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the cytoplasmic tails of uukuniemi virus (bunyaviridae) g(n) and g(c) glycoproteins are important for intracellular targeting and the budding of virus-like particles.functional motifs within the cytoplasmic tails of the two glycoproteins g(n) and g(c) of uukuniemi virus (uuk) (bunyaviridae family) were identified with the help of our recently developed virus-like particle (vlp) system for uuk virus (a. k. overby, v. popov, e. p. neve, and r. f. pettersson, j. virol. 80:10428-10435, 2006). we previously reported that information necessary for the packaging of ribonucleoproteins into vlps is located within the g(n) cytoplasmic tail (a. k. overby, r. f. petters ...200717670814
elevated testosterone and reduced 5-hiaa concentrations are associated with wounding and hantavirus infection in male norway rats.among rodents that carry hantaviruses, males are more likely to engage in aggression and to be infected than females. one mode of hantavirus transmission is via the passage of virus in saliva during wounding. the extent to which hantaviruses cause physiological changes in their rodent host that increase aggression and, therefore, virus transmission has not been fully documented. to assess whether steroid hormones and neurotransmitters contribute to the correlation between aggression and seoul vi ...200717719050
endemic hantavirus infection impairs the winter survival of its rodent host.the influence of pathogens on host fitness is one of the key questions in infection ecology. hantaviruses have coevolved with their hosts and are generally thought to have little or no effect on host survival or reproduction. we examined the effect of puumala virus (puuv) infection on the winter survival of bank voles (myodes glareolus), the host of this virus. the data were collected by monitoring 22 islands over three consecutive winters (a total of 55 island populations) in an endemic area of ...200717824420
regulatory t cells enhance persistence of the zoonotic pathogen seoul virus in its reservoir host.hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens that maintain a persistent infection in their reservoir hosts, yet the mechanisms mediating persistence remain unknown. regulatory t cell responses cause persistent infection by suppressing proinflammatory and effector t cell activity; hantaviruses may exploit these responses to cause persistence. to test this hypothesis, male norway rats were inoculated with seoul virus and regulatory t cells were monitored during infection. increased numbers of cd4(+)cd25(+) ...200717878294
stratifying land use/land cover for spatial analysis of disease ecology and risk: an example using object-based classification techniques.landscape epidemiology has made significant strides recently, driven in part by increasing availability of land cover data derived from remotely-sensed imagery. using an example from a study of land cover effects on hantavirus dynamics at an atlantic forest site in eastern paraguay, we demonstrate how automated classification methods can be used to stratify remotely-sensed land cover for studies of infectious disease dynamics. for this application, it was necessary to develop a scheme that could ...200718686252
[transmission by feces of infected rodents. hantavirus illnesses are increasing]. 200717672003
[the evaluation of viral load in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) by real-time polymerase chain reaction].the system for real-time polymerase chain reaction was developed for detection of puumala virus rnaand quantitative analysis of viral rnaload in clinical samples. dynamics of viral load in blood samples from 12 patients with hfrs (from day 4 to day 17 of the disease) was studied. at day 4 viral rna load varied from 4 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(6) copies/ml. during the period of observation viral load decreased by 10 - 200 times and was not detected in majority of patients to day 11 - 15 of the disease. t ...200717672134
tula and puumala hantavirus nss orfs are functional and the products inhibit activation of the interferon-beta promoter.the s rna genome segment of hantaviruses carried by arvicolinae and sigmodontinae rodents encodes the nucleocapsid (n) protein and has an overlapping (+1) open reading frame (orf) for a putative nonstructural protein (nss). the aim of this study was to determine whether the orf is functional. a protein corresponding to the predicted size of tula virus (tulv) nss was detected using coupled in vitro transcription and translation from a cloned s segment cdna, and a protein corresponding to the pred ...200717705180
differential resource allocation in deer mice exposed to sin nombre virus.the resource allocation hypothesis predicts that reproductive activity suppresses immunocompetence; however, this has never been tested in an endemic disease system with free-ranging mammals. we tested the resource allocation hypothesis in wild deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) with natural exposure to sin nombre virus (snv). immunocompetence was estimated from the extent of swelling elicited after deer mice were injected with phytohemagglutinin (pha); swelling is positively correlated with imm ...200717717814
laboratory study on the immobilization of bacterial spores in arid environments.in this study, two effective, non-toxic, wind erosion palliative materials were analyzed for their efficacy in preventing the spread of bacterial spores. desert sand was employed in a laboratory setting with a non-toxic simulant bacterium in an attempt to accurately represent the spreadability of the hantavirus. spore simulants were used instead of viruses due to availability, decreased susceptibility to desiccation and detection ability without involving tissue cultures. the simulant was used t ...200616779932
hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: immune response and pathogenesis.hantaviruses are emerging viruses in the americas that cause cardiopulmonary syndrome with high lethality. the intense cellular immune response to hantavirus alters normal endothelial cell barrier functions and seems to be harmful to the host. on the other hand, the humoral immune response seems to be essential for recovery from infection.200616793309
