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brush mouse (peromyscus boylii) population dynamics and hantavirus infection during a warm, drought period in southern arizona.we monitored limestone canyon hantavirus (lscv) antibody prevalence, host (brush mouse, peromyscus boylii) abundance, and environmental variables (temperature and rainfall) in brush mice captured on three trapping webs in southern arizona for 5 yr. although seasonal patterns were subtle, we observed large multiyear variation in population abundance and antibody prevalence. limestone canyon hantavirus infection in brush mouse populations varied over time with prevalence ranging from 0% to 33%. at ...200717984263
case report of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and review.a previously healthy 29-year-old male presented to the emergency department with pleuritic chest pain, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea. he was treated empirically for community acquired pneumonia and discharged to home. two days later, the patient presented with respiratory distress along with neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver function tests, and hemoconcentration. radiographs of his chest showed bilateral lung infiltrates and pleural effusions. he was admitted to the hospital and ...200717694939
pathogenic hantaviruses, northeastern argentina and eastern paraguay.we describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of han-tavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern argentina and eastern paraguay. andes and juquitiba (juq) viruses were characterized. juqv was also confirmed in 5 oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from misiones. a novel akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the biologic reserve of limoy.200717953094
update on hantavirus in oklahoma: are we missing cases?hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) was first recognized in 1993. through july 6, 2005, 396 cases have been reported in the us, including 50 from kansas, texas, and oklahoma. we report the second case of hps in oklahoma and present data from rodent testing to support the presence of hantaviruses across oklahoma. we examined oklahoma death certificates for 1999-2003 for possible unreported hps cases. the rate of death in young adults 15-49 years due to acute respiratory distress syndrome was 69% ...200717557601
cluster of cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in alberta, canada.in may 2005, a cluster of four hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) cases was confirmed in alberta, canada. the cluster is unusual given that three cases were from a single family and involved a 7-year-old child. this is the first family cluster reported in canada and includes one of the youngest cases of hps reported in north america.200717984353
bilateral acute acquired toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis after steroid therapy for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: case report.description of a case of acute acquired ocular toxoplasmosis following hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. a 41-year-old man presenting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, confirmed in the laboratory by detection of igm antibodies to the virus, was submitted to high doses of intravenous corticosteroids for two months. after clinical improvement of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome the patient presented visual loss in both eyes that was secondary to a toxoplasmosis retinitis. the retinitis resolved with anti-t ...200717768562
detection and typing of human pathogenic hantaviruses by real-time reverse transcription-pcr and pyrosequencing.because the clinical course of human infections with hantaviruses can vary from subclinical to fatal, rapid and reliable detection of hantaviruses is essential. to date, the diagnosis of hantavirus infection is based mainly on serologic assays, and the detection of hantaviral rna by the commonly used reverse transcription (rt)-pcr is difficult because of high sequence diversity of hantaviruses and low viral loads in clinical specimens.200717717126
case report: severe neurological manifestation of dobrava hantavirus infection.in europe infection with puumala or dobrava viruses causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). in the course of hfrs, mild neurological symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and nausea are common. however, the data about the occurrence of severe, potentially life-threatening neurological manifestations are rather scarce. here, we present a case of hfrs with serologically proven dobrava virus infection complicated by epileptic seizures and hemiparesis due to focal encephalitis.200717935168
ocular features of hantavirus infection.hantavirus infections are an emerging infectious disease that is beginning to be recognized both worldwide and in india as a cause of hemorrhagic fever that may present as a pulmonary syndrome or as a renal syndrome. reports of ocular involvement are rare and include transient myopia, low intraocular pressure, conjunctival hemorrhages and changes of intraocular dimensions. eleven patients (10 males, one female, mean age 37.6 years) were admitted to the intensive care unit for pyrexia of unknown ...200717699950
thottapalayam virus is genetically distant to the rodent-borne hantaviruses, consistent with its isolation from the asian house shrew (suncus murinus).thottapalayam (tpm) virus belongs to the genus hantavirus, family bunyaviridae. the genomes of hantaviruses consist of three negative-stranded rna segments (s, m and l) encoding the virus nucleocapsid (n), glycoprotein (gn, gc), and polymerase (l) proteins, respectively. the genus hantavirus contains predominantly rodent-borne viruses, with the prominent exception of tpm virus which was isolated in india in 1964 from an insectivore, suncus murinus, commonly referred to as the asian house shrew o ...200717711577
soochong virus and amur virus might be the same entities of hantavirus.amur virus (amrv) and soochong virus (soov) were reported to be carried by korean field mice (apodemus peninsulae) in the far east of russia, china, and korea. the distinction and demarcation between these two viruses have been a matter of debate. in order to clarify this issue and to confirm taxonomic position of amrv and soov, the extensive phylogenetic analyses based on entire s segment and entire m segment sequences of amrv, soov and other reference virus strains deposited in genbank, were c ...200717854038
