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study of hantavirus infection in captive breed colonies of wild rodents.wild sigmondontine rodents are known to be the reservoir of several serotypes of new world hantaviruses. the mechanism of viral transmission is by aerosol inhalation of the excreta from infected rodents. considering that the captive breed colonies of various wild mammals may present a potential risk for hantaviral transmission, we examined 85 specimens of thrichomys spp. (echimyidae) and 17 speciemens of nectomys squamipes (sigmodontinae) from our colony for the presence of hantavirus infections ...200415558166
[cellular ultrastructural changes of bone marrow of patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].to observe cytopathogenic effect of hantaan virus (hv) on cultured human bone marrow cells.200415340508
oligomerization of hantavirus n protein: c-terminal alpha-helices interact to form a shared hydrophobic space.the structure of the nucleocapsid protein of bunyaviruses has not been defined. earlier we have shown that tula hantavirus n protein oligomerization is dependent on the c-terminal domains. of them, the helix-loop-helix motif was found to be an essential structure. computer modeling predicted that oligomerization occurs via helix protrusions, and the shared hydrophobic space formed by amino acids residues 380-iillf-384 in the first helix and 413-li-414 in the second helix is responsible for stabi ...200415564476
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northwestern argentina: circulation of laguna negra virus associated with calomys callosus.the purpose of this study was to characterize the hantaviruses circulating in northwestern argentina. human and rodent studies were conducted in yuto, where most cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) occur. partial virus genome sequences were obtained from the blood of 12 cases of hps, and from the lungs of 4 calomys callosus and 1 akodon simulator. phylogenetic analysis showed that three genotypes associated with hps circulate in yuto. laguna negra (ln) virus, associated with c. laucha i ...200415569801
human leukocyte antigens b8-drb1*03 in pediatric patients with nephropathia epidemica caused by puumala hantavirus.in adults, hla haplotype b8-drb1*03 is clearly associated with a severe clinical course of nephropathia epidemica caused by puumala hantavirus. we investigated whether the same applies in pediatric patients. this hla haplotype was found in 20 of 39 (51%) of the patients, a significantly higher figure than in the finnish population (19%). there were, however, no significant differences in the clinical picture between patients with and without hla b8-drb1*03.200415602199
three-week incubation period for hantavirus infection.occasionally a case report can provide enormous insight into the pathogenesis of an infectious disease. in this instance, 2 iowa boys were bitten by the same mouse on may 1, 1999. three weeks later, both boys developed sin nombre hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. thus, the incubation period of hantavirus infection has been documented. both survived; one of the 2 boys continued to have a very high titer of hantavirus antibody 4 years after the mouse bite.200415602208
yeast-expressed hantavirus dobrava nucleocapsid protein induces a strong, long-lasting, and highly cross-reactive immune response in mice.in europe, dobrava virus (dobv) carried by the yellow-necked field mouse apodemus flavicollis is one of the hantaviruses that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. for several hantaviruses, the nucleocapsid (n) protein has proven to be very immunogenic in humans and rodents and even can protect rodents against a virus challenge. to investigate the immunogenicity of dobv n protein, balb/c and c57bl/6 mice were immunized three times with a dobv recombinant n (rn) protei ...200415018668
development of reassortant viruses between pathogenic hantavirus strains.segment reassortment of negative strand viruses is an important mechanism for the development of new virus strains with altered pathogenicity. this study reports on in vitro generation of reassortants between andes (andv) and sin nombre (snv) viruses. although they both cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), andv is the only hantavirus that has been transmitted from person to person (). following dual infection of cells with andv and snv, 8.9% of 337 progeny plaques contained reassortants, o ...200415351210
complete gene sequence of a human puumala hantavirus isolate, puumala umeå/hu: sequence comparison and characterisation of encoded gene products.puumala virus is a member of the hantavirus genus in the bunyaviridae family, and the major causative agent of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in europe. this study was conducted with a human puumala virus isolate (puuv umeå/hu), and contains the determination of the first complete puuv sequence from a human source. when the relationship to other puumala viruses was analysed, a possible rna segment exchange between two local strains of puuv was noticed. furthermore, the coding regions of ...200415351488
detection of brazilian hantavirus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification of n gene in patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.we report a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay for hantavirus using primers selected to match high homology regions of hantavirus genomes detected from the whole blood of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) patients from brazil, also including the n gene nucleotide sequence of araraquara virus. hantavirus genomes were detected in eight out of nine blood samples from the hcps patients by rt-pcr (88.9% positivity) and in all 9 blood samples (100% positivit ...200415558177
seoul hantavirus in europe: first demonstration of the virus genome in wild rattus norvegicus captured in france.although rats (rattus rattus or rattus norvegicus) worldwide have been found to carry seoul hantavirus, there are at present only a very few reports of confirmed human seoul hantavirus infections outside asia, where the virus, in certain areas, is responsible for approximately 25% of the human hantavirus infections. in europe, no confirmed human infections outside laboratories have been described, and although rats occasionally have been found to be antibody positive, the viral genome has not be ...200415322934
maporal virus, a hantavirus associated with the fulvous pygmy rice rat (oligoryzomys fulvescens) in western venezuela.oryzomine rodents in the southeastern united states, panama, and southern south america are natural hosts of 6 of the 13 viruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. the purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of the hantaviruses associated with oryzomine rodents in south america. an infectious hantavirus was isolated from two fulvous pygmy rice rats captured in western venezuela. analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein ...200415246651
