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implications of simian retroviruses for captive primate population management and the occupational safety of primate handlers.nonhuman primates can be naturally infected with a plethora of viruses with zoonotic potential, including retroviruses. these simian viruses present risks to both captive nonhuman primate populations and persons exposed to nonhuman primates. simian retroviruses, including simian immunodeficiency virus, simian type d retrovirus, simian t-lymphotropic virus, and gibbon ape leukemia virus, have been shown to cause clinical disease in nonhuman primates. in contrast, simian foamy virus, a retrovirus ...200617319119
a predonation screening question for occupational exposure to simian foamy virus: a preliminary donor survey in canada. 200717465966
sensitive assays for simian foamy viruses reveal a high prevalence of infection in commensal, free-ranging asian monkeys.foamy viruses (fv) are retroviruses that naturally infect many hosts, including most nonhuman primates (nhps). zoonotic infection by primate fv has been documented in people in asia who reported contact with free-ranging macaques. fv transmission in asia is a concern, given abundant human-nhp contact, particularly at monkey temples and in urban settings. we have developed three assays capable of detecting the presence of fv in asian nhp species that are commensal with humans: enzyme-linked immun ...200717475645
the complete nucleotide sequence of a new world simian foamy virus.we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the new world simian foamy virus (fv) from spider monkey (sfvspm). starting from a conserved region in the integrase (in) domain of the pol gene we cloned fragments of the genome up to the 5' end of the long terminal repeat (ltr) into plasmid vectors and elucidated their nucleotide sequence. the 3' end of the genome was determined by direct nucleotide sequencing of pcr products. each nucleotide of the genome was determined at least two times from ...200717765280
azt-resistant foamy virus.azidothymidine (azt) is a reverse transcriptase (rt) inhibitor that efficiently blocks the replication of spumaretroviruses or foamy viruses (fvs). to more precisely elucidate the mechanism of action of the fv rt enzyme, we generated an azt-resistant fv in cell culture. biologically resistant virus was obtained for simian foamy virus from macaque (sfvmac), which was insensitive to azt concentrations of 1 mm, but not for fvs derived from chimpanzees. nucleotide sequencing revealed four non-silent ...200817904181
myasthenia gravis accompanied by thymomas not related to foamy virus genome in belarusian's patients.the spectrum and features of neurological disorders have been changed due to the chernobyl catastrophe in the republic of belarus. more recently neurologists in belarus have noted a significant increase in the frequency of myasthenia gravis (mg) with concomitant rise in the thymomas. there is some evidence suggesting that retroviruses play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. this study analyzed thymomas from 45 mg patients from the republic of belarus by using ...200717917929
foamy virus vectors: an awaited alternative to gammaretro- and lentiviral vectors.the first vectors derived from foamy viruses were established over ten years ago. until now only used and further developed by a handful of investigators these vectors have been shown to be promising tools for the gene transfer into haematopoietic stem cells. several inherent features of foamy virus-derived vectors, such as the high efficiency in targeting cd34-positive stem cells, a favourable integration profile, and the apathogenic nature of the parental virus, indicate that they are superior ...200717969559
azt resistance of simian foamy virus reverse transcriptase is based on the excision of aztmp in the presence of atp.azidothymidine (azt, zidovudine) is one of the few nucleoside inhibitors known to inhibit foamy virus replication. we have shown previously that up to four mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of simian foamy virus from macaque (sfvmac) are necessary to confer high resistance against azt. to characterize the mechanism of azt resistance we expressed two recombinant reverse transcriptases of highly azt-resistant sfvmac in escherichia coli harboring three (k211i, s345t, e350k) or four mutati ...200818096624
clinical and virological characterization of persistent human infection with simian foamy viruses.persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates (nhps) can be persistently infected with simian foamy virus (sfv). the clinical significance and person-to-person transmissibility of zoonotic sfv infection is unclear. seven sfv-infected men responded to annual structured interviews and provided whole blood, oral, and urogenital specimens for study. wives were tested for sfv infection. proviral dna was consistently detected by pcr in pbmcs of infected men and inconsistently in oral or urogenit ...200718184074
a rapid and quantitative assay for measuring neighboring gene activation by vector proviruses.a simple, quantitative assay for measuring the oncogenic potential of integrating vectors is needed in order to improve vector design and safety. in this study, we have developed a transient plasmid-based assay to measure the activation of a reporter gene by an adjacent vector provirus. plasmid pact contains a luciferase cassette driven by a minimal, enhancerless promoter, into which vector proviruses are inserted upstream for evaluation by luciferase assays and northern blots. in a comparison o ...200818209733
simian foamy virus transmission from apes to humans, rural cameroon.simian virus infections of humans are an increasing public health concern. simian foamy virus (sfv) infections have been reported in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates and in a few hunters in cameroon. to better understand this retroviral zoonosis in natural settings, we studied persons who lived in southern cameroon, near nonhuman primate habitats. first we studied a general population of 1,164 adults; 4 were sfv positive according to serologic and molecular assays. then we stu ...200718252101
