responses of elderly and chronically ill subjects to bivalent influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1)-a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) vaccines.antibody responses and side effects to bivalent influenza a virus vaccines from three different manufacturers, containing 200 or 400 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units each of a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) and a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) antigens, were evaluated in 234 ambulatory elderly and chronically ill volunteers in a placebo-controlled, doubld-blind study. systemic reactions did not occur significantly more often among recipients of vaccine than among volunteers who received placebo. local react ...1977342625
studies of inactivated influenza virus vaccines in hospital employees: reactogenicity and absenteeism.the impact of a mass influenza vaccination program on the operation of a major medical center was evaluated in adult volunteer employees who were given either ether-split or whole-virus bivalent influenza vaccine in a double-blind manner by jet-injector gun. each volunteer completed a reaction information form, nurses monitored temperatures, and data on absenteeism of the employees of the nursing service and the building management service were collected. the results of this study demonstrated t ...1977342626
swine influenza virus vaccination in patients with multiple sclerosis.a double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of inactivated influenza virus vaccines in patients with multiple sclerosis. the vaccine used contained 200 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units of influenza a/new jersey/76 and 200 cca units of influenza a/victoria/75 whole viruses (merrell-national laboratories, cincinnati, ohio). the frequency of clinical relapses of multiple sclerosis was the same in the vaccine-treated (four of 33 patients) and placeb ...1977342627
reactivity and immunogenicity of monovalent a/new jersey/76 influenza virus vaccines in children.this paper presents the methodology of the multicenter collaborative clinical trials that evaluated monovalent a/new jersey/76 influenza virus vaccines in healthy children six months to 18 years of age and describes the experience involving 264 children six months to 10 years of age in omaha, nebraska. results indicated that chidren can be safely and effectively immunized with carefully adjusted two-dose regimens that take into account the differences between split-virus and whole-virus vaccines ...1977342628
monovalent inactivated a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) vaccine in healthy children aged three to five years.single doses (50, 100, or 200 chick cell-agglutinating [cca] units) of split-product or whole-virus (50 or 100 cca units), monovalent inactivated a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus vaccine or placebo were given to healthy children aged three to five years in maryland. split-product vaccine was nonreactogenic but also virtually nonimmunogenic. lower doses of whole-virus vaccine (50 cca units of merck, sharp and dohme [west point, pa.] and 50 or 100 cca units of merrell-national laboratories [cincin ...1977342629
clinical reactions and serologic responses in healthy children aged six to 35 months after two-dose regimens of inactivated a/new jersey/76 influenza virus collaborative clinical trials, two-dose regimens of four monovalent a/new jersey (nj)/76 influenza virus vaccines were evaluated in 89 children aged six to 35 months. clinical reactions to vaccination consisted primarily of low-grade fever. rectal temperatures of between 100 f and 102 f occurred less frequently after inoculation with split-product vaccines (seven [23%] of 31 children) than whole-virus vaccines (19 [33%] of 58). after administration of single doses of vaccines, titers of hemag ...1977342630
clinical trials with inactivated monovalent (a/new jersey/76) and bivalent (a/new jersey/76-a/victoria/75) influenza vaccines in los angeles children.clinical and serologic responses to inactivated influenza virus vaccines were studied in 444 children in los angeles under doubld-blind, placebo-controlled protocols. one- and two-dose regimens employing monovalent (a/new jersey/76) and bivalent (a/new jersey/76-a/victoria/75) vaccine were studied in separate trials. in a single dose, whole-virus vaccines were more potent than split-product vaccines as primary inducers of immunity against influenza a/new jersey/76 virus. split-product vaccines w ...1977342631
igm and igg antibody responses after immunization of children with inactivated monovalent (a/new jersey/76) and bivalent (a/new jersey/76-a/victoria/75) influenza virus vaccines.the character of the immune response to inactivated monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 and bivalent influenza a/new jersey/76-a/victoria/75 vaccines was studied in children six months to 18 years of age. titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody in sera taken after vaccination were measured before and after treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol. igg antibody predominated in responses to the influenza a/victoria/75 component of bivalent vaccines. in contrast, specific igm antibody to influenza ...1977342632
