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evidence against person-to-person transmission of hantavirus to health care workers.unusual, primarily pulmonary, manifestations of hantaviral illness occurring in the southwestern united states raised the possibility of person-to-person transmission of a recently recognized hantavirus, sin nombre virus. to determine whether such transmission had occurred among health care workers (hcws) exposed to patients with confirmed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, we evaluated hcws who had cared for patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or who had processed specimens from these patie ...19968722939
seroepidemiological survey of wild rats for seoul virus in indonesia.the prevalence of antibodies against seoul virus was investigated in 655 wild rats (rattus norvegicus, r. rattus, r. rattus diardii, r. exulans, r. tiomanicus) captured in seven port areas of indonesia. twenty-four of 238 r. norvegicus, one of 142 r. rattus and one of 102 r. exulans from two port areas had the antibodies against seoul virus.19968806040
[genetic differentiation of hantaviruses using the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing].thirty-two hantavirus strains and 8 samples of lung tissue from rodents collected in different regions of russia have been examined by molecular biological methods. two methodological approaches have been employed for the study of genetic relationships between the viruses: nested pcr assay and common rt-pcr with subsequent direct sequencing of 200 and 365 base pair of g2 protein encoding regions of m-segment, respectively, and the resultant sequences were compared with those of the prototype han ...19968669142
hantaan and puumala virus antibodies in blood donors in samara, an hfrs-endemic region in european russia. 19968676649
newly recognised hantavirus in siberian lemmings. 19968667948
third international conference on haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantaviruses. 19968731183
retrospective diagnosis of a fatal case of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, 1980. 19968732742
wild brown rats (rattus norvegicus) as a zoonotic risk on farms in england and wales.fear of wild rats as carriers of disease is embedded within our culture. surprisingly little is actually known about parasites in wild rat populations. in recent studies aimed to rectify this omission, farms in england and wales were surveyed to identify parasite species present in the rat populations. rats were found to be infected with numerous zoonotic parasites, including cryptosporidium, pasteurella [correction of pasturella], listeria, yersinia, coxiella, and hantavirus. these findings sug ...19968820193
direct genetic detection of dobrava virus in greek and albanian patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.blood samples were collected from an albanian and a greek patient with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. the genetic detection assay amplified hantavirus-specific dna fragments from rna extracted from the blood of the patients; nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the causative agent of the disease was dobrava virus. these findings suggest that dobrava virus (which was originally isolated from the lungs of an apodenws flavi ...19968699076
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: the first 100 us cases.in the spring of 1993, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) "emerged" in the southwestern united states, where a multiagency investigation led to the rapid description of this new clinical entity and its etiology. analysis of the first 100 us cases identified showed that the disease was distributed in 21 states, had gone unrecognized since at least 1959, and had a distinct spring-early summer seasonality. of the infected persons, 54% were male; 63% were caucasian, 35% were native american, and 2% ...19968648200
retrospective diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, 1978-1993: implications for emerging infectious diseases.to investigate the occurrence of unrecognized cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome preceding the detection of the 1993 outbreak in the southwestern united states and the initial description of the syndrome.19968712893
[what do we know about hantavirus?]. 19968714190
occupational exposure leading to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a utility company employee.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a newly recognized rodent-borne zoonosis. we report a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in an employee of a california utility company who was probably occupationally exposed to sin nombre virus. environmental assessment and genetic comparison of the patient's hantavirus isolates to hantavirus isolates from rodents trapped at possible sites of exposure suggested that the patient contracted his infection at the work site. the study revealed a close corresponde ...19968722943
the role of molecular techniques in the understanding of emerging infections.emerging infections are defined as infections that are newly identified or recognized, or those whose incidence in humans has significantly increased over the past 20 years. the interaction of several factors contributes to the emergence of infectious disease, including changes in human behavior, technological advances, economic development, increased international travel, microbial adaptation and lapses in public health measures. biomedical research has allowed us to identify and classify previ ...19968796869
