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hantaviruses: underestimated respiratory viruses? 200818181749
prevalence and genetic diversities of hantaviruses in rodents in beijing, china.a total of 835 rodents captured in beijing, china, were tested for hantavirus infection. fifty-five (6.6%) were positive for viral rna when lung tissue samples were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. of 666 sera collected from the above rodents, 50 (7.5%) were positive for igg antibody by elisa. among the 50 seropositive rodents, 37 were positive for viral rna. in addition, five rodents were positive for viral rna but negative for igg antibody. the infection rates among ...200818187791
tula hantavirus isolate with the full-length orf for nonstructural protein nss survives for more consequent passages in interferon-competent cells than the isolate having truncated nss orf.the competitiveness of two tula hantavirus (tulv) isolates, tulv/lodz and tulv/moravia, was evaluated in interferon (ifn) -competent and ifn-deficient cells. the two isolates differ in the length of the open reading frame (orf) encoding the nonstructural protein nss, which has previously been shown to inhibit ifn response in infected cells.200818190677
genetic analysis of hantaviruses carried by myodes and microtus rodents in buryatia.hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of myodes rufocanus, microtus fortis and microtus oeconomus captured in the baikal area of buryatia, russian federation. genetic analysis of s- and m-segment sequences of buryatian hantavirus strains showed that myodes-associated strains belong to hokkaido virus (hokv) type while microtus-associated strains belong to vladivostok virus (vlav) type. on phylogenetic trees buryatian hokv strains were clustered together with m. rufocanus- ...200818190679
acute cardiopulmonary failure in a young man. 200818252925
phylogenetically distinct hantaviruses in the masked shrew (sorex cinereus) and dusky shrew (sorex monticolus) in the united states.a limited search for hantaviruses in lung and liver tissues of sorex shrews (family soricidae, subfamily soricinae) revealed phylogenetically distinct hantaviruses in the masked shrew (sorex cinereus) from minnesota and in the dusky shrew (sorex monticolus) from new mexico and colorado. the discovery of these shrew-borne hantaviruses, named ash river virus and jemez springs virus, respectively, challenges the long-held dogma that rodents are the sole reservoir hosts and forces a re-examination o ...200818256444
occupational risk of exposure to rodent-borne hantavirus at us forest service facilities in california.hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) is a frequently fatal viral disease transmitted through rodent secretions and excretions. working around deer mice can increase risk of infection. this study assessed potential risk of hcps at facilities occupied by the us forest service (usfs) in california. in 2004-2005, 18 usfs facilities in eight national forests in california were evaluated for evidence of rodent infestation and circulation of hantavirus. structural deficiencies and evidence of rod ...200818256445
detection of viral bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor.viruses are of high medical and biodefense concern and their detection at concentrations well below the threshold necessary to cause health hazards continues to be a challenge with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and selectivity. ideally, assays for accurate and real time detection of viral agents would not necessitate any pre-processing of the analyte, which would make them applicable for example to bodily fluids (blood, sputum) and man-made as well as naturally occurring bodies of water ( ...200818262781
sin nombre virus shedding patterns in naturally infected deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) in relation to duration of infection.a 2-year capture-mark-recapture study was conducted in southern manitoba, canada, to test for an association between the duration of sin nombre virus (snv) infection in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and virus shedding. hantavirus-specific igg antibodies were detected in 22.2% of captured deer mice, and recently infected deer mice were identified based on the detection of low-avidity igg antibodies. snv rna was detected in blood samples from the majority of seropositive deer mice with no sig ...200818266564
dobrava virus rna load in patients who have hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.to asses the role of virus load in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, the serum dobrava virus rna load in 46 patients was measured with a novel quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and compared to the disease severity. the level of viremia, detected in 26 patients, ranged from 10(2)-10(8) copies/ml of serum. the patients with severe disease had, on average, higher viral rna loads than patients with a milder course of disease (6.15 v ...200818269319
[epidemiology and laboratories: the missing link on the plans to study and prevent infectious diseases in chile].viral meningitis, hantavirus and vibrio parahaemolyticus infections are used as examples to demonstrate that important shortcomings and limitations exist in chile to study the epidemiology of infectious diseases with modern methods. the lack of a national network of well-connected local and national microbiology laboratories is one of these important shortcomings. the author summarizes the evolution of the systems and institutions that deal with the infectious diseases in the world and in chile.200818273517
prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rattus norvegicus and r. rattus populations of buenos aires city, argentina.to determine the prevalence of infection with hantaviruses in wild rattus norvegicus and r. rattus populations in areas of buenos aires city.200818291001
puumala hantavirus genetic variability in an endemic region (northern sweden).puumala hantavirus (puuv), naturally harboured and shed by bank voles (myodes [clethrionomys] glareolus), is the etiological agent to nephropathia epidemica (ne), a mild haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. both host and virus are found throughout much of the european continent and in northern sweden ne is the second most prevalent serious febrile viral infection after influenza. the reliability of diagnostics by pcr depends on genetic variability for the detection of viral nucleic acids in u ...200818296126
