outbreak of acute illness--southwestern united states, 1993.beginning in may 1993, cases of acute illness characterized by fever, myalgias, headache, and cough, followed by rapid development of respiratory failure, have been reported to the new mexico department of health (nmdoh), arizona department of health services (adhs), colorado department of health (cdh), and utah department of health (udh). this report presents preliminary findings from an ongoing investigation of this problem, which suggest this illness is associated with a previously unrecogniz ...19938502213
update: outbreak of hantavirus infection--southwestern united states, 1993.since may 1993, the new mexico department of health, the arizona department of health services, the colorado department of health, the utah department of health, the indian health service (ihs), and cdc, with the assistance of the navajo nation division of health, have been investigating an outbreak of acute illness characterized by a prodrome most commonly including fever, myalgias, headache, and cough, followed rapidly by respiratory failure. preliminary laboratory findings have suggested this ...19938502218
microbes ever marching. 19938505964
from the centers for disease control and prevention. infectious diseases update: outbreak, hantavirus infection--southwestern united states, 1993. 19938510287
update: outbreak of hantavirus infection--southwestern united states, 1993.since may 1993, the new mexico department of health, the arizona department of health, the colorado department of health, the utah department of health, the indian health service, and cdc, with the assistance of the navajo nation division of health, have been investigating an outbreak of illness associated with hantavirus infection. this report updates information regarding the relation between illness and infection with a previously unrecognized hantavirus.19938510634
update: outbreak of hantavirus infection--southwestern united states, outbreak of illness associated with hantavirus infection continues to be investigated by state health departments in new mexico, arizona, colorado, and utah; the indian health service; and cdc, with the assistance of the navajo nation division of health. this report updates information regarding the outbreak and presents information on two cases that occurred in the 10 months preceding this outbreak.19938510636
update: hantavirus infection--united states, 1993. 19938515743
protective immunity of hantaan virus nucleocapsid and envelope protein studied using baculovirus-expressed proteins.recombinant hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein (rnp) and recombinant envelope (renv) proteins were prepared using a baculovirus expression system to examine the role of hantaan virus structural proteins in protective immunity. passive transfer of spleen cells from mice immunized with rnp conferred partial protection or prolongation of time to death from fatal hantaan virus infection in suckling mice which were challenged with hantaan virus at 40 ld50 (survival rate: 43%) or 4 ld50 (survival rate ...19938517793
[various new pathogens in pneumonia].the table summarizes the many newly recognized agents causing lower respiratory tract infections: gram + cocci, streptococcus agalactiae, enterococci; gram-rods, acinetobacter, aeromonas hydrophila, eikenella corrodens; mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to multiple drugs, intracellular organisms and viruses. some details are given in four chapters: pneumococci resistant to penicillin g which must be detected and impose new therapeutic strategies; chlamydia pneumoniae with its difficulties for ...19958525335
clinical features that differentiate hantavirus pulmonary syndrome from three other acute respiratory elucidate the early clinical characteristics of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), we compared the clinical features of 24 cases of hps with those of cases of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (n = 30), influenza (n = 33), or unexplained adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards, n = 21). on admission, patients with hps were less likely than outpatients with influenza to have reported sore throat (or = 0.02, p < .01) and cough (or = 0.1, p = .01) and were less likely than patients with pneu ...19958527558
a soldier in respiratory distress. 19968531548
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-related virus from bolivia. 19968531560
ehrlichia infection as a cause of severe respiratory distress. 19968532017
hantavirus serologies in patients hospitalized with community-acquired many patients, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is not known but may be caused by previously undescribed pathogens in some cases. the recently identified hantavirus sin nombre (sn) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. because sporadic cases have occurred outside the range of its reservoir (the deer mouse peromyscus maniculatus), an investigation sought to determine whether hantaviruses contributed to cases of community-acquired pneumonia in a large baltimore hospital. acute-phase ...19968537665
elevated plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha, soluble tnf receptors, interleukin (il)-6, and il-10 in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.plasma levels of cytokines were measured by eia in 15 subjects hospitalized with nephropathia epidemica, a european form of hantavirus-induced hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha and interleukin (il)-6 were increased in all patients at admission, and the concentration of il-10 was increased in most. tnf-alpha concentrations were still increased 1 week after onset of disease; levels of il-6 and il-10 were normalized. tnf-alpha was undetectabl ...19968537680