hanta is coming.the hanta virus is coming again. yes, it is coming again and again to your town to your rodents and to your homes! we can resolve to prevent it, contain it, and treat it in a scientific and humane way, or we can salivate, scratch, bite, and run like rats and mice and voles and shrews.19968725626
meeting the public's need for information during the arizona hantavirus outbreak. 19968712282
serological evidence for zoonotic hantaviruses in north carolina rodents.in a survey of seven species of wild rodents (n = 423) collected between october 1993 and march 1994 from the three principal ecological biomes of north carolina (usa), we found hantavirus antibodies in seven (2%) of 301 peromyscus spp. hantavirus antibodies were detected in p. leucopus and p. maniculatus captured from mountain and coastal island biomes. three mice were positive for sin nombre virus, while four others had antibodies to seoul virus or a related agent. two mice serologically posit ...19968722278
from the centers for disease control and prevention. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--united states, 1995 and 1996. 19968618355
khabarovsk virus: a phylogenetically and serologically distinct hantavirus isolated from microtus fortis trapped in far-east russia.two hantavirus strains, mf43 and mf113, isolated from microtus fortis trapped in the khabarovsk region of far-eastern russia, were analysed by direct nucleotide sequencing of pcr generated fragments of the m and s segments, by immunofluorescence and by focus reduction neutralization tests (frnt). the nucleotide sequences revealed that the two isolates were closely related to each other but distinct from all other hantaviruses. phylogenetic analysis of the m and s segments showed that the mf stra ...19968627257
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in germany. 19968637377
western blotting using recombinant hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in silkworm as a serological confirmation of hantavirus infection in human sera.recombinant hantaan virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in silkworm larvae was applied as a serological diagnostic antigen in western blots (wb) of human sera. the sensitivity of this method was similar to that of the ifa test. hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and nephropathia epidemica diagnosed by their cross-reactivity in wb. the specificity of this method was higher than that of ifa test because the background was low. sera that exhibited high background staining in the ifa test ...19968645761
[differential diagnosis of hantavirus infection--adult still syndrome]. 19968709914
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--united states, 1995 and 1996.sporadic cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), a severe cardiopulmonary illness first identified in 1993, continue to be recognized in the united states (1,2). this report describes the investigation of two cases of sin nombre virus (snv)-associated hps involving feedlot workers in a single household during may-june 1995, and summarizes national reporting for hps through march 21, 1996. the findings of this investigation and of other investigations suggest that, although domestic and occ ...19968598827
cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cellular infiltration in nephropathia epidemica kidneys: an immunohistochemical study.puumala hantavirus-induced nephropathia epidemica (ne) is an important cause for an acute reversible renal failure in scandinavia, european russia, and the balkans. the characteristic histopathological renal finding is an acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. mild to massive proteinuria, hematuria, and a rise in the serum creatinine level are typically seen. the pathogenetic mechanisms of ne kidney failure are incompletely understood. therefore we studied the infiltrating cell populations and loca ...19968599883
hantavirus antigen detection using human serum immunoglobulin m as the capturing antibody in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect different hantavirus antigens in cell culture; i.e. puumala (puu), hantaan (htn), and dobrava (dob) viruses. the assay was based on binding human serum immunoglobulin m (igm) antibodies to the solid phase by use of goat anti-igm antibodies. the captured igm antibodies were present in the acute phase serum from two patients: one infected in sweden and the other in bosnia. antigens being bound to the solid phase by the human anti ...19968615449
genetic and phylogenetic analyses of hantaviral sequences amplified from archival tissues of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae) captured in the eastern united states.the s and m segments of a hantavirus, enzymatically amplified from tissues of cloudland deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae) captured during 1985 in west virginia, diverged from strains of four corners virus from the southwestern united states by more than 16% and 6% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. phylogenetic analysis suggested that this virus strain (designated monongahela) forms a possible evolutionary link between the four corners and new york hantaviruses.19968678841
a patient with down's syndrome and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. 19968703724
genetic identification of a new hantavirus causing severe pulmonary syndrome in argentina.a fatal case of serologically confirmed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) was recently reported in southwestern argentina. nucleotide sequence analysis of pcr fragments from conserved regions of the s and m genomic segments of the virus, amplified from rna extracted from autopsy lung and liver tissues, showed the virus (referred as andes virus) to be novel. comparisons between andes virus genome sequences with the corresponding sequences of the more closely related hantaviruses revealed differ ...19968659118