isolation and genetic characterization of hantaviruses carried by microtus voles in china.to gain more insights into hantavirus distribution in china, microtus fortis were caught in jilin province and m. maximowiczii in the inner mongolia autonomous region. hantavirus specific rna was detected by rt-pcr in 3 out of 26 m. fortis and 5 out of 64 m. maximowiczii. two hantaviruses (fusong-mf-682 and yakeshi-mm-59) were isolated successfully in cell culture and their s and m segment nucleotide sequences were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the s and m segment sequences revealed that ...200818297708
[increase in the number of cases of epidemic nephropathy in germany. virological and ecological aspects].epidemic nephropathy (en) is transmitted to humans via rodents. the causative agent of this virus-borne renal disease is the hantavirus puumala. other members of the genus hantavirus cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) or hantaviral pulmonary syndrome (hps). as with all zoonoses the prevalence of the virus depends on the distribution of the reservoir species. climate changes have direct impact on the number of host animals and influence the incidence of hantaviral infections. a nu ...200818302100
hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome enters from the apical surface and requires decay-accelerating factor (daf/cd55).the old world hantaviruses, members of the family bunyaviridae, cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). transmission to humans occurs via inhalation of aerosols contaminated with the excreta of infected rodents. the viral antigen is detectable in dendritic cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and, most importantly, microvascular endothelial cells. however, the site and detailed mechanism of entry of hfrs-causing hantaviruses in polarized epithelial cells have not yet been defined. theref ...200818305044
[molecular characterization of hantavirus zhejiang isolate zt10 strain from m. fartis].to learn about the complete genomic sequence of the seoul virus strain zt10 isolated from m. fartis.200818414685
[development and application of a two-step macelisa for the early diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].to develop and improve a macelisa method for the early diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) with simplified operation procedure.200818414686
[cloning and sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein g2 gene of hantavirus in shandong province].to construct the cloning vector of glycoprotein g2 gene of hantavirus (hv), to analyze the sequence of g2 gene by the phylogenetic tree, and to study the differences among glycoprotein g2 genes from the world around.200818414687
[genotype and sequence analysis on g2 segments of hantavirus from hfrs patients in hebei province].to know the genotype and subtype of hantavirus (hv) which infected persons in hebei province.200818414689
high rates of molecular evolution in hantaviruses.hantaviruses are rodent-borne bunyaviruses that infect the arvicolinae, murinae, and sigmodontinae subfamilies of muridae. the rate of molecular evolution in the hantaviruses has been previously estimated at approximately 10(-7) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year (substitutions/site/year), based on the assumption of codivergence and hence shared divergence times with their rodent hosts. if substantiated, this would make the hantaviruses among the slowest evolving of all rna viruses. how ...200818417484
quasispecies dynamics and fixation of a synonymous mutation in hantavirus transmission.rna-dependent rna polymerases, the key enzymes in replication of rna viruses, have a low fidelity; thus, these viruses replicate as a swarm of mutants termed viral quasispecies. constant generation of new mutations allows rna viruses to adapt swiftly to a novel environment through selection of both pre-existing and de novo-generated genetic variants. here, quasispecies dynamics were studied in vivo in controlled hantavirus transmission from experimentally infected to naïve rodents through infest ...200818420810
genetic characterization of hantaviruses isolated from guizhou, china: evidence for spillover and reassortment in nature.to gain more insights into the epidemiology of hantaviruses in the guizhou province, china, rodents were captured in guizhou during the period from 2001 to 2003. in addition, serum sample was collected from one patient. virus isolation was attempted from human serum and rodent samples. four hantaviruses were isolated successfully in cell culture from one human, two a. agrarius, and one r. norvegicus. the nucleotide sequences for the entire s and m and partial l segment were determined from these ...200818428127
hantavirus outbreak, germany, 2007. 200818439382
[hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome coursing with neurologic symptomatology].at present it is known 2 forms of hantavirus infections in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) induced by viruses hantaan, seoul, puumala and dobrava/belgrade; and hantaviral pulmonary syndrome, induced by sin nombre et al. a case of hrfs, induced by hantavirus dobrava, is described. features of this case are developed neurological manifestations against the background of renal pathology, and difficulties of clinical and laboratory diagnostics in practice.200818441710
seroprevalence against sin nombre virus in resident and dispersing deer mice.through dispersal, deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) enter peridomestic settings (e.g., outbuildings, barns, cabins) and expose humans and other deer mouse populations to sin nombre virus (snv). in june 2004, research on deer mouse dispersal was initiated at 2 locations in montana. during the course of the study, over 6000 deer mouse movements were recorded, and more than 1000 of these movements were classified as dispersal movements. more than 1700 individual deer mice were captured and tested ...200818447620
mechanisms of shock in hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.despite abundant literature on hantavirus, few reports have focused on the shock in hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. this review approaches recent advances that allow us to better understand the pathogenesis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome shock.200818448975
[detection of a new natural virus focus dobrava in the astrakhan region].a natural focus of dobrava hantavirus was first revealed in an arid zone of the astrakhan region, by using molecular genetic methods. a polymerase chain reaction was employed to examine 389 lung tissue suspension samples taken from 9 species. hantavirus rna was found in 35 samples from 22 field mice (apodemus agrarius), 8 tamarisk gerbils (meriones temariscinus), 4 common voles (microtus arvalis), and 1 house mouse (mus musculus). sequencing determined the taxonomic affiliation of 18 new isolate ...200818450108
