[protective action of remantadine during an influenza outbreak caused by virus a (h1n1) in december 1977].the protective effect of remantadin during an influenza outbreak in december 1977 caused by a (h1n1) virus was studied. a prophylactic administration of remantadin decreased influenza and ard incidence by 1.5-fold. a more significant decrease of the incidence (2.5-fold) was observed among the subjects given a combination of remantadin and influenza vaccine (h3n2) a few days before the outbreak, which was apparently due to the interferon-inducing capacity of the vaccine.1979483772
[oligopeptide mapping of the antigenic drift of influenza virus hemagglutinins].drift variants of influenza viruses of the groups hsw1, h0 and h1 including the a/ussr/77 (h1n1) virus. major subunits of hsw1, h0, and h1 hemagglutinins having common oligopeptides differ considerably in other oligopeptides. within the h1 antigen viruses there are differences between the viruses of the early (1947), middle (1950--1952), and late (1956) periods of circulation. the latter (1956) differ markedly from their predessessors. the a/ussr/77 virus is most close to a/fort warren/50 virus. ...1979483778
[isolation of temperature-sensitive strains of the influenza virus in the epidemic caused by the a/victoria virus in 1975-1976]. 1979483779
[seroepidemiological considerations on the influenza a in umbria (1978) (author's transl)].the authors studied the seroepidemiology of influenza virus a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) and a/urss/90/77 (h1n1) in umbria, in 1978. the percentage of seroprotection against the subtype h3n2 results low and in such do not inhibit the diffusion of this subtype during the next winter season. the study of seroepidemiology of subtype h1n1 demonstrated that this subtype circulated in umbria in the winter 1977-78 and that the conditions exist for its circulation.1979485586
[incidence of antibodies inhibiting hemagglutination by influenza virus a/new jersey/8/76 (hws1n1) in sera of swine and the population of umbria].the authors studied the seroepidemiology of influenza virus a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) in umbria, in animals and human populations. human samples demonstrated seropositive evidence only in those subjects with an age above 50 years. the results from swine samples instead proves the circulation of virus in pigs.1979485593
[moscow influenza--an unexpected guest]. 1979487959
interaction of influenza a virus with human peripheral blood lymphocytes.peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in the presence of phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin a, or pokeweed mitogen were exposed in vitro to influenza a virus. the synthesis of several virus-specific proteins, including the nucleoprotein, membrane protein, and nonstructural 1 protein were detected, although no infectious virus was produced by the lymphocyte cultures. evidence was obtained that only a subpopulation of mitogen-transformed cells would support virus protein synthesis. a comparison of t ...1979489129
neutralization test in influenza: use in individuals without hemagglutination inhibition influenza immunization trials, patients who were seronegative by the hemagglutination inhibition test could be divided into two groups according to preimmunization levels of neutralizing (neut) and neuraminidase inhibition (ni) antibodies. the group with low levels of neut and ni antibodies usually developed adequate levels of hemagglutination inhibition antibody after one dose of vaccine, and the group with undetectable neut and ni antibodies did not.1979489725
human macrophage and lymphocyte responses to mitogen stimulation after exposure to influenza virus, ascorbic acid, and hyperthermia. 1979489966
consensus on amantadine use in influenza a. 1979490842
effect of specific immunity to viral neuraminidase on subsequent influenza virus infection in man. 1979491992
5' and 3' terminal nucleotide sequences of the rna genome segments of influenza virus.extensive nucleotide sequence analysis of the 5' and the 3' terminal of the rna segments of the genome of fowl plague virus, an avian strain of influenza virus, confirms the presence of a common sequence at the 5' terminus of each segment and a common sequence at the 3' terminus of each segment. between the ends of each individual segment there is a complementary sequence which may be important in the control of transcription and replication of the genome. in addition, the probable sites of init ...1979493121
anti-nucleoprotein antibody response in influenza a infection.the nucleoprotein (np) antigen isolated from influenza a virus by solubilization with triton x-100 (tx-100) and further electrophoresis with sds-cellulose acetate membrane gave a single band on sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. rabbit anti-serum hyperimmunized with the np reacted only against the np antigen. moreover, a well-defined single precipitin line was shown between the np and human sera. these results suggested that the np was possible to detect anti-np antibody in human serum. imm ...1979494246
hla antigens and the response to influenza a attempt was made to confirm a previously reported association between hla type b16 and resistance to infection with live attenuated influenza a virus vaccine. no differences were found either in the ability of influenza virus to attach to fractionated white blood cells from hlb b16 subjects compared to cells from subjects of other hla types, nor in the incidence of antibodies to three consecutive epidemic strains of influenza in sera from b16 subjects and control subjects. the association bet ...1979494590
