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inhibition of puumala and tula hantaviruses in vero cells by mxa protein.human mxa protein is a type i interferon-inducible intracytoplasmic protein, which mediates antiviral actions against a variety of negative-strand rna viruses including influenza a, measles, and vesicular stomatitis viruses. recently, it has also been shown that several members of the bunyaviridae family are inhibited by mxa protein. the hantavirus genus in the bunyaviridae family includes important human pathogenic viruses, e.g., puumala (puuv), hantaan, and sin nombre viruses. tula virus (tulv ...19968862399
immune responses to inactivated vaccine in people naturally infected with hantaviruses.an inactivated hantaan virus vaccine for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) was given by injection to 15 people who were naturally infected with either hantaan or seoul viruses. immunofluorescent antibody (ifa), reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (rphi), hemagglutination inhibition (hi), and neutralization antibody (na) assays were used to measure the antibody titers of the vaccinated people before and after three doses of vaccine. the results indicated that ifa and rphi anti ...19968877768
sin nombre virus mrna synthesis.sin nombre (sn) virus is the major etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, a severe respiratory disease with high mortality. like other hantaviruses, sn virus causes an inapparent chronic infection of the natural rodent reservoir and tends to grow slowly and produce little cytopathic effect even in highly susceptible vero e6 tissue culture cells. an electrochemiluminescent quantitative pcr approach was developed to allow examination of sn virus rna transcription in synchronously infect ...19968862408
evidence of hantavirus in wild rodents in northern ireland.a survey of evidence of rodent hantavirus infection in county down, northern ireland was carried out by using immunofluorescence to detect virus antigen and antibody. antibodies to hantavirus (r22 strain of seoul virus and hantaan 76-118) were found in 11/51 (21.6%) brown rats (rattus norvegicus), 1/31 (3.2%) field mice (apodemus sylvaticus) and 17/59 (28.8%) house mice (mus domesticus). seven rodents had evidence of hantavirus antigen in lung tissues. antibody positive animals were significantl ...19968870634
molecular epidemiology: applications of nucleic acid amplification and sequence analysis. 19968877333
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, renal insufficiency, and myositis associated with infection by bayou hantavirus.hantaviruses are etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, an acute illness characterized by acute renal insufficiency, proteinuria, and hemodynamic instability. recently, a new world form of hantavirus disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), was recognized; in this form, pulmonary edema is prominent, but renal insufficiency is generally lacking. hps cases from the southeastern united states may be exceptional in that they have exhibited both pulmonary and renal manifestat ...19968879771
unique and conserved features of tula hantavirus m gene encoding envelope glycoproteins g1 and g2.the sequence of the genomic m segment encoding the surface glycoproteins g1 and g2 of wild-type tula hantavirus (tul) has been determined. analyses of m nucleotide sequences show that tul is genetically distinct from other hantaviruses. comparison to ten currently known hantavirus g1g2 amino acid sequences points out several, presumably functional, regions with substantial homology indicating a common ancestry and similar evolutionary pathways for all members of the hantavirus genus.19968883363
emerging and newly identified viral infections. 19968880884
sequence analysis of the complete s genomic segment of a newly identified hantavirus isolated from the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus): phylogenetic relationship with other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses.four corners (fc) or sin nombre virus, a hantavirus harbored by the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). recently, a hantavirus, designated new york (ny) virus, isolated from a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) captured on shelter island, new york, was molecularly linked to a fatal case of hps occurring in the northeastern united states. to clarify the genetic and phylogenetic relationship between ny and fc viruses a ...19968883362
factors in the emergence of infectious diseases."emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. among recent examples are hiv/aids, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of escherichia coli). specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. these include ecological, environmental, or demog ...19958903148
distribution and genetic heterogeneity of puumala virus in sweden.small mammals trapped in sweden were analysed for specific antibody responses against three hantavirus serotypes and for the presence of viral antigen. to determine the genetic identity of viral rna in lungs of seropositive bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), polymerase chain reactions and subsequent partial sequencing of both the m and s segments were employed. the sequences obtained were all identified as puumala (puu) virus, with a high degree of heterogeneity between the different geograph ...19968887490
characterization of tula virus antigenic determinants defined by monoclonal antibodies raised against baculovirus-expressed nucleocapsid protein.tula virus was recently discovered by rt-pcr in lung samples from european common voles (microtus arvalis and m. rossiaemeridionalis). since virus isolation attempts had been unsuccessful, no antigen was available for analysis or for use in immunoassays. to circumvent this, complete tula virus nucleocapsid protein (bac-tul-n) was expressed in recombinant baculovirus. rodent antibody end-point titers to bac-tul-n and to truncated n fragments indicated that the nh2-terminal region is the major ant ...19968896239