genetic variation of wild puumala viruses within the serotype, local rodent populations and individual animal.reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction cloning and sequencing were used to determine the range of s gene/n protein variability in wild puumala virus (puu) strains and to study phylogenetic relationships between two groups of strains which originated from finland and from european russia. analyses of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences showed: (1) all puu strains shared a common ancient ancestor; and (2) the more recent ancestors were different for the finnish branch and th ...19958546008
inhibition of bunyaviruses, phleboviruses, and hantaviruses by human mxa protein.viruses of the bunyaviridae family cause a variety of diseases ranging from uncomplicated fever to potentially lethal encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. little is known about the factors determining pathogenicity in the vertebrate host. interferons have been reported to be inhibitory, but their mode of action against members of the bunyaviridae has not yet been elucidated. the interferon-induced mxa protein encoded on human chromosome 21 is a large gtpase with antiviral activity against distinc ...19968551631
naturally occurring sin nombre virus genetic reassortants.genetic reassortment has been shown to play an important role in the evolution of several segmented rna viruses and in the epidemiology of associated diseases. sin nombre (sn) virus is the cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome throughout the western united states. like other hantaviruses, it possesses a genome consisting of three negative-sense rna segments, s, m, and l. recent analysis has demonstrated the presence of at least three different hantaviruses in nevada and eastern california, incl ...19958553562
genetic characterization of a new hantavirus detected in microtus arvalis from slovakia.a new hantavirus, called malacky, has been identified in lung tissue specimens of a vole, microtus arvalis, by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). the voles were trapped in a geographical area in slovakia where hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is endemic in the human population. sequence analysis of a major part of the s segment showed this virus to represent a new subtype within tula, a new hantavirus genetic group defined very recently.19958560789
hantaviruses: clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic aspects.hantaviruses comprise a genus of the family bunyaviridae. bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a negative-sense, tripartite rna genome. hantaviruses are etiologic agents for two acute and severe illnesses of man, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). each hantavirus is primarily associated with a single rodent host species or genus, and is transmitted to man through accidental inhalation or ingestion of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. the dis ...19958561891
utility of emergency, telephone-based national surveillance for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. hantavirus task force.on may 27, 1993, in response to the outbreak investigation of newly recognized hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the four corners states (new mexico, arizona, utah, and colorado), the centers for disease control and prevention established a national surveillance case definition for severe, unexplained respiratory disease to determine the extent of hps throughout the united states. a toll-free telephone hotline number was instituted to provide updated information about unexplained respirator ...19968569020
hantavirus outbreak during military manoeuvres in germany. 19968569401
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in germany. 19968569402
lessons learned from the hantaviruses and other hemorrhagic fever recent years, numerous previously known infections pathogens and their associated diseases have been recognized. among these newly identified agents are the viruses that cause the hemorrhagic fevers, including sin nombre virus, the etiologic agent of the 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the american southwest. epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of the hemorrhagic fevers and their etiologic agents provide lessons that may be used collectively as a paradigm of the natu ...19968571987
ultrastructural characteristics of sin nombre virus, causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.a previously unrecognized disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, was described following an outbreak of severe, often lethal, pulmonary illness in the southwestern united states in may-june, 1993. we have now studied the morphologic features of the causative agent, sin nomber virus (snv), by thin section electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of infected vero e6 cells. snv virions were roughly spherical and had a mean diameter of 112 nm. they had a rather dense envelope and closely a ...19958572935
genetic characterization of a human isolate of puumala hantavirus from france.puu90-13 is a strain of puumala (puu) virus (family bunyaviridae: genus hantavirus) isolated from a human in northeastern france (rollin et al., 1995). this report describes the full-length sequences of the small (s) and medium (m) genomic rnas of puu90-13. the terminal sequences of both the s and m genomic rnas were found to be conserved and imperfectly complementary. the s rna of puu90-13 is 1847 nt in length and contains the nucleocapsid (n) protein gene and a potential overlapping open readi ...19958578865