influenza virus infection of a newborn rats: virulence of recombinant strains prepared from a cold-adapted, attenuated parent.infant rats were infected with one of a series of influenza a viruses. the growth of viruses in the turbinates or lungs, and the ability of virus infection to potentiate a subsequent bacterial infection by haemophilus influenzae (hib), were measured. the three virus strains known to be virulent for man grew to relatively high titres of 10(5.2)--10(6.8) ebid50/ml in the turbinates of infant rats at 48 hours post-infection, and virus infection enhanced subsequent systemic infection following intra ...1979496643
antibody response to influenza immunization in adult patients with malignant disease.eight-two patients with solid tumors and lymphomas were immunized with new jersey, hong kong, and victoria influenza vaccines. patients were divided into groups according to treatment: chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or no treatment. four parameters were examined to assess the response to immunization: seroconversion, protective titer level, geometric mean titer, and response to multiple vaccines. patients with lymphoma showed the lowest antibody response. patients with solid tumors had antibody res ...1979498034
[influenza b outbreak and endemic influenza a (h1n1) infections in winter 1978/9 in lower saxony]. 1979498965
[henoch-schoenlein purpura (author's transl)].routine eeg investigations and observance of discrete neurological and psychological symptoms in 13 children in the acute phase of henoch-schoenlein purpura showed that involvement of the central nervous system in this disease is the rule rather than the exception. capillary resistance was reduced in 51 out of 76 investigated children. on the other hand a reduction in factor xiii activity was much less commonly found (n =6). immune complex determination in 28 children, together with antibody stu ...1979498981
appearance of rosette-forming macrophages in the lungs of influenza virus-infected mice.approximately one fifth of the macrophages obtained from the lungs of mice infected 2 to 5 days with influenza a/hk virus were found to rosette well with either unmodified human, chicken, or guinea pig erythrocytes, but not with erythrocytes from hamsters, sheep, or mice. rosette-forming macrophages were seldom seen in suspensions from uninfected mice (3+/-3%) or mice infected 24 h previously (3+/-3%). rosette formation was not due to virus hemadsorption, as indicated by the failure of specific ...1979500196
serum antibody prevents lethal murine influenza pneumonitis but not tracheitis.this paper reports studies showing the effects of serum antibody upon influenza infection at two different sites: the trachea and lung. tracheal desquamation, pulmonary consolidation, death, and virus shedding were examined after infection of mice with a lethal a/port chalmers/1/73 (h3n2) influenza virus. immune serum administered intraperitoneally before infection prevented death and pulmonary consolidation and also significantly lowered lung virus shedding as compared with controls receiving n ...1979500197
behavior of vaccine revertants of temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus in ferret tracheal organ culture.a live attenuated influenza vaccine candidate was not genetically stable when administered to some children who lacked antibody to surface proteins of the virus. to obtain additional biological information about these revertants, the vaccine strain, the wild-type parental strain, and isolates recovered from inoculated children during a vaccine trial were evaluated in ferret tracheal organ culture for effects on the ciliated epithelium and replication at both permissive and restrictive temperatur ...1979500202
live victoria/75-ts-1[e] influenza a virus vaccines in adult volunteers: role of hemagglutinin immunity in protection against illness and infection caused by influenza a explore the relationship between neuraminidase immunity and the degree of attenuatíon of live influenza a virus vaccines, a comparative evaluation of three victoria/75-ts-1[e] (vic/75-ts-1[e]) recombinant viruses in serum hemagglutination-inhibiting-negative (titer, </=1:8) adult volunteers was performed. these three ts-1[e] viruses had a similar restriction of replication at 38 degrees c in vitro, and each possessed the two attenuating genes of the ts-1[e] donor strain (13). however, vic/75- ...1979500204
relationship of genotype of recombinants of influenza a/hong kong/68-ts-1[e]virus used as live virus vaccines to virulence in humans.influenza a/hong kong/68-ts-1[e] virus is a temperature-sensitive mutant developed for use as a live virus vaccine (b. r. murphy, e. g. chalhub, s. r. nusinoff, j. kasel, and r. m. chanock, j. infect. dis. 128:479--487, 1973). this virus and temperature-sensitive recombinants derived by mating it with a/udorn/72, a/georgia/74, or a/victoria/75 wild-type virus have been administered to volunteers in clinical trials on the assumption that the ts-1[e] temperature-sensitive genetic lesions on a poly ...1979500205
reye's syndrome in the united states in 1977-1978, a non-influenza b virus year. 1979501157