hantavirus infection in east asia.hantaviruses are enveloped rna viruses that belong to the hantavirus genus of the family bunyaviridae. these viruses persistently infect their rodent reservoirs without causing disease. the virus is transmitted to humans via the inhalation of infectious aerosols generated from contaminated animal secretions or through the contaminated saliva of animal bites. hantaviruses cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in euro-asia, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in north and south america. ...200717655929
significant increase of hantavirus infections in germany since the beginning of 2007. 200717868605
the cytoplasmic tails of uukuniemi virus (bunyaviridae) g(n) and g(c) glycoproteins are important for intracellular targeting and the budding of virus-like particles.functional motifs within the cytoplasmic tails of the two glycoproteins g(n) and g(c) of uukuniemi virus (uuk) (bunyaviridae family) were identified with the help of our recently developed virus-like particle (vlp) system for uuk virus (a. k. overby, v. popov, e. p. neve, and r. f. pettersson, j. virol. 80:10428-10435, 2006). we previously reported that information necessary for the packaging of ribonucleoproteins into vlps is located within the g(n) cytoplasmic tail (a. k. overby, r. f. petters ...200717670814
delayed density-dependent prevalence of sin nombre virus antibody in montana deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and implications for human disease risk.american hantaviruses cause a severe respiratory disease known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). in the united states, sin nombre virus (snv), carried by the deer mouse ( peromyscus maniculatus), is the etiologic agent in the majority of hps cases. the relationship between deer mouse population density and snv infection prevalence in deer mice is poorly understood. our purpose was to clarify this relationship by demonstrating the existence of delayed-density-dependent prevalence of snv inf ...200717767405
[identification of amur like virus in apodemus peninsulae and its molecular characteristics in china].to confirm the existence of amur-like viruses in apodemus peninsulae in china, and to understand the molecular characteristics of these viruses.200717877180
regulatory t cells enhance persistence of the zoonotic pathogen seoul virus in its reservoir host.hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens that maintain a persistent infection in their reservoir hosts, yet the mechanisms mediating persistence remain unknown. regulatory t cell responses cause persistent infection by suppressing proinflammatory and effector t cell activity; hantaviruses may exploit these responses to cause persistence. to test this hypothesis, male norway rats were inoculated with seoul virus and regulatory t cells were monitored during infection. increased numbers of cd4(+)cd25(+) ...200717878294
[identification of a new puumala hantavirus subtype in rodents from china].in order to detect the nucleic acid of puumala hantavirus, rna was extracted from lungs of bank voles captured in northeast china, and partial s and m genome segments of puumala virus were amplified by rt-pcr and sequenced. phylogenetic analysis suggested that chinese puumala virus had diverged from the common node of puuv, with accumulating nucleotide substitutions and formed a distinct lineage from other puumala viruses. newly found puumala virus was most closely related to the kamiiso-8cr-95 ...200717894236
andes hantavirus as possible cause of disease in travellers to south america.hantaviruses in europe and asia cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and epidemic nephritis (mortality rate <1-15%). new strains of hantaviruses cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) from canada to south america. andes virus mortality rate is about 30% in chile.200717161316
community acquired pneumonia in the tropics.due to the exponential growth of international exchange, millions of travelers are exposed to respiratory pathogens in the tropics and may return ill. community-acquired pneumonia is one of the more prevalent infections.200717414123
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: high-resolution ct findings in one patient.physical examination demonstrated petechiae, leg oedema and mild dyspnoea. chest radiograph showed minimal bilateral hazy increased opacification, mainly on the right side, and small bilateral pleural effusions. high-resolution ct demonstrated extensive bilateral ground-glass opacities most severe in the middle and lower lung zones. also noted were a few slightly thickened interlobular septa, a few poorly defined small nodules, bronchial wall thickening and small bilateral pleural effusions. blo ...200717267465
symptomatic human hantavirus in the americas. 200717479912
detection of circulating antigen with a mab-based sandwich-elisa and its comparison with specific igm detection in sera of patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.a monoclonal antibody (1h2) against nucleocapsid protein of hantavirus was developed. a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with the monoclonal antibody (mab) was established and evaluated for detecting circulating antigen (cag) in serum of patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). results were compared to that of an immunoglobulin m (igm)-detecting elisa. of 143 patients with hfrs, 106 were positive for cag of hantavirus and 128 positive for specific igm. among ...200717316085
[hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps)]. 200717491376
index of suspicion. 200717400825
a comparative epidemiological study of hantavirus infection in japan and far east russia.hantaviruses are causative agents of some severe human illnesses, including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the viruses are maintained by rodent hosts, and humans acquire infection by inhaling virus-contaminated excreta from infected animals. to examine the epidemiology of hantavirus infections in japan and far east russia, we conducted epidemiological surveys in these regions. in japan, anti-hantavirus antibodies were found in four rodent sp ...200717405352
[prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus among hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal failure in kaunas and its district].the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to hantaviruses among hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal failure in kaunas and its district.200717551280
chemokine production predominates in human monocytes infected with tula virus.many reports suggest the hypothesis of a complex immune response accompanying hantaviral infections. however, little is known about the immunopathogenesis of nonpathogenic hantaviruses, especially tula virus (tulv). the aim of our study was to determine the cytokine/chemokine profile induced after the infection of human macrophages with tulv and the role of viral replication in this process. also, we wanted to establish how the study of tulv is relevant to our previous study of pathogenic hantav ...200717425435