high yields of stable and highly pure nucleocapsid proteins of different hantaviruses can be generated in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae.recently, the high-level expression of authentic and hexahistidine (his)-tagged puumala (strain vranica/hällnäs) hantavirus nucleocapsid protein derivatives in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae has been reported [dargeviciute et al., vaccine, 20 (2002) 3523-3531]. here we describe the expression of his-tagged nucleocapsid proteins of other puumala virus strains (sotkamo, kazan) as well as dobrava (strains slovenia and slovakia) and hantaan (strain fojnica) hantaviruses using the same system. al ...200415246668
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in latin america.since the identification of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the united states in 1993, latin america has been the region of the world where more hantaviruses have been identified, associated with human disease or not. this update shows the advances in the study of hantaviruses in several countries of the region and the problems that are still unresolved.200415353962
hantavirus infection in anajatuba, maranhao, brazil.in 2000, the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was recognized in the brazilian amazon (maranhao state). an epidemiologic study identified a 13.3% prevalence of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin g. the analysis of risk factors suggests that persons are occupationally exposed to infected rodents in the crop fields.200415496259
vaccination of c57/bl6 mice with dobrava hantavirus nucleocapsid protein in freund's adjuvant induced partial protection against challenge.dobrava hantavirus (dobv) causes a severe form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) for which there is no therapy or vaccine available. we compared the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant dobv nucleocapsid protein (rdobv n) given with alum or freund's as adjuvant, or pbs, in c57/bl6 mice. all mice given alum or freund's seroconverted as did 6/8 mice given rdobv n with pbs. reciprocal geometric mean total igg-titers were 5380, 18,100, and 800, respectively, while the ...200415364453
cell fusion activities of hantaan virus envelope glycoproteins.hantaan virus (htnv)-infected vero e6 cells undergo cell fusion with both infected and uninfected cells under low-ph conditions. flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy of htnv-infected vero e6 cells showed that envelope glycoproteins (gps) were located both on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the g1 and g2 envelope gps inhibited cell fusion, whereas nonneutralizing mabs against g1 or g2 and mabs against the nucleocapsid protein (np) did ...200415367644
vp7 mediates the interaction of rotaviruses with integrin alphavbeta3 through a novel integrin-binding site.rotavirus entry is a complex multistep process that depends on the trypsin cleavage of the virus spike protein vp4 into polypeptides vp5 and vp8 and on the interaction of these polypeptides and of vp7, the second viral surface protein, with several cell surface molecules, including integrin alphavbeta3. we characterized the effect of the trypsin cleavage of vp4 on the binding to ma104 cells of the sialic acid-dependent virus strain rrv and its sialic acid-independent variant, nar3. we found that ...200415452204
hantavirus puumala infection as a cause of fever of unknown origin in a child.hantavirus infection due to puumala virus causes nephropathica epidemica, a disorder characterized by fever, haematological abnormalities, mild renal dysfunction and ophthalmological abnormalities. the prevalence in most european countries is low, but the virus can be endemic. in children, hantavirus infection is rare. this paper describes a young girl diagnosed with hantavirus infection. the patient presented with high fever, proteinuria, haematuria and eye lesions, but other typical hallmarks ...200415456206
generation of competent bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cells from the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus).human infections with sin nombre virus (snv) and related new world hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps), a sometimes fatal illness. lungs of patients who die from hcps exhibit cytokine-producing mononuclear infiltrates and pronounced pulmonary inflammation. deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal natural hosts of snv, in which the virus establishes life-long persistence without conspicuous pathology. little is known about the mechanisms snv employs t ...200415458574
medical treatment of viral pneumonia including sars in immunocompetent adult.since no randomized controlled trials have been conducted on the treatment of viral pneumonia by antivirals or immunomodulators in immunocompetent adults, a review of such anecdotal experience are needed for the more rational use of such agents. case reports (single or case series) with details on their treatment and outcome in the english literature can be reviewed for pneumonia caused by human or avian influenza a virus (50 patients), varicella zoster virus (120), adenovirus (29), hantavirus ( ...200415474623
transmission study of andes hantavirus infection in wild sigmodontine rodents.our study was designed to contribute to an understanding of the timing and conditions under which transmission of andes hantavirus in oligoryzomys longicaudatus reservoir populations takes place. mice were caged in test habitats consisting of steel drums containing holding cages, where seronegative rodents were exposed to wild seropositive individuals by freely sharing the same cage or being separated by a wire mesh. tests were also performed for potential viral transmission to mice from excreme ...200415479837
novel and re-emerging respiratory infections.over the last decade a number of novel viral respiratory pathogens have appeared or been recognized. most of these are zoonoses, which have the capacity to infect humans directly or via an intermediate host. all but metapneumovirus are known to have caused epidemics of severe disease and at least two (the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and influenza h5n1) have the potential to cause global pandemics. possible preventive measures and treatment options against these new diseases are ...200415482205
tula hantavirus infection of vero e6 cells induces apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation.hantaviruses are known to cause two severe human diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. the mechanisms of pathogenesis of these two diseases are progressively becoming understood. recently, two hantaviruses, hantaan and prospect hill were reported to cause programmed cell death of vero e6 cells. this study shows that tula hantavirus (tulv) infection efficiently triggers an apoptotic programme in infected vero e6 cells, and that the replication of tulv ...200415483239
outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, los santos, panama, 1999-2000.an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in the province of los santos, panama, in late 1999 and early 2000. eleven cases were identified; 9 were confirmed by serology. three cases were fatal; however, no confirmed case-patient died. case-neighborhood serologic surveys resulted in an overall hantavirus antibody prevalence of 13% among household and neighborhood members from the outbreak foci. epidemiologic investigations did not suggest person-to-person transmission of hantavirus in ...200415498167
plasma exchange-associated immunoglobulin m-negative hantavirus disease after a camping holiday in southern france.a 37-year-old belgian patient presented with acute nephropathia epidemica (ne) shortly after a camping holiday in southern france. unusual symptoms were initial noncardiogenic lung involvement, followed by severe acute renal failure, acute acalculous cholecystitis, presence of immunoblasts in the bone marrow, and hemolytic anemia, presenting as hemolytic uremic syndrome. positive immunoglobulin (ig) a and rising igg titers against puumala hantavirus (puuv) were detected, but igm remained negativ ...200415156469
fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia concomitant with chlamydia pneumoniae and parainfluenza virus 4 infection.cases of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia need to be investigated for highly contagious viral causes. while not all hemorrhagic pneumonias are caused by very contagious agents, the etiology must be correctly determined in order to administer appropriate patient care.200415163237
differential antiviral response of endothelial cells after infection with pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses.hantaviruses represent important human pathogens and can induce hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), which is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. both pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses replicate without causing any apparent cytopathic effect, suggesting that immunopathological mechanisms play an important role in pathogenesis. we compared the antiviral responses triggered by hantaan virus (htnv), a pathogenic hantavirus associated with hfrs, and tula virus (tulv), a rather ...200415163707
tula hantavirus l protein is a 250 kda perinuclear membrane-associated protein.the complete open reading frame of tula hantavirus (tulv) l rna was cloned in three parts. the middle third (nt 2191-4344) could be expressed in e. coli and was used to immunize rabbits. the resultant antiserum was then used to immunoblot concentrated tulv and infected vero e6 cells. the l protein of a hantavirus was detected, for the first time, in infected cells and was found to be expressed as a single protein with an apparent molecular mass of 250 kda in both virions and infected cells. usin ...200415105534
neutralizing antibodies and sin nombre virus rna after recovery from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.patients who later have a mild course of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) are more likely to exhibit a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against sin nombre virus (snv), the etiologic agent of hcps, at the time of hospital admission. because administering plasma from patients who have recovered from hcps to those in the early stages of disease may be an advantageous form of passive immunotherapy, we examined the neutralizing antibody titers of 21 patients who had recovered from snv ...200415109416
high seroprevalence of hantavirus infection on the azuero peninsula of panama.the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in central america was documented on the azuero peninsula of panama in late 1999 and 2000. reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction evidence implicated only choclo virus in symptomatic hps with a mortality rate of 20%, although two rodent-borne hantaviruses (choclo virus and calabazo virus) were identified in the peridomestic habitat. neighborhood serosurveys around case households found seroprevalence rates as high as 30%, the hig ...200415211014
[new epidemiologic and molecular evidence of person to person transmission of hantavirus andes sout].after the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) outbreak occurred in southern argentina (patagonia) in 1996, a new mechanism of hantavirus spread was described for andes virus (and): person-to-person transmission. since then, this mode of transmission has been limited to the endemic area of and sout lineage. we report here an hps case, patient a, with residence in buenos aires province, whose unique epidemiological risk factor was to have shared a trip to southern argentina with an already ill per ...200415034956
peridomestic small mammals associated with confirmed cases of human hantavirus disease in southcentral chile.cases of human hantavirus disease have been reported in chile since 1995, most of them in people living in rural and periurban areas. we conducted a peridomestic study of small mammals to evaluate the relationships between the presence of rodents with antibodies to andes virus confirmed human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southcentral chile. the results of 20 sampled sites, which involved the capture of 272 mice over an 18-month period, showed the occurrence of 10 small mammal specie ...200415031522
[hantaviruses and hantavirus infections].hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hvrs) has been for decades a topical problem for healthcare systems of many countries in the eurasian continent. viruses triggering hvrs alongside with other related viruses (but not pathogenic to man) were discovered in 70-80-ies and formed a new genus hantavirus of the bunyaviridae family. the study results of a severe outbreak of the respiratory disease with the mortality rate of 60% (south-west of the usa, 1933) showed that hantaviruses were also among ...200415188654
trimeric hantavirus nucleocapsid protein binds specifically to the viral rna panhandle.hantaviruses are tripartite negative-sense rna viruses and members of the bunyaviridae family. the nucleocapsid (n) protein is encoded by the smallest of the three genome segments (s). n protein is the principal structural component of the viral capsid and is central to the hantavirus replication cycle. we examined intermolecular n-protein interaction and rna binding by using bacterially expressed sin nombre virus n protein. n assembles into di- and trimeric forms. the mono- and dimeric forms ex ...200415254200
