TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in an adolescent. 19957838649
isolation and characterization of a hantavirus from rattus norvegicus in a residential area of nagoya city, japan.the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus among rattus norvegicus in nagoya city was examined during the period from 1986 to 1993. eight sera of 675 were antibody positive in an indirect fluorescent antibody test. antibody positive rats were found in 1988, 1990, 1991 and 1992 and the numbers of rats were 1, 1, 3 and 3, respectively. a hantavirus strain was isolated from a rat captured in 1990 at a residential area adjoining to a pier in nagoya port. the virus strain, named nr-9, was identified ...19957756425
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the united states: a pathological description of a disease caused by a new outbreak of an acute respiratory disease in the southwestern united states has led to the recognition of a new hantaviral illness. this report describes a unique spectrum of antemortem and postmortem pathological findings seen in a case series of nine surviving patients and 13 who died. clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings were derived from a consecutive series of individuals confirmed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. laboratory studies included chemical, hematological, and bone m ...19957821907
more on hantavirus in new england and new york. 19957816081
more on hantavirus in new england and new york. 19957816082
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is here. 19957885708
prevalence and geographic genetic variation of hantaviruses of new world harvest mice (reithrodontomys): identification of a divergent genotype from a costa rican reithrodontomys mexicanus.we recently described a novel hantavirus (hmv-1) of the western harvest mouse reithrodontomys megalotis. screening of 181 additional specimens of reithrodontomys from the united states and mexico, including samples of r. mexicanus, r. sumichrasti, and r. gracilis of costa rica, for antibodies to hantavirus nucleocapsid protein revealed a widespread enzootic of hantavirus infection. genetic analyses of 7 s genomes of reithrodontomys-associated hantaviruses demonstrated that the enzootic of hmv-1 ...19957886948
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. pathogenesis of an emerging infectious disease.a recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern united states was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized hantavirus. the virus has been isolated from its major reservoir, the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus, and recently named sin nombre virus. clinically, the disease has become known as the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). since may 1993, 44 fatal cases of hps have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunohistochemical (ihc) testing of t ...19957887439
[various new pathogens in pneumonia].the table summarizes the many newly recognized agents causing lower respiratory tract infections: gram + cocci, streptococcus agalactiae, enterococci; gram-rods, acinetobacter, aeromonas hydrophila, eikenella corrodens; mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to multiple drugs, intracellular organisms and viruses. some details are given in four chapters: pneumococci resistant to penicillin g which must be detected and impose new therapeutic strategies; chlamydia pneumoniae with its difficulties for ...19958525335
clinical features that differentiate hantavirus pulmonary syndrome from three other acute respiratory elucidate the early clinical characteristics of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), we compared the clinical features of 24 cases of hps with those of cases of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (n = 30), influenza (n = 33), or unexplained adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards, n = 21). on admission, patients with hps were less likely than outpatients with influenza to have reported sore throat (or = 0.02, p < .01) and cough (or = 0.1, p = .01) and were less likely than patients with pneu ...19958527558
genetic variation of wild puumala viruses within the serotype, local rodent populations and individual animal.reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction cloning and sequencing were used to determine the range of s gene/n protein variability in wild puumala virus (puu) strains and to study phylogenetic relationships between two groups of strains which originated from finland and from european russia. analyses of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences showed: (1) all puu strains shared a common ancient ancestor; and (2) the more recent ancestors were different for the finnish branch and th ...19958546008
naturally occurring sin nombre virus genetic reassortants.genetic reassortment has been shown to play an important role in the evolution of several segmented rna viruses and in the epidemiology of associated diseases. sin nombre (sn) virus is the cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome throughout the western united states. like other hantaviruses, it possesses a genome consisting of three negative-sense rna segments, s, m, and l. recent analysis has demonstrated the presence of at least three different hantaviruses in nevada and eastern california, incl ...19958553562
genetic characterization of a new hantavirus detected in microtus arvalis from slovakia.a new hantavirus, called malacky, has been identified in lung tissue specimens of a vole, microtus arvalis, by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). the voles were trapped in a geographical area in slovakia where hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is endemic in the human population. sequence analysis of a major part of the s segment showed this virus to represent a new subtype within tula, a new hantavirus genetic group defined very recently.19958560789
