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incidence of arbovirus antibodies in bovine, ovine and human sera collected in eastern sicily.the incidence of antibodies against 9 arboviruses in ovine, bovine and human sera collected in eastern sicily was studied. a high incidence of antibodies was found especially against bhanja virus in all sera and against sandfly fever sicilian in ovine sera only. the incidence was higher than that reported in 1971 for the western part of sicily. these findings suggest an increase in the circulation of arboviruses in this area; the causes are briefly discussed.19767946
prevalence of antibodies to arboviruses in egypt. results of a serologic survey among 1,113 university students. 1975173201
isolation of phlebotomus (sandfly) fever virus from sandflies and humans during the same season in aurangabad district, maharashtra state, india. 1976178593
studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in iran. i. virus isolates obtained from phlebotomus.a total of 62 virus isolates was obtained from 12,485 male and female sandflies (predominately phlebotomus papatasi) collected in a village in central iran during the summer of 1975. the overall virus isolation rate from female sandflies was 1 per 177 insects processed. of the 62 virus strains obtained, 49 were identified as sicilian virus, 11 as karimabad, and 2 as a new member of the vesicular stomatitis serogroup. one isolate each of sicilian and karimabad virus was made from pools of male sa ...1977192092
studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in iran. ii. the prevalence of human and animal infection with five phlebotomus fever virus serotypes in isfahan province.human and animal sera from an endemic area of sandfly fever in iran were tested by plaque reduction neutralization method against five different phlebotomus fever virus serotypes (naples, sicilian, karimabad, salehabad, and i-47). the overall prevalence of naples, sicilian, and karimabad virus antibodies among the human population was 17%, 25%, and 66%, respectively. all sera were negative against salehabad and i-47 viruses. age-specific antibody rates suggested that sicilian and karimabad virus ...1977192093
phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) from a primary hill forest in west malaysia. 1979220422
dimethyl sulfoxide enhancement of phlebotomus fever virus plaque formation.dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso)incorporated into an agar overlay containing deae-dextran enhanced plaque formation in vero cells by naples sandfly fever virus passaged in mouse brain or vero cell cultures. no plaques were visible when dmso was used without the deae-dextran, some plaques were rarely visible (less than 0.5mm) when deae-dextran was used without the dmso, and up to 10-fold more plaques were clearly visible (0.5-1.5 mm) when both chemicals were used. the combined enhancing effect of dmso a ...1979223461
determination of whether tomato spotted wilt virus replicates in toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes and the relatedness of this virus to phleboviruses (family bunyaviridae).tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) has been reported to be morphologically, molecularly and structurally similar to viruses in the family bunyaviridae. by various types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) and western blot hybridizations, we tested tswv with antibodies to 12 viruses in the phlebovirus genus of this family. serological relatedness was not found between tswv and phleboviruses. however, one preparation of antibody to arumowot virus reacted with a 53-kd protein from healthy p ...19921346784
grouping of hantaviruses by small (s) genome segment polymerase chain reaction and amplification of viral rna from wild-caught rats.a single pair of consensus primers in the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplified a conserved region of the small genome segment of twenty hantavirus isolates. isolates tested included representatives of the four recognized hantaviruses, hantaan, seoul, puumala and prospect hill, as well as isolates from mus musculus (leakey), bandicota indica (thailand 749), and suncus murinus (thottapalayam). viruses from the nairovirus and phlebovirus genera yielded negative results. the amplification produ ...19921354416
selective inhibition of arthropod-borne and arenaviruses in vitro by 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxyadenosine.a novel nucleoside analog, 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxyadenosine (3'f3'dado), was evaluated for antiviral activity against several arthropod-borne and arenaviruses in vero cell culture. the following 50% inhibitory concentrations (ec50) of virus plaque formation were obtained against the test viruses: semliki forest (10.3 microm) and venezuelan equine encephalitis (5.3 microm) alphaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (7.7 microm) and pichinde (greater than 32 microm) arenaviruses, punta toro (greater th ...19921365816
potential role of immunomodulators for treatment of phlebovirus infections of animals.rift valley fever (rvfv) is a major phlebovirus-induced epizootic disease of domestic animals (primarily cattle and sheep) in africa. no therapies for the disease are known. a related phlebovirus, punta toro virus (ptv), has been adapted to induce an rvfv-like disease in c57bl/6 mice. this ptv infection has been used as a model for rvfv because it is reasonably safe and does not require high-level biologic containment. the infection model has been used to study the potential role of immunomodula ...19921385686
analysis of 3' and 5' ends of n and nss messenger rnas of toscana phlebovirus.the 5' and 3' ends of n and nss mrnas, transcribed from the s segment of toscana phlebovirus, were analyzed by oligonucleotide primer extension and s1 nuclease mapping procedures. the results showed that both mrnas acquired, at their 5' end, approximately 9-15 nucleotides not present in the viral template, suggesting an initiation transcription mechanism similar to the one described for influenza virus. furthermore, the 3' ends of the two mrnas were located in a sequence motif conserved in the s ...19921413515