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in florida: association with the newly identified black creek canal virus.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a recently recognized viral zoonosis. the first recognized cases were caused by a newly described hantavirus. sin nombre virus (previously known as muerto canyon virus), isolated from peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse). we describe a 33-year-old floridian man who resided outside the ecologic range of p maniculatus but was found to have serologic evidence of a hantavirus infection during evaluation of azotemia associated with adult respiratory distress synd ...19968579086
a soldier in respiratory distress. 19968531548
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-related virus from bolivia. 19968531560
elevated plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha, soluble tnf receptors, interleukin (il)-6, and il-10 in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.plasma levels of cytokines were measured by eia in 15 subjects hospitalized with nephropathia epidemica, a european form of hantavirus-induced hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha and interleukin (il)-6 were increased in all patients at admission, and the concentration of il-10 was increased in most. tnf-alpha concentrations were still increased 1 week after onset of disease; levels of il-6 and il-10 were normalized. tnf-alpha was undetectabl ...19968537680
hantaviruses are likely threat to nato forces in bosnia and herzegovina and croatia. 19968612216
histopathology of peromyscus leucopus naturally infected with pathogenic ny-1 hantaviruses: pathologic markers of hps viral infection in mice.hantavirus research is impeded by the absence of animal models of viral pathogenesis. we have studied the histopathology of mice (p. leucopus) naturally infected with the ny-1 hantavirus on shelter island, new york. five mice were determined to be seropositive in western blotting to four corners virus nucleocapsid protein and had serum antibodies to seoul and puumala hantavirus antigens by immunofluorescence assay. hantavirus gene segments of the ny-1 hantavirus were identified in these mice and ...19968600313
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 19968602007
human and rodent hantavirus infection in new york state: public health significance of an emerging infectious disease.a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome with possible exposure in new york and/or rhode island was confirmed in february 1994.19968615704
hantaviruses in the united states. 19968615702
epidemiologic linkage of rodent and human hantavirus genomic sequences in case investigations of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.sin nombre virus (snv) causes the zoonotic disease hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). its mechanisms of transmission from rodent to human are poorly understood. it is possible that specific genetic signature sequences could be used to determine the probable site of each case-patient's exposure. environmental assessments suggested 12 possible sites of rodent exposure for 6 hps patients. rodents were captured at 11 of the 12 sites and screened for snv infection within 2 weeks of the patient's di ...19968603954
occurrence of hantavirus within the rodent population of northeastern california and nevada.these studies were initiated to determine the prevalence and hosts of hantaviruses within the rodent population of nevada and northeastern california. a total of 1,867 rodents were collected, sexed, weighed, identified, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of antibody against hantavirus nucleocapsid. the primary hosts for hantaviruses in this region were found within the family muridae (peromyscus maniculatus. reithrodontomys megalotis. and microtus montanus). studies ...19968619434
characterization of puumala virus nucleocapsid protein: identification of b-cell epitopes and domains involved in protective immunity.b-cell epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein (n) of puumala (puu) virus were investigated by use of truncated recombinant proteins and overlapping peptides. six of seven epitopes, recognized by bank vole monoclonal antibodies, were localized within the amino-terminal region of the protein (aa 1-79). polyclonal antibodies from wild-trapped or experimentally infected bank voles identified epitopes located over the entire protein. antibody end-point titers to different n fragments indicated that the ...19968607269
sequence-based identification of microbial pathogens: a reconsideration of koch's postulates.over 100 years ago, robert koch introduced his ideas about how to prove a causal relationship between a microorganism and a disease. koch's postulates created a scientific standard for causal evidence that established the credibility of microbes as pathogens and led to the development of modern microbiology. in more recent times, koch's postulates have evolved to accommodate a broader understanding of the host-parasite relationship as well as experimental advances. techniques such as in situ hyb ...19968665474
patterns and predictability in emerging infections.many seemingly novel infections have a long history as zoonoses, and perhaps in sporadic human hosts; they gain access to new host populations through ecologic changes and human activity. identification of patterns in the emergence of such illnesses--ranging from influenza and lyme disease to ebola fever and aids--suggests that worldwide surveillance may be more feasible than once thought.19968609193
hantavirus infection in taiwan. 19968602039
spread of hantavirus infections in europe. 19968602040