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in florida: association with the newly identified black creek canal virus.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a recently recognized viral zoonosis. the first recognized cases were caused by a newly described hantavirus. sin nombre virus (previously known as muerto canyon virus), isolated from peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse). we describe a 33-year-old floridian man who resided outside the ecologic range of p maniculatus but was found to have serologic evidence of a hantavirus infection during evaluation of azotemia associated with adult respiratory distress synd ...19968579086
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by the seoul virus.the seoul virus is an important etiologic agent in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), and infections with the seoul virus are less severe than those with the hantaan virus. however, the information on hfrs caused by the seoul virus is limited in korea. retrospective clinical analysis was done on 30 patients with seoul virus infection who had been diagnosed as having hfrs by clinical features and serologic testing by the plaque reduction neutralization test from 1986 to 1991 at the seo ...19958587622
increased production of nitric oxide in patients infected with the european variant of hantavirus.serum nitrate levels, a measure of nitric oxide (no) production in vivo, were very high (95 +/- 14 microm) in 13 patients infected with puumala virus, the european variant of hantavirus (htv), as compared to those in healthy subjects (33 +/- 3 microm). serum nitrate levels showed a high and significant correlation with scores on the acute physiological and chronic health evaluation (apache ii) scale and with serum creatinine, and an inverse correlation with platelet counts. serial serum measurem ...19958588134
four fatal cases of nephropathia epidemica.four serologically confirmed fatal cases of nephropathia epidemica (ne), the mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) are described. all the patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. autopsies revealed hemorrhage and necrotic areas of their pituitary glands, myocarditis, venous congestion and hemorrhage of the kidneys as well as pulmonary edema and hemorrhage of the lungs in all patients. this report provides new evidence that ne can be a fatal disease.19958588146
hantaan virus persistently infects marmoset b-lymphoblastoid cell investigate lymphoid cell hantavirus (hv) interaction, we examined the replication of the hv strains, hantaan 76-118 (htn), sr-11, and b-1 with the b95a, lym-1, cgm1, jm, jurkat, molt-4, at(l)5ky, bw5147, l1210, and vero/e6 cells. hv-growth was determined by immunofluorescence and focus-forming assays. lym-1 and vero/e6 supported the growth of all hv strains, and b95a only htn, while remaining cells did not sustain these strains. this is the first report to indicate the hv-replication in lymp ...19958593305
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--united states, 1995 and 1996.sporadic cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), a severe cardiopulmonary illness first identified in 1993, continue to be recognized in the united states (1,2). this report describes the investigation of two cases of sin nombre virus (snv)-associated hps involving feedlot workers in a single household during may-june 1995, and summarizes national reporting for hps through march 21, 1996. the findings of this investigation and of other investigations suggest that, although domestic and occ ...19968598827
cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cellular infiltration in nephropathia epidemica kidneys: an immunohistochemical study.puumala hantavirus-induced nephropathia epidemica (ne) is an important cause for an acute reversible renal failure in scandinavia, european russia, and the balkans. the characteristic histopathological renal finding is an acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. mild to massive proteinuria, hematuria, and a rise in the serum creatinine level are typically seen. the pathogenetic mechanisms of ne kidney failure are incompletely understood. therefore we studied the infiltrating cell populations and loca ...19968599883
histopathology of peromyscus leucopus naturally infected with pathogenic ny-1 hantaviruses: pathologic markers of hps viral infection in mice.hantavirus research is impeded by the absence of animal models of viral pathogenesis. we have studied the histopathology of mice (p. leucopus) naturally infected with the ny-1 hantavirus on shelter island, new york. five mice were determined to be seropositive in western blotting to four corners virus nucleocapsid protein and had serum antibodies to seoul and puumala hantavirus antigens by immunofluorescence assay. hantavirus gene segments of the ny-1 hantavirus were identified in these mice and ...19968600313
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 19968602007
hantavirus infection in taiwan. 19968602039
spread of hantavirus infections in europe. 19968602040
epidemiologic linkage of rodent and human hantavirus genomic sequences in case investigations of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.sin nombre virus (snv) causes the zoonotic disease hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). its mechanisms of transmission from rodent to human are poorly understood. it is possible that specific genetic signature sequences could be used to determine the probable site of each case-patient's exposure. environmental assessments suggested 12 possible sites of rodent exposure for 6 hps patients. rodents were captured at 11 of the 12 sites and screened for snv infection within 2 weeks of the patient's di ...19968603954
