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scientist tests the public trust.an unreported accident in a virus laboratory at yale is but one of many factors that challenge society's trust in scientists' promises to do hazardous research.19948072514
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: recognition and emergency department management.hantavirus infection with respiratory involvement is a new clinical entity. the respiratory and cardiovascular abnormalities associated with hantavirus infection define the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). we present two cases of hps and discuss the presentation, epidemiology, emergency department management, and differential diagnosis. treatment of hps involves intensive care monitoring, airway management, and cardiovascular support. because human hantavirus infection with respiratory invol ...19948080149
hantavirus: quick and deadly. 19948079095
hantavirus: emergency department response to a disaster from an emerging pathogen.in may 1993, the appearance of critically ill patients with unexplained respiratory distress was noted in the four corners area formed by new mexico, arizona, and colorado. this epidemic was ultimately linked to a hantavirus, an emerging pathogen. the impact on the emergency department of a new infectious disease with respiratory distress is described. a model is proposed to manage infectious disease disasters. emerging infections that are important to emergency physicians are discussed. recomme ...19948080140
emergency department response to a disaster from an emerging pathogen. 19948080147
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in new england and europe. 19948080572
genetic identification of a novel hantavirus of the harvest mouse reithrodontomys megalotis.we have cloned the s genomic segment of a novel hantavirus of the harvest mouse reithrodontomys megalotis. the virus is phylogenetically distinct from other hantaviruses. the new hantavirus was identified in harvest mice separated by approximately 1,000 km. a wood rat (neotoma mexicana) was found to be infected with the harvest mouse hantavirus.19948084007
infections in an alpine environment: antibodies to hantaviruses, leptospira, rickettsiae, and borrelia burgdorferi in defined italian populations.from 1987 to 1991, a seroepidemiologic survey for antibodies to hantaviruses, leptospira, rickettsiae, and borrelia was conducted in selected italian population groups. in the mountainous areas of northeastern italy, the prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses, as detected by indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) assay, was 7.1%, 4.8%, 4.3%, and 4% in 265 forestry workers, 82 rangers, 395 farmers, and 75 hunters, respectively. among 299 alpine soldiers, the prevalence was lower (0.7%). of tho ...19938093990
immunoglobulin g subclass responses against the structural components of puumala virus.sera from sequentially bled nephropathia epidemica patients (acute-phase, convalescent-phase, and 2-year sera) and sera from 10 to 20 years postinfection were examined by immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass-specific elisas for reactivities against each of the puumala virus structural proteins (n, g1, and g2). igg1 was found to be the dominating antiviral subclass, and most of the patients had igg1 directed to all three structural proteins at all times with a continuous increase over time. igg2 to th ...19938094397
from the centers for disease control and prevention. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--northeastern united states, 1994. 19948089901
hantavirus infection in brazilian patients from recife with suspected leptospirosis. 19938093292
infection with a ratborne hantavirus in us residents is consistently associated with hypertensive renal disease.a survey of 8080 subjects was conducted in baltimore, examining the association between infection with hantaviruses and renal disease. two groups (n = 6060) with no known risk factors were selected to establish a baseline antibody prevalence. overall, antibody prevalence was 0.25%. seroprevalence increased with age, without sex- or race-related differences. patients with proteinuria showed the same patterns of infection but were more commonly seropositive (1.46%) than the reference group (or, 3. ...19938095060
haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and pregnancy: a case report. 19938096661
use of recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of the hantaan and nephropathia epidemica serotypes of hantaviruses as immunodiagnostic antigens.hantavirus nucleocapsid protein has previously been identified as the major antigen recognized by the humoral immune response in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). it was therefore considered to be a suitable antigen for the development of rapid and reliable immunodiagnostic assays. genes encoding the nucleocapsid proteins of two hantavirus strains, one of the puumala serotype [nephropathia epidemica virus (nev)] and the other of the hantaan serotype were expressed in e. coli, and the ...19938096868
metabolism of calcium and vitamin d3 in patients with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis: a study of 41 patients with nephropathia epidemica.we studied serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, intact parathyroid hormone (pth) and vitamin d3 metabolites in 41 patients with nephropathia epidemica. thirty-four of the 41 patients had a mild to moderate, mostly nonoliguric acute renal failure (arf). hypocalcemia developed in relation to the severity of renal failure, and parathyroid gland response to hypocalcemia was normal. the serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 was lower than normal in patients who developed arf. serum p ...19938095698