comparisons of virulence of influenza virus recombinants in ferrets in relation to their behaviour in man and their genetic constitution.two parent viruses, a/finland/4/74(h3n2) and a/okuda/57(h2n2), virulent and attenuated respectively for man, showed similar differences of virulence in ferrets as judged by estimations of 50% minimal infectious doses (mid50), the level and persistence of nasal infection, the height and duration of pyrexia and the level of lung infection. in ferrets, two recombinant clones, wrl 94(h3n2) and wrl 105(h3n2), were almost as virulent as a/finland and indistinguishable from one another, a result which ...1979501338
carbohydrates of influenza virus. iii. nature of oligosaccharide-protein linkage in viral glycoproteins.four different glycopeptides can be distinguished after pronase digestion of influenza a virus glycoproteins: ia and ib, containing n-acetylglucosamine, mannose, galactose, and fucose, and iia and iib, containing mannose and n-acetylglucosamine. all glycopeptides yielded n-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine after mild acid hydrolysis. there was no evidence for o-glycosidic bonds. thus, the carbohydrate complement is linked to the polypeptide exclusively by n-glycosidic linkages between n-acetylglucos ...1979501797
inhibition of influenza virus uncoating by rimantadine freeze-thaw lysates of mdck cells infected with 32p-labeled influenza virus a/wsn in the presence of added rnase, acid-precipitable radioactivity diminished to about 50% of initial values within 90 min after a 1-h virus adsorption period. a similar preparation containing rimantadine at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml exhibited only a 10% reduction in acid-precipitable radioactivity. these findings suggest that rimantadine interferes with uncoating of influenza virus in infected cells.1979501798
[neuraminidase activity of inactivated influenza vaccines]. 1979502643
[effect of influenza virus antigen v on in vitro phagocytosis of peritoneal granulocytes of guinea pig]. 1979502645
isolation of influenza a virus from budgerigars and its serological characterization.a hemagglutinating agent was isolated from the respiratory organs of budgerigars suffering from diarrhea and malnutrition. this agent, possessing neuraminidase activity, was identified as influenza a virus by the double immunodiffusion test. the results of hemagglutination and neuraminidase-inhibition tests with monospecific antisera to the isolated surface antigens showed that the isolates possessed hav4 hemagglutinin and nav1 neuraminidase subunits both of which were closely related to the cor ...1979502902
complete nucleotide sequence of an influenza virus haemagglutinin gene from cloned dna.a synthetic fowl plague virus (fpv) haemagglutinin gene has been cloned in bacteria and the complete sequence of the rna gene deduced. it is 1,742 nucleotides long and the mrna codes for 56.3 amino acids in an uninterrupted sequence. the nature of some of the important domains in the haemagglutinin has been established, and their structure is discussed in relation to their function. extensive amino acid sequence homologies exist between fpv and human influenza haemagglutinins.1979503226
[new variety of fowl plague virus]. 1979506026
[isolation of influenza virus from reindeer]. 1979506027
[genome of defective interfering influenza virus particles: multiple reactivation of "incomplete" virus detectable by counting hemadsorbing cells].gel electrophoresis reveals additional segments of low molecular mass in rna preparations of "incomplete" (produced by passages of undiluted material according to von magnus) influenza virus which are lacking in rna of the standard virus. when mdck cells are inoculated with the "incomplete" virus, synthesis of virus-specific proteins is observed but the pattern of relationships between the intensity of the synthesis and multiplicity of infection is different from that of the standard virus. quan ...1979506197
[influenza virus a/anas acute/maritime territory/730/76(h3n2) isolated from wild ducks in the maritime territory].a strain a/anas acuta/primorie/730/76 was isolated in the autumn of 1976 from wild pintails in the primorskiy kray, ussr, and found by the h1 and neuraminidase activity inhibition test to be antigenically related to the reference a/hong kong/1/68 strain. the cft showed the a/anas acuta/primorie/730/76 strain to contain in its hemagglutinin 3 antigenic determinants: two common with the a/hong kong/1/68 strain and one the strain-specific, lacking in the human influenza viruses of the h3n2 antigeni ...1979506200
[production of recombinants antigenically identical to influenza virus strains circulating in nature].recombination of a human influenza virus with an avian influenza virus produced a h2nav2 recombinant with the antigenic properties analogous to those of avian influenza virus (h2nav2) isolated from wild ducks in the far east, ussr. recombination of two avian influenza viruses yielded a recombinant h2n2, an antigenic analogues of influenza a/singapore/1/57 (h2n2) virus which had started an epidemic of influenza in 1957.1979506201