characterization of truncated hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins and their application for serotyping.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is a fulminant infectious disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage, renal impairment, and thrombocytopenia. hantaviruses associated with this belong to different serotypes: hantaan (htn), seoul (seo), dobrava/belgrade (dob), and puumala (puu). the first two, htn and seo, are endemic in china. to investigate the epidemiology of hfrs and virus transmission in china, we constructed prokaryotic plasmids encoding truncated recombinant htn and seo nucleoc ...200616721853
phylogeography of the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) provides a predictive framework for research on hantaviruses.phylogeographical partitioning of sin nombre and monongahela viruses (hantaviruses) may reflect that of their primary rodent host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). lack of a comprehensive assessment of phylogeographical variation of the host has precluded the possibility of predicting spatial limits of existing strains of these viruses or geographical regions where novel viral strains might emerge. the complete cytochrome b gene was sequenced for 206 deer mice collected from sites throug ...200616760402
developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006-2007.el niño/southern oscillation (enso) related climate anomalies have been shown to have an impact on infectious disease outbreaks. the climate prediction center of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration (noaa/cpc) has recently issued an unscheduled el niño advisory, indicating that warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the equatorial eastern pacific may have pronounced impacts on global tropical precipitation patterns extending into the northern hemisphere particularly ov ...200617194307
tick-borne encephalitis virus in clethrionomys glareolus in the czech republic.a total of 474 specimens from 157 rodents caught at the military training area of boletice in the south of the czech republic from may to november 1999 were screened for tbev by nested pcr. tbev-specific rna was amplified from lung, kidney, and spleen derived from one clethrionomys glareolus in the first rt-pcr round. sequence analysis revealed a 100% identity to the tbev strain neudoerfl. tbev presence in the sample was confirmed by mouse brain passage of backup samples and cell culture. the re ...200617187572
ten-year prognosis of puumala hantavirus-induced acute interstitial nephritis.nephropathia epidemica (ne) is a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by puumala hantavirus. its long-term prognosis is considered favorable. there are, however, some reports about subsequent hypertension, glomerular hyperfiltration, and proteinuria after previous hantavirus infection. therefore, we studied 36 patients 5 and 10 years after acute ne, with 29 seronegative controls. office blood pressure, ambulatory 24-h blood pressure (abp), glomerular filtration rate (gfr), and proteinuri ...200616641933
hantaan/andes virus dna vaccine elicits a broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibody response in nonhuman primates.at least four hantavirus species cause disease with prominent renal involvement-hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs); and several hantavirus strains cause disease with significant pulmonary involvement-hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the most prevalent and lethal hantaviruses associated with hfrs and hps are hantaan virus (htnv) and andes virus (andv), respectively. here, we constructed a dna vaccine plasmid (pwrg/ha-m) that contains both the htnv and andv m gene segments. rhesus ma ...200616378630
microbiological contamination of laboratory mice and rats in korea from 1999 to 2003.to survey the microbiological contamination of laboratory mice and rats in korea during a 5-year period, we monitored animals housed in mouse and rat facilities with either barrier or conventional systems. at barrier and conventional mouse facilities, the most important pathogen identified was mouse hepatitis virus (mhv), while mycoplasma pulmonis was the most important pathogen at conventional rat facilities. interestingly, hantavirus was recovered from both barrier and conventional mouse facil ...200616508207
implication of phylogenetic systematics of rodent-borne hantaviruses allows understanding of their distribution.hantaviruses' distribution is reassessed after performing a cladistic analysis on 93 strains isolated from rodents, and one used as outgroup: thottapalayam isolated from a shrew. while most hantaviruses found in wild animals were collected in northern asia, europe, north america, and south america, only thottapalayam and thailand were found in south and southeastern asia. thottapalayam is highly divergent from the other known hantaviruses and may represent the emerging tip of a different lineage ...200617135493
[emergence of new pneumonia: besides severe acute respiratory syndrome].important epidemiological modifications have been registered in respiratory infections, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. pathogens with modified antibiotic susceptibility patterns have emerged, which display an increased antibiotic resistance, such as s. pneumoniae, s. aureus, h. influenzae. this trait has a strong impact on the therapeutic choices, particularly when an empiric antibiotic treatment is selected. the prevalence of bacterial species showing non-susceptibility to ...200617146421
[isolation and characterization of hantavirus carried by rodents in huludao, liaoning province].to investigate the hantavirus infection and their genotype in rodents in huludao.200617152513
[study on the coinfection of hantavirus and orientia tsutsugamushi in tissue cell culture].to investigate the possibility of hantavirus (hv) and orientia tsutsugamushi (ot) coinfection in their hosts.200617152514
