complete genetic characterization and analysis of isolation of sin nombre virus.this study reports completion of the genetic characterization of the entire genome of sin nombre (sn) virus (nmh10) detected in autopsy tissues from a patient who died of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the large (l) genome segment was found to be 6,562 nucleotides in length and encoded a putative l polymerase that was 2,153 amino acids in length. no evidence of segment reassortment with other well-characterized hantaviruses was obtained. the sequence of the entire s, m, and l genome segmen ...19957494336
molecular linkage of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus: genetic characterization of the m genome of new york virus.the complete m segment sequences of hantaviruses amplified from tissues of a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern united states and from white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, from new york were 99% identical and differed from those of four corners virus by 23%. the serum of this patient failed to recognize a conserved, immunodominant epitope of the four corners virus g1 glycoprotein. collectively, these findings indicate that p. leucopus harbors a genetically and anti ...19957494337
elevated levels of total and puumala virus-specific immunoglobulin e in the scandinavian type of hemorrhagic fever with renal a previous study, it was reported that the total immunoglobulin e (ige) level was increased in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). the aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific ige is synthesized during the course of the disease. for this purpose, an epsilon-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed. a total of 72 patients with hfrs caused by puumala virus were studied. three different control groups were included: 20 blood donors, 20 p ...19947496961
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in canada: update. 19957497393
antigenic relationships of hantavirus strains analysed by monoclonal antibodies.the antigenic relationships among 71 hantavirus strains, isolated from rodent species or humans in several geographic regions, were examined by immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using human patient sera and a panel of 22 monoclonal antibodies prepared against hantaan, seoul, and puumala viruses. the study included virus strains, mainly from the former ussr, for which little or no serological data were available. fifty-nine of the 71 isolates could be placed into five antigenic groups of hantaviruse ...19957503677
coding strategy of the s and m genomic segments of a hantavirus representing a new subtype of the puumala serotype.the hantavirus strain vranica was previously reported to have been isolated from a bank vole in bosnia-hercegovina and associated with the occurrence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hrfs) in humans. the complete cdna nucleotide sequences of the small (s) and medium (m) genomic rna segments of this virus were determined. major open reading frames were found in the s and m segment between nucleotide positions 43 and 1341 coding for a polypeptide of 433 amino acid residues and between nuc ...19957503698
isolation of a puumala-like virus from mus musculus captured in yugoslavia and its association with severe hemorrhagic fever with renal outbreak of severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) occurred in 1988 in pozarevac, serbia, yugoslavia. the disease was diagnosed in 4 children and 1 adult, and 1 of the children died. rodents were captured from the same area and virus isolation attempted. a hantavirus, poz-m1, was isolated from lung tissues of hantavirus antigen-positive mus musculus. serology and restriction enzyme digestion of polymerase chain reaction-amplified segments from this virus showed that it was a stra ...19947506281
hantavirus infections and outbreaks in 1993.hantaviruses are the cause of a worldwide zoonosis and pose a potential threat to those exposed to rodents through occupation or recreation. an increased number of hantavirus infections was reported in holland and germany in the summer of 1993 and a previously unrecognised hantavirus has been implicated in the pulmonary syndrome hantavirus (pshv) outbreak in the united states. surveillance data for the united kingdom are limited and infections with hantaviruses are not always recognised: hantavi ...19947509239
characterization of human antibody responses to four corners hantavirus infections among patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a human disease caused by a newly identified hantavirus, which we will refer to as four corners virus (fcv). fcv is related most closely to puumala virus (puu) and to prospect hill virus (phv). twenty-five acute hps serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin g (igg) and igm antibody reactivities to fcv-encoded recombinant proteins in western blot (immunoblot) assays. all hps serum samples contained both igg and igm antibodies to the fcv nucleocapsid (n) p ...19947512156
[hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps)]. 19937524548
[tiber environment and infections: antibodies to hantaviruses, leptospira, borrelia and hepatitis a virus in subjects active on the river banks]. 19937524553
dominant glycoprotein epitope of four corners hantavirus is conserved across a wide geographical area.a newly identified hantavirus, tentatively called four corners virus (fcv), was found to be the aetiological agent of a 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the southwestern united states. immunodominant epitopes of 43 and 31 amino acids were identified in the nucleocapsid protein and g1 glycoprotein, respectively. the g1 genes of different hantaviruses are highly divergent, suggesting that geographically diverse fcvs might fail to cross-react owing to antigenic drift. we now ...19947525860