hantavirus illness in humans: review and update.hantavirus is a rodent-borne pathogen that has been well characterized since the 1950s in asia and northern europe. the classic hantaviral illnesses hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and nephropathia epidemica are indistinguishable from the hantaviral pulmonary syndrome (hps) in early symptoms and laboratory data, but hps goes on to produce the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards) and usually spares the kidney. hps is the first hantaviral disease reported in humans in the western hemis ...19968604454
cardiopulmonary manifestations of hantavirus pulmonary describe the clinical characteristics of a group of patients infected with the newly recognized hantavirus in the southwestern united states.19968605797
characterization of puumala virus nucleocapsid protein: identification of b-cell epitopes and domains involved in protective immunity.b-cell epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein (n) of puumala (puu) virus were investigated by use of truncated recombinant proteins and overlapping peptides. six of seven epitopes, recognized by bank vole monoclonal antibodies, were localized within the amino-terminal region of the protein (aa 1-79). polyclonal antibodies from wild-trapped or experimentally infected bank voles identified epitopes located over the entire protein. antibody end-point titers to different n fragments indicated that the ...19968607269
patterns and predictability in emerging infections.many seemingly novel infections have a long history as zoonoses, and perhaps in sporadic human hosts; they gain access to new host populations through ecologic changes and human activity. identification of patterns in the emergence of such illnesses--ranging from influenza and lyme disease to ebola fever and aids--suggests that worldwide surveillance may be more feasible than once thought.19968609193
hantaviruses are likely threat to nato forces in bosnia and herzegovina and croatia. 19968612216
hantavirus antigen detection using human serum immunoglobulin m as the capturing antibody in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect different hantavirus antigens in cell culture; i.e. puumala (puu), hantaan (htn), and dobrava (dob) viruses. the assay was based on binding human serum immunoglobulin m (igm) antibodies to the solid phase by use of goat anti-igm antibodies. the captured igm antibodies were present in the acute phase serum from two patients: one infected in sweden and the other in bosnia. antigens being bound to the solid phase by the human anti ...19968615449
hantaviruses in the united states. 19968615702
human and rodent hantavirus infection in new york state: public health significance of an emerging infectious disease.a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome with possible exposure in new york and/or rhode island was confirmed in february 1994.19968615704
from the centers for disease control and prevention. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--united states, 1995 and 1996. 19968618355
occurrence of hantavirus within the rodent population of northeastern california and nevada.these studies were initiated to determine the prevalence and hosts of hantaviruses within the rodent population of nevada and northeastern california. a total of 1,867 rodents were collected, sexed, weighed, identified, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of antibody against hantavirus nucleocapsid. the primary hosts for hantaviruses in this region were found within the family muridae (peromyscus maniculatus. reithrodontomys megalotis. and microtus montanus). studies ...19968619434
khabarovsk virus: a phylogenetically and serologically distinct hantavirus isolated from microtus fortis trapped in far-east russia.two hantavirus strains, mf43 and mf113, isolated from microtus fortis trapped in the khabarovsk region of far-eastern russia, were analysed by direct nucleotide sequencing of pcr generated fragments of the m and s segments, by immunofluorescence and by focus reduction neutralization tests (frnt). the nucleotide sequences revealed that the two isolates were closely related to each other but distinct from all other hantaviruses. phylogenetic analysis of the m and s segments showed that the mf stra ...19968627257
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in germany. 19968637377
western blotting using recombinant hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in silkworm as a serological confirmation of hantavirus infection in human sera.recombinant hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in silkworm larvae was applied as a serological diagnostic antigen in western blots (wb) of human sera. the sensitivity of this method was similar to that of the ifa test. hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and nephropathia epidemica diagnosed by their cross-reactivity in wb. the specificity of this method was higher than that of ifa test because the background was low. sera that exhibited high background staining in the ifa test ...19968645761
[the hantaviruses--clinical syndromes]. 19958647549
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: the first 100 us the spring of 1993, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) "emerged" in the southwestern united states, where a multiagency investigation led to the rapid description of this new clinical entity and its etiology. analysis of the first 100 us cases identified showed that the disease was distributed in 21 states, had gone unrecognized since at least 1959, and had a distinct spring-early summer seasonality. of the infected persons, 54% were male; 63% were caucasian, 35% were native american, and 2% ...19968648200