seoul virus in patients and rodents from beijing, china.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is a significant public health problem with an increasing incidence in beijing, china (report of disease surveillance from the center for disease control and prevention of beijing, china). hantaviruses were detected using rt-pcr method in blood samples of hfrs patients and lung tissues of rodents captured in beijing. phylogenetic analyses of 724bp partial s segment of the hantavirus gene showed that the detected seoul virus (seov) fell into three diff ...200818458321
acute febrile respiratory illness in the icu: reducing disease transmission.acute febrile respiratory illness (fri) leading to respiratory failure is a common reason for admission to the icu. viral pneumonia constitutes a portion of these cases, and often the viral etiology goes undiagnosed. emerging viral infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza present with acute fris progressing to respiratory failure and ards. therefore, early recognition of a viral cause of acute fri leading to ards becomes important for protection of health ...200818460521
[climatic aspects in hantavirus transmission areas in são paulo state, brazil].the objective of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of reported hantavirus cases in são paulo state, brazil (n = 80), from 1993 to 2005 and identify local climatic patterns during this period. kernel point estimation of density was used to show the highest concentrations in ribeirão preto, são carlos, franca, tupi paulista, and greater são paulo. increase in the number of cases during this period suggests disease dissemination even when considering increased diagnostic capaci ...200818461243
seoul virus enhances regulatory and reduces proinflammatory responses in male norway rats.zoonotic pathogens, including hantaviruses, are maintained in the environment by causing persistent infection in the absence of disease in their reservoir hosts. spillover of hantaviruses to humans can cause severe disease that is mediated by excessive proinflammatory responses. the mechanisms mediating hantaviral persistence in rodent reservoirs remain largely unknown. male norway rats were inoculated with their species-specific hantavirus, seoul virus (seov), and viral rna, cytokine, and chemo ...200818461618
how to diagnose hantavirus infections and detect them in rodents and insectivores.hantaviruses are carried by rodents and insectivores in which they cause persistent and generally asymptomatic infections. several hantaviruses can infect humans and many of them cause either haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in the americas. in humans hantavirus infections are diagnosed using igm-capture tests but also by rt-pcr detection of viral rna. for detection of hantavirus infections in rodents and insectivores, serolog ...200818464294
spatial and temporal patterning of bank vole demography and the epidemiology of the puumala hantavirus in northeastern france.epidemiological data from bank voles, myodes glareolus, naturally infected by the hantavirus puumala (puuv) were collected by a capture-mark-recapture protocol from 2000 to 2002 in the french department of ardennes. four monitored trapping sites were established in two forests located in two cantons (flize and monthermé). we captured 912 bank voles corresponding to 557 different individuals during 8820 trapping nights for an overall trapping success of 10.34%. the average puuv seroprevalence was ...200818325126
hantavirus rna in saliva from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hantaviruses cause 2 zoonotic diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. infection is usually initiated after inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. in addition to the zoonotic infection route, growing evidence suggests person-to-person transmission of andes virus. for this reason, we studied whether saliva from hfrs patients contained hantavirus. during an outbreak in northern sweden of nephropathia epidemica (ne), a milder form of ...200818325254
the pursuer pursued. 200818328299
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support improves survival of patients with severe hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.the purposes of this study are to evaluate the outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in a subgroup of patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome who had a predicted mortality of 100% and to assess the complications associated with this treatment modality and with different cannulation techniques.200818329474
characterization of cross-reactive and serotype-specific epitopes on the nucleocapsid proteins of hantaviruses.the hantavirus nucleocapsid (n) protein fulfills several key roles in virus replication and assembly and is the major antigen in humoral immune responses in humans and mice. here we report on epitopes involved in serotype-specific and cross-reactive recognition of the n proteins of hantaviruses using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the n proteins of andes virus (andv) and sin nombre virus (snv). the mabs define at least twelve different epitopic patterns which span eight sequences, includin ...200818342973
sex-dependent differences in plasma cytokine responses to hantavirus infection.there are often sex differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases and in level of mortality after infection. these differences probably stem from sex-related abilities to mount proper or unwanted immune responses against an infectious agent. we report that hantavirus-infected female patients show significantly higher plasma levels of interleukin-9 (il-9), fibroblast growth factor 2, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and lower levels of il-8 and gamma interferon-induced ...200818353922
hantaviruses direct endothelial cell permeability by sensitizing cells to the vascular permeability factor vegf, while angiopoietin 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate inhibit hantavirus-directed permeability.hantaviruses infect human endothelial cells and cause two vascular permeability-based diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. hantavirus infection alone does not permeabilize endothelial cell monolayers. however, pathogenic hantaviruses inhibit the function of alphav beta3 integrins on endothelial cells, and hemorrhagic disease and vascular permeability deficits are consequences of dysfunctional beta3 integrins that normally regulate permeabilizing vasc ...200818367532