hantavirus and arenavirus antibodies in persons with occupational rodent exposure.rodents are the principal hosts of sin nombre virus, 4 other hantaviruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in north america, and the 3 north american arenaviruses. serum samples from 757 persons who had worked with rodents in north america and handled neotomine or sigmodontine rodents were tested for antibodies against sin nombre virus, whitewater arroyo virus, guanarito virus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. antibodies against sin nombre virus were found in 4 persons, agains ...200717553266
novel hantavirus sequences in shrew, guinea. 200717554814
radiological findings and their clinical correlations in nephropathia epidemica.nephropathia epidemica (ne) is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). its course varies from asymptomatic to fatal. the etiologic agent, puumala virus, belongs to the hantavirus genus of the bunyaviridae family. respiratory symptoms, from common cold to respiratory distress, occur in ne. acute renal failure (arf) is evident in over 90% of hospital-treated ne patients. in this review article, special attention is paid to radiological lung and renal involvement to investigate ...200717453509
envelope glycoproteins of hantavirus can mediate cell-cell fusion independently.hantaviruses (htvs) are enveloped viruses and can induce low ph-dependent cell fusion. in this report we molecularly cloned viral glycoproteins (gps) cdna and nucleocapsid (np) cdna of two strains of hantaan virus and one strain of seoul virus and expressed in vero e6 cells under control of a cmv promoter. the examinations of viral gene expressions were carried out by ifa and immune-precipitation. after treatment with low ph (ph 5.8) medium the syncytium were observed in the cells transfected wi ...200717619252
[study of the phylogenetic relations of puumala hantaviruses, by using the mutual information calculating method].phylogenetic relations were investigated in the group of puumala viruses (the genus hantavirus, the family bunyaviridae) by the mutual information showing the similarity of the nucleotide sequences of s- and m-genome segments. there was evidence that recombination events might occurr in some eurasian puumala viruses (scandinavian and west-siberian genotypes). the investigation revealed the conservative sites available in the s and m segments that were common to most puumala viruses, as well as t ...200717500234
a new hantaan-like virus in rodents (apodemus peninsulae) from northeastern china.lung tissue samples of 76 korean field mice (apodemus peninsulae) collected from northeastern china bordering with far east russia and korea were detected for hantavirus partial m-segment or entire s-segment sequences by rt-pcr and 481-nt mitochondrial dna fragment of the rodents. four a. peninsulae mice were found positive for partial m-segment of hantavirus. sequence analyses of partial m-segment or/and entire s-segment of the hantaviruses revealed that three were closely related to hantaan vi ...200717624464
early innate immune responses to sin nombre hantavirus occur independently of ifn regulatory factor 3, characterized pattern recognition receptors, and viral entry.sin nombre virus (snv) is a highly pathogenic new world virus and etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. we have previously shown that replication-defective virus particles are able to induce a strong ifn-stimulated gene (isg) response in human primary cells. rna viruses often stimulate the innate immune response by interactions between viral nucleic acids, acting as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, and cellular pattern-recognition receptors (prrs). ligand binding to prr ...200717641046
[hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the triângulo mineiro and alto paranaíba regions, state of minas gerais, 1998-2005: clinical-epidemiological aspects of 23 cases].the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment findings from 23 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome were analyzed. these cases were identified either serologically or immunohistochemically in hospitals in the municipality of uberlândia, state of minas gerais. fever (100%), dyspnea (100%) and myalgia (78%) were the symptoms most frequently observed in this sample. the most prevalent physical signs were hypotension (65%) and tachycardia (65%). the most common laboratory findings ...200717653464
analysis of the immune response of hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein-specific cd8+ t cells in mice.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class-i restricted epitope of hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein (n) was identified using overlapping peptides and balb/c mice. using the mhc tetramer derived from the epitope, we found that the level of n-specific cd8(+) t cells increased to approximately 20% of all antigen-specific cd8(+) t cells in a mouse model of transient infection. however, n-specific cd8(+) t cells were undetectable in a mouse model of persistent infection, both in the persisten ...200717481691
emergence and persistence of hantaviruses.hantaviral diseases have been recognized for hundreds of years but, until 1976, they had not been associated with an infectious agent. when lee and colleagues isolated what is now known as hantaan virus, the techniques they introduced allowed further investigations into the etiology of the classical hantavirus disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), now known to be caused by any of multiple hantaviruses. the discovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the new world, and th ...200717848067
first detection of dobrava hantavirus from a patient with severe haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome by sybr green-based real time rt-pcr.dobrava hantavirus (dobv) infection was diagnosed in a previously healthy 46-y-old hunter suffering from severe haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). specific igm antibodies against dobv were identified by an immunofluorescence assay, while viral nucleic acid was detected by the molecular method, confirming the diagnosis. our results reveal an existing risk of dobv transmission to humans in hungary.200717852891