acute hantavirus infection presenting as hypersensitivity vasculitis with arthropathy.acute hantavirus infection was diagnosed in a young man presenting with a hypersensitivity vasculitis and arthropathy. he has recovered with minimal evidence of residual renal damage.19938095959
puumala virus antibody and immunoglobulin g avidity assays based on a recombinant nucleocapsid antigen.puumala virus is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica (ne), a hantavirus infection which occurs widely in northern and central europe and is generally diagnosed by the indirect immunofluorescence (if) method. we have now expressed the puumala virus sotkamo strain nucleocapsid (n) protein-coding s genome segment as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein in escherichia coli by using the pex2 expression vector. the recombinant protein was purified by cutting the protein band from an agarose g ...19938096217
lack of evidence of puumala virus infection in patients with spontaneous abortion. 19938099010
a novel mu-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant proteins for sensitive and specific diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hantavirus nucleocapsid protein has recently been identified as a major antigen inducing an early and long-lasting humoral immune response in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. a mu-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of hantavirus strains hantaan 76-118 (hantaan serotype) and cg 18-20 (puumala serotype) as diagnostic antigens and specific monoclonal antibodies as the detection system has been developed. histidine-tailed recombi ...19938099085
usa: mysterious respiratory illness. 19938099392
the humoral response to puumala virus infection (nephropathia epidemica) investigated by viral protein specific immunoassays.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for determination of antibodies directed to the nucleocapsid protein (n) or to either of the two envelope glycoproteins (g1 and g2) of puumala virus were designed and evaluated. the assays were proven to be entirely restricted for each viral structural protein by biotin-labelled monoclonal antibodies. sera from sequentially bled nephropathia epidemica patients (acute, convalescent, and 2-year sera) and sera from 10-20 year convalescents were examined for antibo ...19938099274
[serotyping of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever (ehf) and serotyping and antigen typing of main hosts of ehf in shandong province].serotyping with hemagglutination-inhibition test (hi) on 458 patients with ehf showed that 419 (91.48%) of them belonged to the house-rat type, 33 (7.21%) belonged to the wild-rat type, and 6 (1.31%) were undetermined. the majority (80-100%) of the patients in various regions belonged to the house-rat type. the type of the virus antigen and the type of the antibody of rats were in conformity with the species of rats. these indicate that the epidemic areas of ehf in shandong province are mixed-ty ...19938099309
expression of non-conserved regions of the s genome segments of three hantaviruses: evaluation of the expressed polypeptides for diagnosis of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is a serious and often fatal disease caused by viruses in the hantavirus genus of the family bunyaviridae. we expressed the entire coding region of the small (s) genome segments of three serologically distinct hantaviruses as soluble proteins in escherichia coli and evaluated the expressed nucleocapsid proteins (nps) as antigens for diagnosis of hfrs. we also prepared novel diagnostic antigens by expressing truncated genes from which we deleted amino ...19938099603
[the cohort study on inapparent infection of hfrs in population of apodemus-type endemic area and in that of rattus-type endemic area].between 1988 and 1990, the positive seroconversion rates of hfrs were tested with a random sample of 7,145 persons in apodemus-type endemic area and rattus-type endemic area(type a; type r) in shandong province. the results showed that: (1) the highest positive seroconversion rate was in the group of peasants of 20 to 49 years of age in the area of type a; (2) in the area of type r, there was no statistically significant difference in positive seroconversion rates of age, and housewives had the ...19938099308
an epidemiologic study of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in bashkirtostan (russia) and sweden.the incidence and antibody prevalence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in bashkirtostan (european part of russia) and northern sweden was compared with the abundance of clethrionomys glareolus (bank voles) in the two areas. in bashkirtostan, 10% of the women and 15% of the men were found to be antibody positive. the corresponding figures for sweden were 8% and 16% for women and men, respectively. the annual incidence of hfrs in bashkirtostan was 50 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, w ...19938100119
mysterious respiratory disease in usa. 19938100340
haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. 19938101451
[structural protein of hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome virus in uric fusion cells in hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome].the efoliative cells in the urine of 21 hemorrhagic fever patients with renal syndrome (hfrs) were examined with swiss blue staining. fusion cells were found in the urine of 18 hfrs patients. the quantity of fusion cells was closely related to the severity of patients' condition and renal damage. specific antigen of hfrs virus (hfrsv) was found immunohistochemically in all fusion cells. specific monoclonal antibodies (mcab) of membrane protein and nucleocapsid protein from hfrsv were used for an ...19938100735