association of the nonstructural protein nss of uukuniemi virus with the 40s ribosomal subunit.the small rna segment (s segment) of uukuniemi (uuk) virus encodes two proteins, the nucleocapsid protein (n) and a nonstructural protein (nss), by an ambisense strategy. the function of nss has not been elucidated for any of the bunyaviruses expressing this protein. we have now expressed the n and nss proteins in sf9 insect cells by using the baculovirus expression system. high yields of both proteins were obtained. a monospecific antibody was raised against gel-purified nss and used to study t ...19921534850
the m rna of impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (bunyaviridae) has an ambisense genomic organization.the nucleotide sequence of impatiens necrotic spot virus (insv) m rna was determined from cdna clones. the insv m rna was 4972 nucleotides in length with two open reading frames (orfs) in an ambisense genomic organization. the larger orf near the 3' end of the viral rna, coding for a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 124.9 kda, was in the viral complementary sense and produced the g2 and g1 proteins. a smaller orf in the viral sense was capable of coding for a 34.1-kda polypeptide, de ...19921585644
localization to the golgi complex of uukuniemi virus glycoproteins g1 and g2 expressed from cloned cdnas.the membrane glycoproteins g1 and g2 of uukuniemi virus, a bunyavirus, accumulate in the golgi complex (gc) during virus infection. these proteins have therefore been considered to be good models for studying the intracellular transport to and retention in the gc. in this study, i have used indirect immunofluorescence to localize in cos cells the uukuniemi virus glycoproteins g1 and g2 expressed together or separately from cloned cdnas with use of simian virus 40-based vectors. when expressed to ...19921602557
nucleotide sequence and coding strategy of the uukuniemi virus l rna segment.the complete nucleotide sequence of the l rna segment of uukuniemi virus has been determined from cloned cdna. the l rna is 6423 nucleotides in length, and is of negative polarity. the viral-complementary rna contains a single large open reading frame of 2104 codons which corresponds to the l protein (m(r) 241039). comparison with the l protein sequences of other members of the bunyaviridae showed homology with the rift valley fever phlebovirus l protein (38% amino acid identity), but no detecta ...19921629699
sandfly fever among swedish tourists.all clinical and serologically confirmed cases of sandfly fever among swedish tourists during 1986-1989 were investigated. a total of 37 cases of sicilian virus sandfly fever and 1 case of naples virus sandfly fever were recorded from cyprus. one case of toscana virus infection was documented from spain. the clinical and laboratory findings did not differ from those in previous reports, except for elevated aminotransferase levels. a questionnaire, that offered a possibility to estimate the numbe ...19911659738
high prevalence rates of antibody to three sandfly fever viruses (sicilian, naples, and toscana) among cypriots.neutralizing antibodies to sandfly fever naples, sandfly fever sicilian and toscana viruses were investigated among 479 sera collected from a normal human population in cyprus. antibody prevalence rates of 57%, 32% and 20% were found to naples, sicilian and toscana viruses, respectively. the observed frequency of dual and triple infections was higher than would be expected with a random chance of infection. antibody prevalence rates were similar for men and women for all three viruses tested, bu ...19911661242
elisa for detection of igm and igg antibodies to sandfly fever sicilian virus.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect specific human immunoglobulin g and m antibodies to sandfly fever sicilian (sfs) virus. acute and early convalescent serum pairs with greater than or equal to 7 days between the 2 specimens were available from 20 patients and all showed significant optical density (od) increase and significant titre rise (greater than or equal to 4-fold) by igg elisa. however, negative or borderline-positive sera were found as late as 11 days a ...19911663260
arthropod vectors in the evolution of bunyaviruses.viruses from each genus of bunyaviridae have preferential relationships to the arthropods of only one or two families, i.e. bunyavirus to mosquitoes (culicidae), phlebovirus to sand flies (psychodidae) and mosquitoes, uukuvirus and nairovirus to ticks (ixodidae and argasidae). an exception is genus hantavirus not proven to be transmitted by vectors. within the bunyavirus genus 16 serogroups have been recognized on the basis of their antigenic relationship. based on isolations from the nature eac ...19911683124
the s rna segment of tomato spotted wilt virus has an ambisense character.the complete nucleotide sequence of the s rna of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) was determined. the rna is 2916 nucleotides long and has an ambisense coding strategy. the sequence contains two open reading frames (orfs), one in the viral sense which encodes a protein with a predicted mr of 52.4k and one in the viral complementary sense which encodes the viral nucleocapsid protein of mr 28.8k. both proteins are expressed by translation of two subgenomic rna species that possibly terminate at a ...19901693160
antigenic variance. 19911718665
[epidemiology of rift valley fever in west africa. 1. serological investigation of small ruminants in niger].a serosurvey of rift valley fever virus infection conducted among 557 sheep and 643 goats from niger in 1986 points out that 2.8% of the 1,200 animals tested had rvf virus reacting antibodies. the circulation of the virus is demonstrated, as well for another phlebovirus related to rvf virus, the strain arumowot.19911764749
laboratory reared sandflies (diptera:psychodidae) and studies on phleboviruses.virus-vector relationship of two pleboviruses, toscana and arbia viruses, were studied in laboratory reared sandflies of the species plebotomus perniciosus which is implicated as natural vector of both viruses. two techniques of infection were used: intrathoracic inoculation and membrane feeding. this paper reports the growth characteristics and the frequency of transovarial and venereal transmission among p. perniciosus experimentally infected with the two viruses.19911841201