serologic responses to split and whole swine influenza virus vaccines in light of the next influenza pandemic. 1977342633
correlation between rate of infection and preexisting titer of serum antibody as determined by single radial hemolysis during and epidemic of influenza a/victoria/3/75.during an outbreak of infection with wild-type influenza a/victoria/3/75 virus, a correlation was established between the rate of infection and the preepidemic titer of serum antibody to that virus as measured by the single radial hemolysis technique. titers of antibody determined by the hemagglutination inhibition method as well as by the single radial hemolysis technique were directly correlated with the rate of infection. by use of the single radial hemolysis technique, the 50% protective tit ...1978342641
preparation of projection-less particles from influenza virus and their messenger activities in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.a fraction of projection-less particles was prepared from influenza a/dunedin/4/73 and a/victoria/3/75 (x-47) (h3n2) by detergent treatment and extraction into ether at 0 degrees c. the activity of this material in stimulating protein synthesis in vitro was studied and compared with that of isolated virion rna using a) an rna-dependent e. coli system, and b) a wheat germ system. in the bacterial system the purified rna had the highest template activity, while in the eukaryotic system the disrupt ...1978343752
influenza virus transcription. 1978347032
[study of the effect of rimantadine on the course of mixed viral-bacterial infection in albino mice].the results of the study of rimantadine effectiveness in a viral-bacterial infection in white mice caused by a mixture of influenza a2 virus (10 ld50) and hemolytic streptococcus group a (350 million bacteria). the drug showed no prophylactic or therapeutic effect in the mixed infection, whereas in influenza infection in the animals which served as a positive control rimantadine had marked antiviral activity (p less than 0.001). it is assumed that the lack of the drug effectiveness against the m ...1978347720
serological evidence of continuing infection of swine in great britain with an influenza a virus (h3n2).serum samples collected from swine and cattle in great britain at various times between july 1971 and july 1977 were examined by haemagglutination-inhibition or single radial haemolysis methods for evidence of infection with influenza a (h3n2) viruses. a small proportion of swine sera collected in each year reacted in the tests but there was no evidence of infection in cattle. the significance of the findings is discussed, with particular reference to the seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence ...1978349075
[determination of antibodies against influenza viruses, using the elisa method].a microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was adapted for the demonstration of antibodies to influenza a and b in 25 paired acute and convalescent sera taken from patients with influenza a infection, in 11 single convalescent sera collected from patients with acute respiratory infection and serological evidence of influenza b infection, in 14 paired sera collected from volunteers who were vaccinated with an aqueous inactivated influenza a and b vaccine, and in 15 serum sam ...1978350238
effective protection against influenza after vaccination with subunit vaccine.immunization with an influenza subunit vaccine given in one dose about 1 month to 2 months before onset of an epidemic of influenza afforded from 80% to 90% protection in a double-blind clinical trial which was supported by isolation of virus and serological studies. in the vaccinated group, 20% failed to develop antibodies to the vaccine. either serology tests or attempted isolation of virus alone would have failed to detect some of the cases.1978351351
[study of the immunological activity of blood in various rickettsial and viral infections].the content of various types of antibodies were studied in the blood serum of laboratory animals in experimental tick-borne rickettsiosis of northern asia. this was done by a simultaneous staging of indirect hemagglutination, indirect hemolysis, compliment fixation under cold conditions, and agglutination with proteus antigen ox19 tests. immune horse sera to the influenza virus were also studied with the aid of several serological tests. the data obtained pointed to the significant differences i ...1978352050
comparison of immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase methods for viral diagnosis at a distance: a who collaborative study.nasopharyngeal secretions collected in newcastle were examined in both newcastle and stockholm for the presence of influenza virus type a and respiratory syncytial (rs) virus by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques. a total of 139 specimens were examined in this way and the agreement between the two centres for immunofluorescence was 94% for influenza virus a, 95% for respiratory syncytial virus, and 95% for negative specimens. this technique can therefore be used for examining spe ...1978352565
[migration of influenza virus genes in the biosphere (hypothesis and its basis)]. 1978358700