community-based prevalence profile of arboviral, rickettsial, and hantaan-like viral antibody in the nile river delta of egypt.to determine the current prevalence of antibody to arboviruses, rickettsiae, and hantaan-like viruses, a survey was carried out in the nile river valley of egypt, one of the principal foci of the 1977-1978 rift valley fever (rvf) outbreak. blood specimens were obtained from 915 persons representing 190 study households. enzyme immunoassay testing showed that the overall prevalence of igg antibody was 4% to sand fly fever sicilian (sfs), 2% to sandfly fever naples (sfn), 15% to rvf, 20% to west n ...19938101432
outbreak of acute illness--southwestern united states, 1993. 19938102294
the clinical spectrum of human hantavirus infection in somerset, uk.the signs and symptoms exhibited by 29 patients with an acute illness in whom antibodies to hantavirus were detected are described. in the severe cases the most striking signs and symptoms were the persistence for 2 or 3 weeks of a severe sore throat with pyrexia that developed early in the illness, followed by swelling of the face, neck and extremities, with arthropathy and prolonged malaise that lasted for months. a macular erythematous rash, hepatomegaly with abnormal liver function tests, an ...19938102335
emerging infectious diseases. outbreak of acute illness. 19938101098
presence of antibodies to hantavirus in rat and human populations of djibouti. 19938101667
molecular and antigenic characterization of hv114, a hantavirus isolated from a patient with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in china.the relationship of a hantaan-like virus (hv114), isolated from a patient with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in hubei province, people's republic of china, to other pathogenic hantaviruses was evaluated by cross-neutralization studies and nucleotide sequence analysis of the m genome segment. plaque reduction neutralization assays indicated that hv114 is closely related to prototype hantaan (htn) virus, strain 76-118, which was originally isolated from an apodemus field mouse in korea. c ...19938102176
belgrade virus, a cause of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the balkans, is closely related to dobrava virus of field mice.belgrade virus is a recently described hantavirus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in people living in various parts of the balkan peninsula. nucleotide sequencing of the g2-encoding region in the medium (m) segment of the viral genome, reverse transcribed and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, revealed the belgrade virus to be substantially different from hantaan virus and other major serotypes of hantavirus but identical to dobrava virus, a virus isolate ...19938102632
igg avidity assay for estimation of the time after onset of hantavirus infection in colonized and wild bank voles.an immunoglobulin g avidity assay was used to determine recent and past hantavirus infection in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus). sera of experimentally infected bank voles were studied at different time intervals. the avidity of specific igg increased over time after infection. this experimental data were used to estimate the time after onset of hantavirus infection in naturally infected bank voles caught in an endemic area. the possibility to discriminate between recently infected animals ...19938104397
[alternanthera philoxeroides (mavt.) griseb protection against fetal epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus infection in suckling mice].it has been confirmed that alternanthera philoxeroides (apg) can markedly protect suckling mice from being infected by epidemic hemorrhagic fever (ehf) virus. after the infected mice were treated with the effective components their survival rate increased, pathological lesion and virus antigen in the tissues mitigated as compared with the controls. therapeutical dose of apg caused only slight deformation of the hepatic cells.19938105801
liver involvement in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is an acute febrile nephropathy caused by several viruses of the genus hantavirus of the family bunyaviridae. during the past 8 years, 32 cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome have been diagnosed. nine out of the 32 patients (28%) had raised (twofold upper normal limits) transaminases during hospitalization. four out of the nine patients (44%) died. in contrast, only three out of the 23 patients (13%) without raised transaminases died. five patients ...19938104972
[vole fever. a european type of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome]. 19938104262
[a combined staining of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for detecting epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus in tissue section].a combined staining of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization has been successfully applied to detect antigen and viral rna at the same tissue slice from epidemic hemorrhagic fever (ehf) autopsy. multiple mcab were used to detect ehfv antigen, followed with a digoxigenin-labelling cdna probe for detecting ehfv rna respectively. the viral antigen was seen in the cellular cytoplasm and viral rna was demonstrated within the nuclei. it is emphasized that pretreatment of the section with lugo ...19938106176