sequences and coding strategies of the s rnas of toscana and rift valley fever viruses compared to those of punta toro, sicilian sandfly fever, and uukuniemi viruses.the sequences and coding strategies of the s rnas of two viruses, toscana (tos) and the m12 derivative of rift valley fever zh-548 (rvf, phlebovirus genus, bunyaviridae) have been determined from cdna clones and compared to the previously published sequences of punta toro (pt), sandfly fever sicilian (sfs), and uukuniemi (uuk) viruses. all five viruses exhibit an ambisense coding strategy for their small (s) rna species, i.e., one gene product (the nss protein) is encoded in the 5' half of the v ...19911846496
assembly and polarized release of punta toro virus and effects of brefeldin a.punta toro virus (ptv), a member of the sandfly fever group of bunyaviruses, is assembled by budding at intracellular membranes of the golgi complex. we have examined ptv glycoprotein transport, assembly, and release and the effects of brefeldin a (bfa) on these processes. both the g1 and g2 proteins were transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and retained in the golgi complex in a stable structure, either during ptv infection or when expressed from a vaccinia virus recombinant. bfa t ...19911847462
role of hepatocytes and kupffer cells in age-dependent murine hepatitis caused by a phlebovirus, punta toro.punta toro virus (ptv) infection of c57bl/6 mice results in fulminant hepatic necrosis and death in 3-week-old susceptible mice, but survival with minimal hepatocellular necrosis in 8-week-old resistant mice. susceptibility in 3-week-old mice is associated with an earlier rise of viral titers in liver and serum than that occurring in 8-week-old resistant mice. there is also an earlier and more rapid accumulation of infectious progeny in serum vs. liver after ptv infection in both age groups, sug ...19911901906
golgi complex localization of the punta toro virus g2 protein requires its association with the g1 protein.the glycoproteins of bunyaviruses accumulate in membranes of the golgi complex, where virus maturation occurs by budding. in this study we have constructed a series of full length or truncated mutants of the g2 glycoprotein of punta toro virus (ptv), a member of the phlebovirus genus of the bunyaviridae, and investigated their transport properties. the results indicate that the hydrophobic domain preceding the g2 glycoprotein can function as a translocational signal peptide, and that the hydroph ...19911905078
oligomerization, transport, and golgi retention of punta toro virus glycoproteins.we have investigated the oligomerization and intracellular transport of the membrane glycoproteins of punta toro virus, a member of the phlebovirus genus of the family bunyaviridae, which is assembled by budding in the golgi complex. by using one- or two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, chemical cross-linking, and sucrose gradient centrifugation, we found that the majority of the g1 and g2 glycoproteins are assembled into noncovalently linked g1-g2 heterodim ...19911920619
completion of the genome sequence of rift valley fever phlebovirus indicates that the l rna is negative sense and codes for a putative transcriptase-replicase [corrected]. 19911923828
bunyaviridae: pathogenesis. 19911935228
bunyaviridae--natural history.obviously, the family bunyaviridae is comprised of a large number of epidemiologically diverse viruses. they vary dramatically in their vector and vertebrate host relationships, geographic distributions, and epidemic potential in humans and animals. public health practitioners, veterinarians, virologists, entomologists, biologists, ecologists, molecular biologists, and other scientists will all benefit from increased study and knowledge of this fascinating group of viruses.19911935229
central nervous system involvement during infection by phlebovirus toscana of residents in natural foci in central italy (1977-1988).central nervous system (cns) involvement was detected during infection caused by the sand fly-transmitted phlebovirus toscana. one hundred fifty-five cases of toscana virus-associated meningitis or meningoencephalitis were identified in a survey that lasted ten years, conducted in two regions of central italy. diagnosis was performed by different serologic tests. a combination of hemagglutination-inhibition and plaque-reduction neutralization or indirect immunofluorescence for igm, and enzyme-li ...19911951851
nucleotide sequence and rna hybridization analyses reveal an ambisense coding strategy for maize stripe virus rna3.the 2357-nt sequence of maize stripe virus (mstv) rna3 was determined. two nonoverlapping open reading frames (orfs) of opposite polarities are contained in rna3. a 591-nt orf is located near the 5' end of mstv rna3, while a second orf of 948 nt is located near the 3' end in the viral complementary rna (vcrna). in vitro translation of transcripts derived from cdna clones representing regions of each orf was used to identify the respective proteins. a ca. 22,000 mr protein was translated from the ...19912024478
neutralizing antibodies for sandfly fever naples virus in human sera on the island of mljet.sera from apparently healthy residents of various age from different localities of the adriatic island of mljet were tested by the plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt) for antibodies to sandfly fever naples virus (sfn). an average of 51.4% of the sera examined was found to have neutralizing antibodies. reactors to sfn virus were found in all the age groups examined and the antibody prevalence appeared to increase with age. the presence of sfn neutralizing antibodies in all age groups indi ...19902159683
expression strategy of a phlebovirus: biogenesis of proteins from the rift valley fever virus m segment.the middle (m) rna segment of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) encodes four proteins: the major viral glycoproteins g2 and g1, a 14-kilodalton (kda) protein, and a 78-kda protein. these proteins are derived from a single large open reading frame (orf) present in the virus-complementary m-segment mrna. we used recombinant vaccinia viruses in which sequences representing the m-segment orf were engineered as a surrogate system to study phlebovirus protein expression. to investigate the translational ...19902319645