hantavirus s rna sequence from a fatal case of hps in new york.in april, 1995, the second fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) occurred in the northeast in a new york state resident. using the patient's lung tissue obtained at autopsy, the s genomic rna segment of a hantavirus, designated h-ny1, was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), cloned, and sequenced. the s rna was found to contain 2084 nucleotides, 6 nucleotides longer than reported by hjelle et al. (1995) for the virus associated with the first northea ...19968890033
biotin-labeled antigen: a novel approach for detection of puumala virus-specific igm.a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, bla igm-elisa, based on baculovirus-expressed puumala (puu) virus nucleocapsid protein, was developed for rapid diagnosis of nephropathia epidemica. the recombinant antigen (bac-puu-n) was purified to homogeneity by hplc and conjugated to biotin. the biotin-streptavidin system, in combination with the mu-capture technique, rendered the bla igm-elisa a sensitivity similar to or higher than that of puu virus igm mu-capture elisa based on native antigen. t ...19968910652
molecular approaches to the identification of unculturable infectious agents.new molecular biologic techniques, particularly representational difference analysis, consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction, and complementary dna library screening, have led to the identification of several previously unculturable infectious agents. new agents have been found in tissues from patients with kaposi's sarcoma, non-a, non-b hepatitis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, bacillary angiomatosis, and whipple's disease by using these techniques without direct culture. the new me ...19968903225
hantaviruses: genome structure, expression and evolution. 19968922460
rodents, human remains, and north american hantaviruses: risk factors and prevention measures for forensic science personnel--a review.in 1993, a previously unrecognized hantavirus was identified as the cause for a severe form of respiratory distress later termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). in the past two years, several distinct hantaviruses, of which many are pathogenic, have been found in rodent populations in the us. rodents shed the virus in their saliva, urine, and feces. humans usually become infected after inhaling either aerosolized droplets of urine or particulates contaminated with rodent excreta. rodents, i ...19968914295
increased production of nitric oxide in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome--relation to arterial hypotension and tumor necrosis factor.in 15 consecutive subjects hospitalized with nephropathia epidemica, a european form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, the plasma concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, were determined. from day 3 of onset of disease the concentrations increased, peak levels being reached on days 5 to 7. maximal plasma concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite were correlated to the degree of hypotension (r = -0.64, p = 0.02) and levels of tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alp ...19968923042
[polyclonal immunoenzyme system for determining hantaviral antigens: assessment of specificity using monoclonal antibodies and the polymerase chain reaction].genus-specific monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid protein of pumala virus and polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the specificity of a previously described polyclonal (based on human igg to pumala hantavirus) enzyme immunoassay (eia) system for detecting hantavirus antigens. parallel testing of crude lung suspensions from wild rodents trapped in different regions of russia for hantavirus antigens and rna showed 100% coincidence of the results of three tests. these data indicate a hi ...19968928502
[hantavirus infection in spain: seroepidemiologic study in the province of soria].the aim of the present was to study the seroprevalence of hantavirus infection in the province of soria, spain.19968948928
perspectives in fatal epidemics.this article discusses four epidemics of fatal infectious diseases: a 1993 cluster of deaths among previously healthy persons in the southwestern united states that led to the identification of a new clinical syndrome, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; the first epidemic of ebola hemorrhagic fever identified in nearly two decades occurring in 1995 in zaire, which resulted in 317 cases with a mortality rate of 77%; an outbreak of legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers in 1994; and a 1989 ...19968958175
seroepidemiology of hantaan virus infection in taiwan.in order to investigate the infection rate of hantaan virus in taiwan, a total of 6,536 human serum samples were collected from residents, selected by stratified random sampling, from 19 townships covering four different ethnic groups: aborigines, fukien taiwanese, hakka taiwanese, and mainland chinese. serum samples were screened for hantaan virus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. the prototype hantaan virus (76/118)-infected vero e6 cells were used as the viral antigen for the antibod ...19968950687