emergency medicine and the public's health: emerging infectious diseases.in recent years, multiple global forces have contributed to the emergence and widespread distribution of previously unknown disease entities. this article discusses ebola virus, west nile virus, and hantavirus as representative emerging infectious diseases. smallpox is discussed along with concerns about the safety of the smallpox vaccine, given the uncertain risk of bioterrorism and smallpox exposure. ed physicians must become familiar with the presentation, management, and public health impact ...200616982350
tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic predisposing factors can influence clinical severity in nephropathia epidemica.severe human infection with hantavirus is characterized by high fever, cold chills, thrombocytopenia, arterial hypotension, acute renal failure, and/or adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards)-like pulmonary involvement, but the clinical course varies greatly between individuals. we investigated whether genetically determined differences in tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha production can influence the severity of hantavirus disease. we studied a tnf-alpha single-nucleotide promoter polymorphi ...200616987073
geographical distribution of hantaviruses in thailand and potential human health significance of thailand virus.phylogenetic investigations, sequence comparisons, and antigenic cross-reactivity studies confirmed the classification of thailand virus (thaiv) as a distinct hantavirus species. the examination of sera from 402 rodents trapped in 19 provinces of thailand revealed that five greater bandicoot rats (bandicota indica) and one lesser bandicoot rat (b. savilei) from four provinces were focus reduction neutralization test (frnt) antibody-positive for thaiv. one of 260 patients from surin province in t ...200617124002
catacamas virus, a hantaviral species naturally associated with oryzomys couesi (coues' oryzomys) in honduras.the primary objective of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographical distribution, genetic diversity, and natural host associations of the hantaviruses indigenous to north america. antibody to a hantavirus was found in 5 (20.8%) of 24 coues' oryzomys (oryzomys couesi) and none of 41 other rodents captured near the town of catacamas in eastern honduras, and a hantavirus was isolated from one of the antibody-positive coues' oryzomys. analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence da ...200617124003
the changing epidemiology of acute renal failure.different definitions of acute renal failure (arf) abound. the existence of multiple definitions makes it difficult to determine the true epidemiological characteristics of this condition. despite this difficulty, it has been possible to detect notable variations in the epidemiology of arf during the past few decades. the absolute incidence of arf has increased, while associated mortality rate has remained relatively static. several factors have contributed to this altered epidemiology. here, we ...200616932465
diagnosis and treatment of new world hantavirus infections.the purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the diagnosis and treatment of indigenous new world hantavirus infections.200616940866
update on emerging infections from the centers for disease control and prevention. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--five states, 2006. 200617061318
cellular entry of hantaan virus a9 strain: specific interactions with beta3 integrins and a novel 70kda protein.cellular entry of pathogenic hantaviruses had been shown to be mediated by beta3 integrins. however, no direct evidence exists that hantavirus binds to beta3 integrins, and integrin beta3 subunit is not expressed on some cells permissive to hantavirus infection. in this report, utilizing beta3-integrin-transfected cho cells, we demonstrated that integrin beta3 subunit renders cho cells susceptible to chinese hantaan virus (htn) strain a9 (isolated in china), and the viral infection was correspon ...200616310165
evaluation of promed-mail as an electronic early warning system for emerging animal diseases: 1996 to 2004.to identify emerging animal and zoonotic diseases and associated geographic distribution, disease agents, animal hosts, and seasonality of reporting in the program for monitoring emerging diseases (promed)-mail electronic early warning system.200617014355
maternal antibodies postpone hantavirus infection and enhance individual breeding success.the transfer of maternal antibodies from mother to progeny is a well-known phenomenon in avian and mammalian species. optimally, they protect the newborn against the pathogens in the environment. the effect of maternal antibodies on microparasite transmission dynamics may have important consequences for both the fitness of the host and the epizootic processes of the pathogens. however, there is a scarcity of studies examining these effects in free-living wild species. we studied the influence of ...200617015326
development of novel immunoglobulin g (igg), iga, and igm enzyme immunoassays based on recombinant puumala and dobrava hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins.human infections with asian and european hantaviruses can result in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndromes of differing severities characterized by renal dysfunction and sometimes by pulmonary symptoms. for the serological detection of human infections by hantaviruses relevant for europe, we developed monoclonal antibody capture immunoglobulin g (igg) and iga enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) based on yeast-expressed nucleocapsid proteins of puumala and dobrava hantaviruses. moreover, ...200617021245
replication and immunoactivity of the recombinant peromyscus maniculatus cytomegalovirus expressing hantavirus g1 glycoprotein in vivo and in vitro.previously, we have shown that cmv isolated from deer mouse could be used in vivo and in vitro to express sin nombre virus (snv) glycoprotein g1 in deer mice [rizvanov aa, van geelen ag, morzunov s, et al. generation of a recombinant cytomegalovirus for expression of a hantavirus glycoprotein. j.virol. 2003;77(22):12203-10]. in this report, we further characterize replication of wild-type (wt) and recombinant peromyscus cmv (pcmv) in vivo and in vitro using realtime pcr, and infectious center as ...200616125285