mapping of b-cell determinants in the nucleocapsid protein of puumala virus: definition of epitopes specific for acute immunoglobulin g recognition in humans.the complete amino acid sequence of the puumala (puu) virus nucleocapsid protein (n), deduced from the genome of the prototype strain sotkamo, was synthesized as decapeptides with 5-amino-acid overlaps. by use of the pepscan method, 86 peptides were examined for reactivity with sera from serologically confirmed nephropathia epidemica (ne) patients and 11 puu virus n-specific bank vole monoclonal antibodies. the human sera showed reactivity with several different regions, while only one of the mo ...19957536616
nucleotide sequence analysis of the m genomic segment of el moro canyon hantavirus: antigenic distinction from four corners hantavirus.el moro canyon hantavirus (elmc, previously known as hmv-1) is associated with the western harvest mouse reithrodontomys megalotis. the interpretation that elmc is a novel hantavirus was based upon comparisons of the nucleotide sequence of the s genomic segment with those of other hantaviruses. we now show that the elmc m genome, like the s genome, is genetically similar to but distinct from that of four corners hantavirus (fc). the elmc m genome is 3801 nt in length and encodes a glycoprotein p ...19957544047
hantavirus infection: a rare disease which you should be aware.hantavirus infection is caused by viruses classified in the hantavirus genus, of the bunyaviridae family. recently a new hantavirus has been recognized. specific endemic areas has been identified, however a new outbreak was identified in the southwestern of the united states. the principal vectors are rodents. human infection occur by aerosol from rodent urine, saliva, feces and rodent bites. the infection classically is manifested clinically by fever, hemorrhage and renal failure. the recent ou ...19957546027
laboratory-associated infections and estimated 500,000 laboratory workers in the united states are at risk of exposure to infectious agents that cause disease ranging from inapparent to life-threatening infections, but the precise risk to a given worker unknown. the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus and hantavirus, the continuing problem of hepatitis b virus, and the reemergence of mycobacterium tuberculosis have renewed interest in biosafety for the employees of laboratories and health care facilities. this review exami ...19957553572
[new pulmonary symptoms by killer hantavirus]. 19947555827
serendipity, science, and a new hantavirus.this essay follows a team of scientific investigators step by intriguing step as it pursues the cause of the mysterious 1993 deaths of healthy young adults in the southwestern united states. using the science of the day, the team unravels the elusive origin of a potentially widespread killer--tracking a new hantavirus to its home, tracing its lineage, and differentiating its dna from the large hantavirus family. this is the first in the "breakthroughs" series.19957557014
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome associated with entering or cleaning rarely used, rodent-infested structures. 19957561206
fatal illness associated with a new hantavirus in louisiana.a fatal case of hantaviral illness occurred in louisiana, outside of the range of p. maniculatus, the rodent reservoir for sin nombre virus. hantavirus rna and antigens were detected in patient autopsy tissues, and nucleotide sequence analysis of amplified polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products identified a newly recognized unique hantavirus, provisionally named bayou virus. prominent features of the clinical illness are compatible with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), but several features ...19957561804
hantavirus nephropathy in the netherlands: clinical, histopathological and epidemiological findings.until 1995, 39 cases of serologically confirmed hantavirusnephropathy in humans, caused by the puumala type of hantavirus, have been documented in the netherlands. thirty-two of these occurred in twente, a small region in the eastern part of the country, in which the presence of puumala-like hantavirus in feral rodents has recently been demonstrated. sixteen of the cases documented in humans occurred in 1993. here we present an overview of clinical, histopathological and epidemiological findings ...19957566288
parasites of wild brown rats (rattus norvegicus) on uk farms.wild brown rats (rattus norvegicus) from 11 rural uk farmsteads were found to carry 13 zoonotic and 10 non-zoonotic parasitic species, many of which (e.g. cryptosporidium, pasteurella, listeria, yersinia, coxiella and hantavirus) have rarely or never been previously investigated for wild rats. the study suggests that wild brown rats, serving as vectors of disease, represent a serious risk to the health of humans and domestic animals in the uk.19957567093
hantavirus infection following wilderness camping in washington state and northeastern california. 19957571572
evidence for the existence of puumula-related virus among clethrionomys rufocanus in hokkaido, japan.we conducted field surveys of indigenous rodent species in hokkaido, japan from 1980 to 1993. serum samples were collected from 663 rodents, including clethrionomys rufocanus, apodemus speciosus, a. argenteus, and c. rutilus. antibody to hantavirus was determined by the protein g antibody assay. positive c. rufocanus were detected in seven of eight collection sites, but no antibody was detected in the remaining rodent species. to reveal the serotype of the circulating virus in c. rufocanus, anti ...19957573700