stable expression of hantavirus h8205 strain g1/il-2 gene and immune protection of the fusion gene.to explore the feasibility of stable expression of hantavirus h8205 strain g1 segment and human il-2 fusion gene in vero cells, and to examine the immune protection effects on mice vaccinated with this recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing hantavirus g1 gene and il-2 gene. with the help of lipofectamine, the vero cells were transfected with pcdna3.1/hisb-il-2-g1 and the positive cells were selected by g418. ifat and sds-page electrophoresis were used to determine the stable transfe ...200717497275
genetic evidence of puumala and tula hantaviruses in rodents in the jura region, france--preliminary results. 200717868570
[transmission by feces of infected rodents. hantavirus illnesses are increasing]. 200717672003
[the evaluation of viral load in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) by real-time polymerase chain reaction].the system for real-time polymerase chain reaction was developed for detection of puumala virus rnaand quantitative analysis of viral rnaload in clinical samples. dynamics of viral load in blood samples from 12 patients with hfrs (from day 4 to day 17 of the disease) was studied. at day 4 viral rna load varied from 4 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(6) copies/ml. during the period of observation viral load decreased by 10 - 200 times and was not detected in majority of patients to day 11 - 15 of the disease. t ...200717672134
seminiferous epithelium cycle of a hantavirus reservoir, the long-tailed mouse oligoryzomys flavescens (rodentia-cricetidae).oligoryzomys flavescens, a common rodent of the temperate regions of south america, has been identified as a hantavirus reservoir. there is still little information concerning its reproductive biology, which is essential to devise effective control measurement of natural populations. this rodent is a seasonal breeder and adult males exhibit a short period of testicular regression during winter months (june-august). in the present study we provided a histological and ultrastructural analysis of t ...200717675200
acute hantavirus infection or renal transplant rejection.hantaviruses belong to the so-called emerging pathogens that are transmitted to humans by infected rodents and their excreta. in central europe, hantavirus infections usually occur in a mild to moderate form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. in contrast to the mostly benign or even asymptomatic course of hantavirus infections in previously healthy individuals, the acute hantavirus infection in kidney transplant recipients represents an exceptional situation regarding diagnosis and therap ...200717692069
dynein-dependent transport of the hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein to the endoplasmic reticulum-golgi intermediate compartment.in contrast to most negative-stranded rna viruses, hantaviruses and other viruses in the family bunyaviridae mature intracellularly, deriving the virion envelope from the endoplasmic reticulum (er) or golgi compartment. while it is generally accepted that old world hantaviruses assemble and bud into the golgi compartment, some studies with new world hantaviruses have raised the possibility of maturation at the plasma membrane as well. overall, the steps leading to virion assembly remain largely ...200717537852
puumala hantavirus viremia diagnosed by real-time reverse transcriptase pcr using samples from patients with hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome.puumala virus (puuv) is the endemic hantavirus in northern sweden and causes nephropathia epidemica (ne), a milder form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. there is a need for fast and reliable diagnostics to differentiate the disease from other infections. by aligning virus rna sequences isolated from 11 different bank voles and one human patient, we designed a real-time reverse transcriptase (rt) pcr method for detection of puuv rna. the real-time rt-pcr assay showed linearity from 20 to ...200717537944
cross-reactive immune responses in mice after genetic vaccination with cdna encoding hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins.hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in about 150,000 individuals in eurasia, and several hundred cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) on the american continent annually. there is consequently a need for rapid diagnostics and effective prevention of hantaviral infections. in this study we have performed dna-vaccination of mice with full-length genes encoding the immunogenic nucleocapsid protein (np) of puumala (puuv), seoul (seov) and sin nombre virus (snv). th ...200717110000
two cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in randolph county, west virginia: a coincidence of time and place?hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is caused by an infection with viruses of the genus hantavirus in the western hemisphere. rodent hosts of hantaviruses are present throughout the united states. in july 2004, two hps case-patients were identified in randolph county, wv: a wildlife science graduate student working locally and a randolph county resident. we interviewed family members and colleagues, reviewed medical records, and conducted environmental studies at likely exposure sites. small mam ...200717360864
evaluation of the efficacy of disinfectants against puumala hantavirus by real-time rt-pcr.puumala virus, a hantavirus belonging to the bunyaviridae family, causes a human disease known as nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. the implementation of effective decontamination procedures is critical in hantavirus research to minimize the risk of personnel exposure. this study investigated the efficacy of clidox((r)), dettol((r)), ethanol, halamid-d((r)), peracetic acid, sodium hypochloride and virkon((r))s for inactivating puumala virus. a real-tim ...200717188760
morphological characterization of hantavirus hv114 by electron microscopy.this study was sought to investigate the propagation and morphogenesis of a new strain of hantavirus, hv114.200717259735
rapid immunochromatographic test for hantavirus andes contrasted with capture-igm elisa for detection of andes-specific igm antibodies.hantavirus is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the clinical diagnosis of hantavirus infections has been confirmed routinely by the immunofluorescence antibody assay (ifa) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). a rapid and easy diagnostic test for hantavirus infection is required. a new immunochromatographic assay for hantavirus, poc-puu, useful for the diagnosis of epidemic nephrophaty associated with hantavirus puumala ...200717133547