utilization of autopsy rna for the synthesis of the nucleocapsid antigen of a newly recognized virus associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.a newly recognized hantavirus was recently found to be associated with an outbreak of acute respiratory illness in the southwestern united states. the disease, which has become known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, has an unusually high mortality (64%). virus isolation attempts have been unsuccessful thus far, resulting in a lack of homologous antigen for use in diagnostic assays. for this reason, a molecular approach was initiated to produce recombinant homologous antigen. the virus nucleocap ...19938109165
["four corners disease"--a newly discovered virus in the usa. is there a similar disease in sweden?]. 19948114592
genetically distinct hantavirus in deer mice. 19938105294
from the centers for disease control and prevention. newly identified hantavirus--florida, 1994. 19948114226
sequences of wild puumala virus genes show a correlation of genetic variation with geographic origin of the strains.an experimental scheme was developed for direct sequence analysis of puumala virus-containing specimens from wild rodents (clethrionomys glareolus). total rna isolated from rodent lung tissues was reverse-transcribed in the presence of a universal 11 nucleotide primer complementary to all three viral rna segments followed by amplification in a pcr with gene-specific primers. a full-length pcr product of approximately 1800 bp from the s segment encoding the viral nucleoprotein and a product of ap ...19948113763
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: a clinical description of 17 patients with a newly recognized disease. the hantavirus study group.in may 1993 an outbreak of severe respiratory illness occurred in the southwestern united states. a previously unknown hantavirus was identified as the cause. in asia hantaviruses are associated with hemorrhagic fever and renal disease. they have not been known as a cause of human disease in north america.19948121458
fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in indiana. 19948121443
probable hantavirus pulmonary syndrome that occurred in new mexico in 1975. 19948147560
recognition of hantavirus infection in the rural setting: report of first colorado resident to survive.since may 1993, there has been an outbreak of an acute illness with nonspecific symptoms and signs that rapidly progresses to death. the majority of the cases identified have occurred in the rural southwestern united states, predominantly in the four-corners area comprising new mexico, arizona, utah, and colorado. findings of preliminary investigation by the centers for disease control and prevention suggest that the etiologic agent is a previously unidentified strain of hantavirus. in reported ...19938117354
addressing emerging infectious disease threats: a prevention strategy for the united states. executive summary.the spectrum of infectious disease is changing rapidly in conjunction with dramatic societal and environmental changes. worldwide, explosive population growth with expanding poverty and urban migration is occurring; international travel and commerce are increasing; and technology is rapidly changing-all of which affect the risk of exposure to infectious agents. recent examples of important emerging infectious diseases include prolonged diarrheal illness due to waterborne cryptosporidium, hemorrh ...19948164632
recognizing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 19948170703
a new hantavirus infection in north america. 19948121440
outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern united states. response of pathologists and other laboratorians.during late spring and early summer of 1993, national and international media called worldwide attention to a cluster of deaths in the southwestern united states. these patients succumbed to a rapidly progressive severe respiratory distress syndrome. after notification of state and national health agencies in mid-may, a major effort was launched to determine the cause of this often fatal respiratory distress syndrome, to advise the public on safety measures, and to determine the method of spread ...19948154449
serologic and genetic identification of peromyscus maniculatus as the primary rodent reservoir for a new hantavirus in the southwestern united states.an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the southwestern united states was etiologically linked to a newly recognized hantavirus. knowledge that hantaviruses are maintained in rodent reservoirs stimulated a field and laboratory investigation of 1696 small mammals of 31 species. the most commonly captured rodent, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), had the highest antibody prevalence (30%) to four hantavirus antigens. antibody also was detected in 10 other species of rodent and ...19948195603
genome structure and variability of a virus causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.a previously unrecognized hantavirus (family bunyaviridae) has recently been detected and shown to be associated with a severe respiratory illness with high mortality, termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). this disease has now been identified throughout the western united states. we present nucleotide sequence characterization of the three rna segments composing the hps virus genome and address the question of the apparent emergence of this highly lethal virus. no evidence of genetic reass ...19948178455