development of monoclonal antibodies against hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein.forty-five hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies against hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, were generated by fusion of p3-x63-ag8.v653 myeloma cells with spleen cells of mice immunized with inactivated hantaan virus vaccine. among these, 38 antibodies were identified as binding to the 48-kda nucleocapsid protein by immunoblot assay or radioimmunoprecipitation. twenty-six of them were of the immunoglobulin g1 (igg1), nine were of the igg2a ...19957583920
[nephropathia epidemica with pleuritis]. 19947588118
hints on hantavirus. 19957588470
cross-neutralization of hantaviruses with immune sera from experimentally infected animals and from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome patients.plaque-reduction neutralization tests were done with eight of nine known representative hantaviruses and immune sera from experimentally infected animals and from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). results obtained with animal sera demonstrated each virus to be antigenically unique. neutralization with the hps patient sera was highest with sin nombre (sn) virus and to a lesser extent with black creek canal (bcc) virus. sera from kor ...19957594720
genetic and antigenic properties of dobrava virus: a unique member of the hantavirus genus, family bunyaviridae.we examined the genetic and antigenic properties of dobrava (dob) virus, a hantavirus associated with severe haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in europe. cloning and sequence analyses revealed the dob m segment to consist of 3644 nucleotides, with a coding capacity of 1134 amino acids in the virus complementary-sense rna (crna). seven potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the m segment gene product, one in the g2 and six in the g1 coding regions. the s segment i ...19957595387
human b-cell epitopes of puumala virus nucleocapsid protein, the major antigen in early serological response.puumala virus (puu) is a member of the hantavi rus genus in the family bunyaviridae and the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica (ne), a form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). in this study we compared the immunofluorescence patterns of ne sera and antibodies raised against recombinant puu proteins and confirm that the nucleocapsid protein is the major target in the early igg response of ne patients and provides the molecular basis for simple and rapid differentiation betwee ...19957595404
[hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by hantavirus]. 19957603098
short report: isolation and partial characterization of a puumala virus from a human case of nephropathia epidemica in france.puumala (puu) virus (bunyaviridae: hantavirus), the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica (ne), the mid form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, is enzootic in europe and has been known to occur in france since 1983. we report the first isolation of puu virus in france and western europe from a case of ne acquired in france. the virus was isolated from a serum collected in the acute phase of the clinical course by successive blind passages in vero e6 cells. serologic typing using monoc ...19957611568
genetic and serologic analysis of black creek canal virus and its association with human disease and sigmodon hispidus creek canal (bcc) virus is a newly identified virus associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the southeastern united states. nucleotide sequences were determined for the complete s and m and partial l genomic segments of a bcc virus isolate. phylogenetic analysis indicates that each of the virus segments is unique, and there is no evidence of genetic reassortment having occurred between this and other previously characterized hantaviruses. all hantavirus-seropositive, wild-ca ...19957618284
phylogenetically distinct hantavirus implicated in a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern united states.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is an acute respiratory illness with high mortality. it is caused by a newly described new world hantavirus known as four corners virus (fcv). nearly all cases of hps have occurred in the western united states. the etiologic agents in those cases have been closely related to each other, based upon comparisons of their genetic sequences. we have molecularly cloned the s genomic segment of a hantavirus (rl-1) implicated in a case on hps in the northeastern unite ...19957623002
isolation of black creek canal virus, a new hantavirus from sigmodon hispidus in florida.numerous rodents were trapped for serologic and virologic studies following the identification of a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) case in dade county, florida. cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) were the most frequently capture rodent and displayed the highest seroprevalence to a variety of hantavirus antigens. hantavirus genome rna was detected in all the seropositive cotton rats tested, using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay. a virus was isolated from tissues ...19957623004
social impact of respiratory infections. 19957634928