hantaviruses: clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic aspects.hantaviruses comprise a genus of the family bunyaviridae. bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a negative-sense, tripartite rna genome. hantaviruses are etiologic agents for two acute and severe illnesses of man, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). each hantavirus is primarily associated with a single rodent host species or genus, and is transmitted to man through accidental inhalation or ingestion of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. the dis ...19958561891
[the hantaviruses--clinical syndromes]. 19958647549
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: clinical, diagnostic, and virologic aspects.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is an acute pneumonitis with a high mortality rate that is caused by a newly recognized hantavirus. four corners virus (also known as muerto canyon virus and sin nombre virus) is enzootic among deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). incidental transmission to humans can result in a disease characterized by rapidly progressive respiratory insufficiency, diffuse noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, vascular volume contraction with hemoconcentration, lactic acidosis, depressed ...19958668854
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by the seoul virus.the seoul virus is an important etiologic agent in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), and infections with the seoul virus are less severe than those with the hantaan virus. however, the information on hfrs caused by the seoul virus is limited in korea. retrospective clinical analysis was done on 30 patients with seoul virus infection who had been diagnosed as having hfrs by clinical features and serologic testing by the plaque reduction neutralization test from 1986 to 1991 at the seo ...19958587622
increased production of nitric oxide in patients infected with the european variant of hantavirus.serum nitrate levels, a measure of nitric oxide (no) production in vivo, were very high (95 +/- 14 microm) in 13 patients infected with puumala virus, the european variant of hantavirus (htv), as compared to those in healthy subjects (33 +/- 3 microm). serum nitrate levels showed a high and significant correlation with scores on the acute physiological and chronic health evaluation (apache ii) scale and with serum creatinine, and an inverse correlation with platelet counts. serial serum measurem ...19958588134
four fatal cases of nephropathia epidemica.four serologically confirmed fatal cases of nephropathia epidemica (ne), the mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) are described. all the patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. autopsies revealed hemorrhage and necrotic areas of their pituitary glands, myocarditis, venous congestion and hemorrhage of the kidneys as well as pulmonary edema and hemorrhage of the lungs in all patients. this report provides new evidence that ne can be a fatal disease.19958588146
hantaan virus persistently infects marmoset b-lymphoblastoid cell investigate lymphoid cell hantavirus (hv) interaction, we examined the replication of the hv strains, hantaan 76-118 (htn), sr-11, and b-1 with the b95a, lym-1, cgm1, jm, jurkat, molt-4, at(l)5ky, bw5147, l1210, and vero/e6 cells. hv-growth was determined by immunofluorescence and focus-forming assays. lym-1 and vero/e6 supported the growth of all hv strains, and b95a only htn, while remaining cells did not sustain these strains. this is the first report to indicate the hv-replication in lymp ...19958593305
serologically verified hantavirus infections in hungary.between 1987 and 1993 the etiological diagnosis of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) of 55 patients was confirmed using hantavirus-specific serology. the geographical distribution of cases indicated that at least two different territories of hungary are endemic for hantaviruses. these possible natural foci are different from, but overlapping with the region endemic for tick-borne encephalitis virus. patients sera were shown to react differently with reagents prepared from different h ...19958689095
production of recombinant hantavirus nucleocapsid protein expressed in silkworm larvae and its use as a diagnostic antigen in detecting antibodies in serum from infected rats.the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rnp) of hantaan virus was expressed by a baculovirus vector in silkworm hemolymph and was used as an antigen in western blotting (wb). the rnp is expressed in insoluble form in hemolymph; therefore simple washing of the insoluble fraction with phosphate-buffered saline by low-speed centrifugation allowed preparation of purified antigen for wb. the rnp had strain-specific and hantavirus-common epitopes similar to the authentic np antigen of hantavirus and was ...19958746523
mild hantaviral disease caused by sin nombre virus in a four-year-old child. 19958786902
kinin receptor antagonists: unique probes in basic and clinical research.the availability of potent and stable bradykinin antagonists has had a tremendous impact on kinin research. this article reviews the current status of research on kinin antagonists, describes their chemical properties, and delineates recent advances that have occurred with the advent of the second generation of kinin antagonists. the data collected with these antagonists support the assumption that kinins are implicated in inflammation and tissue injury as endogenous agents. their importance, ho ...19958846412
isla vista virus: a genetically novel hantavirus of the california vole microtus californicus.prospect hill virus (ph) was isolated from a meadow vole (microtus pennsylvanicus) in 1982, and much of its genome has been sequenced. hantaviruses of other new world microtine rodents have not been genetically characterized. we show that another microtus species (the california vole m. californicus) from the united states is host to a genetically distinct ph-like hantavirus, isla vista virus (ilv). the nucleocapsid protein of ilv differs from that of ph by 11.1% and a portion of the g2 glycopro ...19958847529