computer-aided diagnosis with potential application to rapid detection of disease outbreaks.our objectives are to quickly interpret symptoms of emergency patients to identify likely syndromes and to improve population-wide disease outbreak detection. we constructed a database of 248 syndromes, each syndrome having an estimated probability of producing any of 85 symptoms, with some two-way, three-way, and five-way probabilities reflecting correlations among symptoms. using these multi-way probabilities in conjunction with an iterative proportional fitting algorithm allows estimation of ...200717225213
[generalized lymphadenitis associated with hashimoto's thyroiditis].a 26-year-old pakistani woman was admitted to hospital with fever, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and general weakness for the previous two weeks, but no diarrhea or constipation. antibiotic therapy as an out-patient had not provided relief. she also had enlarged cervical lymph nodes. she reported that she had always been in good health before onset of the described symptoms.200717443443
emerging zoonoses and vector-borne infections affecting humans in europe.the purpose of this study was to assess and describe the current spectrum of emerging zoonoses between 2000 and 2006 in european countries. a computerized search of the medline database from january 1966 to august 2006 for all zoonotic agents in european countries was performed using specific criteria for emergence. fifteen pathogens were identified as emerging in europe from 2000 to august 2006: rickettsiae spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, bartonella spp., francisella tula ...200717445320
utilization of hantavirus antibody results generated over a five-year period to develop an improved serologic algorithm for detecting acute sin nombre hantavirus infection.in the united states most cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) are caused by the sin nombre virus (snv) and are typically identified by serology. the goal of this study was to assess the performance of our hantavirus serologic testing algorithm by reviewing results generated over five years. sera were screened for pan-hantavirus immunoglobulin (ig)g and igm by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). screen igg+ sera were then tested by immunoblot for snv glycoprotein-specific igg, and ...200717245757
ribavirin, human convalescent plasma and anti-beta3 integrin antibody inhibit infection by sin nombre virus in the deer mouse model.the new world hantavirus sin nombre virus (snv) is an aetiological agent for the often-fatal hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps). there is no disease model for snv and specific treatments for hcps do not exist. by using the deer mouse infectious model, the in vivo inhibitory potential of ribavirin, human anti-snv immune plasma (hip), an anti-beta3 antibody (reopro) and a polyclonal rabbit anti-recombinant nucleocapsid (n) antibody against snv was investigated. concurrent intraperitoneal a ...200717251568
degrons at the c terminus of the pathogenic but not the nonpathogenic hantavirus g1 tail direct proteasomal degradation.pathogenic hantaviruses cause two human diseases: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). the hantavirus g1 protein contains a long, 142-amino-acid cytoplasmic tail, which in ny-1 virus (ny-1v) is ubiquitinated and proteasomally degraded (e. geimonen, i. fernandez, i. n. gavrilovskaya, and e. r. mackow, j. virol. 77: 10760-10768, 2003). here we report that the g1 cytoplasmic tails of pathogenic andes (hps) and hantaan (hfrs) viruses are also degraded ...200717267477
prospective evaluation of household contacts of persons with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in chile.andes virus (andv) infection, which has a case fatality rate of 37% in chile, often occurs in household clusters and may be transmitted from person to person.200717471425
cross-sectional survey on hantavirus seroprevalence in canton st. gallen, switzerland.in 2002 the first endemic hantavirus infection in switzerland was detected only by chance following a broad spectrum of diagnostics. this raised the question, whether hantavirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness of patients in switzerland. in order to estimate the frequency of hantavirus infections in switzerland, this survey on hantaviral seroprevalence was conducted in the canton st. gallen.200717299664
demographic factors associated with prevalence of antibody to sin nombre virus in deer mice in the western united states.we used long-term data collected for up to 10 yr (1994-2004) at 23 trapping arrays (i.e., webs and grids) in arizona, colorado, montana, and new mexico to examine demographic factors known or suspected to be associated with risk of infection with sin nombre virus (snv) in its natural host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). gender, age (mass), wounds or scars, season, and local relative population densities were statistically associated with the period prevalence of antibody (used as a mar ...200717347388
sin nombre virus infection of deer mice in montana: characteristics of newly infected mice, incidence, and temporal pattern of infection.sin nombre virus (snv), hosted by the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in north america. to improve our understanding of factors that contribute to the occurrence of hps, we conducted an extensive field study of the characteristics of newly infected (as determined by recent acquisition of antibody) deer mice and the temporal pattern of antibody acquisition (seroconversion) from 1994 through 2004 in montana, usa. we sampled 6,584 i ...200717347389
detection of dobrava hantaviruses in apodemus agrarius mice in the transdanubian region of hungary.dobrava hantavirus (dobv) belongs to the genus hantavirus of the family bunyaviridae, and is carried by yellow necked and striped field mice (apodemus flavicollis and apodemus agrarius), respectively. the aim of this study was to detect and genetically characterize new dobv strains in rodents captured in the transdanubian region of hungary. rodent corpses were dissected and lung tissues were used for hantavirus detection by sybr green-based real-time rt-pcr using specific primers located in the ...200717524512
isolation and characterization of hantavirus carried by apodemus peninsulae in jilin, china.to provide a better understanding of hantavirus epidemiology in china, korean field mice (apodemus peninsulae) and striped field mice (apodemus agrarius) were captured in jilin province, china, where haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is endemic. hantavirus antigens were detected in eight of the 130 a. peninsulae individuals and in four of the 193 a. agrarius individuals by using an immunofluorescence assay. partial s and m segments were amplified from all of the antigen-positive samp ...200717374775