rapid field test for detection of hantavirus antibodies in rodents.puumala virus (puuv) is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. puuv is transmitted to humans via aerosolized excreta of the infected bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus). current methods for screening of the puuv prevalence among bank vole populations are laborious, combining sampling in the field and subsequent analyses in the laboratory. in order to facilitate animal testing, a new serological immunochromatographic rapid test was de ...200415188724
[diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and bacterial endocarditis]. 200415193054
[emerging and reemerging diseases: a health problem in the americas].in the region of the americas the emerging and reemerging infectious diseases that had the greatest impact on health, in terms of their incidence and the number of deaths that they caused during the five-year period of 1999-2003, were: malaria, yellow fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, aids, anthrax, and sars, as well as infection by hantavirus and by west nile virus. the appearance of epidemics of emerging and reemerging diseases is related to biological, social, and economic factors. growth in i ...200415193185
[emerging zoonoses linked to pets in the autonomous community of madrid: design of a method for setting public health priorities, spain].the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases are a major concern in public health. the unique socio-demographic aspects of the autonomous community of madrid make it necessary for a greater deal of attention to be paid to pet-transmitted zoonoses. this study is aimed as heightening the knowledge of the emerging and re-emerging pet-transmitted zoonoses and the design of a method for prioritizing the same.200415293959
strengthening early warning function of surveillance in the republic of serbia: lessons learned after a year of implementation.the republic of serbia, with who support, has implemented an early warning system (alert) for priority communicable diseases, to complement the routine surveillance system which notifies individual confirmed cases. the results of its evaluation, conducted one year after implementation is presented here. alert relies on notification of 11 syndromes by primary care facilities. data is analysed weekly at district level and transmitted to national epidemiologists. alert is perceived to be a simple a ...200415208469
prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus among family and health care worker contacts of persons with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: lack of evidence for nosocomial transmission of andes virus to health care workers in chile.nosocomial transmission of andes virus has been documented in argentina, but has not yet been proven in chile. we studied 215 contacts (106 family member contacts and 109 health care worker contacts) of 20 index cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in chile. the seroprevalence of igg antibodies against andes virus was 1.9% (95% confidence interval [ci] = 0.34-6.3%) among the family members and 0.0% (95% ci = 0-3.2%) among the health care workers. our data suggest that there is no ...200415031521
an amino-terminal segment of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein presented on hepatitis b virus core particles induces a strong and highly cross-reactive antibody response in mice.previously, we have demonstrated that hepatitis b virus (hbv) core particles tolerate the insertion of the amino-terminal 120 amino acids (aa) of the puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid (n) protein. here, we demonstrate that the insertion of 120 amino-terminal aa of n proteins from highly virulent dobrava and hantaan hantaviruses allows the formation of chimeric core particles. these particles expose the inserted foreign protein segments, at least in part, on their surface. analysis by electron cryo ...200415165823
puumala virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in transgenic plants is not immunogenic after oral administration.transgenic plants expressing foreign genes are suitable systems for the production of relevant immunogens in high amounts that can be used to develop a new generation of vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases. transgenic tobacco and potato plants expressing the nucleocapsid protein of hantavirus serotype puumala were generated and established. puumala virus is a human pathogen causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. to investigate oral immunogenicity of the nucleocapsid protein ...200415215689
identification and analysis for cross-reactivity among hantaviruses of h-2b-restricted cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitopes in sin nombre virus nucleocapsid protein.sin nombre virus (snv) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), with a high rate of mortality in humans who are infected by the transmission of virus from the natural rodent host. in humans, cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) specific for snv appear to play an important role in the pathogenicity of hps. there is a correlation between the frequencies of snv-specific ctls and the severity of hps disease. in order to create a mouse model to study the role of snv-specific t cells in vivo, t cell respo ...200415218176
modification of endothelial cell functions by hantaan virus infection: prolonged hyper-permeability induced by tnf-alpha of hantaan virus-infected endothelial cell monolayers.serious vascular leakage is central to the pathogenesis of hantavirus infections. however, there is no evidence suggesting the hantavirus infection of endothelial cells directly causes obvious cell damage or morphological alteration either in vivo or in vitro. in this study, we examined whether hantaan virus (htnv) infection modifies the barrier function of endothelial cell monolayers upon the exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines. low levels (1 ng/ml) of tumor necrosis factor-alpha initially i ...200415221531
persistent seoul virus infection in lewis rats.mechanistic studies of hantavirus persistence in rodent reservoirs have been limited by the lack of a versatile animal model. this report describes findings from experimental infection of inbred lewis rats with seoul virus strain 80-39. rats inoculated with virus intraperitoneally at 6 days of age became persistently infected without clinical signs. tissues from seoul virus-inoculated 6-day-old rats were assessed at 6, 9, and 12 weeks post-inoculation for viral rna by rt-pcr and in situ hybridiz ...200415221534
regulation of cellular gene expression in endothelial cells by sin nombre and prospect hill viruses.mechanisms of hantavirus-induced vascular leakage remain unknown. this study was initiated to determine whether hantavirus-induced changes in endothelial cell gene expression may provide insight into disease mechanisms. additionally, by using pathogenic sin nombre virus (snv) and non-pathogenic prospect hill virus (phv), we wanted to identify cellular responses that are likely to differentiate pathogenic from nonpathogenic hantaviruses. using the affymetrix dna array, we found that phv and snv d ...200415279702