hantavirus illness in humans: review and update.hantavirus is a rodent-borne pathogen that has been well characterized since the 1950s in asia and northern europe. the classic hantaviral illnesses hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and nephropathia epidemica are indistinguishable from the hantaviral pulmonary syndrome (hps) in early symptoms and laboratory data, but hps goes on to produce the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards) and usually spares the kidney. hps is the first hantaviral disease reported in humans in the western hemis ...19968604454
ehrlichia infection as a cause of severe respiratory distress. 19968532017
hantavirus serologies in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.in many patients, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is not known but may be caused by previously undescribed pathogens in some cases. the recently identified hantavirus sin nombre (sn) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. because sporadic cases have occurred outside the range of its reservoir (the deer mouse peromyscus maniculatus), an investigation sought to determine whether hantaviruses contributed to cases of community-acquired pneumonia in a large baltimore hospital. acute-phase ...19968537665
cardiopulmonary manifestations of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.to describe the clinical characteristics of a group of patients infected with the newly recognized hantavirus in the southwestern united states.19968605797
utility of emergency, telephone-based national surveillance for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. hantavirus task force.on may 27, 1993, in response to the outbreak investigation of newly recognized hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the four corners states (new mexico, arizona, utah, and colorado), the centers for disease control and prevention established a national surveillance case definition for severe, unexplained respiratory disease to determine the extent of hps throughout the united states. a toll-free telephone hotline number was instituted to provide updated information about unexplained respirator ...19968569020
hantavirus outbreak during military manoeuvres in germany. 19968569401
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in germany. 19968569402
lessons learned from the hantaviruses and other hemorrhagic fever viruses.in recent years, numerous previously known infections pathogens and their associated diseases have been recognized. among these newly identified agents are the viruses that cause the hemorrhagic fevers, including sin nombre virus, the etiologic agent of the 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the american southwest. epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of the hemorrhagic fevers and their etiologic agents provide lessons that may be used collectively as a paradigm of the natu ...19968571987
inhibition of bunyaviruses, phleboviruses, and hantaviruses by human mxa protein.viruses of the bunyaviridae family cause a variety of diseases ranging from uncomplicated fever to potentially lethal encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. little is known about the factors determining pathogenicity in the vertebrate host. interferons have been reported to be inhibitory, but their mode of action against members of the bunyaviridae has not yet been elucidated. the interferon-induced mxa protein encoded on human chromosome 21 is a large gtpase with antiviral activity against distinc ...19968551631
enhancing laboratory detection of disease. part 2: amplifying information and requisite variety. 199710172959
enhancing laboratory detection of disease. part 3: detecting a hantavirus disease event: a case study.a purposive syndromic classification diagnostic system, with known means to ends, has been developed that extracts bits of structural information from endogenous laboratory data. an edifice of structural information for organization, regulation, and decision-making was built for determining future pathophysiological events by asking the fewest questions to define the next event uniquely. the structural information is based on laboratory ordering patterns of physicians for patient populations the ...199710173024
[the history of the identification of pulmonary syndrome due to hantavirus in the argentina southern andes]. 19979674235
[the pulmonary syndrome produced by hantaviruses]. 19979654969
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. report of the first three cases in são paulo, brazil.the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was first recognized in cases that occurred in the u.s. in 1993, which served as an alert not only for american physicians but also for physicians in other countries for the identification of the disease. in the city of são paulo, brazil, 3 cases of the syndrome were recorded in 1993. the patients were young brothers residing in the mata atlântica (atlantic forest) region submitted to recent deforestation. two of the patients died of acute respiratory insufficie ...19979640788
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the rural area of juquitiba, são paulo metropolitan area, brazil. 19979640790
[emerging infectious diseases--hantavirus infections]. 19979480304
isolation, characterization and geographic distribution of caño delgadito virus, a newly discovered south american hantavirus (family bunyaviridae).rodents collected from the venezuelan llanos (plains) during field studies of viral hemorrhagic fever were tested for evidence of hantavirus infection. hantavirus antibody was found in one (7.7%) of 13 oryzomys bicolor, one (3.4%) of 29 rattus rattus, 10 (6.0%) of 166 sigmodon alstoni and one (2.2%) of 45 zygodontomys brevicauda. hantavirus-specific rna was detected in lung tissues from four antibody-positive rodents: two s. alstoni from portuguesa state and one s. alstoni each from cojedes and ...19979498614