protection against hantavirus infection by dam's immunity transferred vertically to neonates.antibodies to hantavirus, seoul type b-1 strain, vertically transferred to rat neonates prevented lethal as well as persistent infection. when relatively high titer viruses were inoculated into neonates, the mother's antibodies protected all the neonates from lethal virus infection. however, the antibodies could not protect all of the neonates from persistent infection but only half of them underwent persistent infection. the other half was completely cured but also became persistently infected ...19957646341
seroprevalence of hantavirus antibodies in germany as determined by a new recombinant enzyme order to elucidate the epidemiological importance of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in germany, the prevalence of antibodies against hantaviruses was determined in 13,358 sera from residents of various geographic regions, 1,284 sera from occupational risk groups and 287 sera from chronic hemodialysis patients. serological investigations were performed using a highly specific transferable solid phase enzyme immunoassay based on the recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of a hantaan and a pu ...19957649193
evaluation of the magnitude of the 1993 hantavirus outbreak in the southwestern united may 1993, an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the southwestern united states was caused by the previously unrecognized sin nombre virus (snv). most hps patients had an influenza-like prodrome, followed by rapid onset of pulmonary edema (fatality rate, 52%). to define the magnitude of the outbreak, patients with milder illnesses who sought medical care in the outbreak area during the outbreak period were assessed for infection with snv. of 299 study subjects, 43 had illnesses ...19957658065
enzootic of bayou hantavirus in rice rats (oryzomys palustris) in 1983. 19957658901
sin nombre virus infection in 1959. 19957658902
identification and classification of viruses that have not been propagated.microorganisms that cannot be grown in the laboratory can now be tentatively identified, by cloning and sequencing particular nucleic acid segments and then carrying out a comparative sequence analysis with an appropriate database. for bacteria, a few universally distributed genes and gene products have enabled comparative sequence analysis to be used for tentative identification and classification of uncultured bacteria. for viruses, there is no universally distributed viral gene or gene produc ...19957661703
pediatric infectious disease emergencies.infectious diseases are the cause of the majority of pediatric emergency visits, although only a minority constitute true emergencies. progress in identifying the true emergencies continues.19957663618
hantavirus infection among rattus norvegicus in japan.seroepizootiological study of hantavirus infection among 393 urban rats (rattus norvegicus) captured in six regions in japan during the period from 1990 to 1994 was carried out by the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test and western blot (wb). fifteen out of 393 (3.8%) rat sera were antibody-positive by ifa, i.e., tokyo port (12.8%, 6/47), shimizu port (5.7%, 2/35), otaru port (1.5%, 1/65) and nagoya city (3.6%, 6/167). in two other regions, i.e., kasai seaside park and haneda airport, rat s ...19957666596
mixed natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in west of 923 small mammals of 7 species were collected in locality záhorská ves, west slovakia, in 1990-1992. among examined small mammal species it was clethrionomys glareolus (48.7% of total, 17.5% positive for tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus antibodies), apodemus flavicollis (29.7% of total, 17.5% positive), a. sylvaticus (11.3% of total, 16.3% positive), and microtus arvalis (6.2% of total, 10.5% positive). the most abundant tick species (larval and nymphal stages) on small mammals was i ...19957676942
temporal dynamics of puumala virus antibody prevalence in voles and of nephropathia epidemica incidence in humans.puumala (puu) virus is the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica (ne) in humans. this disease is highly endemic in vasterbotten county, sweden, with an annual incidence of 19.2 (range 3.7-37.4) per 100,000 inhabitants. voles are considered to be both the main reservoir and the vector of puu virus. a total of 3,591 rodents (mainly clethrionomys glareolus, c. rufocanus, and microtus agrestis) trapped in vasterbotten between 1979 and 1987 were tested for the presence of puu virus antibodies by ...19957677213
neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against puumala virus, causative agent of nephropathia epidemica: a novel method using antigen-coated magnetic beads for specific b cell isolation.human monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against puumala (puu) virus were generated and characterized. human spleen b lymphocytes were preselected for specific surface immunoglobulin (ig) using magnetic beads coated with the viral glycoproteins, and subsequently immortalized by epstein-barr virus transformation. four igg-positive monoclonal lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcls) were established and have remained stable mab secretors for over 12 months. analyses of the antigen and epitope specificities reco ...19937687648
unexplained respiratory distress syndrome in the south-west of the united states. 19937694744
a serotypic study of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in rural china.apodemus agrarius was trapped in the fields and rattus norvegicus was trapped within the houses in the villages of jiande county, a region in the zhejiang province of china endemic for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). antibodies to hantaviruses were detected in three (16.7%) of 18 a. agrarius and 12 (13.5%) of 89 r. norvegicus, whereas hantavirus antigens were detected in the lung tissues of four (22.2%) of 18 and nine (10.1%) of 89 of these rodents, respectively. three hantaviruses ...19957694967