genetic identification of a new hantavirus causing severe pulmonary syndrome in argentina.a fatal case of serologically confirmed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) was recently reported in southwestern argentina. nucleotide sequence analysis of pcr fragments from conserved regions of the s and m genomic segments of the virus, amplified from rna extracted from autopsy lung and liver tissues, showed the virus (referred as andes virus) to be novel. comparisons between andes virus genome sequences with the corresponding sequences of the more closely related hantaviruses revealed differ ...19968659118
sequence-based identification of microbial pathogens: a reconsideration of koch's postulates.over 100 years ago, robert koch introduced his ideas about how to prove a causal relationship between a microorganism and a disease. koch's postulates created a scientific standard for causal evidence that established the credibility of microbes as pathogens and led to the development of modern microbiology. in more recent times, koch's postulates have evolved to accommodate a broader understanding of the host-parasite relationship as well as experimental advances. techniques such as in situ hyb ...19968665474
newly recognised hantavirus in siberian lemmings. 19968667948
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: clinical, diagnostic, and virologic aspects.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is an acute pneumonitis with a high mortality rate that is caused by a newly recognized hantavirus. four corners virus (also known as muerto canyon virus and sin nombre virus) is enzootic among deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). incidental transmission to humans can result in a disease characterized by rapidly progressive respiratory insufficiency, diffuse noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, vascular volume contraction with hemoconcentration, lactic acidosis, depressed ...19958668854
[genetic differentiation of hantaviruses using the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing].thirty-two hantavirus strains and 8 samples of lung tissue from rodents collected in different regions of russia have been examined by molecular biological methods. two methodological approaches have been employed for the study of genetic relationships between the viruses: nested pcr assay and common rt-pcr with subsequent direct sequencing of 200 and 365 base pair of g2 protein encoding regions of m-segment, respectively, and the resultant sequences were compared with those of the prototype han ...19968669142
hantaan and puumala virus antibodies in blood donors in samara, an hfrs-endemic region in european russia. 19968676649
genetic and phylogenetic analyses of hantaviral sequences amplified from archival tissues of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae) captured in the eastern united states.the s and m segments of a hantavirus, enzymatically amplified from tissues of cloudland deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae) captured during 1985 in west virginia, diverged from strains of four corners virus from the southwestern united states by more than 16% and 6% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. phylogenetic analysis suggested that this virus strain (designated monongahela) forms a possible evolutionary link between the four corners and new york hantaviruses.19968678841
serologically verified hantavirus infections in hungary.between 1987 and 1993 the etiological diagnosis of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) of 55 patients was confirmed using hantavirus-specific serology. the geographical distribution of cases indicated that at least two different territories of hungary are endemic for hantaviruses. these possible natural foci are different from, but overlapping with the region endemic for tick-borne encephalitis virus. patients sera were shown to react differently with reagents prepared from different h ...19958689095
direct genetic detection of dobrava virus in greek and albanian patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.blood samples were collected from an albanian and a greek patient with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. the genetic detection assay amplified hantavirus-specific dna fragments from rna extracted from the blood of the patients; nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the causative agent of the disease was dobrava virus. these findings suggest that dobrava virus (which was originally isolated from the lungs of an apodenws flavi ...19968699076
a patient with down's syndrome and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. 19968703724
[differential diagnosis of hantavirus infection--adult still syndrome]. 19968709914
meeting the public's need for information during the arizona hantavirus outbreak. 19968712282
retrospective diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, 1978-1993: implications for emerging infectious investigate the occurrence of unrecognized cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome preceding the detection of the 1993 outbreak in the southwestern united states and the initial description of the syndrome.19968712893
[what do we know about hantavirus?]. 19968714190