coding strategy of the s rna segment of dugbe virus (nairovirus; bunyaviridae).the s rna segment of dugbe (dug) virus (nairovirus; bunyaviridae) was sequenced from three overlapping cdna clones and by primer extension. the s rna is 1712 nucleotides in length and contains one large open reading frame (orf) of 1326 nucleotides coding for a 49.4-kda protein on viral complementary (vc) rna. this protein in size corresponds to the dug nucleocapsid (n) protein (p. cash, 1985, j. gen. virol. 66, 141-148). the 49.4-kda product was expressed as a fusion protein with beta-galactosid ...19902327076
the occurrence of ephemeral fever in kenya, 1968-1988.ephemeral fever occurs in kenya in epidemics which have been associated with periods of unusually heavy and prolonged rainfall. the epidemics persist for 2-3 years and involve most of the country. they occur in the same years as epizootics of rift valley fever, which is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus infection. sporadic outbreaks of the disease have been associated with local heavy rains; though one outbreak occurred during a dry period. culicoides spp. were generally present in large numbers at t ...19902353443
rio grande--a new phlebotomus fever group virus from south texas.three strains of a new phlebotomus fever group virus were isolated from pack rats (neotoma micropus) collected in south texas during 1973--1974; the name rio grande was proposed for this virus. the virus is ph 3.0 labile, sensitive to the action of sodium deoxycholate and heat (56 degrees c) labile. the results of a serosurvey indicated that pack rats are probably the principal vertebrate host for rio grande virus and that year-round transmission of the virus may occur. because no isolations of ...197720785
antigenic analysis of punta toro virus and identification of protective determinants with monoclonal antibodies.hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to the three major structural proteins of punta toro virus (ptv) were established by fusion of spleen cells with sp2/0-ag-14 mouse plasmacytoma cells. thirty-six independently derived monoclonal antibodies were evaluated in neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, and elisa assays and the isotype, antigen specificities, and cross-reactivities were determined. these antibodies were also assessed for their ability to provide protection in a murine mod ...19882462308
[the etiology of sandfly fever in soviet servicemen in afghanistan]. 19892541564
geographical distribution of arboviruses in yugoslavia.studies of arboviruses started in yugoslavia in 1953 following the isolation of tbe virus which caused a severe epidemic that year. until now the following viruses have been proven to circulate in the country: tick-borne encephalitis (tbe), crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf), bhanja (bha), sandfly fever (sf), tahyna (tah), calovo (cvo), west nile (wn), dengue (den), jug bogdanovac (jb), and hantaviruses. tbe virus is endemic in the north-west part of the country, causing also epidemics in cy ...19911658128
[a natural focus of sandfly fever in the republic of afghanistan].the serological study of persons contacting dengue-like fever in 1987 in afghanistan (in rukha, parwān province) revealed that in 74% of cases an increase in the titers of antibodies to sicilian and neapolitan sandfly [correction of mosquito-borne] fever viruses was registered. considering that such diseases appeared here for a number of years and were linked in time with the activity of sandflies [correction of mosquitoes] of the species phlebotomus papatasii, the suggestion was made on the exi ...19911651638
effect of macrophage source and activation on susceptibility in an age-dependent model of murine hepatitis caused by a phlebovirus, punta toro.the adames strain of a bunyavirus, punta toro virus (ptv), is an hepatotrophic virus that has been described to produce an age-dependent lethal hepatic necrosis in 3-4 week old c57bl/6 mice, but 8 week old mice survive with minimal necrosis. the course of ptv infection in vitro in macrophages derived from these mice served as a model to study the pathogenesis of phlebovirus infection. peripheral blood monocytes, resident or elicited peritoneal macrophages, and kupffer cell liver macrophages, as ...19921370368
[development and use of immunoenzyme analysis for diagnosing sandfly fever]. 19892555967
arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in uganda: a serological survey in karamoja district, 1984.sera collected in may 1984 from 132 adult residents of karamoja district, uganda, were examined by haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against selected arboviruses, namely chikungunya and semliki forest alphaviruses (togaviridae); dengue type 2, wesselsbron, west nile, yellow fever and zika flaviviruses (flaviviridae); bunyamwera, ilesha and tahyna bunyaviruses (bunyaviridae); and sicilian sandfly fever phlebovirus (bunyaviridae); and by immunofluorescence tests against certain hae ...19892559514
development of an enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the sand fly fever viruses detection.an enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa) was recently established for the detection of sandfly naples and sicilian viruses (sfn and sfs) from laboratory infected as well as wild caught sandflies in egypt. optimal dilutions of the reactants including the coating antibodies (rabbit antiserum), detecting antibodies (mouse antiserum), conjugate and the time used for incubation of the substrate (abts) were determined for both sfn and sfs viruses. the elisa test showed to be highly specific and se ...19892562441
assembly of g1 and g2 glycoprotein oligomers in punta toro virus-infected cells.we have studied the oligomerization of the membrane glycoproteins of punta toro virus (ptv), a member of the phlebovirus genus of the family bunyaviridae, and the effect of glycosylation on protein stability and transport. by using sucrose gradient centrifugation, the g1 and g2 glycoproteins in ptv-infected or recombinant-transfected cells were found to sediment as dimers after dsp cross-linking, suggesting that the g 1 and g2 proteins are associated as dimers by non-covalent interactions. pulse ...19921320791