factors in the emergence of infectious diseases."emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. among recent examples are hiv/aids, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of escherichia coli). specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. these include ecological, environmental, or demog ...19958903148
ultrastructural characteristics of sin nombre virus, causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.a previously unrecognized disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, was described following an outbreak of severe, often lethal, pulmonary illness in the southwestern united states in may-june, 1993. we have now studied the morphologic features of the causative agent, sin nomber virus (snv), by thin section electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of infected vero e6 cells. snv virions were roughly spherical and had a mean diameter of 112 nm. they had a rather dense envelope and closely a ...19958572935
genetic characterization of a human isolate of puumala hantavirus from france.puu90-13 is a strain of puumala (puu) virus (family bunyaviridae: genus hantavirus) isolated from a human in northeastern france (rollin et al., 1995). this report describes the full-length sequences of the small (s) and medium (m) genomic rnas of puu90-13. the terminal sequences of both the s and m genomic rnas were found to be conserved and imperfectly complementary. the s rna of puu90-13 is 1847 nt in length and contains the nucleocapsid (n) protein gene and a potential overlapping open readi ...19958578865
serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is an acute viral disease caused by hantavirus. on the basis of clinical observation, the illness is divided into five sequential stages: febrile, hypotensive, oliguric, diuretic, and convalescent. because interleukin-1 (il-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha), and interleukin-6 (il-6) are mediators responsible for fever, septic shock, and acute phase protein induction, we examined, using elisa, the presence of these three cytokines in 276 sera collec ...19958825292
genomic characterization of m and s rna segments of hantaviruses isolated from bats.genomic analysis of three hantaan-like virus isolates from bats was performed. cleavage patterns of reverse transcription (rt)-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products and nucleotide sequences of g2 region of m rna segment and n protein region of s rna segment of the isolates were compared to that of hantaan 76-118 strain. genomic characteristics of the bat isolates were identical to that of hantaan virus.19958825306
intraocular pressure changes in nephropathia epidemica. a prospective study of 37 patients with acute systemic puumala virus infection.nephropathia epidemica is a zoonose in the group of hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome and is caused by puumala virus in hantavirus genus. the purpose of this study is to find out how the intraocular pressure (iop) is affected by the acute phase of this disease and how it relates to the previous case reports on angleclosure glaucoma attacks.19959098282
[respiratory symptoms in hantavirus infection]. 19959221231
[clinical aspects and diagnosis of nephropathia epidemica]. 19959244697
diseases of the this review, three aspects of pleural disease are discussed. although it was thought for many years that the origin of pleural fluid was the capillaries in the parietal or visceral pleura, recent evidence suggests that in many cases the origin of pleural fluid is the interstitial space of the lung. the interstitial space of the lung appears to be the source of the pleural fluid in patients who have congestive heart failure, parapneumonic effusions, pulmonary embolism, and lung transplants. th ...19959363070
genetic variation in tula hantaviruses: sequence analysis of the s and m segments of strains from central europe.hantavirus carried by the european common vole microtus arvalis from moravia (czech republic) was analyzed by rt-pcr-sequencing and by reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs). sequencing of the full-length s segment and the proximal part of the m segment showed that the virus belonged to genotype tula (tul) we discovered earlier in microtus arvalis from central russia. this finding supported the concept of host dependence of hantaviruses. phylogenetic analyses suggested a similar ...19958837887
nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the m and s genome segments of a swedish puumala virus isolate.the swedish puumala (puu) virus strain vindeln 83-l20, isolated from a bank vole trapped in 1983 near vindeln, västerbotten county, sweden, was characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. the coding region of the m segment was determined by pcr followed by direct sequencing and the entire s segment was characterized by cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis. the genomic organization was found to be very similar to that of other puu virus strains regarding open reading frames, polypeptide si ...19958837894
hantavirus infections in finland.hantaviruses cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantaviruspulmonary syndrome (hps), and occur throughout the world. the viruses aretransmitted to humans in aerosols of rodent secretions. about 200 000 people,mainly in eurasia, develop199512631750
[belgrade and hantaan hantaviruses--the causative agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in children in serbia].during an outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in 1989, five children (3 girls, 2 boys, aged 6.8-16 years) with severe clinical form of the disease, were treated at the institute of mother and child health of serbia; four of them were followed-up 22-28 months thereafter. the main clinical features were: fever, headache, myalgia, abdominal and back pains, and vomiting in all, and haemorrhagic syndrome in three; renal syndrome with severe acute renal failure in all five patien ...199517974469