serological evidence for zoonotic hantaviruses in north carolina a survey of seven species of wild rodents (n = 423) collected between october 1993 and march 1994 from the three principal ecological biomes of north carolina (usa), we found hantavirus antibodies in seven (2%) of 301 peromyscus spp. hantavirus antibodies were detected in p. leucopus and p. maniculatus captured from mountain and coastal island biomes. three mice were positive for sin nombre virus, while four others had antibodies to seoul virus or a related agent. two mice serologically posit ...19968722278
evidence against person-to-person transmission of hantavirus to health care workers.unusual, primarily pulmonary, manifestations of hantaviral illness occurring in the southwestern united states raised the possibility of person-to-person transmission of a recently recognized hantavirus, sin nombre virus. to determine whether such transmission had occurred among health care workers (hcws) exposed to patients with confirmed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, we evaluated hcws who had cared for patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or who had processed specimens from these patie ...19968722939
occupational exposure leading to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a utility company employee.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a newly recognized rodent-borne zoonosis. we report a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in an employee of a california utility company who was probably occupationally exposed to sin nombre virus. environmental assessment and genetic comparison of the patient's hantavirus isolates to hantavirus isolates from rodents trapped at possible sites of exposure suggested that the patient contracted his infection at the work site. the study revealed a close corresponde ...19968722943
hanta is coming.the hanta virus is coming again. yes, it is coming again and again to your town to your rodents and to your homes! we can resolve to prevent it, contain it, and treat it in a scientific and humane way, or we can salivate, scratch, bite, and run like rats and mice and voles and shrews.19968725626
third international conference on haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantaviruses. 19968731183
retrospective diagnosis of a fatal case of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, 1980. 19968732742
[retrospective detection of hantavirus clinical infections in argentina].hantavirus activity in rodents and human beings in argentina has been known since the 1980's. in this study, we retrospectively investigated hantavirus infections among argentine hemorrhagic fever (ahf) cases notified between 1987 and 1994, without virological confirmation. igg and igm antibodies to hantavirus were tested by elisa. among 1028 patients included in the study, we found 13 recent infections (1.26%) and 13 remote infections (1.26%). igg antibodies determined in 745 healthy persons li ...19968734923
serological evidence of human hantavirus infection in argentina, bolivia and uruguay.a serological survey was conducted in 1985-1987 to determine the presence of infection for hantavirus in the general population in argentina, uruguay, paraguay and bolivia, as well as among rodent-exposed laboratory workers in argentina. out of 748 individuals tested by immunofluorescence 20 proved positive for hantaan virus 76/118 strain of whom 16 also reacted against seoul virus 80/39 strain and 2 against puumala virus sotkamo strain. ten out of 72 argentine laboratory workers were positive f ...19968734925
production of recombinant hantavirus nucleocapsid protein expressed in silkworm larvae and its use as a diagnostic antigen in detecting antibodies in serum from infected rats.the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rnp) of hantaan virus was expressed by a baculovirus vector in silkworm hemolymph and was used as an antigen in western blotting (wb). the rnp is expressed in insoluble form in hemolymph; therefore simple washing of the insoluble fraction with phosphate-buffered saline by low-speed centrifugation allowed preparation of purified antigen for wb. the rnp had strain-specific and hantavirus-common epitopes similar to the authentic np antigen of hantavirus and was ...19958746523
antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of puumala virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in insect cells.puumala virus (puu) is a member of the genus hantavirus in the family bunyaviridae and the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, a european form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. sera of nephropathia epidemica patients react specifically with puu nucleocapsid (n) protein. in order to safely provide large quantities of antigen for diagnostic purposes, puu sotkamo strain n protein was expressed by using the baculovirus system in sf9 insect cells to up to 30 to 50% of the total cellula ...19968748286
[hantavirus infection and the pulmonary syndrome: another new entity to look for in our environment?]. 19968756221
genetic susceptibility to severe course of nephropathia epidemica caused by puumala hantavirus.nephropathia epidemica (ne) caused by puumala hantavirus is one type of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). there is considerable variability in the clinical severity of ne. many infections are subclinical but the disease can even be fatal. we questioned whether the wide spectrum in the outcome of ne is dependent, on host-related immunological factors by determining the major histocompatibility complex markers (mhc) in 74 adult patients with ne. patients with the most severe course of ...19968770970