[prevalence of hantavirus infections in germany].hantaviruses belong to the group of "emerging" viruses. pathogenic european hantaviruses can cause a human disease designated "hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome" of varying severity. in general, diagnostics of hantavirus infections are based on immunofluorescence assays using virus-infected cells or enzyme immunoassays and western blot tests using recombinant nucleocapsid proteins. for highly sensitive detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies in the enzyme immunoassay, a homologous hantav ...200415254821
age-dependent hantavirus-specific cd8(+) t-cell responses in mice infected with hantaan virus.to investigate age-dependent differences in hantavirus-specific cd8(+) t-cell responses, mice were inoculated with 0.1 50% newborn mouse lethal dose of hantaan virus (htnv) at 0, 3, 7, 14, or 35 days after birth. htnv-specific cd8(+) t cells producing gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) were measured on day 30 after htnv inoculation. although no ifn-gamma-producing htnv-specific cd8(+) t cells were detected in most of the mice inoculated with htnv on day 0 after birth, most mice inoculated at 3, 7, 14, ...200415221537
genetic relatedness of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) infected with sin nombre virus.the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) is the primary rodent host of sin nombre virus (snv), the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the united states. many characteristics of snv infections of deer mice are unknown. to better understand the transmission mechanisms of snv in deer mice, we conducted mark-recapture sampling and genetic analyses to study deer mouse population density and genetic relatedness from 2001 to 2002. we genotyped each deer mouse at 10 microsatell ...200415228816
detection of puumala hantavirus antibody with elisa using a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein expressed in escherichia coli.a truncated recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rnp118) consisting of the first 118 amino-terminal amino acids (aa) of the puumala hantavirus (puuv) nucleocapsid protein expressed in escherichia coli, was evaluated for its antigenicity and reliability as serodiagnostic antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of puuv antibodies in human sera. the puuv nucleocapsid protein has been shown to contain several b-cell epitopes, mapped within the first 118 amino-terminal aa. ...200415279709
characterization of tula virus from common voles (microtus arvalis) in poland: evidence for geographic-specific phylogenetic clustering.tula virus (tulv), a recently identified arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus, is harbored by the european common vole (microtus arvalis) in central russia and the czech and slovak republics. we report the isolation and characterization of this hantavirus from m. arvalis captured in poland, a country where human disease caused by hantaviruses has not been recognized. of 34 arvicolid rodents (24 clethrionomys glareolus, 9 m. arvalis, 1 pitymys sp.) captured in lodz and tuszyn, poland, during june to ...200415284484
serological characterization of a hantavirus from hubei, china.hantavirus hv114, isolated from urine of a patient during epidemic of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in china, was subjected to a detailed serological characterization using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), neutralization test and indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (ifa). it has been found that hv114 is antigenically similar to the hantavirus a9 strain isolated in china and to the hantaan 76-118 virus (htnv 76-118), but different from the hantaviruses isolated fro ...200415230468
[the epidemic characteristics and preventive measures of hemorrhagic fever with syndromes in china].to summarize and analyze the epidemic situation of hantaviruses including geographic distribution, types and prevalent intensity of epidemic areas of hantavirus for the last 30 years in china, and to discuss relative preventive measures.200415231118
identification of seoul hantavirus in rattus norvegicus in indonesia.the first genetic evidence for the presence of seoul hantavirus (seov) in indonesia is presented. partial m segment sequence was recovered from the lung tissue of rattus norvegicus trapped in central jakarta. the sequence belongs to seov genotype and is most closely related to the strain b-1 from japan.200415287380
epitope analysis of monoclonal antibody e5/g6, which binds to a linear epitope in the nucleocapsid protein of hantaviruses.monoclonal antibody e5/g6 recognized a linear epitope common to hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins. using synthetic peptides, we identified epitope e5/g6 as the 9 mer yedvngirk (np 165-173), in which d167, g170, i171, and r172 are indispensable. furthermore, all the peptides synthesized using various hantavirus sequences bound mab e5/g6 consistently, despite the existence of several amino acid variations in this region. these results indicate that mab e5/g6 is a useful tool for detecting hantaviru ...200415338326
[study on the molecular epidemiology of hantaviruse carried by hosts in northern suburb of beijing].to investigate hantanvirus infection of captured rodents in haidian district and changping district of beijing and to type hantavirus using molecular technique.200415231170
differential expression of immunoregulatory genes in male and female norway rats following infection with seoul virus.males of many species are more susceptible than females to infections caused by parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. following inoculation with seoul virus, male rats have more virus present in target organs and shed virus longer than females. the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in the expression of genes associated with immune function mediates sex differences in hantavirus infection. using dna microarrays, we examined changes in gene expression in lung tissue d ...200415258986
andes virus m genome segment is not sufficient to confer the virulence associated with andes virus in syrian hamsters.sin nombre virus (snv) and andes virus (andv), members of the genus hantavirus, in the family bunyaviridae, are causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in north and south america, respectively. although andv causes a lethal hps-like disease in hamsters, snv, and all other hps-associated hantaviruses that have been tested, cause asymptomatic infections of laboratory animals, including hamsters. in an effort to understand the pathogenicity of andv in the hamster model, we generated ...200415262501