dynamics of puumala virus infection in bank voles in ardennes department (france).the hantaviruses (genus hantavirus, family bunyaviridae) include human pathogens and occur worldwide. in western and central europe, the predominant serotype is puumala (puu) virus, which causes epidemic nephropathy. voles are considered to be the main reservoir and the vector of puu virus. a total of 719 rodents (mainly clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus sp.) trapped by capture-mark-recapture (cmr) in four sites in ardennes department (france) between april 2004 and october 2005 were tested for ...200617027178
characterization of shock in a hamster model of hantavirus infection.human hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) due to andes, sin nombre and other hantaviruses is characterized by severe pulmonary capillary leak and cardiogenic shock. hamsters, the only animal manifesting hcps-like disease, were instrumented with radiotelemeters that enabled ambulatory intracarotid blood pressure recording within an animal biosafety level-4 facility. following infection with andes virus, blood pressure and heart rate decreased slowly in a biphasic manner during the first 7 ...200616950493
genetic analysis of thailand hantavirus in bandicota indica trapped in thailand.sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral n-antigen. two of them were trapped in nakhon pathom province, the other two in nakhon ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. when analysed by rt-nested pcr, all four rodent ...200616953877
nitric oxide and peroxynitrite have different antiviral effects against hantavirus replication and free mature virions.reactive nitrogen intermediates (rni), like nitric oxide (no) and peroxynitrite, have antiviral effects against certain viruses. hantaviruses, like other members of the bunyaviridae family, have previously not been shown to be sensitive to rni. in this study, we compared the effects of no and peroxynitrite on hantavirus replication and free mature virions in vitro, and of inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) in hantavirus-infected suckling mice. the no-generating compound s-nitroso-n-acetylpen ...200616955520
incubation period of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.the potential incubation period from exposure to onset of symptoms was 7-39 days (median 18 days) in 20 patients with a defined period of exposure to andes virus in a high-risk area. this period was 14-32 days (median 18 days) in 11 patients with exposure for <48 hours.200616965713
hantavirus n protein exhibits genus-specific recognition of the viral rna panhandle.a key genomic characteristic that helps define hantavirus as a genus of the family bunyaviridae is the presence of distinctive terminal complementary nucleotides that promote the folding of the viral genomic segments into "panhandle" hairpin structures. the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (n protein), which is encoded by the smallest of the three negative-sense genomic rna segments, undergoes in vivo and in vitro trimerization. trimeric hantavirus n protein specifically recognizes the panhandle ...200616971445
regions of importance for interaction of puumala virus nucleocapsid subunits.puumala virus (puuv) is a hantavirus that causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in northern and central europe, and in large parts of russia. the nucleocapsid (n) protein encoded by hantaviruses plays an important role in the life-cycle of these viruses, and one important function for the n-protein is to oligomerize, surround and protect the viral rnas. we have identified amino- and carboxy-terminal regions involved in puuv n-n interactions, which comprise amino acids 100-1 ...200616972031
characterization of a new puumala virus genotype associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hantavirus serotype puumala (puuv) is the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica (ne), a mild variant of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in europe, with lethality rates up to 1% among human patients. the serotype puuv is composed of numerous geographically restricted strains forming a great number of phylogeographic lineages, sublineages, variants, and clusters. we describe a new, geographically and phylogenetically well-defined pathogenic puuv sublineage in southwest germany (st ...200616972039
new world hantavirus in humans, french guiana. 200616972355
the pathogenic ny-1 hantavirus g1 cytoplasmic tail inhibits rig-i- and tbk-1-directed interferon responses.hantaviruses cause two diseases with prominent vascular permeability defects, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. all hantaviruses infect human endothelial cells, although it is unclear what differentiates pathogenic from nonpathogenic hantaviruses. we observed dramatic differences in interferon-specific transcriptional responses between pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses at 1 day postinfection, suggesting that hantavirus pathogenesis may in part be de ...200616973572
[the new-world hantaviruses. ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in latin america].the hantaviruses are a group of emerging rodent-borne pathogens (family bunyaviridae; genus hantavirus) that are etiologic agents for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in europe and asia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in the americas. hfrs is associated with rodents of the family muridae, subfamilies murinae and arvicolinae; hps is associated with rodents of the subfamily sigmodontinae. since the identification of hcps in usa in 1993, a large number of cases of hps and ...200616977974
[a review about nephropathia epidemica].we propose a review of history, aetiology, physiopathology, clinical features, treatment and prevention of nephropathia epidemica (ne) which represents the only form of hantavirus infection in belgium.200616910256
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome complicated with pregnancy: a case report.hantaviruses cause two forms of human disease: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. hantavirus infection can occur in pregnant women and it can have an influence on the maternal and fetal outcomes, although this is a rare finding even in endemic areas. we describe here a recent case of hfrs complicating pregnancy.200616913449