population, environmental, and community effects on local bank vole (myodes glareolus) puumala virus infection in an area with low human incidence.in this study, the distribution of puumala hantavirus (puuv) infection in local bank vole myodes glareolus populations in an area with low human puuv infection (nephropathia epidemica [ne]) incidence in northern belgium was monitored for 2 consecutive years. bank voles were trapped in preferred habitat and tested for anti-puuv igg. infection data were related to individual bank vole features, population demography, and environmental variables. rare occurrence of puuv infection was found and puuv ...200818370592
choclo virus infection in the syrian golden hamster.andes virus and choclo virus are agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. andes virus in hamsters almost always causes a disease that is pathologically indistinguishable from fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. the purpose of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of choclo virus in hamsters. none of 18 hamsters infected with choclo virus exhibited any symptom of disease. no evidence of inflammation or edema was found in the lungs of the 10 animals killed on days 7, 9, 11, 13, and 16 post-i ...200818385367
dhori virus (orthomyxoviridae: thogotovirus) infection of mice produces a disease and cytokine response pattern similar to that of highly virulent influenza a (h5n1) virus infection in humans.mice infected with dhori virus (dhov) develop a fulminant, systemic, and uniformly fatal illness that has many of the clinical and pathologic findings seen in h5n1 influenza a virus infection. however, the role of host's immune response in dhov infection remains unclear. in this study, the concentrations of 23 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were measured in the liver, lungs, and sera of mice during the course of dhov infection. liver function, level of viremia, and hematologic response we ...200818385368
passive immunization protects cynomolgus macaques against puumala hantavirus challenge.hantaviruses cause two severe and often fatal human diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). presently, there is no effective prevention available for hfrs or hps. here, we studied the effect of passive immunization on the course of infection in cynomolgus macaques challenged with wild-type puumala hantavirus (puuv-wt).200818389907
multivalent presentation of antihantavirus peptides on nanoparticles enhances infection blockade.viral entry into susceptible host cells typically results from multivalent interactions between viral surface proteins and host entry receptors. in the case of sin nombre virus (snv), a new world hantavirus that causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, infection involves the interaction between viral membrane surface glycoproteins and the human integrin alpha(v)beta(3). currently, there are no therapeutic agents available which specifically target snv. to address this problem, we used phage d ...200818391034
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by 2 lineages of dobrava hantavirus, russia.dobrava-belgrade virus (dobv) is a european hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs); case-fatality rates in balkan countries are as high as 12%. to determine causative agents, we examined 126 cases of dobv-associated hfrs in central and southern european russia. in central russia (lipetsk, voronezh, orel regions), outbreaks were caused by a dobv variant (dobv-aa) carried by apodemus agrarius. in southern russia (sochi district), where hfrs is endemic, hfrs cases were ...200818394280
synthesis of 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-3-ethynyl-[1,2,4]triazole and its in vitro and in vivo efficacy against hantavirus.there are no fda approved drugs for the treatment of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), a serious human illnesses caused by hantaviruses. clinical studies using ribavirin (rbv) to treat hfrs patients suggest that it provides an improved prognosis when given early in the course of disease. given the unique antiviral activity of rbv and the lack of other lead scaffolds, we prepared a diverse series of 3-substituted 1,2,4-triazole-beta-ribosides and identified one with antiviral activity ...200818394724
heat shock protein 70 fused to or complexed with hantavirus nucleocapsid protein significantly enhances specific humoral and cellular immune responses in c57bl/6 mice.heat shock proteins (hsps) are known to act as an effective molecular adjuvant to enhance the induction of antigen peptide-specific cellular immunity, when coupled with the antigen or peptide. hantaan virus (htnv) nucleocapsid protein (np) is relatively conserved among hantaviruses and highly immunogenic in both animals and humans. to analyze the influence of hsp70 on np vaccine potency, and evaluate the possibility of developing a novel effective vaccine against hantaviruses, we constructed pro ...200818479786
[3 cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome morbidity].viral origin of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is known since 40th years of last century. also it is known that contamination of person is performed mainly by air pollution way. we observed a focus with 3 hfrs cases (with laboratory confirmation--antibodies to hfrs hantavirus were found) in one family with one lethal outcome. contamination of patients occurred by air pollution way during stocking vegetables contaminated with rodent's excrements. lethal outcome was stipulated by inc ...200818494292
[hantavirus infections].hantaviruses are enveloped single-stranded ribonucleic acid (rna) viruses that belong to the family bunyaviridae. they are widely distributed and maintained in populations of specific insectivores or rodent host species (mice or rats). in their natural host, hantaviruses develop persistent and asymptomatic infections with lifelong virus shedding in excreta. transmission to humans occurs via direct contact with faeces, urine and saliva of infected rodents, in particular by inhaling virus contamin ...200818497244
[myocardial infarction-like electrocardiogram in acute hantavirus infection. suspected secondary peri-myocarditis].a 19-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever and exhaustion. during his hospital stay he had pain in the back and flanks.200818509800