[interrelationships between the interfering capacity of an "incomplete" virus and its infectivity].a comparative analysis of uv inactivation curves of the interfering activity of "incomplete" influenza virus and infectivity showed certain differences in the structures responsible for these functions. all the data exclude the role of virus protein and virus-induced interferon of "incomplete" influenza virus and suggest that rna is responsible for this interference. the size of the "target" of the "incomplete" virus interfering capacity calculated on the basis of sensitivity to uv-light is appr ...1979506202
[comparative study of the electrophoretic mobility of the polypeptides from avian influenza viruses type a].a comparative study of the electrophoretic mobility of polypeptides of avian influenza viruses was carried out; molecular weights of polypeptides and their percent content were determined. strains isolated from one host and possessing different hemagglutinin serotypes were found to have different electrophoregrams due to differences in the position of the light or heavy chain of hemagglutinin. hemagglutinins (hav7, heq2, h3) and (hav1, heq1) in virions isolated from different hosts had similar e ...1979506203
isolation and characterization of influenza a viruses from wild free-flying ducks in hokkaido, japan.three influenza a viruses possessing hemagglutinin-hav7 and neuraminidase-n2 were isolated from 20 wild free-flying ducks in hokkaido, japan in autumn, 1977. the neuraminidase antigen of these viruses cross-reacted with the asian influenza virus (h2 n2) but reacted scarcely with the hong kong strain (h3 n2y in cross neuraminidase-inhibition tests.1979506542
laboratory-based surveillance of influenza virus in the united states during the winter of 1977-1978. i. periods of prevalence of h1n1 and h3n2 influenza a strains, their relative rates of isolation in different age groups, and detection of antigenic variants.influenza a (h3n2) viruses were isolated from outbreaks and epidemics of disease during the period december 1977 to march 1978. for the last two months of this period, h1n1 strains of influenza a were also responsible for epidemics. in some regions (e.g., hawaii) co-circulation of h1n1 and h3n2 strains occurred, whereas in other regions (e.g., wisconsin) isolation of h3n2 strains had almost ceased prior to isolation of h1n1 strains. few influenza b isolates were reported. analysis of the ages of ...1979507036
laboratory-based surveillance of influenza virus in the united states during the winter of 1977--1978. ii. isolation of a mixture of a/victoria- and a/ussr-like viruses from a single person during an epidemic in wyoming, usa, january a time when outbreaks and sporadic cases of influenza caused a a/victoria/3/75-like and a/texas/1/77-like h3n2 strain of influenza were occurring in the rocky mountain region of the usa, about 60% of the students of a high school in cheyenne, wyoming, were involved in an outbreak of influenza-like illness. six influenza a(h1n1) virus isolates were obtained from throat swabs collected from 12 of these students. virus isolated from a seventh student, however, contained a mixture of h1 and h3 (a ...1979507037
re: "the swine flu affair: decision-making on a slippery disease". 1979507043
a comparison of the intradermal and subcutaneous routes of influenza vaccination with a/new jersey/76 (swine flu) and a/victoria/75: report of a study and review of the literature.a trail of influenza vaccination, with use of bivalent split virus vaccine (a/new jersey/76 and a/victoria/75), was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and reactions when vaccine was given by the subcutaneous and intradermal routes. volunteers 18 to 24 years old were randomized into equal groups, one group receiving 0.1 ml of vaccine intradermally and the other receiving 0.5 ml subcutaneously. for the a/victoria vaccine, the immunogenicity of the intradermal route seemed superior; for a/new ...1979507256
preliminary characterization of the particles from productive and abortive infections of l cells by fowl plague virus.particles produced during the abortive infection of l cells by fowl plague virus (dobson strain) have been characterized and compared to the infectious particles produced by a mutant of this virus adapted to mammalian cells. the former are of apparently normal morphology but most of them are non-infectious. they have the same rna/protein ratio as the infectious particles and the same polypeptide composition. they contain also the same rna segments as those found in infectious particles. possible ...1979507639
evolution of human influenza a viruses in nature: sequential mutations in the genomes of new h1n1.the genetic variation of the new pandemic h1n1 influenza a viruses isolated in 1977 was analyzed by two-dimensional oligonucleotide fingerprinting and rna sequencing. differences were observed in the fingerprints of the rnas of these viruses, and analysis of the changes suggested that sequential mutations occurred in their genomes. based on these data, a scheme is presented which proposes divergent evolution of strains from a common ancestry. furthermore, it was found that mutations were not res ...1979509526
comparison of protein and dna synthesis assays of guinea pig spleen lymphocytes after stimulation with influenza virus antigen and phytohemagglutinin.two in vitro-methods for demonstration of cell-mediated immune response are compared: protein and dna synthesis for detection of in vitro influenza virus antigen- and mitogen-induced lymphocyte stimulation. guinea pig spleen lymphocytes sensitized with influenza virus antigen were tested in a microadaptation of the lymphocyte transformation test using 14c- or 3h-leucine and 3h-thymidine. as a positive control for t-cell stimulation pha-induced lymphocyte stimulation was measured. the following r ...1979510459