in vivo selection of hematopoietic stem cells transduced at a low multiplicity-of-infection with a foamy viral mgmt(p140k) vector.using a clinically relevant transduction strategy, we investigated to what extent hematopoietic stem cells in lineage-negative bone marrow (lin(neg) bm) could be genetically modified with an foamy virus (fv) vector that expresses the dna repair protein, o(6)-methylguanine dna methyltransferase (mgmt(p140k)) and selected in vivo with submyeloablative or myeloablative alkylator therapy.200818279716
coinfection with hiv-1 and simian foamy virus in west central africans.frequent infection with zoonotic simian foamy virus (sfv) has been reported among hiv-negative primate hunters in rural cameroon. plasma samples obtained from urban commercial sex workers (csws; n = 139), patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 41), and blood donors (n = 179) in the democratic republic of congo [formerly known as zaire] and cameroon were tested for sfv and hiv-1 infection. one csw and one blood donor were found to be seropositive for both sfv and hiv-1, thereby document ...200818444796
interspecies transmission of simian foamy virus in a natural predator-prey system.simian foamy viruses (sfv) are ancient retroviruses of primates and have coevolved with their host species for as many as 30 million years. although humans are not naturally infected with foamy virus, infection is occasionally acquired through interspecies transmission from nonhuman primates. we show that interspecies transmissions occur in a natural hunter-prey system, i.e., between wild chimpanzees and colobus monkeys, both of which harbor their own species-specific strains of sfv. chimpanzees ...200818508895
the solution structure of the simian foamy virus protease reveals a monomeric protein.in contrast to orthoretroviruses, foamy viruses (fvs) express their pol polyprotein from a separate pol-specific transcript. only the integrase domain is cleaved off, leading to a protease-reverse transcriptase (pr-rt) protein. we purified the separate pr domain (prshort) of simian fv from macaques by expressing the recombinant gene in escherichia coli. sedimentation analyses and size exclusion chromatography indicate that prshort is a stable monomer in solution. this allowed us to determine the ...200818597783
unique pattern of enzootic primate viruses in gibraltar macaques.because gibraltar's macaques (macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. all macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus b, simian t-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals.200818598634
molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees.identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (hiv-1 and hiv-2) and ebola virus. simian foamy viruses (sfvs) are ancient retroviruses that infect old and new world monkeys and apes. although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic expo ...200818604273
diverse contexts of zoonotic transmission of simian foamy viruses in asia.in asia, contact between persons and nonhuman primates is widespread in multiple occupational and nonoccupational contexts. simian foamy viruses (sfvs) are retroviruses that are prevalent in all species of nonhuman primates. to determine sfv prevalence in humans, we tested 305 persons who lived or worked around nonhuman primates in several south and southeast asian countries; 8 (2.6%) were confirmed sfv positive by western blot and, for some, by pcr. the interspecies interactions that likely res ...200818680642
insight into the integrase-dna recognition mechanism. a specific dna-binding mode revealed by an enzymatically labeled integrase.integration catalyzed by integrase (in) is a key process in the retrovirus life cycle. many biochemical or structural human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (hiv-1) in studies have been severely impeded by its propensity to aggregate. we characterized a retroviral in (primate foamy virus (pfv-1)) that displays a solubility profile different from that of hiv-1 in. using various techniques, including fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy, and size exclusion chr ...200818697740
species-specific inhibition of apobec3c by the prototype foamy virus protein bet.the apobec3 cytidine deaminases are part of the intrinsic defense of cells against retroviruses. lentiviruses and spumaviruses have evolved essential accessory proteins, vif and bet, respectively, which counteract the apobec3 proteins. we show here that bet of the prototype foamy virus inhibits the antiviral apobec3c activity by a mechanism distinct to vif: bet forms a complex with apobec3c without inducing its degradation. bet abolished apobec3c dimerization as shown by coimmunoprecipitation an ...200919074429
frequent foamy virus infection in free-living chimpanzees of the taï national park (côte d'ivoire).foamy viruses are frequently found in non-human primates and apes in captivity. however, data on simian foamy virus (sfv) infection in apes from the wild are limited. necropsy specimens were collected from 14 west african chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus) from three communities in the taï national park, côte d'ivoire. pcr analysis revealed sfv-related int- and env-specific sequences in 12/14 chimpanzees. two young chimpanzees were not infected. plasma from 'pcr-positive' chimpanzees reacted ag ...200919141461
simian foamy virus infection in humans: prevalence and management.simian foamy viruses (sfvs) are highly prevalent in all nonhuman primate species and can infect humans following occupational and non-occupational exposure to infected animals and their tissues, blood or body fluids. virus transmission results in a stable, persistent infection that seems to be latent. sfv infections are thus far nonpathogenic, with no evidence of adverse clinical outcome in their natural nonhuman primate hosts or by experimental injection in animals and upon cross-species transm ...200919485797
hepatitis b virus infection in non-human primates.hepatitis b viruses (hbvs) represent a serious public health problem affecting 350 to 400 million hbv carriers worldwide. the virus does not exclusively infect humans, but can also be found in non-human primates as in the families hominidae (chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan) and hylobatidae (gibbon), which are distributed over africa (chimpanzee and gorilla) and southeast asia (orangutan and gibbon), the endemic areas of human hbv. the prevalence of asymptomatic hbv carriers reaches in gibbons 23- ...200919537907