[fever, nosebleeding and myalgic abdominal pain].a 38 year old patient presented with fever, myalgic abdominal pain, nose bleeding and acute renal failure since five days. a combination of thrombocytopenia, proteinuria, elevated crp and creatinin is common in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) due to hantavirus infection. the benigne form is called nephropathia epidemica. dialysis is infrequently required by patients with the puumala virus. other infection (e.g. malaria, leptospirosis, yellow fever) and systemic diseases (e.g. collag ...200818548800
development of a serotyping elisa system for thailand virus infection.to distinguish thailand virus infection from infections with other hantaviruses, we established an elisa serotyping system using a truncated nucleocapsid protein of thailand virus lacking 49 amino acids at the n-terminus. in evaluations using patient and rodent sera, thailand virus infection was readily distinguished from hantaan and seoul virus infections. therefore, this elisa system is an effective alternative to neutralization tests.200818551243
accumulation of point mutations and reassortment of genomic rna segments are involved in the microevolution of puumala hantavirus in a bank vole (myodes glareolus) population.the genetic diversity of puumala hantavirus (puuv) was studied in a local population of its natural host, the bank vole (myodes glareolus). the trapping area (2.5 x 2.5 km) at konnevesi, central finland, included 14 trapping sites, at least 500 m apart; altogether, 147 voles were captured during may and october 2005. partial sequences of the s, m and l viral genome segments were recovered from 40 animals. seven, 12 and 17 variants were detected for the s, m and l sequences, respectively; these r ...200818559935
how host population dynamics translate into time-lagged prevalence: an investigation of sin nombre virus in deer mice.human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by sin nombre virus are the endpoint of complex ecological cascade from weather conditions, population dynamics of deer mice, to prevalence of snv in deer mice. using population trajectories from the literature and mathematical modeling, we analyze the time lag between deer mouse population peaks and peaks in snv antibody prevalence in deer mice. because the virus is not transmitted vertically, rapid population growth can lead initially to redu ...200817701378
a soluble and heat-resistant form of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein for the serodiagnosis of hfrs.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is a rodent-borne viral zoonosis characterized by fever, hemorrhagic manifestations, and renal disorder. the causative agent of hfrs has been identified as a hantavirus. hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins have recently been shown to be immunodominant antigens in hfrs, inducing an early and long-lasting immune response, and their amino termini are sensitive tools for the detection of specific antibodies in hfrs patient sera. previous work has demonstrate ...200817826847
association between the dqa mhc class ii gene and puumala virus infection in myodes glareolus, the bank vole.puumala virus (puuv) is a hantavirus specifically harboured by the bank vole, myodes (earlier clethrionomys) glareolus. it causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in humans, called nephropathia epidemica (ne). the clinical severity of ne is variable among patients and depends on their major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genetic background. in this study we investigated the potential role of class ii mhc gene polymorphism in the susceptibility/resistance to puuv in t ...200817693139
effect of predators of juvenile rodents on the spread of the hantavirus epidemic.effects of predators of juvenile mice on the spread of the hantavirus are analyzed in the context of a recently proposed model. two critical values of the predation probability are identified. when the smaller of them is exceeded, the hantavirus infection vanishes without extinguishing the mice population. when the larger is exceeded, the entire mice population vanishes. these results suggest the possibility of control of the spread of the epidemic by introducing predators in areas of mice colon ...200817694347
genetic characterization and phylogeny of a hantavirus from western mexico.hantaviruses can cause two serious illnesses when transmitted from their rodent reservoirs to humans; hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the new world and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the old world. cases of hps were first recognized in the americas in small, focal outbreaks in rural populations in the southwestern usa in 1993. since that time, outbreaks as well as sporadic cases of hps have been recognized throughout the americas. remarkably, hps cases have not been reported in ...200817963942
isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in oligoryzomys longicaudatus (muridae, sigmodontinae, oryzomini), the natural reservoir of genotype andes hantavirus.the rodent oligoryzomys longicaudatus or long-tailed pygmy rice rat is the reservoir of the aetiological agent of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern argentina and chile. we characterize 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci which would be useful for studies on microgeographical population structure in the species. amplification of these loci in 42 individuals from four natural populations revealed four to 21 alleles per locus, and values of observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.371 to ...200821586078
infections in the natural environment of british columbia, canada.the canadian province of british columbia has a luxurious environment, complete with the multitude of wildlife and insects, and would at first glance appear to be suitable for the transmission of diseases in nature communicable to humans. despite this potential, such diseases are relatively uncommon, although several have the potential for serious consequences. attention has been recently focused on hantavirus infection, water-borne toxoplasmosis and parasitic diarrheal diseases, cryptococcosis ...200820701841
new genetic lineage of tula hantavirus in microtus arvalis obscurus in eastern kazakhstan.genomic sequences of tula (tulv) hantavirus were recovered from tissue samples of european common voles microtus arvalis (subspecies obscurus) captured in kazakhstan, central asia. phylogenetic analysis of the s genomic segment of kazakh tulv strains showed that they form distinct, well supported genetic lineage and share a more ancient common ancestor with two russian lineages of tulv. the deduced sequence of the nucleocapsid (n) protein of kazakh tulv strains carried specific amino acid signat ...200819440462