[pulmonary syndrome caused by hantavirus--a new syndrome with high mortality].an outbreak of a previously unknown, severe infectious disease with rapidly fatal respiratory distress was reported from southwestern usa in may 1993. the case fatality rate was about 60 per cent. using pcr hantavirus rna could be demonstrated in lungs and other tissues from patients. mice and others rodents, e g peromyscus maniculatus, were shown to be a reservoir of the virus. this new virus, designated four corner virus, has been further characterised and seems to be closely related to puumal ...19948139902
laboratory management of agents associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: interim biosafety guidelines. centers for disease control and prevention.this report provides interim biosafety guidelines for preventing laboratory-associated infections with agents that cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. the guidelines are based on extensive laboratory experience with the other hantaviruses--particularly work involving the use of permissive host animal species--and on the limited experience with a hantavirus recently isolated from deer mice. the guidelines address handling patient-derived specimens, propagating viruses in culture (including viral ...19948202073
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: radiographic findings in 16 patients.to characterize chest radiographic features of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.19948184043
were four corners victims biowar casualties? 19938235553
the mouse-piñon nut connection. 19938235603
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: an emerging infectious disease. 19938235607
genetic identification of a hantavirus associated with an outbreak of acute respiratory illness.a mysterious respiratory illness with high mortality was recently reported in the southwestern united states. serologic studies implicated the hantaviruses, rodent-borne rna viruses usually associated elsewhere in the world with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. a genetic detection assay amplified hantavirus-specific dna fragments from rna extracted from the tissues of patients and deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) caught at or near patient residences. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed ...19938235615
hantavirus outbreak yields to pcr. 19938235602
puumala virus infection without signs of renal involvement.five cases of puumala virus infection without renal involvement are described. the main signs were fever, headache, chills and thirst. pulmonary involvement was also common. neither increased levels of serum creatinine nor abnormal urinalyses were detected. we suggest that hantavirus infection is included in the differential diagnosis of any febrile condition when exposure to aerosols from infectious secretions or secretions from rodents is suspected.19938248755
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--united states, 1993. 19938230584
molecular approaches for the treatment of hemorrhagic fever virus infections.viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in man belong to the following virus groups: togavirus (chikungunya), flavivirus (dengue, yellow fever, kyasanur forest disease, omsk hemorrhagic fever), arenavirus (argentinian hemorrhagic fever, bolivian hemorrhagic fever, lassa fever), filovirus (ebola, marburg), phlebovirus (rift valley fever), nairovirus (crimian-congo hemorrhagic fever) and hantavirus (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, nephropathic epidemia). hemorrhagic fever virus infections can be ...19938250543
race to grow hantavirus ends in tie. 19938248797
hantavirus-associated acute respiratory failure. 19938232482
comparison of nucleotide sequences among hantaviruses belonging to the same serotype: an analysis of amplified dna by thermal cycle sequencing.the hantavirus genus, belonging to the bunyaviridae family, is comprised of at least four serologically distinct types: hantaan, seoul, puumala and prospect hill. previously, we reported the use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for grouping hantavirus isolates by using four sets of primers specific to each serotype. our pcr typing results agreed with those of serological typing. the present study makes use of thermal cycle sequencing to sequence pcr-amplified dna products in order to deter ...19938249444
a new natural reservoir of hantavirus: isolation of hantaviruses from lung tissues of bats.two species of bats were confirmed as new natural reservoirs of hantavirus. antibodies to hantaan virus were detected in 3.40% (23 of 677) of bats captured from 1989 to 1992 in korea by the ifa technique. areal distribution of immunofluorescent antibody were different, and seropositive rates were much high in sera of bats captured in summer (3.82%) and winter (5.82%). viral antigens were observed in the lungs (3 of 16) and kidney (1 of 7). two hantaviruses were isolated from lung tissues of e. s ...19948279962
serological relationships among viruses in the hantavirus genus, family bunyaviridae.we examined the serological relationships among 32 hantavirus isolates collected from numerous geographic regions and hosts. we prepared rat immune sera to each virus and used these sera in hemagglutination inhibition (hai) tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), and plaque-reduction neutralization tests to establish the antigenic relationships among the isolates. our studies included viruses that had been partially characterized previously, as well as isolates for which little or no ...19948259655