the s rna segment of sandfly fever sicilian virus: evidence for an ambisense genome.the complete nucleotide sequence of the s rna segment of sandfly fever sicilian (sfs) virus (phlebovirus, bunyaviridae) was determined from overlapping cdna clones and by primer extension. the rna is 1746 nucleotides in length and has two large open reading frames (orf), one of which (24.8 kda) is viral-complementary in sense, and the other (30.4 kda) is in the viral sense. this ambisense genome arrangement has been seen in another member of the phlebovirus genus, punta toro (pt) virus (t. ihara ...19892705301
recoverability of rift valley fever and sandfly fever sicilian viruses from infected phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) trapped in various oils.we studied the effects of various oils used to trap sand flies on the recovery of virus from infected adult phlebotomus papatasi. both rift valley fever and sandfly fever sicilian viruses were readily recovered from virus-inoculated specimens held at 26 degrees c on mineral, olive or castor oil-soaked sheets for up to 12 h. however, after 50 h on oil-soaked paper, significantly greater titers were recovered from sand flies trapped with mineral oil than from sand flies trapped with either of the ...19921316427
effect of insecticide spraying for malaria control on the incidence of sandfly fever in athens, greece.sera from 637 athens residents of various age groups were examined by plaque reduction neutralization test for antibodies against naples and sicilian phlebotomus fever viruses. a marked change in the prevalence of antibodies to both agents was observed in persons born after 1946, when residual insecticide spraying for malaria control was initiated in greece. the prevalence of naples and sicilian neutralizing antibodies among residents greater than or equal to 30 years of age was 36% and 13%, res ...1977190909
viruses transmitted by sandflies in italy.five different phlebotomus-transmitted viruses have been isolated in italy. four of them belong to the bunyaviridae family (genus phlebovirus). sandfly fever sicilian and sandfly fever naples viruses were isolated from sick persons during world war ii, toscana and arbia viruses have been isolated more recently from phlebotomus perniciosus and p. perfiliewi. radi virus is the only phlebotomus-transmitted virus isolated in italy from p. perfiliewi, which belongs to the rhabdoviridae family (genus ...19911841253
serological evidence in sheep suggesting phlebovirus circulation in a rift valley fever enzootic area in burkina faso.within the phlebovirus serogroup, rift valley fever (rvf) virus is endemo-enzootic in the african sahelian zone. recently an rvf epizootic in west africa prompted a serosurvey in the major sheep and cattle raising areas. because of the close antigenic relationship between the phleboviruses it appeared of interest to evaluate the prevalence of the other phleboviruses also. in 1987, 482 sheep serum samples were collected in 2 different ecological zones of burkina faso and tested for the presence o ...19921287944
neurovirulent toscana virus (a sandfly fever virus) in swedish man after visit to portugal. 19852860406
multiplication of phlebotomus fever group arboviruses in mosquitoes after intrathoracic inoculation. 1975240026
transmission of toscana virus by sandflies in italy. 19872882214
pathogenesis of a phleboviral infection (punta toro virus) in golden syrian hamsters.the hamster, mesocricetus auratus, was examined as a possible model for investigating the poorly defined pathogenesis of the family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus. punta toro virus (ptv) isolates from eastern panama were highly virulent for two outbred and five inbred hamster strains, while isolates from western panama were of low virulence. the adames strain (eastern panama) of ptv (ld50 approximately 1 pfu, sc) caused an acute fatal disease (average survival time, 3.8 days) in 10-week-old lak ...19902122875
identification of the n and nss proteins coded by the ambisense s rna of punta toro phlebovirus using monospecific antisera raised to baculovirus expressed n and nss proteins.an essentially complete dna copy of the ambisense s rna species of punta toro (pt) phlebovirus (t. ihara, h. akashi, and d.h.l. bishop, 1984, virology 136, 293-306) has been inserted in either orientation into autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (acnpv) in lieu of the 5' coding region of the acnpv polyhedrin gene (g.e. smith, m.d. summers, and m.j. fraser, 1983, mol. cell. biol. 3, 2156-2165). the two types of recombinant viruses were used to infect spodoptera frugiperda cell ...19872950650
effects of ribamidine, a 3-carboxamidine derivative of ribavirin, on experimentally induced phlebovirus infections.ribamidine (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamidine) was inhibitory in rhesus monkey kidney (llc-mk2 derivative) cells to adames and balliet strains of punta toro virus (ptv), a phlebovirus related to rift valley fever and sandfly fever viruses. the 50% effective dose was 8 and 12 micrograms/ml against each respective virus strain; the 50% cytotoxic dose was 320 micrograms/ml, giving selectivity indices of 40 and 27 against each virus strain. the virus ratings were 1.2 and 1.0, res ...19882976263
ambisense segment 3 of rice stripe virus: the first instance of a virus containing two ambisense segments.the complete nucleotide sequence of rice stripe virus (rsv) segment 3 shows that it has two open reading frames, one in the viral-complementary sequence, which codes for the nucleocapsid protein, and the other in the viral-sense sequence. the non-coding region between the ambisense genes in rsv segment 3 contains several u and a tracts, as do the ambisense s segments of phleboviruses and uukuviruses. as we have previously shown that rsv segment 4 has an ambisense nature, this is the first instan ...19911993885
complete sequences of the glycoproteins and m rna of punta toro phlebovirus compared to those of rift valley fever virus.the complete sequence of punta toro virus (phlebovirus, bunyaviridae) middle size (m), rna has been determined. the rna is 4330 nucleotides long (mol wt 1.46 x 10(6), base composition: 26.7% a, 33.6% u, 18.5% g, 21.2% c) and has 3'- and 5'-terminal sequences that, depending on the arrangement, are complementary for some 15 residues. the viral rna codes in its viral-complementary sequence for a single primary gene product (the viral glycoprotein precursor) that is comprised of 1313 amino acids (1 ...19852998043