airway hyperreactivity and peripheral airway dysfunction in influenza a infection.we studied 39 consecutive college students with documented nonpneumonitic influenza a/victoria/3/75/h3n2 infection to examine alterations in pulmonary mechanics and airway reactivity to cholinergic challenge, and to assess the effect of the antiviral agent amantadine on these changes. thirty-six of the 39 subjects (92 per cent) demonstrated diminished forced flow rates and decreased density-dependent forced flow rates while breathing a helium-o2 mixture as compared to an air mixture. on initial ...1978358877
virus replication in the digestive tract of ducks exposed by aerosol to type-a influenza.enteric infection and cloacal shedding of influenza virus was demonstrated in ducks exposed experimentally to an aerosol of an avirulent type-a influenza virus. the fluorescent-antibldy technique was used to identify sites of virus replication in the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and the bursa.1978358960
antigenic drift in influenza a viruses. i. selection and characterization of antigenic variants of a/pr/8/34 (hon1) influenza virus with monoclonal antibodies.antigenic variants of a/pr/8/34 [hon1] influenza virus were selected after a single passage of the parent virus in embryonated chicken eggs in the presence of monoclonal antibodies to this virus. the monoclonal antibodies were produced by a hybridoma and were specific for an antigenic determinant on the ha molecule of the parent virus. seven antigenic variants were analyzed with 95 monoclonal anti-ha antibodies prepared in vitro in the splenic fragment culture system. three subgroups of antigeni ...1978359746
the 1976 influenza epidemic in melbourne.some aspects of the 1976 influenza epidemic are described and compared with findings in previous years. rapid diagnostic techniques gave encouraging results, but were less sensitive than conventional techniques. a higher rate of virus isolation was obtained from nasopharyngeal aspirates than from pooled nose and throat swabs.1978362139
detection of cells producing surface antigen-specific antibody to influenza viruses.b cells producing antibodies to influenza virus antigens were detected and quantitated by a hemolytic plaque assay. responses of mice after primary infection and immunization with influenza viruses were measured and compared with responses after secondary immunization. the b-cell responses were specific and differentiated between a and b influenza viruses and between different subtypes of a influenza viruses. responses to closely related influenza a virus strains of the h3n2 subtype cross-reacte ...1978363742
detection of antigenic variation in influenza virus neuraminidase by the essen-nit and the who standard procedure.a new rapid modified micro-neuraminidase-inhibition test (essen-nit) has recently been described. this test was originally devised to facilitate large-scale screening for serum antibodies to influenza virus neuraminidase. it was shown that this test yielded results comparable to those obtained with the who standard procedure. our report presents data on the comparison between the who method and the essen-nit with respect to their capability in detecting antigenic differences in neuraminidase of ...1978364282
[radial hemolysis in the diagnosis of influenza virus infections].some of the parameters of the radial haemolysis test were studied, and the test was used to determine antibody titres of sera obtained from patients involved in the epidemic outbreak of influenza-a/port chalmers, 1975. the sensitivity of the method was found to depend on the degree of erythrocyte sensitisation. an enlargement by 40 per cent of the haemolytic halo diameter should be considered and treated as antibody rise, if the reaction was to used in serological diagnosis under the conditions ...1978365119
functional and structural considerations in the recognition of virus-infected cells by cytotoxic t lymphocytes. 1978365446
regional t- and b-cell responses in influenza-infected ferrets.ferrets were infected with a/port chalmers/72 influenza virus and the t- and b-cell responses in the spleen, in lymph nodes draining the upper and lower respiratory tract, and in lung washings were examined in vitro. lymphocyte responses were measured by using a hemolytic plaque assay for b cells and a proliferation assay for t cells. virus and antibody levels were measured in respiratory tract washings, and antibody titers were measured in sera from infected animals. individual b cells secretin ...1978365744
[a new influenza subunit vaccine: hemagglutinating antibodies one year after vaccination (author's transl)].the antibody response to a new influenza subunit vaccine was compare d one year after vaccination with the responses induced by two other influenza vaccines. the subunit vaccine was given either in a high dose form containing 2100 iu, or in a low dose form containing 700 iu. as comparison a split vaccine was used containing 800 iu and ai(oh)3 as adjuvant and a whole virus vaccine containing 2100 iu. of the 399 vaccinated subjects which had taken part in this study 151 were available for hemagglu ...1978365774
modulation of influenza in mice by transfer factor therapy. 1978366134