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: first imported case of hantavirus infection in taiwan.a patient infected with hantavirus, with resultant hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), is reported. the patient was a 38-year-old man, living in tainan, taiwan, who had been visiting mainland china for 3 months when he suddenly developed fever and chills, generalized myalgia, abdominal pain and petechiae on his chest. he sought treatment in mainland china. his clinical course progressed through febrile, hypotensive, oliguria and polyuria phases. supportive care included one course of h ...19968772056
analysis of fatal pulmonary hantaviral infection in new york by reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction.the purpose of this study was to analyze the histological distribution of polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-amplified hantaviral cdna in three cases of fatal hantaviral infection that occurred 2 years ago in long island, ny. the three otherwise healthy patients had a rapid death characterized by fever and pulmonary failure and were identified from the autopsy files at university hospital, stony brook. six autopsy controls with either no pulmonary disease (three) or fatal pneumonitis of known etiol ...19968774123
radiologic findings of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 19968779215
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: epidemiology, prevention, and case presentation of a new viral strain.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a viral infection from a new strain of hantavirus. the hantavirus was first discovered in north america in 1993 after an outbreak of fatal illness on a navajo indian reservation in new mexico. since then, 122 cases of hps (with a high mortality rate of more than 50%) have been reported in 23 states, with the highest prevalence in the four corners area. the reservoir for hantavirus is small rodents, mostly field mice, vole, and chipmunks. it is transmitted t ...19968784877
mild hantaviral disease caused by sin nombre virus in a four-year-old child. 19958786902
a major antigenic domain for the human humoral response to puumala virus nucleocapsid protein is located at the amino-terminus.nephropathia epidemica (ne), the major form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in europe, is caused by the hantavirus serotype puumala (puu). the puu virus nucleocapsid protein (n) has been shown to be highly immunogenic both in laboratory animals and in man. we aimed to locate domains important in humoral immune reactivity and to use this information to develop a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for serological diagnosis of ne. escherichia coli poly-histidi ...19968793844
the role of molecular techniques in the understanding of emerging infections.emerging infections are defined as infections that are newly identified or recognized, or those whose incidence in humans has significantly increased over the past 20 years. the interaction of several factors contributes to the emergence of infectious disease, including changes in human behavior, technological advances, economic development, increased international travel, microbial adaptation and lapses in public health measures. biomedical research has allowed us to identify and classify previ ...19968796869
vector-borne viral diseases in sweden--a short review.ockelbo disease, caused by a sindbis-related virus transmitted to man by mosquitoes, was first described in the central part of sweden in the 1960s as clusters of patients with fever, arthralgia and rash. an average annual rate of 30 cases was recorded in the 1980s but no cases have been diagnosed during the last few years. nephropathia epidemica (ne) characterized by fever, abdominal pain and renal dysfunction has been known to cause considerable morbidity in sweden during the last 60 years but ...19968800805
antiviral activities of tragacanthin polysaccharides on punta toro virus infections in mice.tragacanthin polysaccharides from astragalus brachycentrus (av208) and astragalus echidnaeformis (av212) plants, which are devoid of in vitro antiviral activity, were evaluated in a mouse model of punta toro virus (ptv) infection. the ptv (a phlebovirus member of the bunyaviridae family of viruses) is a model for studying the treatment of rift valley fever and hantavirus infections. single intraperitoneal treatments with 12.5-200 mg/kg/day doses of av212 given 24 h before or 4 and 24 h after vir ...19968804797
seroepidemiological survey of wild rats for seoul virus in indonesia.the prevalence of antibodies against seoul virus was investigated in 655 wild rats (rattus norvegicus, r. rattus, r. rattus diardii, r. exulans, r. tiomanicus) captured in seven port areas of indonesia. twenty-four of 238 r. norvegicus, one of 142 r. rattus and one of 102 r. exulans from two port areas had the antibodies against seoul virus.19968806040
hantavirus infections in the united states: diagnosis and treatment.definitive diagnosis of acute hantavirus infection requires demonstration of specific igg and igm antibodies and a compatible clinical course; most persons with acute illness will also have viral rna in pbmc which can be detected after rt-pcr amplification. characteristic hematologic and hemodynamic findings are helpful in establishing a presumptive diagnosis of hps in persons with cardiopulmonary symptoms and signs while awaiting the results of serologic testing and pcr. diagnosis during the pr ...19968815682
wild brown rats (rattus norvegicus) as a zoonotic risk on farms in england and wales.fear of wild rats as carriers of disease is embedded within our culture. surprisingly little is actually known about parasites in wild rat populations. in recent studies aimed to rectify this omission, farms in england and wales were surveyed to identify parasite species present in the rat populations. rats were found to be infected with numerous zoonotic parasites, including cryptosporidium, pasteurella [correction of pasturella], listeria, yersinia, coxiella, and hantavirus. these findings sug ...19968820193
serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is an acute viral disease caused by hantavirus. on the basis of clinical observation, the illness is divided into five sequential stages: febrile, hypotensive, oliguric, diuretic, and convalescent. because interleukin-1 (il-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha), and interleukin-6 (il-6) are mediators responsible for fever, septic shock, and acute phase protein induction, we examined, using elisa, the presence of these three cytokines in 276 sera collec ...19958825292
genomic characterization of m and s rna segments of hantaviruses isolated from bats.genomic analysis of three hantaan-like virus isolates from bats was performed. cleavage patterns of reverse transcription (rt)-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products and nucleotide sequences of g2 region of m rna segment and n protein region of s rna segment of the isolates were compared to that of hantaan 76-118 strain. genomic characteristics of the bat isolates were identical to that of hantaan virus.19958825306
hantavirus in montana deer mouse populations: preliminary results.dynamics of small mammal populations and the prevalence of antibodies for hantavirus were determined in six locations in central and western montana (usa). eighteen live-trapping grids were trapped monthly from june through september 1994. deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) populations ranged from 0 to over 90 on one-hectare grids. our bleeding technique had no apparent effect on survival of deer mice. deer mice, meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), and sagebrush voles (lagurus curtatus) wer ...19968827681
genetic variation in tula hantaviruses: sequence analysis of the s and m segments of strains from central europe.hantavirus carried by the european common vole microtus arvalis from moravia (czech republic) was analyzed by rt-pcr-sequencing and by reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs). sequencing of the full-length s segment and the proximal part of the m segment showed that the virus belonged to genotype tula (tul) we discovered earlier in microtus arvalis from central russia. this finding supported the concept of host dependence of hantaviruses. phylogenetic analyses suggested a similar ...19958837887
nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the m and s genome segments of a swedish puumala virus isolate.the swedish puumala (puu) virus strain vindeln 83-l20, isolated from a bank vole trapped in 1983 near vindeln, västerbotten county, sweden, was characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. the coding region of the m segment was determined by pcr followed by direct sequencing and the entire s segment was characterized by cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis. the genomic organization was found to be very similar to that of other puu virus strains regarding open reading frames, polypeptide si ...19958837894
evidence against infection with hantaviruses among forest and park workers in the southwestern united determine if individuals with extensive exposure to rodent habitats were infected with sin nombre hantavirus (snv), we evaluated forest and park service personnel from the region of endemicity in the southwestern united states. information about work and recreational activities, including exposure to rodents and a history of recent illnesses, was obtained via a standardized questionnaire. serum specimens were also collected. of 140 participating workers, 84 (60%) were primarily engaged in out ...19968842264
kinin receptor antagonists: unique probes in basic and clinical research.the availability of potent and stable bradykinin antagonists has had a tremendous impact on kinin research. this article reviews the current status of research on kinin antagonists, describes their chemical properties, and delineates recent advances that have occurred with the advent of the second generation of kinin antagonists. the data collected with these antagonists support the assumption that kinins are implicated in inflammation and tissue injury as endogenous agents. their importance, ho ...19958846412
isla vista virus: a genetically novel hantavirus of the california vole microtus californicus.prospect hill virus (ph) was isolated from a meadow vole (microtus pennsylvanicus) in 1982, and much of its genome has been sequenced. hantaviruses of other new world microtine rodents have not been genetically characterized. we show that another microtus species (the california vole m. californicus) from the united states is host to a genetically distinct ph-like hantavirus, isla vista virus (ilv). the nucleocapsid protein of ilv differs from that of ph by 11.1% and a portion of the g2 glycopro ...19958847529
inhibition of puumala and tula hantaviruses in vero cells by mxa protein.human mxa protein is a type i interferon-inducible intracytoplasmic protein, which mediates antiviral actions against a variety of negative-strand rna viruses including influenza a, measles, and vesicular stomatitis viruses. recently, it has also been shown that several members of the bunyaviridae family are inhibited by mxa protein. the hantavirus genus in the bunyaviridae family includes important human pathogenic viruses, e.g., puumala (puuv), hantaan, and sin nombre viruses. tula virus (tulv ...19968862399
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