ecological surveillance of small mammals at firing points 10 and 60, gyeonggi province, republic of korea, 2001-2005.throughout korea, small mammals are hosts to a number of disease-causing agents that pose a health threat to u.s. and korean military forces while they conduct field-training exercises. a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at two firing points (fp), fp-10, and fp-60, and conducted over five years from 2001 through 2005 in response to hantavirus cases among u.s. soldiers. the ecology of these sites consisted primarily of tall grasses associated with semi-permanent ...200819263858
barn owl (tyto alba) predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern brazil.the aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in uberlândia, minas gerais, brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the ...200819197490
[the molecular epidemiologic investigation of hantavirus carried by rodent hosts in wenzhou, zhejiang province].to study the epidemiological features of hantavirus in rodents in wenzhou, zhejiang province.200819173853
[the dynamics of t lymphocyte subsets in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].to investigate the t cell subsets changes in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) patients.200819080298
expression of l protein of hantaan virus 84fli strain and its application for recovery of minigenomes.hantaan virus (htnv) is an old world hantavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). to visualize the localization of the l protein of htnv strain 84fli within cells, a fusion protein composed of enhanced green fluorescent protein and l protein, egfp-l, was expressed in vero cells. the 273 kda expressed fusion protein of egfp-l localized in the perinuclear region. we also described the development of a reverse genetics system for htnv strain 84fli. the rna polymerase i ( ...200819133012
[investigation of modes of hantavirus infection transmission from rodents to humans].hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is a focal zoonosis of viral etiology that appears in many countries of the world. investigation demonstrated that for epidemic of hfrs is necessary to have intensity of epizootic process. the increased number of mice-like rodents in enzootic foci of hfrs is the most important factor. this investigation pointed out to high risk of direct contact with rodents secrets, from visible urine and feces traces of rodents that are present in large number of pa ...200819145808
[molecular characterization and sequence comparison of the m and s segments of hantavirus zj5 strain].in order to understand the molecular characters of hantavirus zj5 strain, its complete m and s genome were sequenced and compared with that of other hantavirus strains.200819544637
[identification and analysis of an seo strain of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome hantavirus from guangxi].to identify hantavirus from lung specimens of rats captured in guangxi.200819544640
hantavirus infection: a review and global update.hantaviruses have the potential to cause two different types of diseases in human: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). hfrs, initially described clinically at the turn of the 20th century, occurs endemically in the asian and european continents, while hps, recognized as a clinical entity since 1993, represents the prototype of emerging diseases occurring in the western hemisphere. approximately 150,000 to 200,000 cases of hfrs are hospitalized ea ...200819736383
hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in india? a review.the emerging viral diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) are a cause of global concern as they are increasingly reported from newer regions of the world. the hantavirus species causing hfrs include hantaan virus,seoul virus, puumala virus, and dobrava-belgrade virus while sin nombre virus was responsible for the 1993 outbreak of hcps in the four corners region of the us. humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols gener ...200819208975
seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the eurasian common shrew (sorex araneus).more than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the eurasian common shrew (sorex araneus), eurasian water shrew (neomys fodiens) and common mole (talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. using rt-pcr, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated seewis virus (swsv), were amplified from lung tissue of a eurasian common shrew, captured in october 2006 in graubünden, switzerland. pair-wise ...200717967200
andes and prospect hill hantaviruses differ in early induction of interferon although both can downregulate interferon signaling.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a severe respiratory disease which is thought to result from a dysregulated immune response to infection with pathogenic hantaviruses, such as sin nombre virus or andes virus (andv). other new world hantaviruses, such as prospect hill virus (phv), have not been associated with human disease. activation of an antiviral state and cell signaling in response to hantavirus infection were examined using human primary lung endothelial cells, the main target cell i ...200717202220
case report of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and review.a previously healthy 29-year-old male presented to the emergency department with pleuritic chest pain, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea. he was treated empirically for community acquired pneumonia and discharged to home. two days later, the patient presented with respiratory distress along with neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver function tests, and hemoconcentration. radiographs of his chest showed bilateral lung infiltrates and pleural effusions. he was admitted to the hospital and ...200717694939
ocular features of hantavirus infection.hantavirus infections are an emerging infectious disease that is beginning to be recognized both worldwide and in india as a cause of hemorrhagic fever that may present as a pulmonary syndrome or as a renal syndrome. reports of ocular involvement are rare and include transient myopia, low intraocular pressure, conjunctival hemorrhages and changes of intraocular dimensions. eleven patients (10 males, one female, mean age 37.6 years) were admitted to the intensive care unit for pyrexia of unknown ...200717699950