community ecology of small mammal populations in panamá following an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.in late 1999 and early 2000, an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) occurred in and around los santos, on the azuero peninsula of southwestern panamá. this hps episode, resulting in 22% case fatality, was linked to the costa rican pigmy rice rat, oligoryzomys fulvescens costaricensis, which harbored a then undescribed hantavirus, choclo virus. in addition, cherrie's cane rat, zygodontomys brevicauda cherriei, was identified as carrying a distinct hantavirus, calabazo virus with no kn ...200415266755
life-threatening dobrava hantavirus infection with unusually extended pulmonary involvement.in europe, hantavirus infections usually present as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and its mild form nephropathia epidemica, while clinical cases with severe pulmonary affections are extremely rare and appear to be confined to infections by new world hanta viruses in the americas. we report on a female patient from northern germany, who suffered primarily from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-like pulmonary failure due to dobrava hantavirus infection that was complicated by acut ...200415267014
[landscape ecology of hantavirosis in rio grande do sul state].the aim of this work was to study the landscape ecology of hantavirosis in rio grande do sul state, brazil. this was achieved through geocoding the occurrence of cases and overlaying onto vegetation and relief maps. the majority of cases occurred during spring, in highland areas dominated by secondary vegetation and agricultural activity.200415765604
hantaviruses: immunology, treatment, and prevention.hantaviruses are rodent-borne bunyaviruses that are associated with two main clinical diseases in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. it has been suggested that host-related immune mechanisms rather than direct viral cytopathology may be responsible for the principal abnormality (vascular dysfunction) in these syndromes. this review summarizes the current knowledge on hantaviral host immune responses, immune abnormalities, laboratory diagnosis, and an ...200415671746
serologic evidence of hantavirus infection in humans, colombia. 200415672536
identification of dobrava, hantaan, seoul, and puumala viruses by one-step real-time rt-pcr.we developed four assays for specifically identifying dobrava (dob), hantaan (htn), puumala (puu), and seoul (seo) viruses. the assays are based on the real-time one-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with the small segment used as the target sequence. the detection limits of dob, htn, puu, and seo assays were 25, 25, 25, and 12.5 plaque-forming units, respectively. the assays were evaluated in blinded experiments, each with 100 samples that contained andes, black cree ...200415664046
effects of internal fluctuations on the spreading of hantavirus.we study the spread of hantavirus over a host population of deer mice using a population dynamics model. we show that taking into account the internal fluctuations in the mouse population due to its discrete character strongly alters the behavior of the system. in addition to the familiar transition present in the deterministic model, the inclusion of internal fluctuations leads to the emergence of an additional deterministically hidden transition. we determine parameter values that lead to maxi ...200415697402
identifying rodent hantavirus reservoirs, brazil.we describe the genetic analysis of samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) patients from southern and southeastern states of brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. a total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for sin nombre or laguna negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) by using several primer combinations in the m and s genome segments. pcr produ ...200415663849
protective effectiveness of hantavirus vaccine.a case-control study in the republic of korea evaluated the protective effectiveness of the hantavirus vaccine. point estimates showed increasing effectiveness with increasing numbers of doses received: 25% for one dose, 46% for two doses, and 75% for three doses. all 95% confidence intervals overlapped zero; therefore, the findings could be due to chance.200415663866
two cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--randolph county, west virginia, july 2004.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a rare cardiopulmonary disease caused by viruses of the genus hantavirus, for which rodents are the natural reservoir. transmission to humans occurs by direct contact with rodents or their excreta or by inhalation of aerosolized infectious material (e.g., dust created by disturbing rodent nests). in july 2004, hps cases (including one fatal case) were reported in two persons believed to have been exposed at sites approximately 12 miles apart in randolph cou ...200415565018
[a new genetic variant of the puuv virus from the maritime territory and its natural carrier red-grey vole clethrionomys rufocanus].pulmonary tissues of red-grey voles, clethrionomys rufocanus from shkotovo district and maritime territory were investigated. rt-pcr was used to detect the hantavirus nt-222 m-segment genome and nt-403 mitochondrial dna fragment. a new genetic variant of the puuv virus named as "shkotovo", that is different from other puuv strains by 18-23%, was shown to be circulating in red-grey voles. a phylogenetic analysis denoted 2 puuv subgroups with their rodent-host branching into c. graleolus and c. ru ...200415597959
[hantavirus pulmonary syndrome]. 200415624470
periodically varying externally imposed environmental effects on population dynamics.effects of externally imposed periodic changes in the environment on population dynamics are studied with the help of a simple model. the environmental changes are represented by the temporal and spatial dependence of the competition terms in a standard equation of evolution. possible applications of the analysis are on the one hand to bacteria in petri dishes and on the other to rodents in the context of the spread of the hantavirus epidemic. the analysis shows that spatiotemporal structures em ...200415524554
hantavirus host/virus interactions within southeast europe.viral studies have historically approached their phylogenetic analysis without consideration of the impact of the role the host plays in evolution. our study examines host/viral interactions through analysis of the phylogenetic relationship between hantavirus genetic sequences and host cytochrome b sequences. phylogenetic analysis of known hantavirus genetic sequences were performed using paup 3.1.1 (vers. 4.0.0d64). only sequences available through genbank were analyzed. phylogenetic analysis o ...200415628989