emerging pathogens: the hong kong experience. 19979594216
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the province of rio negro, argentina, 1993-1996.early in 1995 the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was serologically confirmed in el bolsón (province of río negro, argentina), corresponding to the third outbreak reported in argentina. a total of 26 cases of hps related to the andean region of rio negro province, were reported from 1993 to 1996, 17 in el bolsón, 4 in san carlos de bariloche, and 5 in buenos aires. the incidence rate was 5.03 x 100,000 with a mortality rate of 51.85 x 100. the occurrence of cases was mainly seasonal, ...19979640780
hantavirus infections. 19979003738
common questions about hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 19979103926
polarized entry and release in epithelial cells of black creek canal virus, a new world hantavirus.black creek canal (bcc) virus is a newly identified hantavirus from florida which is carried by the cotton rat (sigmodon hispidus) and is associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). we have investigated the interaction of bcc virus with polarized epithelial cells to examine whether entry and release of this virus occur at specific plasma membrane domains. the polarized vero c1008 monkey kidney cell line was grown on permeable filters and infected with bcc virus either through the apical ...19978995636
the evolution of hantaviruses.hantaviruses exist in most regions of the world. the many different strains identified thus far have widely divergent roles in human disease and infect a wide range of rodent hosts. the sequence data available for the genomes of these viruses allows us to study indirectly the evolutionary patterns of the hantaviruses. in this paper, we describe relationships among the m genomic segments of hantaviruses, and attempt to relate these to the evolutionary relationships of the virus' rodent hosts.19979037623
phage-displayed peptide targeting on the puumala hantavirus neutralization site.we have selected ligands for puumala hantavirus, the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, from a seven-amino-acid peptide library flanked by cysteines and displayed on a filamentous phage. to direct the selection to areas on the virus particle which are essential for infection, phages were competitively eluted with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific for the viral glycoproteins. the selected phage populations were specific for the same sites as the antibodies and mimicked their fun ...19979094664
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.the objective of this report is to summarize the medical literature relevant to the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the english language literature was searched from january 1993 through march 1995, manually and using medline, including conference proceedings and reference lists. we selected relevant articles on clinical aspects of hps. hps is a newly described illness that progresses through three phases: prodromal, cardiopulmonary, and co ...19979097374
pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the renal involvement in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the most common clinical manifestation of hantavirus infection. the main target organ is the kidney, resulting in an interstitial hemorrhagic nephritis and sometimes acute tubular necrosis. the pathogenesis is still largely unknown, but several recent studies indicate an important role for immune mechanisms including increased expression of cytokines, for example, tumor necrosis factor. immunohistochemical studies of kidney biopsies have revealed deposits ...19979044447
hantaviruses: a global disease problem.hantaviruses are carried by numerous rodent species throughout the world. in 1993, a previously unknown group of hantaviruses emerged in the united states as the cause of an acute respiratory disease now termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). before than, hantaviruses were known as the etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a disease that occurs almost entirely in the eastern hemisphere. since the discovery of the hps-causing hantaviruses, intense investigation of the ec ...19979204290
emerging infectious diseases: a challenge to all.emerging infections are defined as diseases of infectious origin with an incidence that has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. some of these diseases are associated with newly discovered infectious agents; others are well-known conditions rapidly increasing in incidence. five emerging infections are reviewed in this article: ehrlichiosis, a tick-borne infection caused by obligate intraleukocytic bacteria; infections caused by vancomycin-resistant e ...19979012271
[hantavirus: an ignored pandemic in switzerland?].as numerous publications attest, knowledge on hantaviruses progressed rapidly since the isolation of the agent of korean hemorrhagic fever in 1978. this trend was even enhanced after the recognition of a previously unknown hantavirus that caused an outbreak of acute respiratory distress syndromes in the southwestern united states in 1993. hantaviruses are carried by rodents worldwide and may cause severe diseases in humans. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the new world and hemorrhagic fever wit ...19979082534