cytogenetic effects of inactivated influenza virus on male germ cells of mice.earlier we reported that both actively replicating (a2 and b) and live but nonreplicating (c) strains of influenza virus induced significant percentages of chromosome aberrations in the spermatogonia of the infected mice, suggesting that virus replication was not essential for the induction of chromosome aberrations. in the present communication, data are presented to demonstrate that the inoculation of formaldehyde-inactivated a2 hong kong influenza virus also induced higher percentages of chro ...1979511155
[variations in resistance of viruses from different groups to chemico-physical decontamination methods].the resistance of a total of 13 different viruses to some important chemico-physical influences was studied under uniform experimental conditions. stability in tape water, thermostability and sensitivity to anodic oxidation, gamma radiation, some virucidal substances and several commercial disinfectants were tested. in evaluating the results, an attempt is made to rank the viruses investigated according to their sensitivity. on average a bovine parvovirus, and also a reovirus and three enterovir ...1979511342
influenza vaccination with live-attenuated and inactivated virus-vaccines during an outbreak of disease.immunization procedures with live attenuated and inactivated vaccines were carried out on a group of young recruits at the beginning of an outbreak of infection due to an a/victoria/3/75-related virus strain, which occurred in february 1977 in a military camp. a retrospective investigation on protection from clinical influenza was then performed in order to investigate whether immunization with live virus vaccines, administered at the beginning of an epidemic, could provide early protection from ...1979512351
antibody to swine influenza virus in serum and nasal secretions of volunteers over the age of 55 years. 1979512423
inhibition of influenza c virus replication by actinomycin d, alpha-amanitin, and uv irradiation.actinomycin d and alpha-amanitin caused similar reductions in the yields of influenza a/wsn and influenza c/jbh/1/66 viruses in a chicken kidney cell culture system. irradiation of host cells with uv light before virus infection also produced a similar reduction in yields of the two viruses. the results indicate a close similarity between the replication processes of influenza c and other orthomyxoviruses.1979513199
[sero-epidemiological study of viral diseases in morocco. presence of hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against the influenza virus (hswl) in the moroccan population in 1975--1977]. 1979513823
[electrophoretic analysis of polypeptides of influenza virus strains a (h-1n-2) isolated in poland and the ussr during the 1977-1978 epidemic]. 1979513899
[case of influenza-induced encephalitis manifested clinically as catatonic-paranoid syndrome]. 1979514858
cerebral embryopathy in late first trimester: possible association with swine influenza infant girl was born with cerebral malformations characterized by developmental arrest late in the first trimester of gestation. these features included persistent pontine flexure, cerebellum developed only around the rhombic lip, failure of migration of inferior olive, absence of basis pontis and of corticospinal and corticopontine tracts, and agenesis of olfactory bulbs. the cerebral cortex was thin and poorly laminated, and primary and secondary sulci had failed to form. the choroid plexus ...1979515967
genetic relatedness of some 1978--1979 influenza h1n1 strains to 1953 h1n1 strain. 1979516453
[epidemic of influenza a (h1ni), 1977--1978].the work deals with the peculiarities of the spread of influenza a/ussr77 (h1n1) in the ussr and in the world. the authors point out that the most outstanding feature of the epidemic in the ussr was low morbidity rate among adults, persons aged up to 25 years being most affected. this suggests the existence of prolonged (up to 20 years) post-influenza immunity. the results of the mathematical pronostication of this epidemic for the territory of the ussr were analyzed and and found to be quite sa ...1979516952
cell-mediated immunity to influenza virus antigen and mitogen in guinea pigs: measurement with a semimicro protein synthesis assay.a rapid and precise method for the assay of cell-mediated immune response basing on protein synthesis stimulation of mitogen-activated guinea pig lymphocytes is modified in a way that enables the study of virus-immunological problems. when used as a micromethod it has the following advantages over conventional methods: short-term cell culture, need of low quantities of cells and rapid preparation of great numbers of samples for radioactivity measurements. in this study we report the results of c ...1979516991
[antiviral activity of different interferon inducers]. 1979517169
probable association of plaque size with neuraminidase subtype among h3n2 influenza a viruses. brief report.the present study demonstrates that the plaque size of certain influenza a h3n2 virus recombinants is dependent on their containing a specific neuraminidase glycoprotein, but is independent of the genes coding for the ha, p3, and np proteins.1979518309