the role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses.there are huge numbers of wild animals distributed throughout the world and the diversity of wildlife species is immense. each landscape and habitat has a kaleidoscope of niches supporting an enormous variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species, and each species or taxon supports an even more impressive array of macro- and micro-parasites. infectious pathogens that originate in wild animals have become increasingly important throughout the world in recent decades, as they have had substantial ...200415702716
[emerging viral zoonoses: hantavirus infections].hantaviruses are rodent-borne agents belonging to the bunyaviridae family. these viruses, which are found throughout europe, asia and the americas, are maintained by different species of rodents, in which they produce chronic, inapparent infections. humans become infected through contact with urine, saliva or faeces from infected rodents, mainly via the aerosol route. in humans, clinical disease occurs in the form of two major syndromes: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) or hantaviru ...200415702722
a cophylogenetic perspective of rna-virus evolution.the extent to which viruses and their hosts codiverge remains an open question, given that numerous cases of both "cospeciation" and horizontal switching have recently been documented. dna viruses that form persistent infections are thought to be the most likely candidates for phylogenetic congruence. phylogenetic reconciliation analysis was used to compare established phylogenies for four rna viruses and their hosts. the analysis employs a cophylogeny mapping technique, implemented in treemap v ...200412949128
inhibition of dugbe nairovirus replication by human mxa protein.sensitivity to the interferon-induced protein, mxa, has previously been demonstrated for viruses belonging to the orthobunyavirus, hantavirus and phlebovirus genera of the bunyaviridae family. we have extended these findings to a member of the fourth and remaining genus containing viruses that infect man and other animals, the nairovirus dugbe virus (dugv). indirect immunofluorescence experiments using va9 cells (vero cells permanently transfected with mxa cdna) revealed strongly reduced dugv an ...200414687945
hantavirus infection in children.this article focuses on recent developments in knowledge about hantavirus infections and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in children. we highlight clinical characterization, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic techniques, and current alternatives for treatment and prevention.200414758117
bibliography. current world literature. infectious diseases and immunization. 200414971394
bovine aortic endothelial cells are susceptible to hantavirus infection; a new aspect in hantavirus ecology.hantaviruses are enveloped rna viruses that belong to the family bunyaviridae. they are the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). hantaviruses show a worldwide distribution with specific rodent species as natural hosts. it is known that rodents can transmit the virus via feces, urine, saliva, or bites to humans. additionally, antibodies against different hantaviruses were also found in domestic animals, for example, danes et al. ...200414972540
role of specific cd8+ t cells in the severity of a fulminant zoonotic viral hemorrhagic fever, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.we report on the role of specific cd8(+) t cells in the pathogenesis of a highly lethal human viral disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). hps is a zoonotic disease caused by transmission of sin nombre virus (snv) from chronically infected deer mice. in humans, this fulminant infection is characterized by lung capillary leakage, respiratory failure, and cardiogenic shock. individuals with hla-b*3501 have an increased risk of developing severe hps, suggesting that cd8(+) t cell responses t ...200414978138
microarray technology for identification and distinction of hantaviruses.dna microarrays combine high-precision technology with advanced molecular biology to achieve high-throughput screening of dna fragments. in this study, we investigated the potential of the cdna microarray technique to identify and discriminate pcr derived amplicons from genetically highly similar viruses. the wide range of sequence variation among hantaviruses makes them suitable as a model for this purpose. the hantaviruses, carried by rodents, cause several hundred thousand cases of severe hum ...200414981768
first molecular identification of human dobrava virus infection in central europe.viral rna was amplified by reverse transcription-pcr from a patient suffering from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in germany. the virus strain could be assigned to the dobrava hantavirus (dobv). this is the first molecular identification of human infection by dobv in central europe and the first proof that a virus strain related to the dobv-aa lineage, carried by apodemus agrarius rodents, is able to cause hfrs.200415004109
genetic and antigenic characterization of the amur virus associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the amur (amr) and far east (fe) virus lineages, which are both within the genus hantavirus, were studied. representative viruses, h5 and b78 for amr and bao 14 for fe, were used. the entire small (s) and medium (m) segments, except for the 3'- and 5'-ends, were sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequences of amr had 96.7 and 92.0-92.2% identities with the hantaan (htn) virus in the s and m segments, respectively. the amino acid sequences of fe had 99. ...200415041180
segments of puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid protein inserted into chimeric polyomavirus-derived virus-like particles induce a strong immune response in mice.insertion of a short-sized epitope at four different sites of yeast-expressed hamster polyomavirus major capsid protein vp1 has been found to result in the formation of chimeric virus-like particles. here, we demonstrate that the insertion of 45 or 120 amino acid-long segments from the n-terminus of puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid protein into sites 1 (amino acids 80-89) and 4 (amino acids 288-295) of vp1 allowed the highly efficient formation of virus-like particles. in contrast, expression lev ...200415018662
serosurvey of wild rodents for hantaviruses in panama, 2000-2002.five hundred fifty-six samples representing 24 species of small mammals (two species of marsupials and 22 rodents) were collected in panama between february 2000 and july 2002. the samples were examined for antibodies to hantaviruses by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblot assays. the serologic results indicated that several rodent species might act as hantaviral reservoirs in panama: costa rican pygmy rice rat (oligoryzomys fulvescens costaricensis), four positive of 72 test ...200415137495