hantaviruses: four years after four corners.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is an acute, often fatal, febrile illness causing rapid pulmonary failure and cardiovascular instability. since first described in 1993, considerable progress has been made in identifying the hantaviruses responsible for the disease and in defining its epidemiologic and diagnostic features.19979194804
patterns of association with host and habitat: antibody reactive with sin nombre virus in small mammals in the major biotic communities of the southwestern united states.the distribution and prevalence of antibody reactive with sin nombre virus were determined in mammals in biotic communities of the southwestern united states. small mammals (n = 3,069) of 69 species were trapped in nine communities from lower sonoran desert to alpine tundra. antibody was found in rodents from all communities (overall prevalence = 6.3%); prevalence was lowest at the altitudinal and climatic extremes (0.4% in desert and 2.0% in alpine tundra). antibody occurred in 11% of 928 deer ...19979129529
an unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern argentina: person-to-person transmission? hantavirus pulmonary syndrome study group for patagonia.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a rodent-borne zoonosis first recognized in the united states in 1993. person-to-person transmission has not been reported; however, in the outbreak of 20 cases reported here, epidemiologic evidence strongly suggests this route of transmission.19979204298
seroepidemiologic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in california.a total of 4,626 mammals were serologically tested for antibodies to sin nombre virus. all nonrodent species were antibody negative. among wild rodents, antibody prevalence was 8.5% in murids, 1.4% in heteromyids, and < 0.1% in sciurids. of 1,921 peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice), 226 (11.8%) were antibody positive, including one collected in 1975. the highest antibody prevalence (71.4% of 35) was found among p. maniculatus on santa cruz island, off the southern california coast. prevalence of ...19979204301
the hantaviruses of europe: from the bedside to the bench.in europe, hantavirus disease can hardly be called an emerging zoonosis; it is rather a rediscovered disease. since 1934 an epidemic condition with primarily renal involvement has been described in sweden. nowadays, hundreds to thousands of cases per year are registered in fennoscandia, fluctuating with the numbers of the specific arvicoline-rodent reservoir, the red bank vole, which carries the main european serotype, puumala (puu). in the early 1980s, the rat-transmitted serotype, seoul (seo), ...19979204306
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in wisconsin.in the spring of 1993 an outbreak of a new illness caused by a new pathogen was identified in the southwestern united states. this infection struck relatively young, healthy individuals, was characterized by fever, myalgias, respiratory failure, and a high mortality rate. this illness was caused by a new hantavirus and has been termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the virus is carried by rodents, shed in saliva, urine, and feces. human infection occurs through inhalation of aerosolized vi ...19979046232
hantavirus infection. 19979048125
phylogenetic methods come of age: testing hypotheses in an evolutionary context.the use of molecular phylogenies to examine evolutionary questions has become commonplace with the automation of dna sequencing and the availability of efficient computer programs to perform phylogenetic analyses. the application of computer simulation and likelihood ratio tests to evolutionary hypotheses represents a recent methodological development in this field. likelihood ratio tests have enabled biologists to address many questions in evolutionary biology that have been difficult to resolv ...19979092465
playing in a scrapyard and acute renal failure. 19979164319
hantavirus in argentina. 19979121542
single amino acid substitutions in puumala virus envelope glycoproteins g1 and g2 eliminate important neutralization epitopes.two monoclonal antibody escape virus mutants (mars), rescued from a human mab to glycoprotein 2 (g2) and a bank vole monoclonal antibody (mab) directed to glycoprotein 1 (g1) of puumala virus, strain sotkamo, were produced by using a combination of neutralization tests and antigen detection. the mars and the original virus were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing and the responsible mutations were defined and characterized. the g1 mutation was found to constitute an a to t nucleotide substitution, ...19979140197
experimental evaluation of rodent exclusion methods to reduce hantavirus transmission to humans in rural housing.an experimental assessment of methods to reduce rodent infestations in rural housing was conducted in yosemite national park, california, sequoia/kings canyon national parks, california, and shenandoah national park, virginia. during pretreatment surveys, nearly all (63 of 68) selected units had past or ongoing rodent activity inside. active infestations were found in 58.8% of the units. peromyscus spp. represented 91.2% of all animals caught inside housing units. despite little harborage, roden ...19979158040
rapid and specific detection of sin nombre virus antibodies in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome by a strip immunoblot assay suitable for field diagnosis.to develop a rapid antibody test for sin nombre hantavirus (snv) infection for diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in field settings where advanced instrumentation is not available, a strip immunoblot assay bearing four immobilized antigens for snv and a recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigen of seoul hantavirus (seov) was prepared. the snv antigens included a full-length recombinant-expressed nucleocapsid (n) protein (rn), a recombinant-expressed g1 protein (residues 35 to 117), ...19979041397
new hantaviruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in central argentina. 19979100632
[further study of hantavirus circulation in the russian federation].lung specimens of 1514 small mammals of 35 species captured in 1991-1995 at 9 territories of russia were tested in elisa for virus antigens of hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome (hfrs). the antigens were detected in lung specimens of clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis, microtus gregalis, microtus fortis, arvicola terrestris, apodemus agrarius, micromys minutus, and sorex sp., well known as hantavirus reservoirs, captured in the vologda, yaroslavl, saratov, astrakhan, and chita regi ...19979182404
ecological monitoring helps researchers study disease in environmental context. 19979218651
atypical pathogen pneumonia.the term atypical pathogens has been applied in recent years to chlamydia pneumoniae, mycoplasma pneumoniae, and the various species of legionella. the incidence of pneumonia caused by these pathogens has increased with the development of specific diagnostic techniques. atypical pathogen community-acquired pneumonia demonstrates a broad spectrum of severity from a mild disease not requiring hospitalization to adult respiratory distress syndrome necessitating mechanical ventilation. the clinical, ...19979193855
incidence, etiologic pathogens, and diagnostic testing of community-acquired pneumonia.determination of the etiologic pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia has been problematic because of the lack of reliable rapid laboratory diagnostic tools as well as the controversy concerning diagnostic criteria. in the studies reviewed here, a specific pathogen was identified in 39% to 88% of patients. streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. depending on the demographics of the study, between 2% to 43% of cases have been attributed to legion ...19979193852
puumala type hantavirus infection with early choleriform syndrome and severe multiorgan failure. 19979255656
[the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (its etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and the diagnosis of a new infectious disease)]. 19979229840
type iii mixed cryoglobulinaemia in the course of hantavirus nephropathy. 19979269660
hantavirus antibodies in new york. 19979230017
increased plasma levels of soluble cd23 in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; relation to virus-specific ige.in 15 consecutive patients hospitalized with nephropathia epidemica, a european form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) caused by puumala virus, plasma concentrations of soluble cd23 (scd23) and puumala virus-specific ige were determined. in the acute phase of illness, 11/15 patients had increased scd23 levels (> 91 u/ml), whereas in convalescence, values of 8/10 patients were normalized. maximal scd23 values were correlated to maximal concentrations of puumala virus-specific serum ...19979276532
genetic characterization and phylogeny of andes virus and variants from argentina and chile.andes virus, one of five hantaviruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), emerged in 1995 in southwestern argentina (lópez et al. (1996) virology 220, 223-226). the complete nucleotide sequence of andes virus s genome segment was determined and compared with sequences of viral rnas in autopsy tissues of more recently reported hps cases from southwestern argentina and south of chile (cases esq h-1/96 and ch h-1/96). andes virus s segment was found to be 1876 nucleotides in length ...19979255937
high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) captured in the vicinity of households afflicted with nephropathia epidemica.puumala virus, the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica (ne), occurs endemically in europe and is spread mainly by the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus). in the vicinity of each of four households afflicted with ne, we studied rodents with regard to population density and prevalence of puumala virus-specific antibodies. for each case area, a control area was randomly selected 10 km away, without regard to the presence of human settlement. during 6,000 trap nights, 328 rodents were caught, ...19979230802
assessment of occupational risk for hantavirus infection in arizona and new mexico.differentiating occupational exposure from other potential domestic or recreational exposure(s) for sin nombre virus (snv) infection is an epidemiologic challenge. interviews on work-related activities were conducted, and serum specimens were obtained from 494 workers in arizona and new mexico. these workers may have been exposed to rodents and rodent excreta at work, but their primary occupation did not require rodent contact (national park service [n = 193]; navajo agricultural product industr ...19979172092
high prevalence of hantavirus infection in a group of chinese patients with acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology.in southwestern china, small but substantial numbers of patients with acute hepatitis were found without known hepatropic viral infections (hepatitis a, b, c, d or e, cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus) and were receiving no hepatotoxic drugs. prevalence of antibodies, both neutralizing and specific immunoglobulin (ig)m and igg, to hantaan virus were evaluated in a cohort of 136 such patients: 83 were of unknown aetiology, 53 had known viral hepatitis and 59 healthy subjects acted as controls. ...19979278220
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