antibody responses to influenza virus vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis. 1979518414
a serological survey for the detection of antibodies to type a influenza viruses in bird sera in india. 1979521088
comparative studies of wild-type and cold-mutant (temperature-sensitive) influenza viruses: independent segregation of temperature-sensitivity of virus replication from temperature-sensitivity of virion transcriptase activity during recombination of mutant a/ann arbor/6/60 with wild-type h3n2 strains.rna 1 (see end of summary) of a cold-adapted and temperature-sensitive (ts) influenza virus mutant a/ann arbor/6/60 has a different mobility from rna 1 of wild-type (wt) a/ann arbor/6/60 when subjected to electrophoresis through acrylamide/agarose gels in the absence of denaturing agents. detection of this lesion in rna 1 of the mutant virus was dependent on the temperature of the gel during electrophoresis. because rna 1 is believed to code for a protein involved in virus-specific rna synthesis ...1979521798
correlation of pathogenicity and gene constellation of influenza a viruses. iii. non-pathogenic recombinants derived from highly pathogenic parent strains.we have demonstrated by recombination of two highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses [a/fpv/rostock (hav1n1) x a/turkey/england/63 (hav1nav3)] that recombinants can be isolated which are pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic for chickens. they carried the glycoproteins of either parent strains, and all are produced in infectious form in chick embryo cells. genetic analysis revealed that the non-pathogenic recombinants possess a mixed rna polymerase complex, consisting of pol 1, pol 2, ptra and ...1979521799
the localization of influenza virus in the respiratory tract of ferrets: susceptible nasal mucosa cells produce and release more virus than susceptible lung cells.infectious virus production by ferret nasal mucosa and lung organ cultures has been monitored in both tissue pieces and medium over 24 h following inoculation with an asian (h2n2) strain of influenza virus. freshly prepared cultures of nasal mucosa produced approx. 10-fold more virus per cell than fresh lung cultures. also the nasal mucosa cells liberated into the medium a greater proportion (mean 31%) of the total virus produced than did fresh lung (mean 6%). maintenance of lung explants for 24 ...1979521800
differentiation of the haemagglutinin genes of variant influenza viruses by rna-rna hybridization.the genetic compositions of four antigenic variants of a/memphis/1/71 (h3n2) influenza virus, which were selected by growth in the presence of monoclonal antibodies against the haemagglutinin, were compared. the results indicate that the mutant haemagglutinin genes can be differentiated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the double stranded rna hybrids formed between virion rna and transcripts isolated from infected cells.1979521805
[myxovirus influenzae (author's transl)]. 1979523429
the first isolation of animal influenza virus in israel. 1979524710
[influenza virus neuraminidase and its role in anti-influenzal immunity].the direct relationship between immunogenicity of h3n2 formolvaccine and neuraminidase activity was established. a single intranasal immunization of mice with the vaccine having a titer of hemagglutinin 1:20,000-1:40,000 in 0.5 ml with active neuraminidase increased the resistance of the animals to the challenge with mouse-adapted influenza a/ussr/053/74 (h3n2) virus almost 5-fold. a vaccine with the same hemagglutinin titer but with neuraminidase inactivated by physico-chemical factors or block ...1979524858
[etiological study of the fatal cases in the period of the influenza a epidemic of 1977-1978].the etiology of the disease, the age structure of fatalities, the time of death were studied in 34 fatal cases in the period of influenza a (h1n1) epidemic in december 1977-february 1978 and in 33 fatal cases during influenza a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) epidemic in january-march, 1975 (data from some autopsy offices of kiev). the results of the investigation of the etiology by immunofluorescence and the histological methods were mostly similar. the polyetiological structure of the diseases in the inf ...1979524859
[strain specificity of the antineuraminidase antibodies of influenza virus serotype n2 strains in convalescents].antineuraminidase antibody was determined in the subjects who had suffered influenza during the epidemics of 1970-1975 in the gdr. as early as 1970 the highest titers of antibody (greater than or equal to 1:60) were found not only to the prototype a/hong kong/1/68 strain but also to its subsequent drift variants a/england/42/72, a/port chalmers/1/73. some subjects had antineuraminidase antibody to avian influenza virus.1979524860
[classical fowl plague virus reproduction in the body of aedes aegypti mosquitoes].the results of the studies on fowl plague virus (fpv, rostok strain) reproduction in aedes aegypti mosquitoes are presented. the virus-containing allantoic fluid was inoculated intrathoracally in volumes of 0.1 and 0.2 microliter. the virus was isolated in chick embryos and could be detected at 5--14 days after inoculation. after inoculation of 0.1 microliter of virus it could be detected in doses of 0.5, 2.0, 1.75 ig2 id50, after inoculation of 0.2 microliter--in doses of 5, 1.5, and 0.5 ig2 id ...1979524861