sequence-specific (1)h, (13)c and (15)n resonance assignments and secondary structure of a truncated protease from simian foamy virus.the backbone and side chain assignments of the retroviral aspartate protease from simian foamy virus from macaques (sfvmac) have been determined by triple resonance nmr techniques.200719636858
coinfection of ugandan red colobus (procolobus [piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles) with novel, divergent delta-, lenti-, and spumaretroviruses.nonhuman primates host a plethora of potentially zoonotic microbes, with simian retroviruses receiving heightened attention due to their roles in the origins of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (hiv-1) and hiv-2. however, incomplete taxonomic and geographic sampling of potential hosts, especially the african colobines, has left the full range of primate retrovirus diversity unexplored. blood samples collected from 31 wild-living red colobus monkeys (procolobus [piliocolobus] rufomitratus te ...200919692478
role of neutralizing antibodies in controlling simian foamy virus transmission and infection.human infections with simian foamy viruses (sfvs) have been reported after occupational and nonoccupational exposure to infected animals and their tissues, blood, and body fluids, although there is no evidence for human-to-human transmission. we previously demonstrated sfv transmission in monkeys by blood transfusion with whole blood from one donor animal that had a low neutralizing antibody (nab) endpoint titer, whereas blood transfusion from a second donor monkey that had a high nab titer fail ...201019719470
foamy combinatorial anti-hiv vectors with mgmtp140k potently inhibit hiv-1 and shiv replication and mediate selection in vivo.highly active antiretroviral therapy has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality from human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, but aids continues to be a serious health problem worldwide. despite enormous efforts to develop a vaccine, there is still no cure, and alternative approaches including gene therapy should be explored. in this study we developed and compared combinatorial foamy virus (fv) anti-hiv vectors that also express a mutant methylguanine methyltransferase (mgmtp140k) tra ...201019741733
biophysical and enzymatic properties of the simian and prototype foamy virus reverse transcriptases.the foamy virus pol protein is translated independently from gag using a separate mrna. thus, in contrast to orthoretroviruses no gag-pol precursor protein is synthesized. only the integrase domain is cleaved off from pol resulting in a mature reverse transcriptase harboring the protease domain at the n-terminus (pr-rt). although the homology between the pr-rts from simian foamy virus from macaques (sfvmac) and the prototype foamy virus (pfv), probably originating from chimpanzee, exceeds 90%, s ...201020113504
formation of transient dimers by a retroviral protease.retroviral proteases have been shown previously to be only active as homodimers. they are essential to form the separate and active proteins from the viral precursors. spumaretroviruses produce separate precursors for gag and pol, rather than a gag and a gag-pol precursor. nevertheless, processing of pol into a pr (protease)-rt (reverse transcriptase) and integrase is essential in order to obtain infectious viral particles. we showed recently that the pr-rt from a simian foamy virus, as well as ...201020136635
on the general theory of the origins of retroviruses.the order retroviridae comprises viruses based on ribonucleic acids (rna). some, such as hiv and htlv, are human pathogens. newly emerged human retroviruses have zoonotic origins. as far as has been established, both repeated infections (themselves possibly responsible for the evolution of viral mutations (vm) and host adaptability (ha)); along with interplay between inhibitors and promoters of cell tropism, are needed to effect retroviral cross-species transmissions. however, the exact modus op ...201020158888
[inhibitive effect of human foamy virus induced il-24 on cancer cells].to construct replication-defective hfv-il24 virus vector and to investigate its inhibitive effect on cancer cells after infected or transfected by this vector.201020230669
molecular biology of foamy viruses.one of the most fascinating areas in retrovirology is the study of foamy viruses (fvs), because these viruses appear to do everything that is common to all other retroviruses differently. fvs have found a completely new way to propagate their genome. and they do this extremely successfully because most of wild non-human primates, felines, bovines, equines, and small ruminants are likely to be non-pathogenically infected. the success of fvs can also be viewed from a different angle, since they re ...201020445989
analysis of prototype foamy virus particle-host cell interaction with autofluorescent retroviral particles.the foamy virus (fv) replication cycle displays several unique features, which set them apart from orthoretroviruses. first, like other b/d type orthoretroviruses, fv capsids preassemble at the centrosome, but more similar to hepadnaviruses, fv budding is strictly dependent on cognate viral glycoprotein coexpression. second, the unusually broad host range of fv is thought to be due to use of a very common entry receptor present on host cell plasma membranes, because all cell lines tested in vitr ...201020478027
high prevalence, coinfection rate, and genetic diversity of retroviruses in wild red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus badius badius) in tai national park, cote d'ivoire.simian retroviruses are precursors of all human retroviral pathogens. however, little is known about the prevalence and coinfection rates or the genetic diversity of major retroviruses-simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (stlv-1), and simian foamy virus (sfv)-in wild populations of nonhuman primates. such information would contribute to the understanding of the natural history of retroviruses in various host species. here, we estimate these parameters for ...201020484508