hantaan virus infection among human and rat populations in alexandria.hantaan virus has recently been identified as the cause of the rodent borne viral zoonosis collectively termed hantavirus disease (hvd). although the disease is mainly endemic in two main areas, clinical forms as well as positive antibody testing from healthy persons throughout the world have been reported denoting a worldwide presence. rattus species are almost universally implicated as hantavirus reservoirs. screening for hantavirus antibodies was done on 637 samples of human sera and 861 rode ...199617217009
[ophthalmic manifestation of epidemic nephropathy]. 199610590607
[the clinical picture and diagnosis of epidemic nephropathy]. 199610590608
[epidemic nephropathia and winter]. 199610605232
evidence against infection with hantaviruses among forest and park workers in the southwestern united determine if individuals with extensive exposure to rodent habitats were infected with sin nombre hantavirus (snv), we evaluated forest and park service personnel from the region of endemicity in the southwestern united states. information about work and recreational activities, including exposure to rodents and a history of recent illnesses, was obtained via a standardized questionnaire. serum specimens were also collected. of 140 participating workers, 84 (60%) were primarily engaged in out ...19968842264
new and emerging pathogens, part 4. new and emerging viral diseases--the ultimate parasites. 199610157594
plagues. guerilla warfare. 199610161475
new pathogens for respiratory infections.the emergence of new pathogens and the increasing antimicrobial resistance patterns of old pathogens are contributing factors to the high epidemiologic impact of lower respiratory tract infections. hantaviruses, chlamydia pneumoniae, and penicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae have recently gained most of the attention of international researchers. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome has been confirmed in 100 cases with a very high mortality (52%). risk factors for infection are peridomestic cle ...19969363136
a severe case of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in singapore.the incidence of human hantavirus infection in singapore is low. hitherto, only 2 cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) have been reported. a third case is reported here of a ragman who had the classical manifestations of hfrs, confirmed by serology. in addition, his condition was complicated by liver dysfunction and neurological disturbance. after a protracted stay, the patient was finally discharged from hospital 5 months after the onset of his severe illness.19969280013
[serologic studies of domestic cats for potential human pathogenic virus infections from wild rodents].for several viral infections a reservoir in wild rodents has been demonstrated. some of the agents are known or suspected to be pathogenic for humans. because improvements in hygiene have reduced direct human contact with rodents, domestic cats could be acting as active transmitters of these viruses from rodents to man. we selected 4 such pathogens--ortho- and parapox-, hanta- and encephalomyocarditis viruses--which, in different ways, may lead to serious human illness: ortho- and parapoxvirus i ...19969409901
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in argentina. possibility of person to person march 1995 the first case of a familiar outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) was notified in el bolson, in the south of argentina. until december 15, 1996, a total of 77 cases of hps had been notified with 48% mortality, distributed in three geographical areas of the country, south, north and center. during 1996, of the 19 cases from el bolsón, three were local physicians, one of whom -during the prodrome of her illness- travelled to buenos aires to be attended. in the hospital, tw ...19969284576
modes of seoul virus infections: persistency in newborn rats and transiency in adult understand the mode of persistent infection of seoul virus in rodents, we examined the distribution of the virus genome and antibody production in infected rats. when 1-day-old rats were inoculated with the ki-83-262 strain, the s segment of viral genome was detected in sera, clots, lungs and kidneys from 3 to 184 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) by nested reverse transcriptase pcr. on the other hand, when 7-week-old rats were infected with this virus, viral genome was detected only in the lung ...19969526540
[serologic verification of epidemic hemorrhagic fever during the lifting of the blockade in sarajevo].after four years of sarajevo siege, the deblocade started on july 1995. many soldiers involved in the deblocade developed a clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic fever indicating a possible epidemic.19969601761
[hantavirus infection: a "new" exotic zoonosis among us].hantavirus disease is a recently recognized zoonosis. the main vectors are infected but healthy wild rodents or laboratory rats. transmission to man occurs via inhalation of aerosolised excretions. kidneys or lungs are the target organs during the disease, but a systemic affection with multi-organ involvement is possible, and can be fatal. to date, at least 16 different serotypes of hantavirus have been characterized, 8 of them being of clinical importance. each serotype has its own rodent vecto ...19969156672
[hantavirus infection]. 19969123884
[hantavirus disease]. 19969181739
hantavirus in montana deer mouse populations: preliminary results.dynamics of small mammal populations and the prevalence of antibodies for hantavirus were determined in six locations in central and western montana (usa). eighteen live-trapping grids were trapped monthly from june through september 1994. deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) populations ranged from 0 to over 90 on one-hectare grids. our bleeding technique had no apparent effect on survival of deer mice. deer mice, meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), and sagebrush voles (lagurus curtatus) wer ...19968827681