a novel hantavirus associated with an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease in the southwestern united states: evolutionary relationships to known hantaviruses.four corners hantavirus (fcv) is the tentative name of the suspected etiologic agent of the newly identified hantavirus-associated respiratory distress syndrome (hards). the identification in hards patients of serum immunoglobulin m and immunoglobulin g antibodies that cross-reacted with hantaan, seoul, and puumala virus antigens first suggested that fcv is a hantavirus. limited nucleotide sequence data from the fcv glycoprotein-2 (g2) confirmed that fcv is a hantavirus and showed that it is mos ...19948289363
phylogenetic analyses of virus isolates in the genus hantavirus, family bunyaviridae.we constructed a phylogenic tree by pairwise comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences encoded in the medium (m) genome segments of 13 hantaviruses. five distinct branches were identified, four of which are represented by hantaan, seoul, puumala, and prospect hill viruses. these groups corresponded to those previously established by serological and genetic means. in addition, we present sequence information for the m segment of thailand virus and demonstrate that it represents a unique, fif ...19948259656
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--united states, 1993.in june 1993, a newly recognized hantavirus was identified as the etiologic agent of an outbreak of severe respiratory illness (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [hps]) in the southwestern united states. since this problem was recognized, sporadic cases have been identified from a wide geographic area in the western united states. this report summarizes the epidemiologic characteristics of hps cases reported to cdc from may 1 through december 31, 1993.19948283965
newly identified hantavirus--florida, 1994. 19948302266
emerging infectious diseases. 19938292530
hantavirus in the southwestern united states: epidemiology of an emerging pathogen.in may of this year, an outbreak of sudden, unexplained, and highly fatal respiratory illness of unknown etiology was identified in the four-corners region of the southwestern united states. within 3 weeks after the collaborative response launched by the state and local health agencies in the affected area, laboratory studies from the federal centers for disease control and prevention suggested that an acute infection with a previously unrecognized hantavirus species was responsible for the repo ...19938307808
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps): report of first case in louisiana.since may 1993, 26 people have died of a "unique, previously unknown" viral illness that presents with flu-like symptoms and progresses rapidly to respiratory failure and death. originally isolated in the four-corners region of the southwest, the hantavirus responsible has now been isolated from patients in several other areas. in this article, we describe our experience with "the most puzzling case so far," an infection by a "cousin" of the southwest hantaviral strain in a louisiana bridgeworke ...19938307809
from the centers for disease control and prevention. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, united states 1993. 19948301753
nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the m and s genome segments of two puumala virus isolates from russia.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is caused by viruses in the hantavirus genus, family bunyaviridae. three serologically distinct hantaviruses, hantaan, seoul and puumala viruses, are known to cause hfrs. we report here, for the first time, gene sequences of two human puumala virus isolates, p360 and k27, obtained in an hfrs endemic region of the former soviet union. we compared the nucleotide sequences and the derived amino acid sequences of their gene products to a puumala virus iso ...19938266723
update: hantavirus disease--southwestern united states, 1993.since may 1993, the state health departments in arizona, colorado, new mexico, and utah; the indian health service; and cdc, with the assistance of the navajo nation division of health, have been investigating an outbreak of acute respiratory illness related to a newly recognized hantavirus (1-5). this report updates the investigation and presents information on a recent case of hantavirus-associated respiratory disease in a resident of nevada.19938332114
research defines the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 19938307802
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: hantavirus disease--southwestern united states, 1993. 19938345637
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: hantavirus disease--united states, 1993. 19938355371
update: hantavirus-associated illness--north dakota, 1993. 19938361465
anti-idiotypic antibodies against puumala virus glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibit virus infection in cell cultures.rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-ids) were generated against three bank vole and one human monoclonal antibody (mab) specific for the two envelope glycoproteins of puumala virus (g1 and g2). the anti-ids were purified by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography. each anti-id inhibited the antigen binding of its respective mab in a competitive elisa. this inhibition, and the absence of cross-reactivity among the anti-ids for heterologous mabs, showed that they all were specific for unique d ...19938379850
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: outbreak of hantavirus infection--southwestern united states, 1993. 19938315765
non-viral sequences at the 5' ends of dugbe nairovirus s mrnas.analyses of the mrna transcription processes of viruses in four genera (bunyavirus, hantavirus, phlebovirus and tospovirus) of the family bunyaviridae have revealed a common mechanism of initiation using host-derived primers, known as cap-snatching. to provide similar information on the fifth genus in the family, the 5' ends of dugbe nairovirus s mrna species were specifically cloned and sequenced. this revealed the presence of non-viral heterogeneous sequences, five to 16 nucleotides in length ...19938409954