establishment of specific pathogen-free macaque colonies in tsukuba primate research center of japan for aids research.cynomolgus monkeys have been maintained in indoor facilities as closed colony monkeys in tsukuba primate research center in japan since 1978. several microorganisms, including bacteria, parasites and viruses, were eliminated from the cynomolgus monkeys in this colony of tprc. various kinds of viruses (b virus, measles virus, simian varicella virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian t cell leukemia virus, simian d type retrovirus, simian cytomegalovirus, simian epstein-barr virus, and simian ...201020510748
[improving infection efficiency of adult cynomolgus monkey mesenchymal stem cells with lentiviral vectors].mesenchymal stem cells (mscs) have received considerable attention for various therapeutic approaches in recent years. mscs are also easy to genetically modify to express therapeutic genes by using lentiviral vectors. because of the similarities in genetics, physiology and metabolism between non-human primates (nhps) and humans, nhps models are invaluable for researching human disorders and for developing therapeutic strategies. therefore, mscs derived from nhps could be a powerful tool for cell ...201020815259
multiple retroviral infection by htlv type 1, 2, 3 and simian foamy virus in a family of pygmies from cameroon.to better understand the origins and modes of transmission of htlv-3 and to search for other retroviral infections (htlv-1, htlv-2, foamy viruses), we studied the family of a htlv-3-infected individual (pyl43), from cameroon. thirty-five persons were included. all adult men were still actively hunting nonhuman primates (nhp). all women were also butchering and cutting-up animals. five persons reported a bite by an nhp. while htlv-3 infection was only found in pyl43, htlv-1 and htlv-2 infections ...201021087785
complete nucleotide sequence and evolutionary analysis of a gorilla foamy virus.to shed light on primate foamy virus (fv) evolution, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the gorilla simian foamy virus (sfvgor). starting from a conserved region in the integrase (in) domain of the pol gene we cloned the viral genome to the 5' and 3' ltr into plasmid vectors and elucidated its nucleotide sequence. the sequences of both ltrs were determined by nucleotide sequencing of separate pcr products from the primer-binding site or the bel region and ltrs. all protein motifs ...201021106805
foamy retrovirus integrase contains a pol dimerization domain required for protease activation.unlike orthoretroviruses, foamy retroviruses (fv) synthesize pol independently of gag. the fv pol precursor is cleaved only once between reverse transcriptase (rt) and integrase (in) by the protease (pr), resulting in a pr-rt and an in protein. only the pol precursor, not the cleaved subunits, is packaged into virions. like orthoretroviral prs, fv pr needs to dimerize to be active. previously, we showed that a pol mutant lacking in has defects in pr activity and pol packaging into virions. we no ...201021123385
two distinct variants of simian foamy virus in naturally infected mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) and cross-species transmission to humans.each of the pathogenic human retroviruses (hiv-1/2 and htlv-1) has a nonhuman primate counterpart, and the presence of these retroviruses in humans results from interspecies transmission. the passage of another simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (sfv), from apes or monkeys to humans has been reported. mandrillus sphinx, a monkey species living in central africa, is naturally infected with sfv. we evaluated the natural history of the virus in a free-ranging colony of mandrills and investigated ...201021156043
generation of a specific-pathogen-free baboon colony.we undertook establishing an spf baboon colony in response to requests from researchers. to enable the widest possible future use of spf baboons, our aim was to develop an spf colony of baboons (papio hamadryas anubis) free of 12 target viruses: 5 herpesviruses, 4 retroviruses, simian virus 40, measles, and monkeypox. infant baboons were removed from their mothers within 24 h of birth and nursery-reared. groups of 3 to 8 age-matched conspecifics were isolated in separate rooms for 1 y while unde ...201021205446
a nuclear export signal within the structural gag protein is required for prototype foamy virus replication.the gag polyproteins play distinct roles during the replication cycle of retroviruses, hijacking many cellular machineries to fulfill them. in the case of the prototype foamy virus (pfv), gag structural proteins undergo transient nuclear trafficking after their synthesis, returning back to the cytoplasm for capsid assembly and virus egress. the functional role of this nuclear stage as well as the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for gag nuclear export are not understood.201121255441
regulation of foamy virus protease activity by viral rna: a novel and unique mechanism among retroviruses.foamy viruses (fvs) synthesize the pol precursor protein from a specific transcript. thus, in contrast to what was found for orthoretroviruses, e.g., human immunodeficiency virus, no gag-pol precursor protein is synthesized. foamy viral pol consists of a protease (pr) domain, a reverse transcriptase domain, and an integrase domain and is processed into a mature protease-reverse transcriptase (pr-rt) fusion protein and the integrase. protease activity has to be strictly regulated in order to avoi ...201121325405
simultaneous detection of antibodies to five simian viruses in nonhuman primates using recombinant viral protein based multiplex microbead immunoassays.routine screening for infectious agents is critical in establishing and maintaining specific pathogen free (spf) nonhuman primate (nhp) colonies. more efficient, higher throughput, less costly reagent, and reduced sample consumption multiplex microbead immunoassays (mmias) using purified viral lysates have been developed previously to address some disadvantages of the traditional individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) methods. to overcome some of the technical and biosafety difficu ...201121945221