puumala and tula hantaviruses in france.the first genome sequences of tula (tulv) and puumala (puuv) hantaviruses undoubtedly originated from france were recovered from tissue samples of european common voles and bank voles captured in jura region. genetic analysis of s and m segments of french puuv strain revealed its highest similarity to strains from neighboring belgium and germany and also from slovakia. on phylogenetic trees, french puuv strain was placed within the central european lineage formed by strains from these three coun ...200717532080
hantavirus infection in brazil: development and evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay and immunoblotting based on n recombinant protein.the symptoms of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome may resemble those of other febrile illnesses. the development of an accurate diagnostic test should therefore improve clinical prognosis and be useful in epidemiologic studies. we evaluated the use of a recombinant antigen (rndelta(85)) based on the s-segment sequences of a brazilian hantavirus for detecting immunoglobulin m (igm) and immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies against hantavirus in an indirect enzyme immunoassay (eia). we assayed 613 serum s ...200717383845
development of serological assays for thottapalayam virus, an insectivore-borne hantavirus.thottapalayam virus (tpmv), a member of the genus hantavirus in the family bunyaviridae, was isolated from an insectivore, suncus murinus (musk shrew), captured in southern india in 1964. while the isolation of tpmv predates the discovery of the prototype hantaan virus, little is known about its genetics and biology. to date, preliminary evidence suggests that tpmv differs significantly, both antigenically and genetically, from all known rodent-borne hantaviruses. however, since detailed epizoot ...200717182762
hantavirus infection induces a typical myocarditis that may be responsible for myocardial depression and shock in hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.despite clinical evidence of myocardial dysfunction, there is no pathological evidence of myocardial injury in hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the dominant opinion is that the primary cardiac lesion is functional rather than structural. the present study describes hantaviral antigen and particles in the cardiac endothelium and interstitial macrophages in association with a typical myocarditis in hps. human hearts from 14 individuals who died of hps were compared with hearts from 14 individu ...200717436235
characterization and nmr solution structure of a novel cyclic pentapeptide inhibitor of pathogenic hantaviruses.hantavirus-induced diseases such as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are a global health concern. hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome caused by sin nombre virus lacks specific therapy and its high mortality makes sin nombre virus a potential bioweapon agent. sin nombre virus entry into susceptible cells requires expression of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin. we recently reported the sequence of a cyclic nonapeptide that inhibited sin nombre virus entry into ...200717441904
hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) is caused by infection with multiple types of hantaviruses throughout the americas. all strains induce a pulmonary capillary leak syndrome with cardiogenic shock in severe cases, and almost all strains have an overall mortality rate of 35%. some strains in south america are commonly associated with either mild disease without pulmonary edema or severe disease with pulmonary hemorrhage. early recognition during the thrombocytopenic prodrome phase and tra ...200717458773
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: the sound of a mouse roaring. 200717471422
[an epidemiologle investigation of hantaviruses carried by rodent hosts in hunan province].to explore the hantavirus infection and their genotype in rodents in hunan.200717575936
temporal analysis of andes virus and sin nombre virus infections of syrian hamsters.andes virus (andv) and sin nombre virus (snv) are rodent-borne hantaviruses that cause a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). there are no vaccines or specific drugs to prevent or treat hps, and the pathogenesis is not understood. syrian hamsters infected with andv, but not snv, develop a highly lethal disease that closely resembles hps in humans. here, we performed a temporal pathogenesis study comparing andv and snv infections in hamsters. snv ...200717475651
seasonal variation of north american form of gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis (acari: laelapidae) on marsh rice rat in southern coastal texas.the ectoparasites of a small mammal community within an intertidal zone in the upper gulf coast region of texas were studied to assess the seasonal variation in abundances of the mite gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis (fonseca) (acari: laelapidae) on the marsh rice rat, oryzomys palustris (harlan). further study into the ecology and dynamics of this parasite-host relationship was deemed to be necessary to expand the understanding of these potential participants in the ecology of bayou hantavirus, a ...200717294924
hantavirus disease outbreak in germany: limitations of routine serological diagnostics and clustering of virus sequences of human and rodent origin.in europe, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome results mainly from infection with puumala virus (puuv) or dobrava virus. for 31 patients from a hantavirus disease outbreak in lower bavaria, a district in southeast germany, serodiagnosis was undertaken by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence assay, and immunoblot analysis. in a few of these cases, however, puuv-specific typing of antibodies by these standard assays failed and a virus neutralization assay under biosafety level 3 ...200717626170
a longitudinal study of hantavirus infection in three sympatric reservoir species in agroecosystems on the argentine pampa.prevalence of antibody reactive with sin nombre hantavirus (snv) was evaluated from rodents captured over 31 months (march 1988 to september 1990) from six mark-recapture grids on the central argentine pampa. the most frequently infected rodents were: akodon azarae (31/459), necromys benefactus (8/141), and oligoryzomys flavescens (10/281), which are known hosts of pergamino, maciel, and lechiguanas hantaviruses, respectively. relative population density and antibody prevalence varied seasonally ...200717627443