hantavirus infections in the netherlands: epidemiology and disease.a serological survey for the prevalence of hantavirus infections in the netherlands was carried out on > 10,000 sera, from selected human populations, and different feral and domestic animal species. hantavirus-specific antibodies were found in about 1% of patients suspected of acute leptospirosis, 10% of patients with acute nephropathia, and in less than 0.1% haemodialysis and renal transplant patients. among individuals with a suspected occupational risk, 6% of animal trappers, 4% of forestry ...19957705497
a case-control study of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome during an outbreak in the southwestern united may 1993, an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) occurred in the southwestern united states. a case-control study determined risk factors for hps. seventeen case-patients were compared with 3 groups of controls: members of case-patient households (household controls), members of neighboring households (near controls), and members of randomly selected households > or = 24 km away (far controls). investigators trapped more small rodents at case households than at near (p = .03) or f ...19957706812
[should we look for hantavirus infection in spanish patients?]. 19957711122
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: the four corners review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of hantavirus infections, focusing on the recent outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the us.19957711347
detection and subsequent sequencing of puumala virus from human specimens by pcr.a sensitive method based on pcr was developed for the detection of puumala virus (puu) in human samples. the assay was found to be specific for puu-like strains and distinguished between these and hantaviruses of other serotypes. the detection limit was found to be 10(-5) focus-forming units. clinical samples were collected from patients with nephropathia epidemica in sweden and western russia. five whole blood samples collected from patients in russia with the acute phase of disease were found ...19957714178
[results of serologic screening for hemorrhagic fever with kidney syndrome in moldova].results of serologic screening of small mammals for antigen of the virus of hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome (hfrs) and of testing human sera for antibodies to this virus in moldova are reviewed. a total of 9946 animals belonging to 22 species and blood sera of 792 healthy donors were examined in 1983-1990. hfrs virus antigen was detected in 30 animals of 9 species, with the highest incidence of the antigen in gray voles. two serotypes of hantavirus were found to circulate in small mamm ...19947716918
[acute respiratory disease caused by hantavirus four corners]. 19957724872
epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of hantavirus (htv) infections.hantavirus (htv) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. during an epidemic in the belgian-french ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the milder european form of htv-illness, otherwise known as nephropathia epidemica (ne). this variant may be recognized by the sudden onset of fever, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia and sometimes by ophthalmolog ...19957725842
detection and sequence confirmation of sin nombre virus rna in paraffin-embedded human tissues using one-step rt-pcr.sin nombre virus (snv) is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). snv rna can be detected in fresh or frozen autopsy tissue samples by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and virus antigens can be identified by immunohistochemistry. a method was developed for demonstration of snv rna in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues by rt-pcr. virus genomes were detected in 8 of 12 (66.7%) fixed human tissue samples that were positive by immunohistochemistry, ...19957738155
guillain-barré syndrome associated with hantavirus infection. 19957742467
[early diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome during war].hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) represented a significant military problem in wide-spread epidemics among soldiers in previous wars. elisa test for detection of the anti-hantaviral igm antibodies has proved as a method of choice for rapid diagnostics of the hfrs. since the republic of bosnia and herzegovina is one of the greatest endemices focuses of the hfrs in europe, the war circumstances in which we live at the present time, could easily bring about, both breaking up of the epid ...19947752688
isolation and characterization of a hantavirus from rattus norvegicus in a residential area of nagoya city, japan.the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus among rattus norvegicus in nagoya city was examined during the period from 1986 to 1993. eight sera of 675 were antibody positive in an indirect fluorescent antibody test. antibody positive rats were found in 1988, 1990, 1991 and 1992 and the numbers of rats were 1, 1, 3 and 3, respectively. a hantavirus strain was isolated from a rat captured in 1990 at a residential area adjoining to a pier in nagoya port. the virus strain, named nr-9, was identified ...19957756425