hantaviral biosafety issues in the autopsy room and laboratory: concerns and recommendations.the need to perform autopsies on and examine laboratory specimens from patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) has raised questions about biosafety. human illness associated with hantaviruses is usually the result of exposure to infectious aerosols from saliva or excreta of wild rodents. it is unclear whether or nor certain autopsy and laboratory procedures can also generate similar potentially infectious aerosols. as the biosafety information developed for the hps agent is limited and ...19968958293
[new pneumonia pathogens, especially chlamydia pneumoniae and hantaviruses]. 19968964681
quasispecies in wild-type tula hantavirus populations.tula virus (tul) is a recently detected hantavirus carried by european common voles. reverse transcriptase pcr cloning was used to study tul s segment/n protein quasispecies. both the distribution and character of mutations observed in three mutant spectra indicated limited selection at the protein level. at least 8% of the mutations were neutral or well tolerated; fixation of such mutations may play a role in tul evolution in its natural host.19968971044
pulmonary involvement in nephropathia epidemica: radiological findings and their clinical correlations.nephropathia epidemica (ne) is a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) normally taking a benign clinical course. the etiologic agent, puumala hantavirus is genetically closely related to sin nombre virus, which causes a frequently lethal febrile syndrome with pulmonary involvement (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, hps). hps is characterized by acute respiratory distress, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and severe and hypotension, but usually no significant renal involvement. pulmonary invol ...19968982552
hantavirus antigen detection in kidney biopsies from patients with nephropathia epidemica.renal biopsies collected from ten patients with serologically confirmed puumalavirus (puuv) infection in the acute stage with renal dysfunction who lived in the same puuv endemic area in the netherlands, were studied histologically, immuno-histochemically and subsequently examined for the presence of viral antigen by immunoperoxidase staining. interstitial hemorrhages and deposition of igm, complement component c3 and fibrin along the basal side of the tubular epithelial cells, were found in puu ...19968982553
polarized entry and release in epithelial cells of black creek canal virus, a new world hantavirus.black creek canal (bcc) virus is a newly identified hantavirus from florida which is carried by the cotton rat (sigmodon hispidus) and is associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). we have investigated the interaction of bcc virus with polarized epithelial cells to examine whether entry and release of this virus occur at specific plasma membrane domains. the polarized vero c1008 monkey kidney cell line was grown on permeable filters and infected with bcc virus either through the apical ...19978995636
[a system of immunoenzyme analysis using biotinylated monoclonal antibodies for typing hantavirus antigens].enzyme immunoassay with biotin-labeled monoclonal antibodies to puumala virus was used for typing hantavirus antigens. the system is type-specific, that is, it detects puumala virus only, which was demonstrated by typing 9 hantavirus antigens in infected vero e5 cells and by epizootological analysis of an hfrs outbreak in the yegoryevsk district of the moscow region in november-december 1995. the suggested system may be used as an element of eia screening of natural samples in analysis of the sc ...19968999683
isolation and characterization of tula virus, a distinct serotype in the genus hantavirus, family bunyaviridae.a vero e6 cell culture isolate of tula virus (tul), a hantavirus first detected in european common voles (microtus arvalis and m. rossiaemeridionalis) by rt-pcr was obtained after initial passaging of tul-infected vole lung samples in laboratory-colonized m. arvalis. tul was defined as a classical serotype by a cross-focus-reduction neutralization test (frnt) and was also shown to be distinct from other hantaviruses by haemagglutination inhibition assay. the sequences of s, m and partial l genom ...19969000098
hantavirus infections. 19979003738
emerging infectious diseases: a challenge to all.emerging infections are defined as diseases of infectious origin with an incidence that has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. some of these diseases are associated with newly discovered infectious agents; others are well-known conditions rapidly increasing in incidence. five emerging infections are reviewed in this article: ehrlichiosis, a tick-borne infection caused by obligate intraleukocytic bacteria; infections caused by vancomycin-resistant e ...19979012271
the english sweating sickness, 1485 to 1551. 19979023099
[hantavirus-induced acute renal failure]. 19969036104
[the antigenic differentiation of hantaviruses by using monoclonal antibodies].85 hantavirus (hv) strains from russia and other counties were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) prepared against hantaviruses: hantaan (hantaan 76-118, a-9 strains), seoul (sr-1, r-22 strains) and puumala (hallnas 83-223 strain). 68 hv strains were differentiated into five virus type groups: hantaan, puumala, seoul, prospect hill and belgrade-dobrava. 17 strains were found to be antigenically closely related but distinct from hantaan type (4 strai ...19969036285
cocirculation of multiple hantaviruses in texas, with characterization of the small (s) genome of a previously undescribed virus of cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus).an environmental and laboratory investigation was conducted after a fatal childhood case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in deaf smith county, texas in may 1995. a trapping campaign was conducted to identify possible rodent carriers. six species of murid and heteromyid rodents were collected, and at least one hantavirus-seropositive specimen was found in each of the five murid species. tissues from a selection of 11 seropositive specimens were examined by the polymerase chain reaction ...19969025697