studies on the use of interferon inducers in man and animals. 1979525157
natural history of influenza in swine in hawaii: swine influenza virus (hsw1n1) in herds not infected with obtain more information on mechanisms by which influenza virus is perpetuated in swine, retrospective and prospective seroepizootiologic observations were made in swine herds in hawaii, beginning in 1974. an epizootic of swine influenza (hsw1n1) virus was observed in november and december 1976, involving 31 of 41 herds. features of the epizootic included (1) infection of all herds within one geographic location, during a short period; (2) no obvious introduction of virus from the outside in m ...1979525918
natural history of influenza in swine in hawaii: prevalence of infection with a/hong kong/68 (h3n2) subtype virus and its variants, 1974-1977.from september 1974 to january 1978, about 25% of 254 swine farms, studied on four of six hawaiian islands, had swine with antibody to a/hong kong/68 (h3n2) subtype of influenza virus. of 290 swine 2 to 5 years of age in a single herd, 72% had antibody. antibody titers were consistently higher to a/england/42/72 and a/port chalmers/1/73 antigens than to a/victoria/3/75 or a/hong kong/1/68 antigen. few swine had antibody to the a/hong kong/68 antigen. antibodies to h3n2 and hsw1n1 subtype of viru ...1979525919
amantadine aerosol in well volunteers and three patients with a naturally occurring influenza a/ussr/77 (h1n1)-like infection were given amantadine by small-particle aerosol with a collison generator modified for this purpose. inhalation periods for the volunteers were increased on consecutive weekends from 15 min to 1 h, 4 h, 9 h, and 2 consecutive days of 6 h each. the particle size was 1.2-micrometer mass median diameter, and the concentration of inhaled aerosol ranged from 47 to 75 microgram/liter. estimate ...1979525996
amantadine aerosols in normal volunteers: pharmacology and safety testing.the acceptability and pharmacology of intermittent aerosol administration of amantadine was assessed in healthy volunteers. amantadine solutions of 2.5, 1.5, or 1.0 g/100 ml were used for 12 30-min, twice-daily aerosol treatments in 15 subjects. overall, the aerosol treatments were well tolerated. during and up to 1 h after aerosol exposures, nasal irritation, rhinorrhea, dysgeusia, or a combination of symptoms was experienced by some of the subjects receiving either of the two higher amantadine ...1979526007
characterization of influenza virus rna transcripts synthesized in vitro.polyadenylated transcripts synthesized in vitro by detergent-disrupted influenza virus resemble virus mrnas in that they possess the complement of the 3' terminus of the genome rnas but lack sequences corresponding to the same 5' terminal region, including the homologous sequence of nucleotides 1 to 22. transcription is initiated at the 3' terminus by both apg and gpg as well as in the absence of added primer.1979528978
amantadine-resistant and -sensitive influenza a strains and recombinants.several influenza a strains and recombinants of fowl plague virus (fpv) with a known gene constellation were tested for amantadine sensitivity under two different experimental conditions. in a haemagglutinin yield analysis of a single growth cycle experiment fpv was found to be highly sensitive to amantadine, while in the plaque reduction and inhibition test it was highly resistant. with the a3 hong kong and equi 2 strains the opposite observation was made. the a2 singapore strain was sensitive ...1979528983
[effect of the ionic form of cationite on influenza virus sorption]. 1979530114
identification of avian influenza virus isolated from a turkey farm in israel. 1979532061
identification of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild mallard ducks in israel. 1979532069
antibody responses to inactivated influenza vaccines and partial protective effect of anti-neuraminidase antibody against epidemics of a(h3n2) and a(h1n1) influenza. 1979533537
interference with glycosylation of glycoproteins. inhibition of formation of lipid-linked oligosaccharides in vivo.influenza-virus-infected cells were labelled with radioactive sugars and extracted to give fractions containing lipid-linked oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. the oligosaccharides linked to lipid were of the 'high-mannose' type and contained glucose. in the glycoprotein fraction, radioactivity was associated with virus proteins and found to occur predominantly in the 'high-mannose' type of glycopeptides. in the presence of the inhibitors 2-deoxy-d-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-amino-d-glucose (glucosamin ...1979534512
adaptation of the influenza virus a2-pol 29/69 to the cells of the chinese hamster lung (chl) and to the cells the course of research of the possibilities of adapting the influenza virus serotype a 2-pol 29/69 to bhk-21 and chl cells its production was established in the investigated combinations. an indication of virus replication is an increase in infectious and haemagglutination titres within 48 h after infection and gradual increase in haemadsorption. observation of the influence of trypsin (10 microgram/ml) indicates that trypsin increases the capability of viruses to penetrate the cells. the cyt ...1979535814
investigation on the outbreak of influenza by a/ussr/77 virus strain in pune, maharashtra in 1978. 1979535966