response to influenza a vaccine among high-risk recent years, it has been recommended that "high-risk" patients receive influenza immunizations annually. during the 1976 national influenza immunization program, a higher priority was given to these patients than to the general population. the present study was undertaken to compare the antibody response of high-risk patients with that of a group of individuals with no underlying disease after immunization with 0.5 ml of bivalent, split-virus vaccine containing 200 cca units each of influenz ...1979366766
ecology of influenza viruses in lower mammals and birds. 1979367482
epidemiology of influenza in man. 1979367483
primary structure of the hong kong (h3) haemagglutinin. 1979367487
structure of the haemagglutinin of influenza virus. 1979367488
immune responses to influenza virus in the mouse, and their role in control of the infection. 1979367489
determinants of immunity to influenza infection in man. 1979367490
vaccination against influenza a. 1979367491
inhibitors of influenza virus replication. 1979367492
global surveillance of influenza. 1979367493
prevention of russian influenza by amantadine.we tested the effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride in prevention of illness and infection caused by russian (h1n1) influenza. the trial lasted seven weeks and was double-blind and placebo controlled. the dosage used was 200 mg daily. efficacy in prevention of serologically confirmed clinical influenza was 70.7%. efficacy in prevention of infection, symptomatic or asymptomatic, was 39.4%. side effects seen were all mild, began within two days of the start of the trial, and terminated rapidly ...1979368354
adherence of group b streptococci and human erythrocytes to influenza a virus-infected mdck cells. 1979368814
epidemiology of guillain-barré syndrome.the only measures of morbidity for guillain-barré syndrome in well-defined populations in the continental united states come from olmsted county, minnesota, and san joaquin county, california. the estimated incidence rates are between 1 and 2 cases per 100,000 population per year. despite the hazards of generalizing from such small samples, these are the only estimates available. large case series have suggested that the syndrome is more common in males, that it may occur at any age, and that it ...1978369322
the united states swine influenza immunization program: a new york city perspective. 1979369639
rapid subtyping of influenza a virus isolates by membrane fluorescence.during the winter of 1977-1978 three influenza a virus serotypes (a/vic/3/75, a/texas/1/77 [both h3n2], and a/ussr/90/77 [h1n1]) circulated in denver, offering us the opportunity to apply fluorescent antibody techniques to the specific identification of these viruses. surface antigens of infected, unfixed primary monkey kidney cells were stained in suspension by an indirect immunofluorescence technique with anti-h3n2 and anti-h1n1 antisera. in tests of cells infected with known viruses, the memb ...1979372228
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis associated with influenza.fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis may follow viral influenza infections. two cases with verified influenza a infection were followed by fatal necrotizing pneumonia due to aspergillus fumigatus. both patients demonstrated cutaneous anergy and lymphocytopenia. influenza and perhaps other viruses that depress t-cell function may result in increased susceptibility to infections in which t cells are important in host defenses.1979372590
[genome structure of influenza virus]. 1978373248
[use of peroxidase and fitc labeled antibodies for express-diagnosis of influenza].the evaluation of influenza antigen detection was done in comparative experiments on the same material during an epidemic of influenza due to a2/victoria (h3n2) influenza virus. cells of the nasal mucosa from 65 patients were tested at the same intervals by two methods showing no difference in the principle of the reaction: peroxidase-labeled (ip) and fitc-labeled (if) antibody. by the latter method influenza could be diagnosed in 36% of cases, by ip in 38%, by the combination of the two in 56%. ...1978373251
swine influenza vaccination in a dialysis and transplant population. 1978374434
immunofluorescence determination of the pathogenesis of infection with influenza virus in mice following exposure to aerosolized virus.the pathogenesis of infection with influenza a virus in mice was studied by exposure of specific pathogen-free mice to aerosols of influenza virus and by monitoring of mortality, viral titers in lung homogenates, and presence of viral antigens in respiratory cells as determined by immunofluorescence. in two experiments with different death rates (100% and 43%), viral antigen accumulated in the epithelial cells lining the airways, in alveolar macrophages, in alveolar cells, and in visceral pleura ...1979374648
live influenza vaccine: screening of attenuated virus strains by a 50% ciliary activity inhibition test in organ cultures of ferret trachea.this study of three live attenuated inhibitor-resistant influenza vaccines showed that these preparations are usually antigenic and that they caused no significant reactions when characterized by an index of attenuation equal to or slightly better than 1.0 arbitrarily attributed to the 'reference' attenuated a/hong kong/68 strain of beare and bynoe. this index, measured in vitro on ferret tracheal rings, is expressed as the ratio of the time required for ciliary activity inhibition of 50% of the ...1979378337