simulation of arbovirus overwintering: survival of toscana virus (bunyaviridae:phlebovirus) in its natural sand fly vector phlebotomus perniciosus.a series of experiments were done to study the effect of simulated summer and winter temperatures on the development of phlebotomus perniciosus (diptera:psychodidae) and on the survival of toscana virus in transovarially infected insects. sand flies maintained at 28 degrees c developed relatively fast, with adults emerging from 40 to 55 days after initial oviposition. similar results were obtained with insects reared at 25 degrees c. in contrast, sand flies maintained at 15 degrees c developed s ...19921449197
ambisense segment 4 of rice stripe virus: possible evolutionary relationship with phleboviruses and uukuviruses (bunyaviridae).the complete nucleotide sequence of segment 4 of the rice stripe virus (rsv) genome was determined from overlapping cdna clones and by direct rna sequencing. the segment has two long open reading frames (orfs). one of the orfs (534 bases) is in the 5' region of the viral sequence, and the other (858 bases) is in the viral complementary sequence of the viral 3' region. such ambisense genome organizations have been seen previously in rnas of phleboviruses, uukuviruses and arenaviruses. the orf in ...19902374003
[ecology and epidemiology of transmissible viruses of sandflies in italy]. 19863019208
[virological study of cases of sandfly fever in afghanistan].three strains (af-1008, af-1038, and af-130) of neapolitan sandfly fever virus (nsff) and 2 strains (af-1028 and af-83) of sicilian sandfly fever virus (ssff) were isolated from febrile patients among soldiers of the limited military contingent of soviet troops in afghanistan in may-august, 1986-1987. the viruses were isolated in neonate mice and identified by indirect immunofluorescence, complement-fixation tests and plaque reduction neutralization test in vero e6 and spev cells. the new nsff s ...19902163568
biochemical studies on the phlebotomus fever group viruses (bunyaviridae family).analyses of the virion polypeptides and genomes of several phlebotomus fever group viruses, karimabad, punta toro, chagres, and the sandfly fever sicilian serotype viruses, have established that they are biochemically similar to the accepted members of the bunyaviridae family. like snowshoe hare virus (a member of the california serogroup of the bunyavirus genus of the bunyaviridae family), karimabad, punta toro, chagres, and the sandfly fever sicilian serotype viruses all have three viral rna s ...1979225523
uukuniemi virus s rna segment: ambisense coding strategy, packaging of complementary strands into virions, and homology to members of the genus phlebovirus.we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the small (s) rna segment of uukuniemi virus, the prototype of the uukuvirus genus within the bunyaviridae family. the rna, which is 1,720 nucleotides long, contains two nonoverlapping open reading frames. the 5' end of one strand (complementary to the viral strand) encodes the nonstructural protein nss (273 residues; molecular weight, 32,019), whereas the 5' end of the viral-sense strand encodes the nucleocapsid protein n (254 residues; molecula ...19902136709
sand fly fever-naples infection in egypt.two egyptian male patients with sand fly fever-naples virus infection are presented. the virus was isolated from one patient while both patients had diagnostic rises in indirect fluorescent antibody titers to the virus. the viral isolate, sfn 85055, grows to much higher titers and plaques more efficiently than the prototype sand fly fever-naples virus and should facilitate work with this virus.19873037932
transovarial transmission of viruses by phlebotomine sandflies. 1975197865
[rift valley fever and phleboviroses in the central african republic].during 1984 and 1985, six rift valley fever virus strains (rvf) were isolated in central african republic, among them five from human samples. three strains were isolated in 1985 at the end of the rainy season, from sera of patients dead with severe jaundice with haemorrhagic syndrome, what could evoke a little outbreak. at this occasion, these rvf strains and the other strains of phleboviruses previously isolated in car, were antigenically compared by immuno-fluorescent assay (ifa) and compleme ...19883042177
rift valley fever virus m segment: cellular localization of m segment-encoded proteins.the phlebovirus rift valley fever virus (rvfv), like other members of the bunyaviridae family, matures intracellularly at the smooth-surfaced vesicles in the golgi region of infected cells. here we show that in cultured cells the rvfv glycoproteins g2 and g1 accumulate and are retained at this site. to investigate the parameters governing this subcellular localization, we have engineered portions of the cloned rvfv m segment (which encodes a 14- and a 78-kda protein, in addition to glycoproteins ...19883046119
punta toro virus infection of c57bl/6j mice: a model for phlebovirus-induced disease.punta toro virus infections of inbred strains of mice have been characterized and evaluated as a model in which to study various aspects of the host response to phlebovirus infections and the requirements for protective immunity. the adames strain of punta toro virus was found to be strongly hepatotropic and lymphotropic and the outcome of infection was largely a function of age. c57bl/6j mice of less than 5 weeks of age uniformly developed fulminant hepatocellular necrosis with mean survival ti ...19872462155
experimental studies on the maintenance of toscana and arbia viruses (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus).transovarial transmission (tot) of toscana (tos) and arbia (arb) viruses in a laboratory colony of phlebotomus perniciosus is reported. toscana and arb viruses were maintained in p. perniciosus females, initially infected by intrathoracic inoculation, for 2 and 3 consecutive generations respectively. tot was demonstrated in f1 (75%) and f2 (67%) generation adults for tos and f1 (47%), f2 (37%), and f3 (34%) generation adults for arb virus. the progressive decline of virus infection rates in each ...19892545100