profiling helper t cell subset gene expression in deer mice.deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are the most common mammals in north america and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including sin nombre virus (snv), the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in north america. unlike human hcps patients, snv-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. a neutralizing igg antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infection. limitations of de ...200616916450
[first serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rodents in colombia].determining hantavirus infection prevalence in rodents in the c6rdoba department, colombia.200616925117
[full length nucleotide sequence analysis of l and m segments of hantavirus q32 strain gene].to study the full length l and m sequence of hantavirus q32 strain gene and explore its molecular characters.200616816865
[two patients with hantavirus infection in the netherlands; substantial increase in incidence in neighbouring countries].a 12-year-old girl and a 57-year-old woman were admitted with fever, general malaise, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. both patients had acute renal insufficiency based on tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by the genus hantavirus, which was confirmed by blood tests. both patients recovered spontaneously. the neighbouring countries of france, germany and belgium have recently reported 2- to 7-fold increases in the number of hantavirus infections. hantavirus is a zoonotic viral disease that ...200616821456
[study of phylogenetic relations of hantaviruses by using the mutual information method. tula genotype viruses].phylogenetic relations were studied in the group of tula viruses (hantavirus genus, bunyaviridae family) of eurasia. the similarity in the nucleotide sequences of segments was estimated by the value of mutual information. the application of this method confirmed that recombinant events might occur in some tula-like viruses of eurasia, as previously presumed by the results of bootscanning and analysis of amino acid sequences. it was found that might be recombination between distinct phylogenetic ...200616826755
human hantavirus infection, brazilian amazon. 200616845782
prolonged survival of puumala hantavirus outside the host: evidence for indirect transmission via the environment.the capability of rodent-borne viruses to survive outside the host is critical for the transmission dynamics within rodent populations and to humans. the transmission of puumala virus (puuv) in colonized bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) was investigated and additional longevity studies in cell culture with puuv and tula (tulv) hantaviruses were performed. wild-type puuv excreted by experimentally infected donor bank voles was shown to be transmitted indirectly between rodents through contami ...200616847107
loss of cell membrane integrity in puumala hantavirus-infected patients correlates with levels of epithelial cell apoptosis and perforin.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are two diseases caused by hantaviruses. capillary leakage is a hallmark of hantavirus infection. pathogenic hantaviruses are not cytotoxic, but elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), indicative of cellular damage, are observed in patients. we report increased levels of serum perforin, granzyme b, and the epithelial cell apoptosis marker caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 during puumala hantavirus infection. signi ...200616873286
drotrecogin alpha (activated) in two patients with the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. to date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. two hcps survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated) (daa) for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. vasoactive med ...200616896430
crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever presenting as thrombotic microangiopathy and acute renal failure. 200616735392
[investigation on hantaviruses infection in rodents from free markets in beijing areas].in order to find out the factors related to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) infection, and to evaluate the probability of ecdemic hantaviruses (hv) infection in rodents in beijing areas.200616749997
modeling hantavirus reservoir species dominance in high seroprevalence areas on the azuero peninsula of panama.habitat fragmentation commonly influences distribution of zoonotic disease reservoirs. in panama, populations of rodent hosts of hantaviruses are favored by small habitat fragments isolated by agricultural lands. we expected a similar relationship between landscape characteristics and host distribution at fine geographical scales in southern panama. the relative abundance of zygodontomys brevicauda, the primary host for "calabazo" virus, and other rodents was assessed at 24 sites within the azue ...200616760528
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--five states, 2006.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a rodentborne viral disease characterized by severe pulmonary illness and a case-fatality ratio of 30%-40%. sin nombre virus causes the majority of hps cases in the united states, and the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) is its predominant reservoir. this report describes an increase in human cases of hps reported during january-march 2006 from arizona, new mexico, north dakota, texas, and washington state. the findings emphasize the need for renewed att ...200616760891
characterization of the rna chaperone activity of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein.hantaviruses are tripartite negative-sense rna viruses and members of the bunyaviridae family. the nucleocapsid (n) protein, encoded by the smallest of the three genome segments (s), has nonspecific rna chaperone activity. this activity results in transient dissociation of misfolded rna structures, may be required for facilitating correct higher-order rna structure, and may function in viral genome replication. we carried out a series of experiments to further characterize the ability of n to di ...200616775315