the evolution of hantaviruses.hantaviruses exist in most regions of the world. the many different strains identified thus far have widely divergent roles in human disease and infect a wide range of rodent hosts. the sequence data available for the genomes of these viruses allows us to study indirectly the evolutionary patterns of the hantaviruses. in this paper, we describe relationships among the m genomic segments of hantaviruses, and attempt to relate these to the evolutionary relationships of the virus' rodent hosts.19979037623
rapid and specific detection of sin nombre virus antibodies in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome by a strip immunoblot assay suitable for field diagnosis.to develop a rapid antibody test for sin nombre hantavirus (snv) infection for diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in field settings where advanced instrumentation is not available, a strip immunoblot assay bearing four immobilized antigens for snv and a recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigen of seoul hantavirus (seov) was prepared. the snv antigens included a full-length recombinant-expressed nucleocapsid (n) protein (rn), a recombinant-expressed g1 protein (residues 35 to 117), ...19979041397
pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the renal involvement in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the most common clinical manifestation of hantavirus infection. the main target organ is the kidney, resulting in an interstitial hemorrhagic nephritis and sometimes acute tubular necrosis. the pathogenesis is still largely unknown, but several recent studies indicate an important role for immune mechanisms including increased expression of cytokines, for example, tumor necrosis factor. immunohistochemical studies of kidney biopsies have revealed deposits ...19979044447
hantavirus infection. 19979048125
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in wisconsin.in the spring of 1993 an outbreak of a new illness caused by a new pathogen was identified in the southwestern united states. this infection struck relatively young, healthy individuals, was characterized by fever, myalgias, respiratory failure, and a high mortality rate. this illness was caused by a new hantavirus and has been termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the virus is carried by rodents, shed in saliva, urine, and feces. human infection occurs through inhalation of aerosolized vi ...19979046232
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.the objective of this report is to summarize the medical literature relevant to the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the english language literature was searched from january 1993 through march 1995, manually and using medline, including conference proceedings and reference lists. we selected relevant articles on clinical aspects of hps. hps is a newly described illness that progresses through three phases: prodromal, cardiopulmonary, and co ...19979097374
phylogenetic methods come of age: testing hypotheses in an evolutionary context.the use of molecular phylogenies to examine evolutionary questions has become commonplace with the automation of dna sequencing and the availability of efficient computer programs to perform phylogenetic analyses. the application of computer simulation and likelihood ratio tests to evolutionary hypotheses represents a recent methodological development in this field. likelihood ratio tests have enabled biologists to address many questions in evolutionary biology that have been difficult to resolv ...19979092465
[hantavirus: an ignored pandemic in switzerland?].as numerous publications attest, knowledge on hantaviruses progressed rapidly since the isolation of the agent of korean hemorrhagic fever in 1978. this trend was even enhanced after the recognition of a previously unknown hantavirus that caused an outbreak of acute respiratory distress syndromes in the southwestern united states in 1993. hantaviruses are carried by rodents worldwide and may cause severe diseases in humans. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the new world and hemorrhagic fever wit ...19979082534
phage-displayed peptide targeting on the puumala hantavirus neutralization site.we have selected ligands for puumala hantavirus, the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, from a seven-amino-acid peptide library flanked by cysteines and displayed on a filamentous phage. to direct the selection to areas on the virus particle which are essential for infection, phages were competitively eluted with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific for the viral glycoproteins. the selected phage populations were specific for the same sites as the antibodies and mimicked their fun ...19979094664
new hantaviruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in central argentina. 19979100632
intraocular pressure changes in nephropathia epidemica. a prospective study of 37 patients with acute systemic puumala virus infection.nephropathia epidemica is a zoonose in the group of hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome and is caused by puumala virus in hantavirus genus. the purpose of this study is to find out how the intraocular pressure (iop) is affected by the acute phase of this disease and how it relates to the previous case reports on angleclosure glaucoma attacks.19959098282
common questions about hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 19979103926
serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on detection of immunoglobulin g and m responses to recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of five viral serotypes.worldwide, hantaviruses cause more than 100,000 human infections annually. rapid and accurate methods are important both in monitoring acute infections and for epidemiological studies. we and others have shown that the amino termini of hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins (ns) are sensitive tools for the detection of specific antibodies in hantavirus disease. accordingly, we expressed truncated ns (amino acids 1 to 117) in escherichia coli from the five hantaviruses known to be pathogenic to man; ha ...19979114393
patterns of association with host and habitat: antibody reactive with sin nombre virus in small mammals in the major biotic communities of the southwestern united states.the distribution and prevalence of antibody reactive with sin nombre virus were determined in mammals in biotic communities of the southwestern united states. small mammals (n = 3,069) of 69 species were trapped in nine communities from lower sonoran desert to alpine tundra. antibody was found in rodents from all communities (overall prevalence = 6.3%); prevalence was lowest at the altitudinal and climatic extremes (0.4% in desert and 2.0% in alpine tundra). antibody occurred in 11% of 928 deer ...19979129529
puumala hantavirus genome in patients with nephropathia epidemica: correlation of pcr positivity with hla haplotype and link to viral sequences in local rodents.reverse transcription-pcr was used to analyze specimens from 20 finnish nephropathia epidemica (ne) patients hospitalized during the period from october 1994 to january 1995. blood and/or urine sediment specimens from seven patients were found to be positive for the genome sequences of puumala hantavirus (puu). pcr positivity of the specimens from the patients correlated well with the hla-drb1*0301 and hla b8 alleles, which previously were shown to associate with severe courses of ne. genetic an ...19979114386
hantavirus in argentina. 19979121542
[hantavirus infection]. 19969123884
single amino acid substitutions in puumala virus envelope glycoproteins g1 and g2 eliminate important neutralization epitopes.two monoclonal antibody escape virus mutants (mars), rescued from a human mab to glycoprotein 2 (g2) and a bank vole monoclonal antibody (mab) directed to glycoprotein 1 (g1) of puumala virus, strain sotkamo, were produced by using a combination of neutralization tests and antigen detection. the mars and the original virus were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing and the responsible mutations were defined and characterized. the g1 mutation was found to constitute an a to t nucleotide substitution, ...19979140197
dobrava hantavirus in estonia: does the virus exist throughout europe? 19979149707
[hantavirus infection: a "new" exotic zoonosis among us].hantavirus disease is a recently recognized zoonosis. the main vectors are infected but healthy wild rodents or laboratory rats. transmission to man occurs via inhalation of aerosolised excretions. kidneys or lungs are the target organs during the disease, but a systemic affection with multi-organ involvement is possible, and can be fatal. to date, at least 16 different serotypes of hantavirus have been characterized, 8 of them being of clinical importance. each serotype has its own rodent vecto ...19969156672
experimental evaluation of rodent exclusion methods to reduce hantavirus transmission to humans in rural housing.an experimental assessment of methods to reduce rodent infestations in rural housing was conducted in yosemite national park, california, sequoia/kings canyon national parks, california, and shenandoah national park, virginia. during pretreatment surveys, nearly all (63 of 68) selected units had past or ongoing rodent activity inside. active infestations were found in 58.8% of the units. peromyscus spp. represented 91.2% of all animals caught inside housing units. despite little harborage, roden ...19979158040
playing in a scrapyard and acute renal failure. 19979164319
assessment of occupational risk for hantavirus infection in arizona and new mexico.differentiating occupational exposure from other potential domestic or recreational exposure(s) for sin nombre virus (snv) infection is an epidemiologic challenge. interviews on work-related activities were conducted, and serum specimens were obtained from 494 workers in arizona and new mexico. these workers may have been exposed to rodents and rodent excreta at work, but their primary occupation did not require rodent contact (national park service [n = 193]; navajo agricultural product industr ...19979172092
[hantavirus disease]. 19969181739
[further study of hantavirus circulation in the russian federation].lung specimens of 1514 small mammals of 35 species captured in 1991-1995 at 9 territories of russia were tested in elisa for virus antigens of hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome (hfrs). the antigens were detected in lung specimens of clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis, microtus gregalis, microtus fortis, arvicola terrestris, apodemus agrarius, micromys minutus, and sorex sp., well known as hantavirus reservoirs, captured in the vologda, yaroslavl, saratov, astrakhan, and chita regi ...19979182404
incidence, etiologic pathogens, and diagnostic testing of community-acquired pneumonia.determination of the etiologic pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia has been problematic because of the lack of reliable rapid laboratory diagnostic tools as well as the controversy concerning diagnostic criteria. in the studies reviewed here, a specific pathogen was identified in 39% to 88% of patients. streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. depending on the demographics of the study, between 2% to 43% of cases have been attributed to legion ...19979193852
an unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern argentina: person-to-person transmission? hantavirus pulmonary syndrome study group for patagonia.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a rodent-borne zoonosis first recognized in the united states in 1993. person-to-person transmission has not been reported; however, in the outbreak of 20 cases reported here, epidemiologic evidence strongly suggests this route of transmission.19979204298
seroepidemiologic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in california.a total of 4,626 mammals were serologically tested for antibodies to sin nombre virus. all nonrodent species were antibody negative. among wild rodents, antibody prevalence was 8.5% in murids, 1.4% in heteromyids, and < 0.1% in sciurids. of 1,921 peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice), 226 (11.8%) were antibody positive, including one collected in 1975. the highest antibody prevalence (71.4% of 35) was found among p. maniculatus on santa cruz island, off the southern california coast. prevalence of ...19979204301
the hantaviruses of europe: from the bedside to the bench.in europe, hantavirus disease can hardly be called an emerging zoonosis; it is rather a rediscovered disease. since 1934 an epidemic condition with primarily renal involvement has been described in sweden. nowadays, hundreds to thousands of cases per year are registered in fennoscandia, fluctuating with the numbers of the specific arvicoline-rodent reservoir, the red bank vole, which carries the main european serotype, puumala (puu). in the early 1980s, the rat-transmitted serotype, seoul (seo), ...19979204306
atypical pathogen pneumonia.the term atypical pathogens has been applied in recent years to chlamydia pneumoniae, mycoplasma pneumoniae, and the various species of legionella. the incidence of pneumonia caused by these pathogens has increased with the development of specific diagnostic techniques. atypical pathogen community-acquired pneumonia demonstrates a broad spectrum of severity from a mild disease not requiring hospitalization to adult respiratory distress syndrome necessitating mechanical ventilation. the clinical, ...19979193855
hantaviruses: a global disease problem.hantaviruses are carried by numerous rodent species throughout the world. in 1993, a previously unknown group of hantaviruses emerged in the united states as the cause of an acute respiratory disease now termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). before than, hantaviruses were known as the etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a disease that occurs almost entirely in the eastern hemisphere. since the discovery of the hps-causing hantaviruses, intense investigation of the ec ...19979204290
virus zoonoses--a long-term overview. 19979208195
a major antigenic domain of hantaviruses is located on the aminoproximal site of the viral nucleocapsid protein.hantavirus nucleocapsid protein has recently been shown to be an immunodominant antigen in hemorrhagic with renal syndrome (hfrs) inducing an early and long-lasting immune response. recombinant proteins representing various regions of the nucleocapsid proteins as well as segments of the g1 and the g2 glycoproteins of hantavirus strains cg18-20 (puumala serotype) and hantaan 76-118 have been expressed in e. coli. the antigenicity of these proteins was tested in enzyme immunoassays and immunoblots ...19979208453
hantaviruses: four years after four corners.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is an acute, often fatal, febrile illness causing rapid pulmonary failure and cardiovascular instability. since first described in 1993, considerable progress has been made in identifying the hantaviruses responsible for the disease and in defining its epidemiologic and diagnostic features.19979194804
[respiratory symptoms in hantavirus infection]. 19959221231
ecological monitoring helps researchers study disease in environmental context. 19979218651
community structure and prevalence of hantavirus infection in rodents: a geographic division of the enzootic area in far eastern russia.the results of an extensive rodent trapping effort throughout the southern part of far eastern russia and hantavirus antigen screening of tissues were used to develop a multifaceted approach for the geographic division of the enzootic territory of hantavirus. four species of rodents (apodemus agrarius, apodemus peninsulae, microtus fortis, and clethrionomys rufocanus) comprised 88.5 percent of 10,595 captured rodents and 94.1 percent of 996 antigen-positive animals. rodent fauna and the prevalen ...19979221739
hantavirus antibodies in new york. 19979230017
[the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (its etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and the diagnosis of a new infectious disease)]. 19979229840
high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) captured in the vicinity of households afflicted with nephropathia epidemica.puumala virus, the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica (ne), occurs endemically in europe and is spread mainly by the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus). in the vicinity of each of four households afflicted with ne, we studied rodents with regard to population density and prevalence of puumala virus-specific antibodies. for each case area, a control area was randomly selected 10 km away, without regard to the presence of human settlement. during 6,000 trap nights, 328 rodents were caught, ...19979230802