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in florida: association with the newly identified black creek canal virus.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a recently recognized viral zoonosis. the first recognized cases were caused by a newly described hantavirus. sin nombre virus (previously known as muerto canyon virus), isolated from peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse). we describe a 33-year-old floridian man who resided outside the ecologic range of p maniculatus but was found to have serologic evidence of a hantavirus infection during evaluation of azotemia associated with adult respiratory distress synd ...19968579086
[a system of immunoenzyme analysis using biotinylated monoclonal antibodies for typing hantavirus antigens].enzyme immunoassay with biotin-labeled monoclonal antibodies to puumala virus was used for typing hantavirus antigens. the system is type-specific, that is, it detects puumala virus only, which was demonstrated by typing 9 hantavirus antigens in infected vero e5 cells and by epizootological analysis of an hfrs outbreak in the yegoryevsk district of the moscow region in november-december 1995. the suggested system may be used as an element of eia screening of natural samples in analysis of the sc ...19968999683
isolation and characterization of tula virus, a distinct serotype in the genus hantavirus, family bunyaviridae.a vero e6 cell culture isolate of tula virus (tul), a hantavirus first detected in european common voles (microtus arvalis and m. rossiaemeridionalis) by rt-pcr was obtained after initial passaging of tul-infected vole lung samples in laboratory-colonized m. arvalis. tul was defined as a classical serotype by a cross-focus-reduction neutralization test (frnt) and was also shown to be distinct from other hantaviruses by haemagglutination inhibition assay. the sequences of s, m and partial l genom ...19969000098
cocirculation of multiple hantaviruses in texas, with characterization of the small (s) genome of a previously undescribed virus of cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus).an environmental and laboratory investigation was conducted after a fatal childhood case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in deaf smith county, texas in may 1995. a trapping campaign was conducted to identify possible rodent carriers. six species of murid and heteromyid rodents were collected, and at least one hantavirus-seropositive specimen was found in each of the five murid species. tissues from a selection of 11 seropositive specimens were examined by the polymerase chain reaction ...19969025697
[hantavirus-induced acute renal failure]. 19969036104
[the antigenic differentiation of hantaviruses by using monoclonal antibodies].85 hantavirus (hv) strains from russia and other counties were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) prepared against hantaviruses: hantaan (hantaan 76-118, a-9 strains), seoul (sr-1, r-22 strains) and puumala (hallnas 83-223 strain). 68 hv strains were differentiated into five virus type groups: hantaan, puumala, seoul, prospect hill and belgrade-dobrava. 17 strains were found to be antigenically closely related but distinct from hantaan type (4 strai ...19969036285
molecular approaches to the identification of unculturable infectious molecular biologic techniques, particularly representational difference analysis, consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction, and complementary dna library screening, have led to the identification of several previously unculturable infectious agents. new agents have been found in tissues from patients with kaposi's sarcoma, non-a, non-b hepatitis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, bacillary angiomatosis, and whipple's disease by using these techniques without direct culture. the new me ...19968903225
biotin-labeled antigen: a novel approach for detection of puumala virus-specific igm.a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, bla igm-elisa, based on baculovirus-expressed puumala (puu) virus nucleocapsid protein, was developed for rapid diagnosis of nephropathia epidemica. the recombinant antigen (bac-puu-n) was purified to homogeneity by hplc and conjugated to biotin. the biotin-streptavidin system, in combination with the mu-capture technique, rendered the bla igm-elisa a sensitivity similar to or higher than that of puu virus igm mu-capture elisa based on native antigen. t ...19968910652
rodents, human remains, and north american hantaviruses: risk factors and prevention measures for forensic science personnel--a 1993, a previously unrecognized hantavirus was identified as the cause for a severe form of respiratory distress later termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). in the past two years, several distinct hantaviruses, of which many are pathogenic, have been found in rodent populations in the us. rodents shed the virus in their saliva, urine, and feces. humans usually become infected after inhaling either aerosolized droplets of urine or particulates contaminated with rodent excreta. rodents, i ...19968914295
hantaviruses: genome structure, expression and evolution. 19968922460
increased production of nitric oxide in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome--relation to arterial hypotension and tumor necrosis 15 consecutive subjects hospitalized with nephropathia epidemica, a european form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, the plasma concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, were determined. from day 3 of onset of disease the concentrations increased, peak levels being reached on days 5 to 7. maximal plasma concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite were correlated to the degree of hypotension (r = -0.64, p = 0.02) and levels of tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alp ...19968923042
