed movement of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) in a plane (zigmond chamber assay) is described by a statistical model. we demonstrate that (a) the movement of a single cell is a superposition of a directed and a random movement, and (b) the degree of orientation, p1, of moving cells in a chemotactic gradient can be determined either by the time average of a single cell or by the average of movement of multiple cells at a fixed time (ergoden hypothesis). however, an homogeneous ...19836853601
[pathogenicity, for newborn mice, of echovirus type 9 samples isolated from cases of meningitis during an outbreak in rio de janeiro]. 19836645951
f-met-leu-phe and echo 9 virus interaction with human granulocytes. changes of cell membrane structure.biophysical and biochemical methods were applied for investigation of cell membrane properties of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns) exposed to the chemotactic peptide n-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (f-met-leu-phe) and echovirus type 9, strain a, barty. steady-state fluorescence depolarization with diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no gross changes of the total membrane fluidity under the different experimental conditions. however, by means of the monomer-excimer technique with pyren ...19846742107
nonpolio causes of polio-like paralytic syndromes.in a study of patients with suspected poliomyelitis, but from whom poliovirus was not isolated, a variety of causes of the paralysis was found. injury of the spinal column sometimes followed by periostitis or osteomyelitis was relatively common. exotic causes included paralysis due to snake bite, spider bite, scorpion sting, and tick bite and schistosomiasis involving the spinal cord. chemical poisons, such as arsenic, triorthocresyl phosphate, and organophosphorus insecticides, were responsible ...19846740077
echo 9 virus-induced order-disorder transition of chemotactic response of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes: phenomenology and molecular biology.by means of functional, morphological, and biophysical methods the in vitro interaction of echo virus, type 9, strain a. barty with human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmns) was investigated and analyzed by statistical methods. control cells and virus-treated pmns (15 min, 37 degrees c; pmn: virus (pfu)-ratio ranging from 1:1 to 1:50) were exposed to a chemotactic gradient (n-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine = f-met-leu-phe, 10(-8) m/mm) in a zigmond chamber. whereas the track velocity of the ...19846487817
[[(4,5-dihydro-2-oxazolyl)phenoxy]alkyl]isoxazoles. inhibitors of picornavirus uncoating.a series of [[(4,5-dihydro-2-oxazolyl)phenoxy]alkyl]isoxazoles has been synthesized and evaluated as antipicornavirus agents. the effect of alkyl groups in the 4- and 5-position of the oxazoline ring, as well as the alkyl chain length, on antiviral activity was examined. compound 14 was evaluated in vivo and was found to significantly reduce mortality at an oral dose of 4 mg/kg in mice infected intracerebrally with poliovirus-2. compound 14 was also effective in preventing paralysis when adminis ...19852999407
molecular cloning and sequence determination of the genomic regions encoding protease and genome-linked protein of three picornaviruses.to investigate the degree of similarity between picornavirus proteases, we cloned the genomic cdnas of an enterovirus, echovirus 9 (strain barty), and two rhinoviruses, serotypes 1a and 14lp, and determined the nucleotide sequence of the region which, by analogy to poliovirus, encodes the protease. the nucleotide sequence of the region encoding the genome-linked protein vpg, immediately adjacent to the protease, was also determined. comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences with ...19863512851
biochemistry and pathogenicity of echovirus 9. ii. mutants of echovirus 9, strain hill, with altered capsid surface properties.the two echovirus 9 strains hill and barty have been shown previously not only to differ in pathogenicity for newborn mice but also in a number of in vitro characteristics which depend on viral capsid structure. three spontaneously occurring mutants of the mouse-apathogenic echovirus 9 prototype strain hill being resistant to an inhibitor of plaque formation present in agar were isolated and compared biochemically and biophysically to their parent strain and to the mouse-pathogenic echovirus 9 s ...19863739228
use of win 51711 to prevent echovirus type 9-induced paralysis in suckling mice.the systemic efficacy of the antipicornavirus agent win 51711 was assessed in suckling mice infected with echovirus type 9 (barty strain). single, daily intraperitoneal doses of win 51711 as low as 10 mg/kg significantly (p less than .01) slowed the rate of onset of echovirus-induced paralysis and reduced the number of paralyzed animals. intraperitoneal administration beginning 2 hr before infection or 48 hr after infection was equally effective in preventing paralysis. oral administration of wi ...19863745975
koplik spots and echo 9 virus. 19873481055
design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants.we have built a series of vectors to allow the constitutive or light-regulated expression of foreign genes in plants. these vectors carry expression cassettes consisting of either the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter or the pea rbcs-e9 promoter, a multiple cloning site derived from m13um20, and the rbcs-e9 polyadenylation site. these cassettes have been incorporated into pbr322-based or rk2-based replicons to facilitate direct dna uptake or agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. ...19873443303
mutational analysis of the genome-linked protein vpg of poliovirus.using a mutagenesis cartridge (r. j. kuhn, h. tada, m. f. ypma-wong, j. j. dunn, b. l. semler, and e. wimmer, proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 85:519-523, 1988), we have generated single and multiple amino acid replacement mutants, as well as a single amino acid insertion mutant in the genome-linked protein vpg of poliovirus. moreover, we constructed three different 5-amino-acid insertion mutants that map close to the c terminus of 3a, a viral polypeptide whose coding sequence is adjacent to vpg. tran ...19882845132