preparation of simian foamy virus type-1 vectors.foamy viruses (fvs) are nonpathogenic retroviruses that offer opportunities for efficient and safe gene transfer in various cell types from different species. these viruses have unique replication mechanisms that are distinct from other retroviruses, which may give an advantage to fv-mediated gene transfer. this protocol describes a method for simian foamy virus type-1 (sfv-1) vector preparation and concentration. a transient transfection of vector and packaging constructs allows generation of t ...201121880822
Cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus to humans in rural Gabon, central Africa.In order to characterize simian foamy retroviruses (SFVs) in wild-born nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Gabon and to investigate cross-species transmission to humans, we obtained 497 NHP samples, composed of 286 blood and 211 tissue (bush meat) samples. Anti-SFV antibodies were found in 31 of 286 plasma samples (10.5%). The integrase gene sequence was found in 38/497 samples, including both blood and tissue samples, with novel SFVs in several Cercopithecus species. Of the 78 humans, mostly hunters, w ...201222072747
cross-species transmission of simian retroviruses: how and why they could lead to the emergence of new diseases in the human population.the hiv-1 group m epidemic illustrates the extraordinary impact and consequences resulting from a single zoonotic transmission. exposure to blood or other secretions of infected animals, through hunting and butchering of bushmeat, or through bites and scratches inflicted by pet nonhuman primates (nhps), represent the most plausible source for human infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), simian t-cell lymphotropic virus (stlv) and simian foamy virus. the chance for cross-species tran ...201222441170
simian immunodeficiency virus seroreactivity in inhabitants from rural cameroon frequently in contact with non-human primates.central african tropical forests are home to several species of non-human primates (nhps), infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (siv). it is well-known that hiv-1 epidemic is due to cross-transmission and adaptation of siv to humans. the main goal of this work was to investigate if a nhp bite is a risk factor for siv acquisition. a cross-sectional study was performed in rural cameroon on 246 bitten individuals (mostly by adult nhps), matched, according to sex, age, and ethnicity (bantus and ...201728135660
dual simian foamy virus/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections in persons from côte d'ivoire.zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in west-central africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (hivs) and human t-lymphotropic viruses (htlvs). while simian foamy virus (sfv) and simian t- lymphotropic virus (stlv)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (nhps) in west-central africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in western africa and in hospitalized populations. we s ...201627310836
a survey of endogenous retrovirus (erv) sequences in the vicinity of multiple sclerosis (ms)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps).although multiple sclerosis (ms) is one of the most common central nervous system diseases in young adults, little is known about its etiology. several human endogenous retroviruses (ervs) are considered to play a role in ms. we are interested in which ervs can be identified in the vicinity of ms associated genetic marker to find potential initiators of ms. we analysed the chromosomal regions surrounding 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) that are associated with ms identified in one of t ...201627169423
cocirculation of two env molecular variants, of possible recombinant origin, in gorilla and chimpanzee simian foamy virus strains from central africa.simian foamy virus (sfv) is a ubiquitous retrovirus in nonhuman primates (nhps) that can be transmitted to humans, mostly through severe bites. in the past few years, our laboratory has identified more than 50 hunters from central africa infected with zoonotic sfvs. analysis of the complete sequences of five sfvs obtained from these individuals revealed that env was the most variable gene. furthermore, recombinant sfv strains, some of which involve sequences in the env gene, were recently identi ...201526446599
azt resistance alters enzymatic properties and creates an atp-binding site in sfvmac reverse transcriptase.the replication of simian foamy virus from macaques can be inhibited by the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor azidothymidine (azt, zidovudine). four substitutions in the protease-reverse transcriptase (pr-rt) protein (k211i, i224t, s345t, e350k) are necessary to obtain highly azt resistant and fully replication competent virus. azt resistance is based on the excision of the incorporated aztmp in the presence of atp. i224t is a polymorphism which is not essential for azt resistance per s ...201525808094
in vivo cellular tropism of gorilla simian foamy virus in blood of infected humans.simian foamy viruses (sfv) are retroviruses that are widespread among nonhuman primates. sfv can be transmitted to humans, giving rise to a persistent infection. only a few data are available concerning the distribution of sfv in human blood cells. here we purified blood mononuclear cell subsets from 11 individuals infected with a gorilla gorilla sfv strain and quantified sfv dna levels by quantitative pcr. sfv dna was detected in the majority of the cd8(+), cd4(+), and cd19(+) lymphocyte sample ...201425210185
origin and diversity of human retroviruses.simian immunodeficiency viruses, simian t‑cell lymphotropic viruses, and simian foamy viruses from nonhuman primates have crossed the species barrier to humans at several time points, leading to the hiv and human t lymphotropic virus epidemic and to sporadic cases of human infections with simian foamy viruses, respectively. efficient infection and spread in humans differs between simian foamy virus, simian lymphotropic virus, and simian immunodeficiency virus, but seems also to differ among the ...201724584106