[polyclonal immunoenzyme system for determining hantaviral antigens: assessment of specificity using monoclonal antibodies and the polymerase chain reaction].genus-specific monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid protein of pumala virus and polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the specificity of a previously described polyclonal (based on human igg to pumala hantavirus) enzyme immunoassay (eia) system for detecting hantavirus antigens. parallel testing of crude lung suspensions from wild rodents trapped in different regions of russia for hantavirus antigens and rna showed 100% coincidence of the results of three tests. these data indicate a hi ...19968928502
[hantavirus infection in spain: seroepidemiologic study in the province of soria].the aim of the present was to study the seroprevalence of hantavirus infection in the province of soria, spain.19968948928
seroepidemiology of hantaan virus infection in order to investigate the infection rate of hantaan virus in taiwan, a total of 6,536 human serum samples were collected from residents, selected by stratified random sampling, from 19 townships covering four different ethnic groups: aborigines, fukien taiwanese, hakka taiwanese, and mainland chinese. serum samples were screened for hantaan virus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. the prototype hantaan virus (76/118)-infected vero e6 cells were used as the viral antigen for the antibod ...19968950687
perspectives in fatal epidemics.this article discusses four epidemics of fatal infectious diseases: a 1993 cluster of deaths among previously healthy persons in the southwestern united states that led to the identification of a new clinical syndrome, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; the first epidemic of ebola hemorrhagic fever identified in nearly two decades occurring in 1995 in zaire, which resulted in 317 cases with a mortality rate of 77%; an outbreak of legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers in 1994; and a 1989 ...19968958175
hantaviral biosafety issues in the autopsy room and laboratory: concerns and recommendations.the need to perform autopsies on and examine laboratory specimens from patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) has raised questions about biosafety. human illness associated with hantaviruses is usually the result of exposure to infectious aerosols from saliva or excreta of wild rodents. it is unclear whether or nor certain autopsy and laboratory procedures can also generate similar potentially infectious aerosols. as the biosafety information developed for the hps agent is limited and ...19968958293
[new pneumonia pathogens, especially chlamydia pneumoniae and hantaviruses]. 19968964681
quasispecies in wild-type tula hantavirus populations.tula virus (tul) is a recently detected hantavirus carried by european common voles. reverse transcriptase pcr cloning was used to study tul s segment/n protein quasispecies. both the distribution and character of mutations observed in three mutant spectra indicated limited selection at the protein level. at least 8% of the mutations were neutral or well tolerated; fixation of such mutations may play a role in tul evolution in its natural host.19968971044
pulmonary involvement in nephropathia epidemica: radiological findings and their clinical correlations.nephropathia epidemica (ne) is a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) normally taking a benign clinical course. the etiologic agent, puumala hantavirus is genetically closely related to sin nombre virus, which causes a frequently lethal febrile syndrome with pulmonary involvement (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, hps). hps is characterized by acute respiratory distress, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and severe and hypotension, but usually no significant renal involvement. pulmonary invol ...19968982552
hantavirus antigen detection in kidney biopsies from patients with nephropathia epidemica.renal biopsies collected from ten patients with serologically confirmed puumalavirus (puuv) infection in the acute stage with renal dysfunction who lived in the same puuv endemic area in the netherlands, were studied histologically, immuno-histochemically and subsequently examined for the presence of viral antigen by immunoperoxidase staining. interstitial hemorrhages and deposition of igm, complement component c3 and fibrin along the basal side of the tubular epithelial cells, were found in puu ...19968982553
inhibition of puumala and tula hantaviruses in vero cells by mxa protein.human mxa protein is a type i interferon-inducible intracytoplasmic protein, which mediates antiviral actions against a variety of negative-strand rna viruses including influenza a, measles, and vesicular stomatitis viruses. recently, it has also been shown that several members of the bunyaviridae family are inhibited by mxa protein. the hantavirus genus in the bunyaviridae family includes important human pathogenic viruses, e.g., puumala (puuv), hantaan, and sin nombre viruses. tula virus (tulv ...19968862399
sin nombre virus mrna synthesis.sin nombre (sn) virus is the major etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, a severe respiratory disease with high mortality. like other hantaviruses, sn virus causes an inapparent chronic infection of the natural rodent reservoir and tends to grow slowly and produce little cytopathic effect even in highly susceptible vero e6 tissue culture cells. an electrochemiluminescent quantitative pcr approach was developed to allow examination of sn virus rna transcription in synchronously infect ...19968862408
evidence of hantavirus in wild rodents in northern ireland.a survey of evidence of rodent hantavirus infection in county down, northern ireland was carried out by using immunofluorescence to detect virus antigen and antibody. antibodies to hantavirus (r22 strain of seoul virus and hantaan 76-118) were found in 11/51 (21.6%) brown rats (rattus norvegicus), 1/31 (3.2%) field mice (apodemus sylvaticus) and 17/59 (28.8%) house mice (mus domesticus). seven rodents had evidence of hantavirus antigen in lung tissues. antibody positive animals were significantl ...19968870634