[virus transmission to man from phlebotomus flies: role of the tuscany virus (bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) in the etiology of infections of the central nervous system].during field studies on the ecology of arboviruses in italy, strains of a new virus were isolated from sand flies, mostly females, of a pure colony of phlebotomus perniciosus collected in a central italian region (tuscany). the prototype was named toscana (tos) virus, assigned to the phlebotomus fever serogroup of arboviruses (family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus) and registered in 1980 in the international catalogue of arboviruses. neutralizing antibodies to tos virus were detected in human s ...19883152279
ambisense rna viruses: positive and negative polarities combined in rna virus genomes.the coding strategies of arenaviruses (family arenaviridae) and members of the phlebovirus genus of the bunyaviridae differ from those of other negative-sense rna viruses in that some proteins are coded in viral-complementary rna sequences and others are coded in the viral rna sequence. the term ambisense rna has been proposed to denote these unique coding arrangements. the implications of the ambisense rna coding strategy for the evolution and infection processes of these viruses are discussed.19863153160
pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fevers: rift valley fever and lassa fever contrasted.although many viral infections have on occasion been associated with hemorrhagic complications, infection with any of several rna viruses regularly results in vascular involvement and the syndrome called viral hemorrhagic fever (vhf). in spite of clinically useful similarities among various vhfs, there are significant differences in their pathogenesis and clinical evolution; these are often related to characteristics of their viral taxon. infection with rift valley fever (rvf) virus, a phlebovir ...19892665011
rift valley fever virus m segment: use of recombinant vaccinia viruses to study phlebovirus gene expression.recombinant vaccinia viruses were constructed and used in conjunction with site-specific antisera to study the coding capacity and detailed expression strategy of the m segment of the phlebovirus rift valley fever virus (rvfv). the m segment could be completely and faithfully expressed in recombinant rvfv-vaccinia virus-infected cells, the gene products apparently being correctly processed and modified in the absence of the rvfv l and s genomic segments. the proteins encoded by the rvfv m segmen ...19883339714
immunoelectron microscopy of rift valley fever viral morphogenesis in primary rat hepatocytes.the morphogenesis of the hepatotropic phlebovirus rift valley fever virus (rvfv) has been examined by immuno-electron microscopy in primary hepatocyte cultures derived from genetically susceptible and resistant rat strains. rvfv replicates in both cell types with growth kinetics comparable with those seen in other permissive cells. however, in contrast to that has been observed in other cell types, rvfv replication in hepatocytes is associated with maturation at cellular surface membranes in add ...19873499704
clinical and serologic responses of volunteers infected with phlebotomus fever virus (sicilian type).twenty volunteers were inoculated with various doses of human serum containing phlebotomus fever virus (sicilian type) to determine their clinical and serologic responses as well as the human infectious dose50 of the virus. all infected subjects developed fever which varied in duration from 6 to 74 hours. the most common symptoms during sandfly fever were headache, anorexia, myalgia, photophobia, low back and retro-orbital pain. infected individuals developed a marked leukopenia characterized by ...1976180844
complete nucleotide sequence of the m rna segment of uukuniemi virus encoding the membrane glycoproteins g1 and g2.we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the virion m rna segment of uukuniemi virus (uukuvirus genus, bunyaviridae) from cloned cdna. the rna that encodes the two membrane glycoproteins g1 and g2 is 3231 residues long (mol wt 1.1 x 10(6)). the 5' and 3' ends of the rna are partially complementary to each other for some 30 bp, enabling the formation of a stable panhandle structure (delta g = -40 kcal/mol) and the circularization of the molecule. the extreme 5' and 3' terminal nucle ...19873629974
analyses of the mrna transcription processes of punta toro phlebovirus (bunyaviridae).the time course of the syntheses of punta toro (pt) phlebovirus (bunyaviridae) small (s)-size viral rna (s vrna), viral complementary rna (s vcrna), and messenger rna (s mrna) species has been analyzed using single-stranded dna probes representing the two s-coded gene products. the data obtained support the conclusion that pt s rna has an ambisense coding strategy (t. ihara, h. akashi, and d. h. l. bishop, virology 136, 293-306, 1984) with the viral nucleocapsid protein, n, encoded in a viral-co ...19852416115
investigation of sandflies (diptera, phlebotomidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in yugoslavia.the paper presents the results of faunistic, ecological and viral investigations concerning phlebotomine sandflies in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in yugoslavia. these investigations were carried out in the period from 1969 to 1981.19863009286
prophylactic and therapeutic activities of 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine against punta toro virus infections in mice.the biological response modifier 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine was evaluated in mice against the hepatotropic adames strain of punta toro virus. when administered intraperitoneally in divided doses, significant protection from death was conferred at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day given 24 and 17 h pre-virus inoculation, 25-100 mg/kg/day administered 4 h pre- and 3 h post-virus challenge, and 12.5 to 100 mg/kg/day administered 24 and 31 h after virus inoculation. these doses preventing death reduced liver ...19911716090
aetiology of phlebotomus fever in ashkhabad studied in retrospect. 19744156159
serological survey for antibodies to arboviruses in the human population of portugal. 19744371206
antibodies against philebotomus fever viruses in human population of kuwait. 19744376560
novel coding strategy (ambisense genomic rna) revealed by sequence analyses of punta toro phlebovirus s rna.sequence analyses of punta toro viral s rna species indicate the existence of a novel coding strategy for rna viruses that involves both viral complementary and viral sense mrna species. the punta toro nucleocapsid protein (n, 26.9 x 10(3) da) is coded by a discrete viral complementary mrna species corresponding to the 3' half of the viral s rna. a second, presumably nonstructural, gene product (ns, 29.1 x 10(3) da) is coded by a viral sense mrna species that corresponds to the 5' half of the vi ...19846087547