isolation of duck influenza virus from tirunelveli town in tamil nadu. 1979535967
replication of influenza viral strains in testicular and lung tissues of mice. 1979540999
reinfection with influenza a (h3n2) virus in young children and their families.the frequency and consequences of reinfection with influenza a virus were studied by longitudinal observation of families for a three-year period in which two epidemics of influenza a (h3n2) occurred. seven children followed from birth were reinfected 10-25 months after their first infection. two children were reinfected by the same h3n2 virus while the others were reinfected with a closely related variant. at least five of these reinfections were accompanied by respiratory illness. reinfection ...1979541521
secretory immunity in influenza.the dynamics of secretory antibody formation, the duration of secretory antibody preservation, and changes in the concentration of secretory antibodies to antigens other than influenza virus were studied in 64 patients with influenza a, 105 patients with influenza b, and 23 persons who had had influenza a. severe forms of influenza a were accompanied by antibody accumulation in sera and nasal secretions; in some cases of mild forms of this infection, this process was limited by the humoral immun ...1979541522
newly synthesized influenza virus proteins are transported from the nucleus.newly synthesized nuclear np, m and ns1 proteins migrated from the nucleus over a period of several hours. rates of transport were higher for np than for m or ns1 and suggest that nuclear np may play a role in multiplication.1979541669
cytoplasmic and nuclear input virus rnps in influenza virus-infected cells.chicken fibroblasts and mdck cells were infected with influenza virus labelled with either 3h-uridine or 14c-amino acids, and the location in infected cells and properties of input virus-labelled structures were studied. input virus rna and protein were found in the cytoplasm of nuclei 1 h p.i. a part of the intranuclear parental structures was associated with chromatin while the other part could be extracted from nucleoplasm by 0.16 m-nacl and represented free ribonucleoprotein (rnp) particles. ...1979541671
the structural and infected cell polypeptides of influenza b virus.structural and virus-induced infected cell polypeptides of several strains of influenza b virus were examined by high resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and shown to be directly analogous to those of the influenza a viruses. eight structural polypeptides, p1, p2, p3, ha1, ha2, na, np and m were observed in purified virus and at least two additional polypeptides, ha and ns could be detected in infected mdck cells. the three p proteins plus np were shown to be associated with rna-depen ...1979541675
'red'flu': a study of an epidemic in a girls' boarding school in february 1978.all the girls at a boarding school who presented with symptoms of influenza were interviewed and examined. their symptoms and signs were recorded and related to age, date of last menstrual period, and previous influenza immunization.the age of the girls had no influence on the incidence of disease, nor did the number of girls in each form. however, the attack rate among those not immunized was 61 per cent and those not immunized 71 per cent. there was a highly significant variation in the incide ...1979541788
influenza. 1979542444
recombination as a mechanism in the evolution of influenza viruses: a two-year study of ducks in hong analysis was made of 149 influenza a viruses isolated from ducks in hong kong during the period of november 1975 through october 1977. the viruses were isolated five times more frequently from ducks raised in the people's republic of china than from those raised in hong kong. the isolation rate fo viruses was higher from the cloaca than it was from the trachea, but this pattern varied over the two years of investifation. the large number of different combinations (30) of hemagglutinin and neu ...1979542763
enzyme immunoassay of antibodies to influenza a virus in nigerian children.although attempts have been made to define the significance of influenza a virus infection serologically in children from developing countries, this has not been done in nigeria. based on this study of sera by the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from 179 healthy nigerian children aged between 0--5 years of age, a prevalence rate of influenza a virus infection of 40.22% has been demonstrated. this is more significant during 1--4 years of age and particularly between 2--3 years. the cl ...1979542986
epidemiology of influenza in anambra and plateau states of nigeria. 1979543264
postepidemic spreading by wild birds of the influenza a virus variant victoria/75. 1979543457
structure of bromelain-released influenza virus haemagglutinin as revealed by electrophoresis, sedimentation and electron microscopy.sigma bromelain (ec was used to isolate the haemagglutinin (ha) from the mrc-11 (h3n2) and a/u.s.s.r./90/77 (h1n1) influenza a virus strains. sedimentation analysis of bromelain-solubilized preparations revealed 9.5s and 5.5s protein components, the former being identified as the bromelain-released haemagglutinin (bha). no residual neuraminidase (na) activity was detected in the bha isolated from the mrc-11 strain whereas up to 80 per cent of the enzymatically active na was found to be ...1979543801
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