adherence of bacteria to mammalian cells: inhibition by tunicamycin and b streptococci were labeled either by growing the cells in [14c]fructose or by using the surface label 4,4'-[3h]diisothiocyano-1,2-diphenylethane-2,2'-disulfonic acid, which reacts with amino groups. a quantitative assay was developed by using these labeled bacteria to study the adherence of streptococci to canine kidney epithelial cells. the bacteria adhered to kidney cells that had been infected with influenza a virus, but did not adhere to uninfected cells. the binding of 3h-labeled gro ...1979378976
preparation of sera for subtyping of influenza a viruses by immunofluorescence.the conditions for preparation of type-specific and subtype-specific influenza a virus reagents to be used in the immunofluorescence technique have been evaluated. type a-specific antibodies were prepared by passing an antivirion hyperimmune serum through an immunoadsorbent column containing antigens from disrupted virions of a different influenza a virus subtype. the type-specific antibodies were recovered from the immunoadsorbent by desorption with 3 m nai. for subtype determination, antisera ...1979381525
comparison of the protective efficacies of the live vaccine rit 4025 and an inactivated vaccine against a natural heterologous a/victoria/3/75 infection.a clinical trial was initiated in south africa before the winter season of 1976. the study involved 253 volunteers divided into three groups of vaccinees and one control group. two groups of vaccinees were inoculated with either one or two doses at 2 weeks' interval (10(7.2) eid 50/dose) of the rit 4025 live recombinant strain [a/scotland/840/74 (h3n2) serotype] and one group received one injection of an inactivated vaccine [a/port chalmers/1/73 (h3n2), 360 i.u., a/scotland/840/74 (h3n2), 300 i. ...1979385764
present status of live influenza a virus vaccine. 1979386099
epidemic renal transplant rejection associated with influenza a victoria.1) iav infection seems to trigger acute renal allograft rejection frequently, especially in the first few months post-transplant, and these rejections are severe with a high rate of ultimate graft loss; 2) seroconversion occurred in most cases despite high dose steroids; 3) the course of iav was prolonged and associated with a high incidence of complications in patients on high dose steroids.1978386316
panel urges wide use of antiviral drug. 1979386515
non-liposomal nanocapsules, methodology and application. 1979387471
rapid diagnosis of influenza a infection by direct immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirates in adults.the efficacy for direct immunofluorescence of a commercial conjugate for influenza a virus prepared against whole a/udorn (h3ns) virus was studied. the conjugate was specific for influenza a virus, but its sensitivity varied depending upon the strain of influenza a tested. nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from 25 patients during an outbreak of influenza were examined for viral antigen with the conjugates and inoculated onto monkey kidney (mk) cells for virus isolation. fifteen patients had iso ...1979387816
the influenza virus haemagglutinin gene: cloning and characterisation of a double-stranded dna copy.a protocol has been developed for the synthesis of a double-stranded dna (dsdna) copy of the influenza virus rna genome segment which codes for the major surface antigen, haemagglutinin (ha). this dsdna copy was inserted, after digestion with s1 nuclease and poly (dc) tailing with terminal transferase, into poly(dg)-tailed, psti-cut, pbr322 dna, and used to transform e. coli rr1. tetracycline-resistant bacterial colonies were screened for the presence of plasmid containing the copied ha gene by ...1979388351
[problems of specific cellular immunity against influenza]. 1979388905
comparative evaluation of immunofluorescent (igm and igg) and complement-fixing antibodies in influenza a infection.the indirect immunofluorescent (fa) tests for detection of igg and igm antibodies to the internal antigens of influenza viruses were performed using single cell suspensions of baby hamster kidney cells. the igg-fa test showed a good correlation with the complement fixation (cf) test performed with purified ribonucleoprotein (rnp) as antigen than the cf test with whole virus antigen. sera which were positive only in the igm-fa test did not react in the rnp-cf test. a rapid diagnosis of influenza ...1979388933
[comparison between single-radial-hemolysis-test and indirect fluorescence-antibody-test for the serological diagnosis of influenza].two serological methods for the diagnosis of influenza were tested with sera of guinea pigs and compared. up to now, both methods have only rarely been used in the diagnosis of influenza. the methods proved to be well reproducible and suitable for routine investigations. correlation between antibody titres measured by srh and fat give a correlation coefficient of v = 0.75. the possible igg-specificity of the srh, indicated in the literature, is reported.1979390953