[study on the association between hantavirus infection and rattus norvegicus].to further understand the association of hantavirus (hv) harbored and transmitted in wild brown rats.200616792882
mathematical models for hantavirus infection in rodents.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is an emerging disease of humans that is carried by wild rodents. humans are usually exposed to the virus through geographically isolated outbreaks. the driving forces behind these outbreaks is poorly understood. certainly, one key driver of the emergence of these viruses is the virus population dynamics within the rodent population. two new mathematical models for hantavirus infection in rodents are formulated and studied. the new models include the dynamics of sus ...200616794943
a history of biological disasters of animal origin in north america.this paper examines past occurrences in north america relevant to the possibility of biological disasters with animal origins. with respect to naturally occurring animal disease outbreaks, north america, while not as adversely affected by epizootics as other regions, has had its fair share of such outbreaks of both 'traditional' and emerging animal diseases. the traditional category includes such diseases as anthrax, classical swine fever, bluetongue, brucellosis, foot and mouth disease, and the ...200616796038
genetic analysis of puumala hantavirus strains from austria.sequences of the small (s) and the medium (m) genome segments of puumala hantavirus (puuv) were recovered from bank voles clethrionomys glareolus trapped at 2 locations, klippitztörl (carinthia) and ernstbrunn (lower austria). lung tissue samples from 12 rodents earlier found hantavirus antibody-positive were further screened for the presence of hantaviral n-antigen using immunoblotting. rna purified from 7 n-ag-positive samples was subjected to the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactio ...200616798703
production of hantavirus puumala nucleocapsid protein in saccharomyces cerevisiae for vaccine and diagnostics.the production of hantavirus puumala nucleocapsid (n) protein for potential applications as a vaccine and for diagnostic purposes was investigated with saccharomyces cerevisiae as a recombinant host. the n protein gene and the hexahistidine tagged n (h-n) protein gene were expressed intracellular from a 2-microm plasmid vectors under the control of a fused galactose inducible gal10-pyk promoter. for monitoring the recombinant gene expression, a h-n and a gfp fusion protein was used. different cu ...200616513199
dobrava, but not saaremaa, hantavirus is lethal and induces nitric oxide production in suckling mice.hantaviruses are the causative agents of hfrs and hcps (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome), two severe, and often fatal human diseases. mortality from hfrs varies between hantaviruses; hantaan and dobrava show the highest, seoul intermediate, and puumala low mortality. saaremaa, genetically closely related to dobrava, is also known to induce hfrs, with low or no mortality. in this study, mice were inoculated with dobrava and saaremaa viruses to test fo ...200616513381
generation of monoclonal antibodies of desired specificity using chimeric polyomavirus-derived virus-like particles.foreign protein sequences presented on hamster polyomavirus (hapyv) major capsid protein vp1-derived virus-like particles (vlps) have been demonstrated to be highly immunogenic. the current study was aimed to evaluate vp1-derived chimeric vlps as tools for hybridoma technology to generate monoclonal antibodies (mabs) of desired specificity. chimeric vlps containing inserts of different size and origin were used as immunogens. chimeric vlps carrying a 9 amino acid (aa)-long cytotoxic t-cell epito ...200616516908
corticosteroids combined with continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration for treatment of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by puumala virus infection.reported here are two cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by puumala virus infection, which rapidly resolved after initiation of corticosteroid treatment combined with continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration. these cases emphasize the role of the inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.200616550348
is there an association of pneumocystis infection with the presence of arena-, hanta-, and poxvirus antibodies in wild mice and shrews in finland?as part of studies on the nature of the endemic virus infections in natural rodent hosts, the possible association of cyst forms of pneumocystis spp. with the presence of hanta-, cowpox-, and arenavirus antibodies in wild mice (apodemus flavicollis, n=105; apodemus agrarius, n=63; micromys minutus, n=50) and the common shrew (sorex araneus, n=101) was studied in south-central finland. one hantavirus (saaremaa virus, saav) seropositive a. agrarius, and 2 cowpoxvirus (cpxv) seropositive s. araneus ...200616556344
which hantaviruses in india ? 200616567875
maternally derived recombinant human anti-hantavirus monoclonal antibodies are transferred to mouse offspring during lactation and neutralize virus in vitro.transgenic mice expressing a recombinant human monoclonal antibody (rhmab) against hantavirus were generated. these mice could be used as models to explore the possibilities of producing rhmabs for therapeutic purposes. the highest concentration of the rhmab in the milk of the transgenic females was 6.6 mg/ml. the rhmab was also detected in the sera of pups fed by the transgenic females. both the rhmabs in the milk of transgenic mice and those in the sera of suckling pups were found to be active ...200616571835
saaremaa hantavirus should not be confused with its dangerous relative, dobrava virus. 200616597913
biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. we tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (urophora spp.), widely established in north america for spotted knapweed (centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate sin nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (pe ...200616623730