use of bacterial expression cloning to define the amino acid sequences of antigenic determinants on the g2 glycoprotein of rift valley fever virus.four distinct antigenic determinants along the g2 glycoprotein encoded by the m segment rna of the phlebovirus rift valley fever virus were localized. these epitopes were defined by four monoclonal antibodies, three of which were capable of neutralizing virus infectivity; one was nonneutralizing. immunoprecipitation by these monoclonal antibodies of either denatured or native antigen characterized the epitopes as having linear or higher order structure. molecular cloning of g2 glycoprotein-codin ...19862422392
experimental infection of phlebotomus papatasi with sand fly fever sicilian virus.experimental studies were conducted to evaluate humans as hosts infecting the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi with sand fly fever sicilian (sfs) virus. viral antigen and infectious virus circulated in the blood of infected volunteers on days 4 and 5 after intravenous inoculation with sfs virus. viremia levels during the latter period were high enough to infect feeding sand flies, but only 13% (9/69) of the flies became infected. one out of every 3 infected sand flies that survived to feed a second ...19882849886
serological relation between rift valley fever virus and viruses of phlebotomus fever serogroup. 19806103252
the genus phlebovirus and its vectors. 19882829707
in vitro and in vivo phlebovirus inhibition by ribavirin.ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) was markedly inhibitory in vitro to adames and balliet strains of punta toro virus (ptv), a phlebovirus related to rift valley fever and sandfly fever viruses. by using inhibition of viral cytopathic effect in llc-mk2 cells with both virus strains, the 50% effective dose was 4 to 10 micrograms/ml and the virus rating was 1.3. the adames strain of ptv infection in mice was established for evaluation of the in vivo antiviral efficacy ...19883129991
rift valley fever virus (family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus). isolations from diptera collected during an inter-epizootic period in kenya.a total of 134 876 diptera collected in kenya during a 3-year period were tested in 3383 pools for rift valley fever (rvf) virus. nineteen pools of unengorged mosquitoes were found positive for rvf. all isolations were made from specimens collected at or near the naturally or artificially flooded grassland depressions that serve as the developmental sites for the immature stages of many mosquito species. the isolation of virus from adult male and female a. lineatopennis which had been reared fro ...19852862206
viruslike particles in liver in sporadic non-a, non-b fulminant hepatitis.in a patient who followed the typical clinical course of fulminant hepatitis attributable to "sporadic" non-a,non-b (nanb) hepatitis and who finally received treatment by orthotopic liver grafting, three, apparently separate, virus-like agents (26, 45, and 80 nm) and cytoplasmic, reticular tubular structures (cts) were identified in collapsed and regenerating areas of liver using electron microscopy. the 80-nm particles present within vacuoles, together with the finding of intranuclear rods in a ...19892493513
the susceptibility of lutzomyia longipalpis (lutz and neiva), diptera, psychodidae, to artificial infection with three viruses of the phlebotomus fever group. 19806257191
characterization of five new phleboviruses recently isolated from sand flies in tropical america.five new phlebotomus fever virus serotypes (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) are described. these viruses, designated ambe, ixcanal, mariquita, armero, and durania, were isolated from sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) collected in brazil, colombia, and guatemala. two of the agents were recovered from pools of male sand flies. the new viruses are antigenically related to other members of the phlebotomus fever serogroup by immunofluorescence, but are distinct from the other 39 members of this serogroup ...19892543227
morphogenesis of sandfly viruses (bunyaviridae family). 19826287722
antiviral efficacy of pyrazofurin against selected rna viruses.the antibiotic pyrazofurin, 3-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-4-hydroxypyrazole-5-carboxamide, markedly inhibited the in vitro replication of a number of rna viruses including rift valley fever (rvf), venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee), sandfly, pichinde, lassa and lcm virus. plaque formation was reduced by 80% or more with 2-10 micrograms/ml of pyrazofurin while 2 micrograms/ml reduced by 1000-fold the yield of lassa and lcm virus in a yield reduction assay. in vivo, pyrazofurin failed to protect ...19826299188
laboratory infection of the sandfly phlebotomus papatasi scopoli (diptera, psychodidae) with three phleboviruses.membrane feeding and intrathoracic inoculation techniques were used to infect phlebotomus papatasi sandflies with phlebotomus fever group viruses. sandflies were orally infected with pacui virus, and were inoculated with pacui, sicilian sandfly fever and naples sandfly fever viruses. pacui virus did not multiply in these insects after oral infection, but an 8 x 10(4)-fold increase in virus concentration occurred within four days of intrathoracic inoculation of this virus. the infection rate was ...19836304951
characterization of eight new phlebotomus fever serogroup arboviruses (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) from the amazon region of brazil.eight new members of the phlebotomus fever arbovirus serogroup (family bunyaviridae; genus phlebovirus) from the amazon region of brazil are described. one serotype was recovered from a febrile patient, three from small wild animals and four from sand flies. a small serum survey carried out with the human isolate, alenquer virus, suggests that it rarely infects man. complement-fixation and plaque reduction neutralization tests were done, comparing the eight new viruses with other members of the ...19836312820
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