persistently highest risk areas for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: potential sites for refugia.interannual variation in the number of cases of human disease caused by hantaviruses in north america has been hypothesized to reflect environmental changes that influence rodent reservoir populations. this hypothesis postulates that when cases are rare reservoir populations are geographically restricted in patches of suitable habitat. identifying these sites, which is needed to test the hypothesis, has proven to be a challenge. satellite imagery of the u.s. southwest has shown associations amon ...200717479840
human cd8+ t cell memory generation in puumala hantavirus infection occurs after the acute phase and is associated with boosting of ebv-specific cd8+ memory t cells.the induction and maintenance of t cell memory is incompletely understood, especially in humans. we have studied the t cell response and the generation of memory during acute infection by the puumala virus (puuv), a hantavirus endemic to europe. it causes a self-limiting infection with no viral persistence, manifesting as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. hla tetramer staining of pbmc showed that the cd8(+) t cell response peaked at the onset of the clinical disease and decreased within the ...200717641066
[detection of igm antibody against hantavirus by chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay].to develop a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cleia) for the detection of htnv igm antibody.200717653327
mxa-independent inhibition of hantaan virus replication induced by type i and type ii interferon in vitro.interferons (ifn) induce an antiviral state against hantaan virus (htnv) but the mechanisms responsible for inhibition are unclear. the ifn-inducible mxa is discussed to be important for control of infections with hantaviruses. to characterize the role of endogenous mxa, the inhibition of htnv induced by type i and type ii ifns was compared in vero and a549 cells. ifnalpha and ifngamma reduced production of infectious virions, viral rna, and nucleocapsid protein with the same efficiency, althoug ...200717482705
selection and characterization of scfv antibodies against the sin nombre hantavirus nucleocapsid protein.rodent-borne hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in the old world and hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome (hcps) in the new. most cases of hcps in north america are caused by sin nombre virus (snv). current viral detection technologies depend upon the identification of anti-viral antibodies in patient serum. detection of viral antigen may facilitate earlier detection of the pathogen. we describe here the characterization of two single-chain fv antibodies (scfvs), sel ...200717336997
ex vivo stability of the rodent-borne hantaan virus in comparison to that of arthropod-borne members of the bunyaviridae family.the possible effect of virus adaptation to different transmission routes on virus stability in the environment is not well known. in this study we have compared the stabilities of three viruses within the bunyaviridae family: the rodent-borne hantavirus hantaan virus (htnv), the sand fly-borne phlebovirus sandfly fever sicilian virus (sfsv), and the tick-borne nairovirus crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv). these viruses differ in their transmission routes: sfsv and cchfv are vector bo ...200717337567
lambda interferon (ifn-lambda) in serum is decreased in hantavirus-infected patients, and in vitro-established infection is insensitive to treatment with all ifns and inhibits ifn-gamma-induced nitric oxide production.hantaviruses, causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps), are known to be sensitive to nitric oxide (no) and to pretreatment with type i and ii interferons (alpha interferon [ifn-alpha]/ifn-beta and ifn-gamma, respectively). elevated serum levels of no and ifn-gamma have been observed in hfrs patients, but little is known regarding the systemic levels of other ifns and the possible effects of hantaviruses on innate antiviral immune respons ...200717522204
nucleotide sequence characterization and phylogenetic analysis of hantaviruses isolated in shandong province, china.china is the most severe endemic area of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in the world with 30,000-50,000 cases reported annually, which accounts for more than 90% of total number of cases worldwide. the incidence rate of the syndrome in shandong province is one of the highest in china, which has ever reached 50 per 100,000 persons per year. however, the molecular characteristics of hantaviruses (hv) epidemic in shandong province remain unclear. therefore it is useful to clarify nucl ...200717531126
seaport as a source of hantavirus: a study on isolated isles.since small mammals from seaports have relative higher seroprevalences of hantavirus, this seroepidemiologic study was conducted on the isles in kinmen and lienchiang counties along the coast of southern mainland china to determine whether seaport may play the role as a source of hantavirus. among six species of small mammals trapped in kinmen county, only male mus musculus (6.7%) and rattus losea (5.3%) were found to be positive. in lienchiang county, five species of small mammals were trapped ...200717365077
prevalence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in patients with hypertransaminemia in madrid (spain).the hantaviruses are involved in a number of clinical syndromes of different severity and prognosis. hantaviruses are widely distributed around the world, but the spectrum of illnesses they cause outside recognized endemic areas is unclear. a retrospective analysis was performed to detect anti-hantavirus antibodies in the serum of patients with hypertransaminemia of unknown etiology and in that of healthy members of the general population of madrid (spain). antibodies were detected by indirect i ...200717690415
seroepidemiological survey of rodents collected at a u.s. military installation, yongsan garrison, seoul, republic of korea.a seroepidemiological study of selected rodent-borne diseases (hantavirus [seoul [seo] virus], scrub typhus [orientia tsutsugamushi], murine typhus [rickettsia typhi], and leptospirosis [leptospira interrogans]), as part of the u.s. military rodent surveillance and control program, was conducted from 2001 through 2005 at yongsan garrison, seoul, republic of korea. rodents were collected to determine the prevalence of rodent-borne diseases at a u.s. military installation in an urban environment. ...200717691691
clusters of hantavirus infection, southern argentina.person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern argentina, where andes virus is endemic. to identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 cases of hantavirus infection from this region (november 1993-june 2005). nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. the oth ...200717370522