nonhuman primate retroviruses from cambodia: high simian foamy virus prevalence, identification of divergent stlv-1 strains and no evidence of siv infection.nonhuman primates (nhps) carry retroviruses such as simian immunodeficiency viruses (siv), simian t-cell lymphotropic viruses (stlv) and simian foamy viruses (sfv). here, we revisited nhps from cambodia to assess the prevalence and diversity of these retroviruses using updated viral detection tools. we screened blood from 118 nhps consisting of six species (macaca fascicularis (n=91), macaca leonine (n=8), presbytis cristata (n=3), nycticebus coucang (n=1), hylobates pileatus (n=14), and pongo p ...201323612320
failure to detect simian immunodeficiency virus infection in a large cameroonian cohort with high non-human primate exposure.hunting and butchering of wildlife in central africa are known risk factors for a variety of human diseases, including hiv/aids. due to the high incidence of human exposure to body fluids of non-human primates, the significant prevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) in non-human primates, and hunting/butchering associated cross-species transmission of other retroviruses in central africa, it is possible that siv is actively transmitted to humans from primate species other than mangabey ...201222395958
single genome amplification and direct amplicon sequencing of plasmodium spp. dna from ape fecal specimens.conventional pcr followed by molecular cloning and sequencing of amplified products is commonly used to test clinical specimens for target sequences of interest, such as viral, bacterial or parasite nucleic acids. however, this approach has serious limitations when used to analyze mixtures of genetically divergent templates(1-9). this is because taq polymerase is prone to switch templates during the amplification process, thereby generating recombinants that do not exist in vivo(4). when amplico ...201025221670
a severe bite from a nonhuman primate is a major risk factor for htlv-1 infection in hunters from central africa.htlv-1 infection is endemic to central african populations. the risk factors for htlv-1 acquisition in humans via the interspecies transmission of stlv-1 (its simian counterpart) remain largely unknown.201525722199
optimization of a novel non-invasive oral sampling technique for zoonotic pathogen surveillance in nonhuman primates.free-ranging nonhuman primates are frequent sources of zoonotic pathogens due to their physiologic similarity and in many tropical regions, close contact with humans. many high-risk disease transmission interfaces have not been monitored for zoonotic pathogens due to difficulties inherent to invasive sampling of free-ranging wildlife. non-invasive surveillance of nonhuman primates for pathogens with high potential for spillover into humans is therefore critical for understanding disease ecology ...201526046911
a novel small animal model to study the replication of simian foamy virus in vivo.preclinical evaluation in a small animal model would help the development of gene therapies and vaccines based on foamy virus vectors. the establishment of persistent, non-pathogenic infection with the prototype foamy virus in mice and rabbits has been described previously. to extend this spectrum of available animal models, hamsters were inoculated with infectious cell supernatant or bioballistically with a foamy virus plasmid. in addition, a novel foamy virus from a rhesus macaque was isolated ...201424314637
foamy virus in the tree shrew tupaia belangeri is highly related to simian foamy virus in macaca mulatta.foamy viruses (fvs) are ancient retrovirus that infect most nonhuman primates and several animals, but are rarely reported in tree shrew tupaia belangeri. in the present study, foamy virus was detected in tree shrew. phylogenetic analysis indicated that fvtup shared the highest homology with sfvmac (99.3%) in china. the discovery of fvtup indicated that the tree shrew is a new host of foamy virus. fvtup is highly prevalent in tupaia in china and there is the possibility of cross-species transmis ...201323668418
bayesian inference reveals ancient origin of simian foamy virus in orangutans.simian foamy viruses (sfvs) infect most nonhuman primate species and appears to co-evolve with its hosts. this co-evolutionary signal is particularly strong among great apes, including orangutans (genus pongo). previous studies have identified three distinct orangutan sfv clades. the first of these three clades is composed of sfv from p. abelii from sumatra, the second consists of sfv from p. pygmaeus from borneo, while the third clade is mixed, comprising an sfv strain found in both species of ...201728274887
why are nigeria-cameroon chimpanzees (pan troglodytes ellioti) free of sivcpz infection?simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: pan troglodytes troglodytes from central africa (sivcpzptt) and p. t. schweinfurtii from east africa (sivcpzpts), but is absent in p. t. verus from west africa and appears to be absent in p. t. ellioti inhabiting nigeria and western cameroon. one explanation for this pattern is that p. t. troglodytes and p. t schweinfurthii may have acquired sivcpz after their divergence from p. t. verus and p. t. ellioti. howeve ...201627505066
a new sensitive indicator cell line reveals cross-transactivation of the viral ltr by gorilla and chimpanzee simian foamy viruses.the majority of currently identified simian foamy virus (sfv)-infected cameroonian and gabonese individuals harbor sfv from the gorilla lineage. we constructed an indicator cell line for the quantification of gorilla sfvs, in which the u3 sequence of a gorilla sfv directs the expression of the β-galactosidase protein. the gorilla foamy virus activated β-galactosidase (gfab) cells efficiently quantified two zoonotic primary gorilla isolates and sfvs from three chimpanzee subspecies. primary goril ...201627348053
characterization and comparative analysis of a simian foamy virus complete genome isolated from brazilian capuchin monkeys.foamy viruses infect a wide range of placental mammals, including primates. however, despite of great diversity of new world primates, only three strains of neotropical simian foamy viruses (sfv) have been described. only after 40 years since serological characterization, the complete sequence of an sfvcap strain infecting a family of six capuchin monkeys (sapajus xanthosternos) was obtained. co-culture of primate peripheral blood mononuclear cells with cf2th canine cells was established and mon ...201526047587