outbreaks of hantavirus induced by seasonality.using a model for rodent population dynamics, we study outbreaks of hantavirus infection induced by the alternation of seasons. neither season by itself satisfies the environmental requirements for propagation of the disease. this result can be explained in terms of the seasonal interruption of the relaxation process of the mouse population toward equilibrium, and may shed light on the reported connection between climate variations and outbreaks of the disease.200414995490
bovine aortic endothelial cells are susceptible to hantaan virus infection.hantavirus serotype hantaan (htn) is one of the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs, lethality up to 10%). the natural host of htn is apodemus agrarius. recent studies have shown that domestic animals like cattle are sporadically seropositive for hantaviruses. in the present study, the susceptibility of bovine aortic endothelial cells (baec) expressing alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin to a htn infection was investigated. viral nucleocapsid protein and genomic rna segments wer ...200415033559
immune responses to puumala virus infection and the pathogenesis of nephropathia epidemica.puumala virus, causative agent of a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, also known as nephropathia epidemica, induces long-lasting humoral and cellular immunity in patients. the virus itself is not cytopathic, and the immune responses to the virus may be involved in teh pathogenesis of the disease.200415049335
comparison of virulence of various hantaviruses related to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in newborn mouse model.the virulence of hantaviruses that are antigenically related but have different genetic characteristics from the prototype of hantavirus, hantaan (htn) virus, was examined in newborn mice. the h5 and b78 strains of the amur (amr) genotype, the bao14 strain of the far east (fe) genotype, and the 76-118 strain of htn virus were inoculated subcutaneously (1focus-forming unit; ffu) into newborn mice. all of the amr and fe genotype viruses inoculated mice were died by 16 days post-infection (dpi) and ...200415070039
spatial and temporal analysis of the distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in buenos aires province, and its relation to rodent distribution, agricultural and demographic variables.we studied the spatial and temporal distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) cases from 1998 to 2001 in the buenos aires province, argentina. hps is a severe viral disease whose natural reservoir are rodents of the subfamily sigmodontinae (muridae) and which occurs in many countries of south and north america. we considered two spatial arrangements: cells of 18.5 x 18.5 km(2); and departments, the political subdivisions of the province, as spatial units. we tested the departure from a ...200415078270
modes of hantavirus transmission in a population of clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae inferred from mitochondrial and microsatellite dna analyses.to elucidate the mode of transmission of puumala-related hantavirus in a population of gray red-backed voles, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, in hokkaido, japan, we analyzed the kin structure and dispersal patterns of individual voles using microsatellite and mitochondrial dna markers. siblings or dam/offsprings was identified within the population based on the relatedness calculation with the microsatellite data. the pairwise relatedness values obtained could reveal kinship among all vole i ...200415098108
prevalence of hantavirus antibody in patients with chronic renal disease in egypt.in egypt, the etiology of chronic renal failure (crf) is not well defined. a hospital-based case-control study was initiated in february 1998, to determine whether hantavirus infection is involved in chronic renal disease (crd) in egypt. the study enrolled 350 study patients with a history of crf and 695 matched controls with crd due to renal calculus or renal cancer, but with normal renal functions. sera from cases and controls were tested for anti-hantavirus igg using elisa with a cell-lysate ...200415099987
urinary excretion of interleukin-6 correlates with proteinuria in acute puumala hantavirus-induced nephritis.nephropathia epidemica (ne) is a mild type of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by puumala hantavirus. cytokines are thought to have an important role in the pathogenesis of ne. the aim of this study is to evaluate whether cytokines contribute to renal involvement in ne.200415112171
saaremaa hantavirus in denmark.most human hantavirus infections in denmark have been registered on the fyn island with puumala hantavirus hosted by clethrionomys glareolus as the causative agent. to search for other known european hantaviruses in denmark, we analyzed 101 apodemus spp. mice trapped on the lolland island. genome sequences of saaremaa hantavirus (saav) were recovered from one of the a. agrarius, thus suggesting saav presence in denmark. we also analyzed serum samples from a patient from lolland with a history of ...200415135745
[glomerular-type proteinuria in hantavirus nephritis].infection with hantavirus of the puumala type is known to cause severe illness, fever, loin pain and impaired vision. tubulointerstitial nephritis leads to acute renal failure.200415146285
[construction of human integrin beta3 subunit eukaryotic expression vector and efficient surface expression of integrin alphaiibbeta3].to establish efficient surface expression of homo sapiens integrin alphaiibbeta3 in beta3-integrin-deficient and hv-insusceptible cho cells, so as to lay the foundation for the further study of cellular entry of hantavirus mediated by beta3 integrins.200315155078
[clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in patients treated at the dr. fran mihaljević clinic for infectious diseases in zagreb].the aim of the study was to examine and analyze the main epidemiologic and clinical data of 94 patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) hospitalized at the university hospital for infectious diseases in zagreb during the hfrs outbreak in croatia in 2002.200315011459
[what is new in the epidemiologic characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in croatia?].the aim was to describe epidemiologic characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in croatia.200315011468
[immunopathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome].hantaviruses (htv) cause two serious human diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), posing a considerable public health problem worldwide. immunopathogenesis has been suggested to be involved in both hfrs and hps. a common feature of hantavirus diseases is an increased microvascular bed permeability, suggesting that vascular endothelium is a prime target of virus infection. although htv infect numerous cell lines and primary cells, it was co ...200315011469
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