human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies bearing the internal image of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus antigen.a human hybridoma cell line c8 secreting human monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (alpha id) was established by fusing epstein-barr virus transfected peripheral blood lymphocytes from a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) patient with interspecific myeloma shm-d33 cells. the alpha id human monoclonal antibody (hmab) could react with anti-hfrsv ab1 from different species, and the reaction could be inhibited by hfrsv antigen, indicating that anti-idiotype hmab bears the internal image o ...19947756583
hantavirus. 19957759339
[detection of hemagglutinins in hantavirus serotypes and some of their properties].hemagglutinating properties of various serological types of hantavirus isolated in the primorye area from humans with hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome and rodents, natural carriers of the virus, were studied. the strains were found to differ by capacity to accumulate hemagglutinin at multiplication in vero e-6 cells. a method for elevating hemagglutinin titers by combined treatment of cultural virus-containing fluid with polyethyleneglycol-6000 and tween-80-ether or acetone-ultrasound i ...19957762229
zoonotic hantaviruses; new concerns for the united states.hantaviruses have emerged as agents of significant morbidity and mortality in human beings. these pathogens are maintained in nature as not clinically apparent, persistent infections in roden reservoirs, varying with each virus, and are shed via rodent feces, urine, and salivary excretions. human exposure to hantaviruses principally occurs through the respiratory tract route and is focal and discontinuous, paralleling the distribution of virus in reservoir species and the likelihood of human-rod ...19957768721
sensitive detection of hantaviruses by biotin-streptavidin enhanced immunoassays based on bank vole monoclonal antibodies.antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) based on detection of the viral nucleocapsid protein (n) were designed for rapid diagnosis of hantavirus infections. several combinations of bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) monoclonal antibodies with various n-epitope specificities were used for the development of two double-antibody sandwich forms of elisa; puu virus ag-elisa for an exclusive detection of puumala-related viruses, and hantavirus ag-elisa for a more extensive detecti ...19957769041
a household-based, case-control study of environmental factors associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern united states.during an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the southwestern united states, trained environmental assessment teams conducted surveys at 17 case-patient homes and matched controls from june through august 1993. variables related to rodent abundance were quantified and standardized rodent trapping was conducted around and within households. the majority of households were located in pinon-juniper vegetation zones, and there were no significant differences in the type of house in w ...19957771603
comparison of the kinetics of puumala virus specific igm and igg antibody responses in nephropathia epidemica as measured by a recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunofluorescence test.immunoglobulin m and g (igm and igg) responses were followed up to 6 months in patients with nephropathia epidemica (ne) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using a recombinant puumala virus (puu) nucleocapsid protein as antigen and an immunofluorescence test (if) using puu infected, acetone-treated cells as antigen. the recombinant protein was produced by cloning and expressing the nucleocapsid encoding gene of puu as a polyhistidine fusion protein in escherichia coli. the product w ...19957775932
characterization of the mode of hantaan virus infection in adult mice using a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction: transient virus replication in adult mice.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of hantavirus genome was established and applied to analyze the mode of infection of hantaan virus in adult icr mice. the cdna for the s genome segment of hantaan virus was reverse-transcribed from the total rna of organs of the infected mice. the sequence in the s genome segment of hantaan virus was successfully amplified by reverse transcriptase (rt)-pcr followed by nested pcr. in 5-week-old icr mice inoculated intraperitoneally with hantaan ...19957783676
[acute kidney failure caused by hantaviruses].hantavirus-induced acute renal failure is a worldwide occurring disease and rarely known and diagnosed in germany and in western europe. its various clinical features are embraced by the term hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). cardinal symptoms of the mild european form called nephropathia epidemica (ne) leading to diagnosis are: abrupt onset, fever, pain (abdominal, loin-, or headache), acute renal failure, proteinuria and/or hematuria, polyuria, and thrombocytopenia. etiologic agent ...19947784996
[leptospirosis and pulmonary hantavirus syndrome]. 19947787876
hantaviruses: the rodents take revenge. 19957791447
hantavirus antibodies in european mammalogists. 19957791453
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in canada. 19957795553
a macaque model for hantavirus infection.cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with puumala virus (strain hällnäs), which causes nephropathia epidemica in humans in western europe. during the first week after intratracheal inoculation, the monkeys exhibited signs of lethargy followed by mild proteinuria and microhematuria. histopathologic changes during the first 7 weeks after infection were largely confined to abnormalities in medullary tubular cells of the kidneys, which coincided with the demonstrati ...19957797944