human lymphocyte cytotoxicity against target cells infected with influenza a viruses of both recent and old vitro measurement of lymphocyte cytotoxicity (lc) reflects one aspect of human cell-mediated immunity against influenza. we studied peripheral blood lc against target cells infected with 1 of 3 strains of influenza a virus; these represent both recent and old strains. positive lc responses were obtained in 94 % of subjects. responses were significantly greater against the older strains, a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) and a/pr/8/34 (h0n1), than against a/england/42/72 (h3n2). lc reactivity occurred ...1979391110
studies on prophylactic efficacy of n-2-hydroxyethyl palmitamide (impulsin) in acute respiratory infections. serologically controlled field trials.the results of three serologically controlled double blind field trials in army units are presented. the evaluation of results according to morbidity, regardless of aetiology, showed a significant reduction in acute respiratory diseases (ard) after administration of impulsin. in the 1973 trial (901 volunteers), 22.7% of ard cases were found in the impulsin group contrary to 34.4% in the placebo group (p less than 0.0002). the relevant values in the 1974 trial (610 volunteers) were 19.7% and 40.7 ...1979392005
[genetic foundations of influenz virus epidemics]. 1979392282
modification of immune response by influenza virus. 1979393023
[interaction of the influenza virus and streptococcus in chick embryos]. 1979393969
association of hla in immune response to influenza-a immunization. 1979394432
antibody responses to influenza vaccines containing a/ussr/90/77.studies were undertaken in adult groups aged 17-24 years, 25-64 years and 66-100 years to determine the haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody responses to sub-unit influenza containing a/ussr/90/77 (h1n1). antibody responses to a/ussr/90/77 were low in all groups. the young adult group (17-24 years) produced a primary response to a/ussr/90/77 and showed a significant response to a second dose of vaccine, whereas their responses to the a/texas/1/77 (h3n2) and b/hong kong/8/73 components were of t ...1979394734
genotypic characterization and clinical evaluation of an influenza a/texas/1/77 (h3n2)-like recombinant: rit 4199.the rit 4199 (h3n2) strain was obtained by recombination of pr/8/34 (h0n1) and a/alaska/5/77 (h3n2) isolates. its genetic composition was determined by rna-rna hybridization and by identification by gel electrophoresis of the double-standard rna formed. the rit 4199 was inoculated intranasally to 27 seronegative volunteers at a dose of 10(7.3)eid50. the results show that it is suitable for live vaccine strain.1979395158
stability of influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) vaccines. 1979395159
effectiveness of peroral and intranasal immunization of school children with live allantoic influenza vaccine- and comparative study.a comparative study of two preparations of allantoic live influenza vaccine, one for intranasal and the other for peroral immunization of children of school age, was peformed under conditions of a blind epidemiological trial. previously obtained data on the safety and high immunogenicity of the intranasal vaccine variant, prepared from extremely attenuated cold-adapted strains, were confirmed. the peroral administration of the live influenza vaccine, in use in the ussr for active immunization of ...1979395255
evaluation of a neuraminidase-specific influenza a virus vaccine in children: antibody responses and effects on two successive outbreaks of natural infection.three groups of children were immunized with an inactivated port chalmers (h3chn2ch) influenza vaccine (group a), a neuraminidase-specific (heq1n2ch) influenza vaccine (group b), or a placebo. immunization induced seroconversion for h3ch and n2ch-specific antibody in group a and for n2ch antibody in group b. the protective efficacies observed against naturally acquired illness with the port chalmers strain of influneza a virus were 68.7% and 37.4% in groups a and b, respectively, in comparison t ...1979396336
ligands for antibody to m-protein are exposed at the surface of influenza virions: effect of proteolytic treatment on their activity.antiserum to pure m-protein extracted from pr8 virions neutralized the infectivity and inhibited the haemagglutinating activity of various influenza a virions. it agglutinated concentrated suspensions of these virions and fixed complement in their presence. antibodies to m-protein were readily absorbed by intact virions or by spikeless particles obtained after proteolytic treatment, giving clear evidence that m-protein is exposed at the surface of the virus envelope. the data suggest that when a ...1979396358
influenza a viruses: combinations of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes isolated from animals and other sources. brief review. 1979396910
[influenza in man and animals].a review of references found in world literature concerning the present day problem of grippe virus participation in man's and animals' pathology is made. new aspects of the relations between grippe viruses in man and in the animals, strain circulation, changes in their antigenic structures and the arisal of spontaneous mutations as well as the possibility for preserving human grippe strains in animals during interepidemical periods are revealed. various hypotheses confirming this possibility ar ...1979397670