neutralizing antibodies in survivors of sin nombre and andes hantavirus infection.we evaluated titers of homotypic and heterotypic neutralizing antibodies (nabs) to andes and sin nombre hantaviruses in plasma samples from 20 patients from chile and the united states. all but 1 patient had high titers of nab. none of the plasma samples showed high titers against the heterologous virus.200616494739
a novel method for cloning of non-cytolytic viruses.hantaviruses are rodent-borne pathogens with a segmented single-stranded rna genome of negative polarity. spontaneous occurrence of variants with genetic heterogeneity have been observed both in vivo and in vitro. the objective of this study was to establish a method for the cloning of genetically homogenous hantaviruses which can be used for subsequent functional studies. infected veroe6 cells were incubated with an agarose/medium overlay to prevent uncontrolled distribution of de novo synthesi ...200616504312
a friday afternoon case of apparent anti-glomerular basement nephritis. 200616644771
a new puumala hantavirus subtype in rodents associated with an outbreak of nephropathia epidemica in south-east germany in 2004.a micro-epidemic of hantavirus infections occurred in lower bavaria, south-east germany, starting in april 2004. while only three cases were registered from 2001 to 2003, a dramatically increased number of clinically apparent human hantavirus infections (n=38) was observed in 2004, plus seven additional cases by june 2005. to determine the reservoir responsible for the infections, a total of 43 rodents were trapped in lower bavaria. serological and genetic investigations revealed that puumala vi ...200616650330
the effect of biodiversity on the hantavirus epizootic.we analyze a mathematical model of the epizootic of hantavirus in mice populations, including the effect of species that compete with the host. we show that the existence of the second species has an important consequence for the prevalence of the infectious agent in the host. when the two mice species survive in the ecosystem, the competitive pressure of the second species may lead to reduction or complete elimination of the prevalence of infection. the transition between the disappearance of t ...200616676531
[viral hemorrhagic fevers in brazil].to call attention to viral hemorrhagic fevers, diseases that are mostly underdivulged and, probably, underreported, we present here case reports of the 4 diseases of this kind that occur in brazil: yellow fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, arenavirus haemorrhagic fever and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. relevant clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial diagnostic aspects of these viral haemorrhagic fevers are also shown here. these diseases have a high case fatality ...200616699651
hantavirus in african wood mouse, guinea.hantaviruses are rodent-borne, emerging viruses that cause life-threatening human diseases in eurasia and the americas. we detected hantavirus genome sequences in an african wood mouse (hylomyscus simus) captured in sangassou, guinea. sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the genetic material demonstrate a novel hantavirus species, which we propose to name "sangassou virus."200616704849
hantaviruses in serbia and montenegro.hantaviruses are endemic in the balkan peninsula. an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurred in 2002 in serbia and montenegro. the epidemiologic characteristics and genetic relatedness of dobrava/belgrade virus strains responsible for most cases are described.200616707066
truncated recombinant dobrava hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins induce strong, long-lasting immune responses in mice.we describe the cloning and expression of dobrava hantavirus (dobv) nucleocapsid proteins and a truncated form consisting of the first 118 n-terminal amino acids, and the capacity of these e. coli icone 200-expressed recombinant proteins (rnp) to induce a protective immune response against dobv in mice. as an alternative carrier protein, the outer membrane protein a derived from klebsiella pneumoniae (rp40) has been coupled to different rnp constructs. all recombinant proteins were found to be h ...200616714853
social status does not predict responses to seoul virus infection or reproductive success among male norway rats.trade-offs exist among life history strategies that are used to increase survival and reproduction; such that, males that engage in more competitive behaviors may be more susceptible to infection. hantaviruses are transmitted horizontally between rodents through the passage of virus in saliva during wounding and male rodents are more likely to be infected with hantaviruses than females. to determine whether a trade-off exists between dominance and susceptibility to seoul virus infection, male lo ...200616040226
first evidence of fatal hantavirus nephropathy in india, mimicking leptospirosis. 200616361279
hantavirus and arenavirus antibody prevalence in rodents and humans in trentino, northern italy.the spatial and temporal distribution of hantavirus and arenavirus antibody-positive wild rodents in trentino, italy, was studied using immunofluorescence assays (ifa) in two long-term sites trapped in 2000-2003, and six other sites trapped in 2002. the overall hantavirus seroprevalence in the bank voles, clethrionomys glareolus (n=229) screened for puumala virus (puuv) antibodies was 0.4%, and that for apodemus flavicollis mice (n=1416) screened for dobrava virus (dobv) antibodies was 0.2%. ant ...200616371172
soochong virus: an antigenically and genetically distinct hantavirus isolated from apodemus peninsulae in korea.hantaan (htn) virus, the etiologic agent of clinically severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), was first isolated in 1976 from lung tissue of a striped-field mouse (apodemus agrarius) captured in songnae-ri, gyeonggi province, republic of korea. found primarily in mountainous areas, the korean field mouse (a. peninsulae) is the second-most dominant field rodent species found throughout korea. a new hantavirus, designated soochong (soo), was isolated in vero e6 cells from four a. pen ...200616372283