acute renal failure due to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.the aim of our study was to analyze the clinical course and outcome of acute renal failure (arf) in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). from 1983 to 1995, we treated 33 patients (27 males, 6 females) aged from 16 to 71 years. half of patients were connected with work at a farm or in a forest. the disease was confirmed serologically with indirect immunofluorescence test (ift) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in 18 patients percutaneous kidney needle biopsies ...19968875690
molecular epidemiology: applications of nucleic acid amplification and sequence analysis. 19968877333
immune responses to inactivated vaccine in people naturally infected with inactivated hantaan virus vaccine for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) was given by injection to 15 people who were naturally infected with either hantaan or seoul viruses. immunofluorescent antibody (ifa), reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (rphi), hemagglutination inhibition (hi), and neutralization antibody (na) assays were used to measure the antibody titers of the vaccinated people before and after three doses of vaccine. the results indicated that ifa and rphi anti ...19968877768
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, renal insufficiency, and myositis associated with infection by bayou hantavirus.hantaviruses are etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, an acute illness characterized by acute renal insufficiency, proteinuria, and hemodynamic instability. recently, a new world form of hantavirus disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), was recognized; in this form, pulmonary edema is prominent, but renal insufficiency is generally lacking. hps cases from the southeastern united states may be exceptional in that they have exhibited both pulmonary and renal manifestat ...19968879771
emerging and newly identified viral infections. 19968880884
sequence analysis of the complete s genomic segment of a newly identified hantavirus isolated from the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus): phylogenetic relationship with other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses.four corners (fc) or sin nombre virus, a hantavirus harbored by the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). recently, a hantavirus, designated new york (ny) virus, isolated from a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) captured on shelter island, new york, was molecularly linked to a fatal case of hps occurring in the northeastern united states. to clarify the genetic and phylogenetic relationship between ny and fc viruses a ...19968883362
unique and conserved features of tula hantavirus m gene encoding envelope glycoproteins g1 and g2.the sequence of the genomic m segment encoding the surface glycoproteins g1 and g2 of wild-type tula hantavirus (tul) has been determined. analyses of m nucleotide sequences show that tul is genetically distinct from other hantaviruses. comparison to ten currently known hantavirus g1g2 amino acid sequences points out several, presumably functional, regions with substantial homology indicating a common ancestry and similar evolutionary pathways for all members of the hantavirus genus.19968883363
distribution and genetic heterogeneity of puumala virus in sweden.small mammals trapped in sweden were analysed for specific antibody responses against three hantavirus serotypes and for the presence of viral antigen. to determine the genetic identity of viral rna in lungs of seropositive bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), polymerase chain reactions and subsequent partial sequencing of both the m and s segments were employed. the sequences obtained were all identified as puumala (puu) virus, with a high degree of heterogeneity between the different geograph ...19968887490
hantavirus s rna sequence from a fatal case of hps in new april, 1995, the second fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) occurred in the northeast in a new york state resident. using the patient's lung tissue obtained at autopsy, the s genomic rna segment of a hantavirus, designated h-ny1, was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), cloned, and sequenced. the s rna was found to contain 2084 nucleotides, 6 nucleotides longer than reported by hjelle et al. (1995) for the virus associated with the first northea ...19968890033
characterization of tula virus antigenic determinants defined by monoclonal antibodies raised against baculovirus-expressed nucleocapsid protein.tula virus was recently discovered by rt-pcr in lung samples from european common voles (microtus arvalis and m. rossiaemeridionalis). since virus isolation attempts had been unsuccessful, no antigen was available for analysis or for use in immunoassays. to circumvent this, complete tula virus nucleocapsid protein (bac-tul-n) was expressed in recombinant baculovirus. rodent antibody end-point titers to bac-tul-n and to truncated n fragments indicated that the nh2-terminal region is the major ant ...19968896239
a major antigenic domain for the human humoral response to puumala virus nucleocapsid protein is located at the amino-terminus.nephropathia epidemica (ne), the major form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in europe, is caused by the hantavirus serotype puumala (puu). the puu virus nucleocapsid protein (n) has been shown to be highly immunogenic both in laboratory animals and in man. we aimed to locate domains important in humoral immune reactivity and to use this information to develop a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for serological diagnosis of ne. escherichia coli poly-histidi ...19968793844