detection of antibody responses to natural influenza infection or vaccination by single radial haemolysis test. 1979397807
comparison of sevral wild-type influenza viruses in the ferret tracheal organ culture system.several strains of wild-type influenza a virus were studied in the ferret tracheal organ culture system. ciliary activity and viral replication were measured. ciliary activity was reduced more rapidly by a/hong kong/45/68 (h3n2) (a/hk) and a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) (a/vic) than by a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) (a/nj), a/scotland/840/74(3hn2) (a/scot), or a/ussr/90/77 (h1n1) (a/ussr). a/hk, a/vic, and a/scot produced titers of virus higher than a/ussr or a/nj during the first three days after infection ...1979399387
[studies in the balb/c mouse of the efficiency of spraying as compared to other inoculation ways for immunostimulant (author's transl)].the of efficiency of spraying as compared to intranasal and digestive ways was tested on balb/c mouse by using on the one hand an immunostimulant product and on the other various types of test : myxovirus influenzae by aerosol, streptococcus pyogenes intranasally, klebsiella pneumoniae intraperitoneally. results showed that in the case of influenza virus the immunostimulant inhaled as liquid aerosol or powder aerosol, or deposited on the nasal mucosa was very active. when the test germ was strep ...1979400026
[influenza activity in madrid. epidemiologic season 1978-79]. 1979400543
efficiency of complement fixation (cf) test with internal nucleoprotein (np) antigen and hemagglutination--inhibition (hi) test in the serodiagnosis of a and b influenza infections. 1979401012
a twenty years experience in the epidemiological surveillance of influenza a in moldavia (romania). 1979401015
defense mechanisms against primary influenza virus infection in mice. i. the roles of interferon and neutralizing antibodies and thymus dependence of interferon and antibody investigate the defensive roles and production of interferon and antibodies, c3h/he mice were subjected to various immunosuppressive treatments and infected with influenza virus. in infected normal control mice the pattern of pulmonary viral growth can be divided into three phases. the first phase is characterized by an exponential increase of virus titer, the second by a rapid decrease, and the third by a moderate decrease. at the time of transition from the first phase to the second in pulm ...1977401512
reaction of squirrel monkeys to intratracheal inoculation with influenza/a/new jersey/76 (swine) determine whether a model could be established for laboratory investigations, nine squirrel monkeys were inoculated intratracheally with 10(7) median egg-infectious doses of influenza virus type a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) (swine influenza virus). they responded with clinically detectable illness including fever, leukopenia, decreased food consumption, increased respiratory rate, occasional coughing, labored breathing, nasal discharge, and lethargy. convalescence was well advanced by the day 1 ...1977405321
[activity of several thiophosphamide derivatives of alkaloids and amines with regard to influenza virus]. 1977405554
[live influenza vaccines (author's transl)].recent progress in live influenza a vaccine research is reviewed. as vaccine strains with new antigenic determinants have to be available in a short time, methods for rapid and reproducible attenuation of wild strains are needed. the possibilities for attenuation of influenza a wild strains and their relative merits are discussed. particular problems arise from the fact that in interpandemic periods the population is composed of individuals with varying degrees of immunity. vaccine strains of di ...1977407467
[the 1976-77 influenza season and results of laboratory studies (comparison of antibody studies by srh and hi tests in sera from healthy subjects)]. 1977407688
the use of transportable single-radial-diffusion immunoplates in seroepidemiological studies of influenza in the gambia. the occurrence and persistence of antibody to influenza a/hong kong/68 (h3n2) virus in selected inhabitants of two rural villages.seroepidemiological studies of influenza in the gambia were made using transportable single-radial-diffusion immunoplates containing a/hong kong/68 (h3n2) virus as antigen. the frequency and durability of antibody so detected in selected residents of two gambian villages (manduar and kafuta) are described. transportable immunoplates were found to be an effective method for the serological surveillance of influenza and to be applicable in studies in remote areas where laboratory facilities may no ...1977408021
[isolation of myxovirus influenzae surface antigens by affinity chromatography].surface antigens of myxovirus influenzas a/r8/34 and a/hong kong/1/68 were isolated on fetuin covalently attached to sepharose. the amino acid composition of isolated neuraminidases was determined.1977408038
[epidemiological analysis of influenza morbidity in the biaƂystok province in 1971]. 1977408906