bidirectional virus secretion and nonciliated cell tropism following andes virus infection of primary airway epithelial cell cultures.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is an acute disease resulting from infection with any one of a number of new world hantaviruses. hps has a mortality rate of 40% and, unlike many other severe respiratory diseases, often occurs in young, healthy adults. infection is usually initiated after inhalation of rodent excreta containing virus particles, but human-to-human transmission has been documented. postmortem tissue samples show high levels of viral antigen within the respiratory endothelium, b ...200616414986
a pseudotype vesicular stomatitis virus containing hantaan virus envelope glycoproteins g1 and g2 as an alternative to hantavirus vaccine in mice.we examined whether a vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) pseudotype bearing the hantavirus envelope glycoproteins (gps) g1 and g2 (vsvdeltag*htn) could be used as a safe and effective alternative to native hantavirus. mice were immunized with purified particles of vsvdeltag*htn. after the second immunization, all mice produced anti-gp antibody as detected in elisa and a neutralization test. after the third immunization, the mice were challenged with hantaan virus. neither anti-np antibody producti ...200616426712
serological assays for the detection of human andes hantavirus infections based on its yeast-expressed nucleocapsid protein.the objective of the study was to develop and evaluate igm and igg elisas and an igg western blot test for the serological detection of human infections with andes virus (andv), the major cause of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in south america.200616428893
targeting vascular injury using hantavirus-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors.restenosis is a pathological condition involving intimal hyperplasia and negative arterial remodeling. gene therapy vectors have shown modest therapeutic effects, but the level of infectivity has been relatively poor. in the present study we have designed a modified lentiviral vector (lv) pseudotyped with a strain of hantavirus (htnv) to improve the transduction efficiency into vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. in vivo studies using adult new zealand white rabbit ...200616431160
oligomerization of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein: analysis of the n-terminal coiled-coil domain.hantaviruses constitute a genus in the family bunyaviridae. they are enveloped negative-strand rna viruses with a tripartite genome encoding the nucleocapsid (n) protein, the two surface glycoproteins gn and gc, and an rna-dependent rna polymerase. the n protein is the most abundant component of the virion; it encapsidates genomic rna segments forming ribonucleoproteins and participates in genome transcription and replication as well as virus assembly. in the course of rna encapsidation, n prote ...200616940519
wildlife, environment and (re)-emerging zoonoses, with special reference to sylvatic tick-borne zoonoses in north-western italy.over the last century, changes in land-use, modification of agriculture-livestock production systems, disruption of wildlife habitats, increase of human activities, higher frequency of international and intercontinental travels, wider circulation of animals and animal products have contributed to alter the distribution, presence and density of hosts and vectors. as a result, the number of emerging and reemerging diseases, including zoonoses, have greatly increased. some infectious pathogens, ori ...200617361062
[surveillance on natural infection of rodents with hantavirus in shenzhen city and identification of a hantavirus strain sz2083].for clarifying the situation of the natural infection of rodents having hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus and to type hantavirus (hv) using molecular technique in shenzhen city in 2005, and offering guidance for prevention and control of hfrs.200617402203
[haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs)--hantavirus infection disease appearing in poland].authors take up the problem of occurrence of the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in poland and present the measures undertaken by chief sanitary inspectorate, which brought to detection of the first, serologically confirmed case of hfrs in may 2005. they strongly emphasize the existence of the disease on polish territory despite the poor epidemiological recognition, an possibility of its testing.200617345831
[a case of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs)].in our article we describe clinical and epidemiological analysis of the first case of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs)--with serological confirmation--in poland.200617345843
[progress on the study of biological characteristic of hantavirus]. 200617299972
clinical and laboratory findings related to a favorable evolution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.the medical records of 27 patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome were analyzed according to the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in relation to the following data up on hospital admission: age, gender, fever, cough, dyspnea, systolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate, levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, creatinine and arterial blood gases. the volume infused during the first 24 hours after admission, the use of inotropic agents, the use of cortico ...200616906244
reversible impairment of myocardial function in hanta virus infection - direct viral effect? 200616845572
tropical infections in the icu.certain arthropod-borne infections are common in tropical regions because of favorable climatic conditions. water-borne infections like leptospirosis are common due to contamination of water especially during the monsoon floods. infections like malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever and typhus sometimes cause life threatening organ dysfunction and have several overlapping features. most patients present with classicial clinical syndromes: fever and thrombocytopenia are common in dengue, malaria an ...200616944613
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