the role of molecular techniques in the understanding of emerging infections.emerging infections are defined as infections that are newly identified or recognized, or those whose incidence in humans has significantly increased over the past 20 years. the interaction of several factors contributes to the emergence of infectious disease, including changes in human behavior, technological advances, economic development, increased international travel, microbial adaptation and lapses in public health measures. biomedical research has allowed us to identify and classify previ ...19968796869
vector-borne viral diseases in sweden--a short review.ockelbo disease, caused by a sindbis-related virus transmitted to man by mosquitoes, was first described in the central part of sweden in the 1960s as clusters of patients with fever, arthralgia and rash. an average annual rate of 30 cases was recorded in the 1980s but no cases have been diagnosed during the last few years. nephropathia epidemica (ne) characterized by fever, abdominal pain and renal dysfunction has been known to cause considerable morbidity in sweden during the last 60 years but ...19968800805
antiviral activities of tragacanthin polysaccharides on punta toro virus infections in mice.tragacanthin polysaccharides from astragalus brachycentrus (av208) and astragalus echidnaeformis (av212) plants, which are devoid of in vitro antiviral activity, were evaluated in a mouse model of punta toro virus (ptv) infection. the ptv (a phlebovirus member of the bunyaviridae family of viruses) is a model for studying the treatment of rift valley fever and hantavirus infections. single intraperitoneal treatments with 12.5-200 mg/kg/day doses of av212 given 24 h before or 4 and 24 h after vir ...19968804797
seroepidemiological survey of wild rats for seoul virus in indonesia.the prevalence of antibodies against seoul virus was investigated in 655 wild rats (rattus norvegicus, r. rattus, r. rattus diardii, r. exulans, r. tiomanicus) captured in seven port areas of indonesia. twenty-four of 238 r. norvegicus, one of 142 r. rattus and one of 102 r. exulans from two port areas had the antibodies against seoul virus.19968806040
hantavirus infections in the united states: diagnosis and treatment.definitive diagnosis of acute hantavirus infection requires demonstration of specific igg and igm antibodies and a compatible clinical course; most persons with acute illness will also have viral rna in pbmc which can be detected after rt-pcr amplification. characteristic hematologic and hemodynamic findings are helpful in establishing a presumptive diagnosis of hps in persons with cardiopulmonary symptoms and signs while awaiting the results of serologic testing and pcr. diagnosis during the pr ...19968815682
wild brown rats (rattus norvegicus) as a zoonotic risk on farms in england and wales.fear of wild rats as carriers of disease is embedded within our culture. surprisingly little is actually known about parasites in wild rat populations. in recent studies aimed to rectify this omission, farms in england and wales were surveyed to identify parasite species present in the rat populations. rats were found to be infected with numerous zoonotic parasites, including cryptosporidium, pasteurella [correction of pasturella], listeria, yersinia, coxiella, and hantavirus. these findings sug ...19968820193
antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of puumala virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in insect cells.puumala virus (puu) is a member of the genus hantavirus in the family bunyaviridae and the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, a european form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. sera of nephropathia epidemica patients react specifically with puu nucleocapsid (n) protein. in order to safely provide large quantities of antigen for diagnostic purposes, puu sotkamo strain n protein was expressed by using the baculovirus system in sf9 insect cells to up to 30 to 50% of the total cellula ...19968748286
[hantavirus infection and the pulmonary syndrome: another new entity to look for in our environment?]. 19968756221
genetic susceptibility to severe course of nephropathia epidemica caused by puumala hantavirus.nephropathia epidemica (ne) caused by puumala hantavirus is one type of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). there is considerable variability in the clinical severity of ne. many infections are subclinical but the disease can even be fatal. we questioned whether the wide spectrum in the outcome of ne is dependent, on host-related immunological factors by determining the major histocompatibility complex markers (mhc) in 74 adult patients with ne. patients with the most severe course of ...19968770970
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: first imported case of hantavirus infection in taiwan.a patient infected with hantavirus, with resultant hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), is reported. the patient was a 38-year-old man, living in tainan, taiwan, who had been visiting mainland china for 3 months when he suddenly developed fever and chills, generalized myalgia, abdominal pain and petechiae on his chest. he sought treatment in mainland china. his clinical course progressed through febrile, hypotensive, oliguria and polyuria phases. supportive care included one course of h ...19968772056
analysis of fatal pulmonary hantaviral infection in new york by reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction.the purpose of this study was to analyze the histological distribution of polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-amplified hantaviral cdna in three cases of fatal hantaviral infection that occurred 2 years ago in long island, ny. the three otherwise healthy patients had a rapid death characterized by fever and pulmonary failure and were identified from the autopsy files at university hospital, stony brook. six autopsy controls with either no pulmonary disease (three) or fatal pneumonitis of known etiol ...19968774123
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