swine influenza virus vaccine: potentiation of antibody responses in rhesus monkeys.polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid stabilized with poly-l-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose [poly(iclc)] enhances the antibody response in rhesus monkeys immunized with swine influenza virus subunit vaccine. monkeys given the vaccine-adjuvant combination had earlier and significantly (p less than .05) higher titers by 14 days compared to those that received vaccine alone. the potentiation of the antibody response of young monkeys given a split-virus vaccine in combination with poly(iclc) su ...1977408923
matrix protein from influenza a virus and its role in cross-protection in mice.the matrix (m) protein of influenza a virus, one of the two group-specific internal proteins of the virion, was isolated in a pure form, and its immunogenicity was stable to heating at 100 degrees c for 2 min. mice immunized with isolated m protein in complete freund adjuvant and subsequently infected with influenza virus cleared virus more rapidly from their lungs than did unimmunized mice. despite the rapid clearance of virus, the mice developed pneumonia that was at least as severe as in unim ...1977409677
[assessment of the sensitivity of immunoprecipitation for the serodiagnosis of influenzal-bacterial pneumonias].a comparative examination of 226 paired sera from patients with pneumonia was carried out by cft, hi, neuraminidase activity inhibition (ni) and double immunodiffusion. a correlation of the results of agar gel precipitation and the cft and hi tests was observed. convalescent sera contained antibody to influenza virus ribonucleoprotein frequently, less so to its neuraminidase or hemagglutinin. the precipitation test was shown to be highly sensitive, easy to perform, and therefore should be used i ...1977410161
[isolation of influenza strains identical to influenza virus a/anglia/42/72 from semisynanthropic bird species in rovno province, the ukrainian ssr].two strains of influenza virus, a/wagtail/ukraina/107/74 and a/dove/ukraina/111/74, were isolated in virological studies of semisynanthropic species of birds shot near villages in the rovno region (western ukraine). both strains were found to be antigenically identical with influenza a/england/42/72 virus.1977411259
[fluorometric determination of the quality of fitc-anti influenza conjugates (author's transl)].a fluorometric method for the evaluation of fitc-anti influenza conjugates is described. the titre and that dilution required for the complete detection of antigens can be determined. it is possible to verify the probability of detection in per cent for any dilution stage and to compare objectively different batches. for this microtest only 0,2 ml conjugate are necessary.1977412390
experiences in the search for anti-inflammatory agents of microbial origin.whole shaken cultures of 20 random, unidentified actinomycetes were extracted with n-butanol at ph 4.5, 7.0 and 8.5, respectively. residues of butanol-extractable materials (bxm) were reconstituted (100x) in buffers and freeze-dried. bxm were surprisingly well tolerated in animals and were screened against influenza a viral pneumonia in mice. one culture yielded bxm-80 which suppressed both chemical (lps) and viral (ndv) pneumonia in mice as well as inhibited rat foot pad edema induced by carrag ...1977413820
rapid diagnosis of influenza a infection by immunofluorescence. methodological problems and clinical material.indirect immunofluorescence (if) on cell spreads from nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) was used for the rapid diagnosis of influenza a infection and was compared with if on monkey kidney cells infected by nps. the clinical diagnosis of influenza a infection was confirmed by serology in 32 of 40 patients. in 27 of the 32 patients (84 per cent), the diagnosis was achieved by if on cell spreads of nps. in 13 of 15 (87 per cent) subjects with positive serology, the early appearance of influenza a vi ...1977414515
quantitation of influenza vaccine hemagglutinin by immunoelectrophoresis.a technique for the quantitation of hemagglutinin (ha) in influenza vaccines by immunoelectrophoresis (iep) is described. this method gives accurate, and reproducible results and requires approximately 9 h to complete. the ha content of four manufacturers' vaccines correlated with the chick cell agglutination (cca) values for each manufacturers' vaccine. however, when comparisons were made between vaccines produced by different manufacturers, up to a four-fold difference in ha content was observ ...1977414948
relevance of the immunoprecipitation assay to human immunogenicity of influenza vaccines.influenza vaccines representing each of the four u.s. manufacturers' output for the 1975-76 respiratory season were characterized clinically and assayed by immunoprecipitation. all vaccines contained 350 cca units/dose each of the a/port chalmers/1/73 (h3n2) and a/scotland/840/74 (h3n2) viruses plus 550 cca units/dose of b/hk/5/72 virus. two of the vaccines were whole virus while the other two were subunit products; one made by extraction with ethyl ether, the second by detergent treatment. the ...1977414949
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