role of infection in the genesis of acute renal failure.while most experimental models of acute renal failure (arf) involve ischaemic or toxic damage to the kidney in non-infected animals, a surprisingly large proportion of patients with arf exhibit signs of septicaemia or systemic reaction to local infections. this clinical observation suggests an important role of infection-related mediator mechanisms in the genesis of arf. another important aspect is the occurrence of arf in the context of infections with nephrotropic viruses (e.g. hantavirus acco ...19947800267
hantavirus pulmonary outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) occurred in the western u.s. in 1993. this outbreak was surprising because serious disease due to hantavirus had not been reported previously in the u.s., and hantavirus had not been documented to cause significant pulmonary disease. epidemiologic investigation discovered a novel strain of hantavirus as the etiologic agent of hps. the centers for disease control (cdc) proposed the name of muerto canyon virus for this novel hantavirus, which is t ...19947801629
the no-name virus. questions linger after the four corners outbreak. 19947809594
[nephropathia epidemica. hantavirus nephritis--a differential diagnosis in acute abdomen].nephropathia epidemica (ne) is an infectious disease caused by hantavirus of the bunyavirus family and carried by little rodents, in denmark presumably by the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus). the disease usually presents with self-limiting renal failure, thrombocytopenia, fever, lower back and/or abdominal pain. as such it might be confused with for example acute abdomen as shown by the two cases given. final diagnosis is based upon demonstrating antibody formation against hantavirus.19947810017
emergence of hantaviral disease in the southwestern united states.hantaviruses are parasites of small mammals, predominantly peridomestic and commensal rodents. they have a worldwide distribution. hantavirus-related illness occurs in rural areas where humans come into contact with rodents. in most cases human infection is manifested by one of a variety of acute illnesses involving hemorrhagic fever and renal disease. in may 1993, a cluster of patients with an acute pulmonary disease with high mortality was noted in the four corners region of the southwestern u ...19947810123
hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 19947811854
more on hantavirus in new england and new york. 19957816081
more on hantavirus in new england and new york. 19957816082
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in california. 19947817560
haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in korean children. korean society of pediatric nephrology.haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is an acute disease caused by hantavirus and clinically characterised by abrupt onset of fever, various haemorrhagic manifestations and transient renal and hepatic dysfunction. we retrospectively reviewed 63 cases of hfrs in children from 13 different hospitals in korea who presented over a 15-year period. the age of the patients ranged from 7 to 15 years, with a male to female ratio of 8 to 1. fifty-four (86%) patients were 10 years or older. on adm ...19947818997
[human infection by hantavirus in southern and southeastern brazil].the results of serological investigation on hantavírus antibodies carried out between february 1986 and august 1990 in human populations of the states of são paulo and paraná, brazil, which had close contact with urban rats or wild rodents and others small mammals are described. objective--to identify the human infection caused by hantavíruses, which are the etiological agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. methods--sera from 1063 persons were tested by enzyme immunoassay (elisa) to h ...19947820156
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the united states: a pathological description of a disease caused by a new outbreak of an acute respiratory disease in the southwestern united states has led to the recognition of a new hantaviral illness. this report describes a unique spectrum of antemortem and postmortem pathological findings seen in a case series of nine surviving patients and 13 who died. clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings were derived from a consecutive series of individuals confirmed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. laboratory studies included chemical, hematological, and bone m ...19957821907
enhancement of infectivity of hantavirus in cell culture by centrifugation.centrifugation was introduced during virus adsorption to vero e6 cells to improve the infectivity of hantavirus. centrifugal adsorption of a stock solution of hantaan virus strain 76-118 to a monolayer of vero e6 cells enhanced virus infectivity depending on the centrifugation time and the centrifugal force. the maximum level of infectivity (3.1 x 10(6) ffu/ml) was enhanced after a 2 h centrifugation at 671 x g, which was almost 9-times higher than that of conventional adsorption of the virus at ...19947822463
effect of interferon-alpha and cell differentiation on puumala virus infection in human monocyte/macrophages.pathogenesis of hantavirus infections is poorly understood. puumala virus (puu) is the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica, a form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome common in europe. we have studied puu infection in primary human monocyte/macrophages and specifically the role of interferon alpha (ifn-alpha) and cell differentiation in it. puu infection proceeded at a low level in monocyte/macrophages, and nucleocapsid (n) protein accumulation started 2 days postinfection. ifn-induce ...19957831843
fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in an adolescent. 19957838649
hantaviruses and the hantavirus outbreak in the united states. a case study in disease emergence. 19947840450
emerging infectious diseases in the united states, improved surveillance, a requisite for prevention.emerging infectious diseases such as prolonged diarrheal illness due to water-borne cryptosporidium, hemorrhagic colitis and renal failure from food-borne e. coli o157:h7, and rodent-borne hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as well as reemerging infections such as tuberculosis, pertussis, and cholera vividly illustrate that we remain highly vulnerable to the microorganisms with which we share our environment. prompt detection of new and resurgent infectious disease threats depends on careful monitori ...19947840468
serum levels of alpha and gamma interferons in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is an acute viral disease caused by hantavirus. on the basis of clinical observation, the illness is divided into five sequential stages: febrile, hypotensive, oliguric, diuretic, and convalescent. because interferons can be induced by viruses, and because their stimulating effects on immune cells can alter the course of viral infections, we examined the presence of alpha interferon (ifn-alpha) and gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) in 276 serum samples collected ...19947848512
antibody responses to four corners hantavirus infections in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus): identification of an immunodominant region of the viral nucleocapsid protein.antibody responses to four corners hantavirus (fcv) infections in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) were characterized by using fcv nucleocapsid protein (n), glycoprotein 1 (g1), and glycoprotein 2 (g2) recombinant polypeptides in western immunoblot assays. strong immunoglobulin g reactivities to fcv n were observed among fcv-infected wild p. maniculatus mice (n = 34) and in laboratory-infected p. maniculatus mice (n = 11). no immunoglobulin g antibody reactivities to fcv g1 or g2 linear d ...19957853538
a newly recognized virus associated with a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in louisiana.genetic analysis of virus detected in autopsy tissues of a fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-like case in louisiana revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized hantavirus. nucleotide sequence analysis of pcr fragments of the complete s and m segments of the virus amplified from rna extracted from the tissues showed the virus to be novel, differing from the closest related hantavirus, sin nombre virus, by approximately 30%. both genome segments were unique, and there was no evidence of g ...19957853545
isolation and initial characterization of a newfound hantavirus from california.a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in northern california prompted our attempt to isolate viruses from local rodents. from tissues of two deer mice, peromyscus maniculatus, two hantaviruses (convict creek virus 107 and 74, cc107 and cc74) were established in cell culture. viral antigens, proteins, and rnas of the first and archetypical isolate (cc107) were examined, and portions of the medium (m) and small (s) genome segments of both isolates were sequenced. antigenically, cc107 ...19957856107
complete nucleotide sequences of the m and s segments of two hantavirus isolates from california: evidence for reassortment in nature among viruses related to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the m and the s genome segments and a portion of the l segments of two hantavirus isolates from peromyscus maniculatus trapped in eastern california. the isolates, convict creek 107 and 74 (cc107 and cc74) are genetically similar to viruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in new mexico. cc107 and cc74 each have an m segment consisting of 3696 nucleotides with a coding potential of 1140 amino acids in the virus complementary-sense rna (cr ...19957856108
emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: new threats to public health.ecologists have begun to describe an environmental distress syndrome, whereby widespread loss of top predators and harsh environmental conditions are encouraging the selection of opportunistic pests and pathogens across a wide taxonomic range of plants and animals. environmental change and pollutants stress individuals and populations, and this may be reflected in the global resurgence of infectious disease as these stresses cascade through the community assemblages of species. in 1993, the sudd ...19957856775
risk of infections transmitted by arthropods and rodents in forestry hundred and fifty-one forestry workers and 151 matched office clerks were compared as to the presence of antibodies against borelia burgdorferi, tick-borne encephalitis virus, puumalavirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. their occupational risks of being infected by borrelia was fourfold and significant, by puumalavirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was increased but not significant. no seropositivity has been established against tick-borne encephalitis virus.19947859849
[hantavirus disease: an emerging infection]. 19947865553
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