seed-transmissible expression of mammalian metallothionein in transgenic tobacco.a binary plasmid was constructed to contain the mouse metallothionein c-dna, the constitutive 35s promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus, the polyadenylation signal from the pea rbcs-e9 gene and several selectable markers. the plasmid was transferred to agrobacterium tumefaciens and the leaf disc method was used to transform tobacco. callus and shoots were regenerated in the presence of kanamycin and transformed plants were obtained. southern, northern and western blot analysis demonstrated inte ...19882829879
morphological changes and membrane potential of human granulocytes under influence of chemotactic peptide and/or echo-virus, type 9.the membrane potential, em, of human granulocytes (pmns), was recorded using glass microelectrodes. the membrane potential em exhibited potential fluctuations accompanied by characteristic changes of cell shape. the periodic potential fluctuations (7-s, 70-s, and 260-s periodicities) ascertained by the autocorrelation technique, suggested the existence of an internal clock. the chemoattractant f-met-leu-phe (fmlp) had no influence on the periodicities, whereas the amplitudes of the fluctuations ...19883398429
development and application of rna probes for the study of picornaviruses.single-stranded rna probes were developed from cloned cdna fragments derived from four picornaviruses; poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus b3, echovirus 9 and theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. in comparative testing with a nick-translated cdna probe, the rna probe was found to be 10-100-fold more sensitive. hybridization conditions were optimized for rna probes to picornavirus targets. longer hybridization times gave an improved signal, as did a temperature of 50 degrees c. formamide conce ...19883380106
biochemistry and pathogenicity of echovirus 9. iii. thermosensitive mutants of echovirus 9, strain barty, with reduced pathogenicity for newborn mice.different clinical isolates of echovirus 9 are known to vary strikingly with regard to pathogenicity. prototype strain hill and strain barty have previously been shown to differ not only in paralytogenic potency for newborn mice but also in a number of in vitro characteristics related to virus capsid structures. a series of mutants of strain barty, thermosensitive for replication at 40 degrees c, was isolated after mutagenization with 5-fluorouracil. for all mutants the virus dose required to pa ...19883362095
acid stability of hepatitis a virus.the acid stability of unpurified and highly purified hepatitis a virus (hav) was tested and compared with that of poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus types a9 and b1 and echovirus type 9. only hav had a high residual infectivity after 2 h of exposure to ph 1 at room temperature, remaining infectious for up to 5 h. at 38 degrees c, ph 1, hav remained infectious for 90 min. highly purified hav was found to be infectious for 8 h at ph 1 and room temperature. this indicates that the increased stabilit ...19892550575
vinyl versus latex gloves as barriers to transmission of viruses in the health care setting.one type of vinyl and seven types of latex gloves without visual defects were tested with respect to their barrier function against high concentrations of three viruses of varying size: herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1, 180 nm), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1, 100 nm), and echovirus type 9 (echo 9, 25 nm). viral suspensions of hsv-1 (10(8) tcd50/ml), hiv-1 (10(5) tcd50/ml), and echovirus type 9 (10(7.5)tcd 50/ml) were placed in an inverted glove finger immersed in media and maintai ...19892703958
in vitro and in vivo activities of win 54954, a new broad-spectrum antipicornavirus drug.win 54954 (5-[5-[2,6-dichloro-4-(4,5-dihydro-2-oxazolyl)phenoxy]pentyl]-3- methylisoxazole) is a new member of the class of broad-spectrum antipicornavirus compounds known to bind in a hydrophobic pocket within virion capsid protein vp1. in plaque reduction assays, win 54954 reduced plaque formation of 50 of 52 rhinovirus serotypes (mics ranged from 0.007 to 2.2 micrograms/ml). a concentration of 0.28 microgram/ml was effective in inhibiting 80% of the 52 serotypes tested (ec80). win 54954 was a ...19892559655
acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis associated with echovirus 9 infection: a case report and review of literature.the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure associated with viral infections is uncommon. we report a case of a 17-year-old female suffering from rhabdomyolysis caused by echovirus 9 in which the patient recovered after being treated for acute renal failure with hemodialysis. among 42 cases of virus-induced rhabdomyolysis review in japanese and english literatures, influenza virus is the most common cause of rhabdomyolysis, coxsackie virus tends to be next most common cause. renal f ...19892659856
clinical observations and virological study of aseptic meningitis in the kaohsiung area.during 1988, an endemic outbreak of aseptic meningitis was noted in the kaohsiung area. throughout the year, a total of 89 cases were identified by cerebrospinal fluid (csf) examination at the pediatric department of kaohsiung medical college. the peak incidence was from june to october. scattered cases still occurred during november and december. the male to female ratio was 1.7:1 and the age distribution ranged from 1 month to 15 years old. two peaks of age distribution were observed; one in i ...19901981774
several distinct types of sequence elements are required for efficient mrna 3' end formation in a pea rbcs gene.we have conducted an extensive linker substitution analysis of the polyadenylation signal from a pea rbcs gene. from these studies, we can identify at least two, and perhaps three, distinct classes of cis element involved in mrna 3' end formation in this gene. one of these, termed the far-upstream element, is located between 60 and 120 nt upstream from its associated polyadenylation sites and appears to be largely composed of a series of ug motifs. a second, termed the near-upstream element, is ...19921448074
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