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: hantavirus infection--united states, 1993. 19938320773
update: hantavirus disease--united states, 1993.since the recognition of acute hantavirus-associated respiratory disease in the united states in may 1993, laboratory evidence of acute hantavirus infection has been confirmed in 30 persons in the southwestern united states; 20 (67%) of these persons have died. of those 30 persons, 23 resided in the four-corners region (14 in new mexico, six in arizona, and three in colorado). previously reported cases outside the four-corners states occurred in a nevada resident and a texas resident, neither of ...19938336693
[study of cytopathogenic effect of epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus on normal human bone marrow cells].the cytopathogenic effect of epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus (ehfv) on cultured human bone marrow cells (hbc) was studied. specific viral antigen in hbc was detected at various times after ehfv infection with trypan-blue stain and electron microscopy. it was shown that the infection rate of hbc was over 80% at 3 weeks after infection. the death rate of hbc in the infection group was significantly higher than that in the control group on 1-4 weeks after infection. injury of cell membrane organs ...19938404319
progress in the development of hantavirus diagnostic assays--united states. 19938413161
update: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--united states, 1993.a unique hantavirus has been identified as the cause of the outbreak of respiratory illness (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [hps]) first recognized in the southwestern united states in may 1993. the habitat of the principal rodent reservoir for this virus, peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), extends throughout most of the united states except the southeast. through october 21, 1993, hps has been confirmed in 42 persons reported to cdc from 12 states (figure 1). this report summarizes major clini ...19938413170
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: hantavirus-associated illness--north dakota, 1993. 19938411540
from the centers for disease control and prevention. progress in the development of hantavirus diagnostic assays--united states. 19938411541
rna binding of recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of hantaviruses.genes encoding the nucleocapsid (n) proteins of two hantaviruses, hantaan virus strain 76-118 (htn) and puumala virus strain cg 18-20 (puu), were expressed in escherichia coli as histidine-tagged proteins. they were purified by metal-chelate affinity chromatography under native or denaturing conditions to near homogeneity. the soluble form of htn n protein was associated with rna of e. coli. renatured n proteins were shown to bind in vitro transcribed rna representing the hantaviral small genomi ...19938480424
hantavirus infection--southwestern united states: interim recommendations for risk reduction. centers for disease control and prevention.this report provides interim recommendations for prevention and control of hantavirus infections associated with rodents in the southwestern united states. it is based on principles of rodent and infection control and contains specific recommendations for reducing rodent shelter and food sources in and around the home, recommendations for eliminating rodents inside the home and preventing them from entering the home, precautions for preventing hantavirus infection while rodent-contaminated areas ...19938413156
the effects of hybridoma growth factor in conditioned media upon the growth, cloning, and antibody production of heterohybridoma cell lines.interleukin 6 (il-6)/hybridoma growth factor (hgf) has been shown to be the requirement for growth of murine hybridomas in vivo or in vitro. in this paper, two kinds of conditioned media (cm) from the culture supernatants of a human fibroblast cell line crl1506 and a cloned epstein-barr virus (ebv) transformed human lymphoblastoid cell line (lcl) n23 were found to have il-6 activity by strongly promoting the growth, antibody secretion (increase of one- to three-fold), and cloning efficiencies of ...19938431556
update: outbreak of hantavirus infection--southwestern united states, 1993.since may 1993, the new mexico department of health, the arizona department of health services, the colorado department of health, the utah department of health, the indian health service (ihs), and cdc, with the assistance of the navajo nation division of health, have been investigating an outbreak of acute illness characterized by a prodrome most commonly including fever, myalgias, headache, and cough, followed rapidly by respiratory failure. preliminary laboratory findings have suggested this ...19938502218
susceptibility of human cells to puumala virus infection.nephropathia epidemica involves several organs including kidney, lung, liver and brain. to investigate the susceptibility of putative target cells to the agent responsible, puumala virus, we screened established human cell lines of lung (wi-38, a-427, ccd-11lu), kidney (a-704), liver (hep g2), pharynx (detroit 562), submaxillary gland (a-253) and neural (sk-n-mc, sh-sy5y) origin as well as primary human kidney glomerular cells, endothelial cells and peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages. propag ...19938445370
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