[of mice and men: social impact of an emerging illness].in response to unexplained deaths in an indian reserve of the southwestern united states, a fascinating scientific investigation rapidly led to the identification of a new infectious syndrome, the "hantavirus pulmonary syndrome". the health promotion campaign that followed was remarkable for its large scale and for the efficiency of its delivery, but was not well received by the people on the reserve. this article demonstrates that the preventive guidelines were incompatible with the natives' po ...19979254276
[clinical aspects and diagnosis of nephropathia epidemica]. 19959244697
puumala type hantavirus infection with early choleriform syndrome and severe multiorgan failure. 19979255656
genetic characterization and phylogeny of andes virus and variants from argentina and chile.andes virus, one of five hantaviruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), emerged in 1995 in southwestern argentina (lópez et al. (1996) virology 220, 223-226). the complete nucleotide sequence of andes virus s genome segment was determined and compared with sequences of viral rnas in autopsy tissues of more recently reported hps cases from southwestern argentina and south of chile (cases esq h-1/96 and ch h-1/96). andes virus s segment was found to be 1876 nucleotides in length ...19979255937
mosaic hepatitis b virus core particles allow insertion of extended foreign protein segments.because of its particular immunological properties, the core protein of hepatitis b virus (hbcag) has become one of the favoured 'virus-like particles' for use as a carrier of foreign epitopes. a new strategy to construct core particles presenting extended foreign protein segments was established based on the introduction of a linker containing a translational stop codon between sequences encoding a c-terminally truncated hbcag (hbcag delta) and a foreign protein sequence. expression in an esche ...19979267006
type iii mixed cryoglobulinaemia in the course of hantavirus nephropathy. 19979269660
a severe case of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in singapore.the incidence of human hantavirus infection in singapore is low. hitherto, only 2 cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) have been reported. a third case is reported here of a ragman who had the classical manifestations of hfrs, confirmed by serology. in addition, his condition was complicated by liver dysfunction and neurological disturbance. after a protracted stay, the patient was finally discharged from hospital 5 months after the onset of his severe illness.19969280013
increased plasma levels of soluble cd23 in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; relation to virus-specific ige.in 15 consecutive patients hospitalized with nephropathia epidemica, a european form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) caused by puumala virus, plasma concentrations of soluble cd23 (scd23) and puumala virus-specific ige were determined. in the acute phase of illness, 11/15 patients had increased scd23 levels (> 91 u/ml), whereas in convalescence, values of 8/10 patients were normalized. maximal scd23 values were correlated to maximal concentrations of puumala virus-specific serum ...19979276532
high prevalence of hantavirus infection in a group of chinese patients with acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology.in southwestern china, small but substantial numbers of patients with acute hepatitis were found without known hepatropic viral infections (hepatitis a, b, c, d or e, cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus) and were receiving no hepatotoxic drugs. prevalence of antibodies, both neutralizing and specific immunoglobulin (ig)m and igg, to hantaan virus were evaluated in a cohort of 136 such patients: 83 were of unknown aetiology, 53 had known viral hepatitis and 59 healthy subjects acted as controls. ...19979278220
baculovirus expression of a human g2-specific, neutralizing igg monoclonal antibody to puumala virus.we amplified by polymerase chain reaction the heavy- and light-chain antibody genes of a human hybridoma secreting a neutralizing, igg monoclonal antibody to the g2 protein of puumala virus. the heavy- and light-chain genes were cloned and sequenced and the deduced amino acids were aligned with those of other human antibodies to identify the constant and variable regions. the genes were cloned into the baculovirus plasmid transfer vector pacuw51 such that the heavy-chain and light-chain genes we ...19979281505
[viral haemorrhagic fever].viral haemorrhagic fever denotes various kinds of febrile illness caused by certain viruses which often presents with bleeding tendency and occasionally shock. out of these, the four maladies, lassa fever, ebola haemorrhagic fever, marburg haemorrhagic fever and crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever which are endemically present in africa or eastern europe, are known to be such diseases with high man-to-man communicability. these four haemorrhagic fevers are, therefore, designated as special conditio ...19979283226
human-to-human transmission of hantaviruses. 19979284808
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in argentina. possibility of person to person transmission.in march 1995 the first case of a familiar outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) was notified in el bolson, in the south of argentina. until december 15, 1996, a total of 77 cases of hps had been notified with 48% mortality, distributed in three geographical areas of the country, south, north and center. during 1996, of the 19 cases from el bolsón, three were local physicians, one of whom -during the prodrome of her illness- travelled to buenos aires to be attended. in the hospital, tw ...19969284576