a mathematical model for indirectly transmitted diseases.we consider a mathematical model for the indirect transmission via a contaminated environment of a microparasite between two spatially distributed host populations having non-coincident spatial domains. the parasite is benign in a first population and lethal in the second one. global existence results are given for the resulting reaction-diffusion system coupled with an ordinary differential equation. then, invasion and persistence of the parasite are studied. a simplified model for the transmis ...200716216284
predicting the emergence of human hantavirus disease using a combination of viral dynamics and rodent demographic patterns.the paper proposes a model explaining the spatial variation in incidence of nephropathia epidemica in europe. we take into account the rodent dynamic features and the replicative dynamics of the virus in animals, high in the acute phase of newly infected animals and low in the subsequent chronic phase. the model revealed that only vole populations with multi-annual fluctuations allow for simultaneously high numbers of infected rodents and high proportions of those rodents in the acute excretion ...200716753079
emerging and re-emerging viral infections in europe.emerging viral infections are becoming a serious problem in europe in the recent years. this is particularly true for severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars), west nile virus (wnv) disease, toscana virus (tosv) disease, and potentially for avian influenza virus (h5n1). in contrast, emergence or re-emergence of severe viral infections, including tick borne encephalitis virus, and viral haemorrhagic fever caused by hantavirus and dengue virus have been frequently reported in several european coun ...200716944546
genetic properties of medium (m) and small (s) genomic rna segments of seoul hantavirus isolated from rattus norvegicus and antigenicity analysis of recombinant nucleocapsid protein.a novel isolate of seoul (seo) hantaviruses was detected and identified in rattus norvegicus in shandong province, china and designated as jun5-14. the partial m segment and the coding region of nucleocapsid protein (np) in the s segment of jun5-14 were pcr-amplified and sequenced. nucleotide sequence analysis of the partial m segment (300 bp) revealed that jun5-14 isolate was closely related to former seo isolates in shandong (97.3-99.0% homology) and non-shandong seo viruses (84.1-97.7% homolo ...200716927115
clinical and laboratory predictors of oliguric renal failure in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by hantaan virus.haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), caused by hantavirus infection, develops into acute renal failure (arf) of variable degrees of severity. we investigated the early predictive markers for oliguric arf in hfrs patients.200716930718
serological evidence for borna disease virus infection in humans, wild rodents and other vertebrates in finland.borna disease virus (bdv) can infect many vertebrate species, including humans. bdv infection may lead to meningoencephalomyelitis in animals. an association with human neuropsychiatric diseases has been reported, but the causal relationship between bdv and human disease remains unclear.200717129759
hsp70 gene fused with hantavirus s segment dna significantly enhances the dna vaccine potency against hantaviral nucleocapsid protein in vivo.heat shock proteins (hsps) have been shown to act as adjuvants when coadministered with peptide antigens or given as fusion proteins and enhance the vaccination efficiency. to evaluate the enhancement of the potency of hantaan virus (htnv) nucleocapsid protein (np) immunogenicity by heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), we developed a novel chimeric htnv s-hsp70 dna vaccine plasmid by genetically linking hsp70 gene to the full-length htnv s segment dna (htnv s dna). c57bl/6 mice were immunized with thi ...200716935395
radiology of biological weapons--old and the new? 200717174174
andes and prospect hill hantaviruses differ in early induction of interferon although both can downregulate interferon signaling.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a severe respiratory disease which is thought to result from a dysregulated immune response to infection with pathogenic hantaviruses, such as sin nombre virus or andes virus (andv). other new world hantaviruses, such as prospect hill virus (phv), have not been associated with human disease. activation of an antiviral state and cell signaling in response to hantavirus infection were examined using human primary lung endothelial cells, the main target cell i ...200717202220
the coiled-coil domain structure of the sin nombre virus nucleocapsid protein.hantaviruses can cause hemorrhagic fever with a renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome when transmitted to humans. the nucleocapsid protein of hantaviruses encapsidates viral genomic rna and associates with transcription and replication complexes. both the amino and carboxy termini of the nucleocapsid protein had been predicted to form trimers prior to the formation of the ribonucleoprotein. crystal structures of amino-terminal fragments of the nucleocapsid protein showed the formation ...200717222867
increased permeability of human endothelial cell line ea.hy926 induced by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes.hantavirus infection causes two human diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. the typical feature of these diseases is increased permeability in microvascular beds in the kidneys and the lungs, respectively. the mechanism of capillary leakage, however, is not understood. some evidence suggests that hantavirus disease pathogenesis is immunologically mediated by cytotoxic t lymphocytes and other immune cells in target organs producing inflammatory cytokin ...200716979772
puumala hantavirus in slovenia: analyses of s and m segment sequences recovered from patients and rodents.in slovenia, the co-existence of dobrava and puumala (puuv) hantaviruses in a single endemic region has been demonstrated. this study presents selected slovenian hfrs cases caused by puuv combined with genetic analysis of viral genome sequences recovered from clinical specimens and tissue samples of clethrionomys glareolus (bank voles). serum samples from nine hfrs patients were included in the study. rodents study sites were selected with regard to the hfrs cases. partial s segment sequences we ...200716997412
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