a seminomadic population in bangladesh with extensive exposure to macaques does not exhibit high levels of zoonotic simian foamy virus infection.simian foamy viruses (svf) are ubiquitous in nonhuman primates (nhp). sfv can be zoonotically transmitted to humans who either work with or live commensally with nhp. we analyzed the blood of 45 bangladeshi performing monkey owners (an ethnic group called the bedey) for sfv infection. surprisingly, a pcr assay failed to detect sfv infection in any of these participants. this is in contrast to our previously reported infection rate of about 5% among bangladeshi villagers.201525926651
construction of an infectious clone of simian foamy virus of japanese macaque (sfvjm) and phylogenetic analyses of sfvjm isolates.foamy viruses belong to the genus spumavirus of the family retroviridae and have been isolated from many mammalian species. it was reported that simian foamy viruses (sfvs) have co-evolved with host species. in this study, we isolated four strains (wk1, wk2, ar1 and ar2) of sfv (named sfvjm) from japanese macaques (macaca fuscata) in main island honshu of japan. we constructed an infectious molecular clone of sfvjm strain wk1, termed pjm356. the virus derived from the clone replicated and induce ...201425017058
a novel bayesian method for detection of apobec3-mediated hypermutation and its application to zoonotic transmission of simian foamy viruses.simian foamy virus (sfv) can be transmitted from non-human primates (nhp) to humans. however, there are no documented cases of human to human transmission, and significant differences exist between infection in nhp and human hosts. the mechanism for these between-host differences is not completely understood. in this paper we develop a new bayesian approach to the detection of apobec3-mediated hypermutation, and use it to compare sfv sequences from human and nhp hosts living in close proximity i ...201424586139
new world simian foamy virus infections in vivo and in vitro.foamy viruses (fv) are complex retroviruses that naturally infect all nonhuman primates (nhp) studied to date. zoonotic transmission of old world nhp simian foamy viruses (sfv) has been documented, leading to nonpathogenic persistent infections. to date, there have been no reports concerning zoonotic transmission of new world monkey (nwm) sfv to humans and resulting infection. in this study, we developed a western blot assay to detect antibodies to nwm sfv, a nested pcr assay to detect nwm sfv d ...201424198412
horizontal acquisition and a broad biodistribution typify simian foamy virus infection in a cohort of macaca fascicularis.foamy viruses are non-pathogenic in vivo and naturally infect all species of non-human primates (nhp). simian foamy viruses (sfv) are highly prevalent in both free ranging and captive nhp but few longitudinal studies have been performed to assess the prevalence and biodistribution of sfv within captive nhp.201324180225
viral latency in blood and saliva of simian foamy virus-infected humans.simian foamy viruses (sfv) are widespread retroviruses among non-human primates (nhp). sfv actively replicate in the oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans through nhp bites, giving rise to a persistent infection. we aimed at studying the natural history of sfv infection in human. we have analyzed viral load and gene expression in 14 hunters from cameroon previously shown to be infected with a gorilla sfv strain. viral dna could be detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-pcr) ...201324116202
simian foamy virus infection of rhesus macaques in bangladesh: relationship of latent proviruses and transcriptionally active viruses.simian foamy viruses (sfv) are complex retroviruses that are ubiquitous in nonhuman primates (nhp) and are zoonotically transmitted to humans, presumably through nhp saliva, by licking, biting, and other behaviors. we have studied sfv in free-ranging rhesus macaques in bangladesh. it has been previously shown that sfv in immunocompetent animals replicates to detectable levels only in superficial epithelial cells of the oral mucosa, although latent proviruses are found in most, if not all, tissue ...201324109214
zoonotic simian foamy virus in bangladesh reflects diverse patterns of transmission and co-infection.simian foamy viruses (sfvs) are ubiquitous in non-human primates (nhps). as in all retroviruses, reverse transcription of sfv leads to recombination and mutation. because more humans have been shown to be infected with sfv than with any other simian borne virus, sfv is a potentially powerful model for studying the virology and epidemiology of viruses at the human/nhp interface. in asia, sfv is likely transmitted to humans through macaque bites and scratches that occur in the context of everyday ...201326038489
simian foamy virus in non-human primates and cross-species transmission to humans in gabon: an emerging zoonotic disease in central africa?it is now known that all human retroviruses have a non-human primate counterpart. it has been reported that the presence of these retroviruses in humans is the result of interspecies transmission. several authors have described the passage of a simian retrovirus, simian foamy virus (sfv), from primates to humans. to better understand this retroviral "zoonosis" in natural settings, we evaluated the presence of sfv in both captive and wild non-human primates and in humans at high risk, such as hun ...201323783811
identification of recombination in the envelope gene of simian foamy virus serotype 2 isolated from macaca cyclopis.the full-length sequence of simian foamy virus serotype 2 (sfvmcy-2), isolated from a taiwanese macaque, was determined. sfvmcy-2 was highly related to sfv serotype 1 (sfvmcy-1), an isolate from the same species, except in the putative receptor binding domain (rbd) in env, which contained novel sequences related to sfv serotype 3 (sfvagm-3), isolated from an african green monkey. the results identify a potential region of neutralization in sfvs and demonstrate recombination between genetically d ...201323698303