emergence and persistence of hantaviruses.hantaviral diseases have been recognized for hundreds of years but, until 1976, they had not been associated with an infectious agent. when lee and colleagues isolated what is now known as hantaan virus, the techniques they introduced allowed further investigations into the etiology of the classical hantavirus disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), now known to be caused by any of multiple hantaviruses. the discovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the new world, and th ...200717848067
first detection of dobrava hantavirus from a patient with severe haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome by sybr green-based real time rt-pcr.dobrava hantavirus (dobv) infection was diagnosed in a previously healthy 46-y-old hunter suffering from severe haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). specific igm antibodies against dobv were identified by an immunofluorescence assay, while viral nucleic acid was detected by the molecular method, confirming the diagnosis. our results reveal an existing risk of dobv transmission to humans in hungary.200717852891
soochong virus and amur virus might be the same entities of hantavirus.amur virus (amrv) and soochong virus (soov) were reported to be carried by korean field mice (apodemus peninsulae) in the far east of russia, china, and korea. the distinction and demarcation between these two viruses have been a matter of debate. in order to clarify this issue and to confirm taxonomic position of amrv and soov, the extensive phylogenetic analyses based on entire s segment and entire m segment sequences of amrv, soov and other reference virus strains deposited in genbank, were c ...200717854038
genetic evidence of puumala and tula hantaviruses in rodents in the jura region, france--preliminary results. 200717868570
significant increase of hantavirus infections in germany since the beginning of 2007. 200717868605
regulatory t cell-like responses in deer mice persistently infected with sin nombre virus.hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a zoonotic illness associated with a systemic inflammatory immune response, capillary leak, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and shock in humans. cytokines, including tnf, ifn-gamma, and lymphotoxin, are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis. in contrast, infected rodent reservoirs of hantaviruses experience few or no pathologic changes and the host rodent can remain persistently infected for life. generally, it is unknown why such dichotomous immune res ...200717875986
[identification of amur like virus in apodemus peninsulae and its molecular characteristics in china].to confirm the existence of amur-like viruses in apodemus peninsulae in china, and to understand the molecular characteristics of these viruses.200717877180
regulatory t cells enhance persistence of the zoonotic pathogen seoul virus in its reservoir host.hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens that maintain a persistent infection in their reservoir hosts, yet the mechanisms mediating persistence remain unknown. regulatory t cell responses cause persistent infection by suppressing proinflammatory and effector t cell activity; hantaviruses may exploit these responses to cause persistence. to test this hypothesis, male norway rats were inoculated with seoul virus and regulatory t cells were monitored during infection. increased numbers of cd4(+)cd25(+) ...200717878294
[identification of a new puumala hantavirus subtype in rodents from china].in order to detect the nucleic acid of puumala hantavirus, rna was extracted from lungs of bank voles captured in northeast china, and partial s and m genome segments of puumala virus were amplified by rt-pcr and sequenced. phylogenetic analysis suggested that chinese puumala virus had diverged from the common node of puuv, with accumulating nucleotide substitutions and formed a distinct lineage from other puumala viruses. newly found puumala virus was most closely related to the kamiiso-8cr-95 ...200717894236
immunopathogenesis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: do cd8+ t cells trigger capillary leakage in viral hemorrhagic fevers?there are many viruses known to cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans. the mechanisms causing hemorrhage are likely to vary among viruses. some viruses, such as marburg virus, are directly cytopathic to infected endothelial cells, suggesting infection of endothelial cells alone can cause hemorrhage. on the other hand, there are viruses which infect endothelial cells without causing any cytopathic effects, suggesting the involvement of host immune responses in developing hemorrhage. typical ex ...200717897725
use of saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid protein to detect hantaan virus-specific immunoglobulin g (igg) and igm in oral fluid.hantaan virus is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. clinical surveillance for hantaan virus infection is unreliable, and laboratory verification is essential. the detection of virus-specific immunoglobulin m (igm) and igg in serum is most commonly used for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection. testing of oral fluid samples instead of serum offers many advantages for surveillance. however, commercial tests for hantavirus-specific antibodies are unavailable. for ...200717913864
case report: severe neurological manifestation of dobrava hantavirus infection.in europe infection with puumala or dobrava viruses causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). in the course of hfrs, mild neurological symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and nausea are common. however, the data about the occurrence of severe, potentially life-threatening neurological manifestations are rather scarce. here, we present a case of hfrs with serologically proven dobrava virus infection complicated by epileptic seizures and hemiparesis due to focal encephalitis.200717935168
muju virus, a novel hantavirus harboured by the arvicolid rodent myodes regulus in korea.acute-phase sera from >5 % of cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurring annually in korea have been found to exhibit a fourfold or higher antibody titre to puumala virus (puuv) than to hantaan virus (htnv) by double-sandwich igm elisa, suggesting the existence of a puuv-related hantavirus. based on the phylogenetic relationships among arvicolid rodents, the royal vole (myodes regulus) was targeted as a likely reservoir host of hantavirus. using rt-pcr, a genetically distinct hant ...200717947538
pathogenic hantaviruses, northeastern argentina and eastern paraguay.we describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of han-tavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern argentina and eastern paraguay. andes and juquitiba (juq) viruses were characterized. juqv was also confirmed in 5 oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from misiones. a novel akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the biologic reserve of limoy.200717953094