hantavirus transmission in the united states.in 1996, investigation of a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) outbreak in southern argentina found evidence of person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus. the infection control ramifications of this finding led to this review of hantavirus epidemiology in the united states; the review suggests that sin nombre virus infection is rarely, if ever, transmitted from person to person and that existing guidelines for prevention of hps remain appropriate for north america.19979284382
population dynamics of the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) and sin nombre virus, california channel islands.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, first documented in 1993, is caused by sin nombre virus (snv), which is carried by the peromyscus species. in 1994, high snv antibody prevalence was identified in deer mice from two california channel islands. we sampled two locations on three islands to estimate mouse population density and snv prevalence. population flux and snv prevalence appear to vary independently.19979284383
[approaches to selecting a strain of hantavirus for developing an inactivated brain vaccine].four strains isolated from patients with hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome and from field mice, natural hosts of hantavirus, were examined in order to choose a functionally active strain fit for the development of inactivated hantavirus brain vaccine. virulent strain pm-10508/89 isolated from mouse lungs was chosen. the strain was highly virulent for newborn mice and rats: 100% of infected mice aged up to 24 h and 75% of rats developed an acute lethal infection upon challenge. the incuba ...19979297337
dobrava hantavirus outbreak in russia. 19979298001
puumala and dobrava viruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in bosnia-herzegovina: evidence of highly cross-neutralizing antibody responses in early patient sera.hantavirus infection was diagnosed serologically by mu-capture igm and igg elisas in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) patients admitted to tuzla hospital, bosnia-herzegovina. the results indicated that more than one hantavirus caused the outbreak. to address the question of which hantavirus serotypes were involved, sequentially drawn sera were analyzed by focus reduction neutralization test (frnt) for antibodies against puumala, hantaan, dobrava, and seoul hantaviruses. the data reve ...19979298732
[the ecological aspects of the epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the south of the far east in russia].the data on the relationship between the epizootic process in the population of mice (the source of hantavirus infection) and the seasonal manifestations of morbidity in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in the southern region of the russian far east are presented. the asynchronous course of the epizootic process in the population of rodents causes irregularity in the spread of hfrs in the region and periodicity in the appearance of foci. seasonal rises in hfrs morbidity coincide with ...19979304320
an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in western paraguay.during an investigation of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in paraguay in 1995, sera from persons with hps-like illness, houshold contacts of confirmed hps case-patients, and a sample of the area residents were analyzed by elisa for antibodies to sin nombre virus (snv). rodent serosurveys and analysis of precipitation records were also conducted. twenty-three of 24 available probable cases were snv antibody-positive, 17 of whom were ill between july 1995 and january 1996. four (14.8%) of 27 ...19979311636
rio mamore virus: genetic characterization of a newly recognized hantavirus of the pygmy rice rat, oligoryzomys microtis, from bolivia.human hantavirus disease occurs throughout much of south america. the rodent hosts and the specific etiologic agent(s) are largely unknown, but many reported cases occurred within the habitation ranges of oryzomine rodents (rice rats). we have identified a genetically novel hantavirus (rio mamore virus [rm]) of the pygmy rice rat oligoryzomys microtis in bolivia. the complete sequence of the small (s) genome and the partial sequence of the medium (m) genome are described. this virus is closely r ...19979311652
role of electron microscopy in interstitial lung disease.although electron microscopy no longer enjoys the important role in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases that it had in the 1960s and 1970s, it remains an important adjunct in the differential diagnosis of certain pulmonary diseases. examples include various manifestations of systemic lupus erythematous pneumonitis, in which the presence of tubuloreticular structures and electron-dense deposits are useful for diagnosis; immotile cilia disorders, in which qualitative and now quantitative s ...19979331535
puumala virus and two genetic variants of tula virus are present in austrian rodents.puumala and tula viruses are hantaviruses found in europe and are associated with the rodents clethrionomys glareolus and microtus arvalis, respectively. puumala virus is associated with the human disease nephropathia epidemica. in austria, ten clinically diagnosed cases of nephropathia epidemica, presumably caused by puumala virus infection, have been reported but not virologically confirmed [leschinskaya et al., 1991; aberle et al., 1996]. to identify the hantaviruses that are present in austr ...19979334930
a colorimetric pcr-enzyme immunoassay to identify hantaviruses.hantaviruses cause two serious human diseases: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. at least nine hantaviruses are known to be pathogenic for humans and numerous others, with unknown disease potential, have been detected in rodents. assays to quickly identify specific hantaviruses would be useful both for clinical diagnosis and in risk assessment studies.19979316733
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