population dynamics of rhesus macaques and associated foamy virus in bangladesh.foamy viruses are complex retroviruses that have been shown to be transmitted from nonhuman primates to humans. in bangladesh, infection with simian foamy virus (sfv) is ubiquitous among rhesus macaques, which come into contact with humans in diverse locations and contexts throughout the country. we analyzed microsatellite dna from 126 macaques at six sites in bangladesh in order to characterize geographic patterns of macaque population structure. we also included in this study 38 macaques owned ...201326038465
mother-offspring transmission and age-dependent accumulation of simian foamy virus in wild chimpanzees.simian foamy viruses (sfvs) are thought to infect virtually any adult nonhuman primate (nhp). while many data have accumulated about patterns of codivergence with their hosts and cross-species transmission events, little is known about the modalities of sfv transmission within nhp species, especially in the wild. here we provide a detailed investigation of the dynamics of sfv circulation in a wild community of western chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus). we demonstrate that mother-offspring (ver ...201323449796
novel simian foamy virus infections from multiple monkey species in women from the democratic republic of congo.zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in central africa is ongoing and can result in pandemic human infection. while simian foamy virus (sfv) infection was reported in primate hunters in cameroon and gabon, little is known about the distribution of sfv in africa and whether human-to-human transmission and disease occur. we screened 3,334 plasmas from persons living in rural villages in central democratic republic of congo (drc) using sfv-specific eia and western blot (wb) tests. pcr ampli ...201223217108
simian foamy virus prevalence in macaca mulatta and zookeepers.the simian foamy virus (sfv) has been reported to be transmissible among humans occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates. nevertheless, epidemiological and genotypic data on the sfv in macaca mulatta and zookeepers in china are limited. in the present study, sfv proviral dna was detected in 74 blood samples from m. mulatta and 12 saliva specimens from zookeepers by nested polymerase chain reaction. a total of 29 blood samples from m. mulatta (29/74, 39.19%) and two saliva specimens from zooke ...201222236106
first complete genome sequence of a simian foamy virus isolate from a cynomolgus macaque.we report here the first complete proviral genome sequence (ddbj/ena/genbank accession no. lc094267) of a simian foamy virus, sfvmfa/cy5061, isolated from a cynomolgus macaque (macaca fascicularis). this proviral genome consists of 12,965 nucleotides and has five open reading frames, gag, pol, env, tas, and bet, as with other foamy viruses.201627908992
detection of viruses using discarded plants from wild mountain gorillas and golden monkeys.infectious diseases pose one of the most significant threats to the survival of great apes in the wild. the critically endangered mountain gorilla (gorilla beringei beringei) is at high risk for contracting human pathogens because approximately 60% of the population is habituated to humans to support a thriving ecotourism program. disease surveillance for human and non-human primate pathogens is important for population health and management of protected primate species. here, we evaluate discar ...201627331804
the ecology of primate retroviruses - an assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the taï national park area, côte d׳ivoire.the existence and genetic make-up of most primate retroviruses was revealed by studies of bushmeat and fecal samples from unhabituated primate communities. for these, detailed data on intra- and within-species contact rates are generally missing, which makes identification of factors influencing transmission a challenging task. here we present an assessment of 12 years of research on primate retroviruses in the taï national park area, côte d'ivoire. we discuss insights gained into the prevalence ...201425010280
the impact of calibration and clock-model choice on molecular estimates of divergence times.phylogenetic estimates of evolutionary timescales can be obtained from nucleotide sequence data using the molecular clock. these estimates are important for our understanding of evolutionary processes across all taxonomic levels. the molecular clock needs to be calibrated with an independent source of information, such as fossil evidence, to allow absolute ages to be inferred. calibration typically involves fixing or constraining the age of at least one node in the phylogeny, enabling the ages o ...201424910154
structural requirements for enzymatic activities of foamy virus protease-reverse transcriptase.reverse transcriptases (rts) are pivotal in the life cycle of retroviruses and convert the genomic viral rna into double-stranded dna. the rt polymerase domain is subdivided into fingers, palm, thumb, and the connection subdomain, which links the polymerase to the c-terminal rnase h domain. in contrast to orthoretroviruses, mature rt of foamy viruses harbors the protease (pr) domain at its n-terminus (pr-rt). therefore and due to low homology to other rts, it is difficult to define the boundarie ...201423966123
detection of retroviral super-infection from non-invasive samples.while much attention has been focused on the molecular epidemiology of retroviruses in wild primate populations, the correlated question of the frequency and nature of super-infection events, i.e., the simultaneous infection of the same individual host with several strains of the same virus, has remained largely neglected. in particular, methods possibly allowing the investigation of super-infection from samples collected non-invasively (such as faeces) have never been properly compared. here, w ...201222590569
zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products.the global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. the united states is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. this report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. initial findings from samples collected at several interna ...201222253731
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