tula and puumala hantavirus nss orfs are functional and the products inhibit activation of the interferon-beta promoter.the s rna genome segment of hantaviruses carried by arvicolinae and sigmodontinae rodents encodes the nucleocapsid (n) protein and has an overlapping (+1) open reading frame (orf) for a putative nonstructural protein (nss). the aim of this study was to determine whether the orf is functional. a protein corresponding to the predicted size of tula virus (tulv) nss was detected using coupled in vitro transcription and translation from a cloned s segment cdna, and a protein corresponding to the pred ...200717705180
thottapalayam virus is genetically distant to the rodent-borne hantaviruses, consistent with its isolation from the asian house shrew (suncus murinus).thottapalayam (tpm) virus belongs to the genus hantavirus, family bunyaviridae. the genomes of hantaviruses consist of three negative-stranded rna segments (s, m and l) encoding the virus nucleocapsid (n), glycoprotein (gn, gc), and polymerase (l) proteins, respectively. the genus hantavirus contains predominantly rodent-borne viruses, with the prominent exception of tpm virus which was isolated in india in 1964 from an insectivore, suncus murinus, commonly referred to as the asian house shrew o ...200717711577
detection and typing of human pathogenic hantaviruses by real-time reverse transcription-pcr and pyrosequencing.because the clinical course of human infections with hantaviruses can vary from subclinical to fatal, rapid and reliable detection of hantaviruses is essential. to date, the diagnosis of hantavirus infection is based mainly on serologic assays, and the detection of hantaviral rna by the commonly used reverse transcription (rt)-pcr is difficult because of high sequence diversity of hantaviruses and low viral loads in clinical specimens.200717717126
differential resource allocation in deer mice exposed to sin nombre virus.the resource allocation hypothesis predicts that reproductive activity suppresses immunocompetence; however, this has never been tested in an endemic disease system with free-ranging mammals. we tested the resource allocation hypothesis in wild deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) with natural exposure to sin nombre virus (snv). immunocompetence was estimated from the extent of swelling elicited after deer mice were injected with phytohemagglutinin (pha); swelling is positively correlated with imm ...200717717814
elevated testosterone and reduced 5-hiaa concentrations are associated with wounding and hantavirus infection in male norway rats.among rodents that carry hantaviruses, males are more likely to engage in aggression and to be infected than females. one mode of hantavirus transmission is via the passage of virus in saliva during wounding. the extent to which hantaviruses cause physiological changes in their rodent host that increase aggression and, therefore, virus transmission has not been fully documented. to assess whether steroid hormones and neurotransmitters contribute to the correlation between aggression and seoul vi ...200717719050
delayed density-dependent prevalence of sin nombre virus antibody in montana deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and implications for human disease risk.american hantaviruses cause a severe respiratory disease known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). in the united states, sin nombre virus (snv), carried by the deer mouse ( peromyscus maniculatus), is the etiologic agent in the majority of hps cases. the relationship between deer mouse population density and snv infection prevalence in deer mice is poorly understood. our purpose was to clarify this relationship by demonstrating the existence of delayed-density-dependent prevalence of snv inf ...200717767405
bilateral acute acquired toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis after steroid therapy for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: case report.description of a case of acute acquired ocular toxoplasmosis following hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. a 41-year-old man presenting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, confirmed in the laboratory by detection of igm antibodies to the virus, was submitted to high doses of intravenous corticosteroids for two months. after clinical improvement of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome the patient presented visual loss in both eyes that was secondary to a toxoplasmosis retinitis. the retinitis resolved with anti-t ...200717768562
endemic hantavirus infection impairs the winter survival of its rodent host.the influence of pathogens on host fitness is one of the key questions in infection ecology. hantaviruses have coevolved with their hosts and are generally thought to have little or no effect on host survival or reproduction. we examined the effect of puumala virus (puuv) infection on the winter survival of bank voles (myodes glareolus), the host of this virus. the data were collected by monitoring 22 islands over three consecutive winters (a total of 55 island populations) in an endemic area of ...200717824420
demographic factors associated with prevalence of antibody to sin nombre virus in deer mice in the western united states.we used long-term data collected for up to 10 yr (1994-2004) at 23 trapping arrays (i.e., webs and grids) in arizona, colorado, montana, and new mexico to examine demographic factors known or suspected to be associated with risk of infection with sin nombre virus (snv) in its natural host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). gender, age (mass), wounds or scars, season, and local relative population densities were statistically associated with the period prevalence of antibody (used as a mar ...200717347388
sin nombre virus infection of deer mice in montana: characteristics of newly infected mice, incidence, and temporal pattern of infection.sin nombre virus (snv), hosted by the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in north america. to improve our understanding of factors that contribute to the occurrence of hps, we conducted an extensive field study of the characteristics of newly infected (as determined by recent acquisition of antibody) deer mice and the temporal pattern of antibody acquisition (seroconversion) from 1994 through 2004 in montana, usa. we sampled 6,584 i ...200717347389
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