the smallest genome rna segment of influenza virus contains two genes that may overlap.the genome of influenza virus consists of eight segments of single-stranded rna, each of which encodes a different polypeptide. in addition to the eight recognized gene products, the virus specifies a distinct smaller nonstructural polypeptide (ns2), which is translated from a separate species of virus-specific mrna. the location on the virus genome of the gene encoding this polypeptide was investigated by hybridization of the ns2 mrna with isolated subgenomic rna species, and by correlation of ...1979291039
induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in mouse lung during virus infection.indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase [indoleamine: oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (decyclizing)] activity in the supernatant fraction (30,000 x g, 30 min) of mouse lung homogenate increased approximately 120-fold after infection with pr8 influenza virus. both specific and total enzyme activities started to increase linearly from the 5th day after infection, reached the highest level around the 11th day, and then gradually decreased to normal values in about 3 weeks. other enzymes in the lung, such as certain ...1979291064
antibody responses to influenza immunization of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.antibody responses of two doses of a bivalent influenza vaccine containing a/victoria/75 (a/vic/75) and a/new jersey/76 (a/nj/76) viral antigens were studied in 22 children receiving maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all), 16 children no longer receiving therapy for all, and 50 sibling controls. before immunization, the three groups showed no difference in titer of antibody to either antigen. after the first immunization, children off therapy showed significantly higher ...1979291662
segment 8 of the influenza virus genome is unique in coding for two previous studies we showed that a ninth polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 11,000 (ns2) found in influenza virus-infected cells was unique, that it could be synthesized in vitro, and that its expression in vivo required early protein synthesis. on the basis of these results we suggested that one of the eight genome rna segments of influenza virus codes for two polypeptides [lamb, r.a., etkind, p.r. & choppin, p.w. (1978) virology 91, 60-78]. we describe here differences in t ...1979291907
cell cytotoxicity due to specific influenza antibody production in vitro after recent influenza antigen stimulation.peripheral blood leukocytes, obtained from volunteers after vaccination or natural illness with influenza, were assayed for cytotoxicity against influenza virus-infected cells. approximately 7 days after vaccination or the onset of respiratory illness, peak cytotoxicity was demonstrated in a chromium-release assay. secretion of specific antibody against hemagglutinin from the leukocytes during in vitro incubation was demonstrated in quantities that would mediate the cell cytotoxicity observed. a ...1979291990
influenza virus a (h1n1) in april and may 1978 the newly emerged h1n1 subtype of influenza a virus caused an influenza epidemic among children and young adults in fiji. the virus apparently failed to spread to new zealand at that time despite the fact that each week more than 1000 people travel by air from fiji to new zealand.1979292871
antibody responses to influenza virus vaccine in patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. 1979293160
evolution of human influenza a viruses in nature: recombination contributes to genetic variation of h1n1 june of 1977, a new influenza a pandemic was started by strains of the h1n1 serotype. oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis of the rna from viruses isolated during the early stage of this pandemic demonstrated that genetic variation among these 1977 strains could be attributed to sequential mutation [young, j.f., desselberger, u. & palese, p. (1979) cell, 18, 73-83]. examination of more recent strains revealed that the h1n1 variants that were isolated in the winter of 1978-1979 differed consid ...1979293742
[comparison of the immunodepressant effect of antimacrophage, antilymphocyte and antithymocyte sera following immunization with influenza virus a2].an immunodepressive action of the anticellular sera was cause by the competition of the serum and viral antigens, as well as by the specific influence of the sera on the corresponding cells. the antimacrophagal serum decreased the monocyte content in the peripheral blood, peritoneal exudate, and retarded the antibody formation in the lymphoid organs. the antilymphocytic serum depressed the development of the plasma cell reaction in the lymph nodes and the spleen, this being expressed in a depres ...1977300205
cytotoxic t cells specific for influenza virus-infected target cells.conditions are described for the generation and detection of murine cytotoxic cells which lyse influenza virus-infected target cells. a number of criteria indicated that most and probably all of the activity was due to t cells. these criteria included the susceptibity of cytotoxic activity to treatment with anti-theta ascitic fluid plus complement and the enhancement of lysis when there was h2 compatibility between donors of effector and virus-infected target cells.1977300355
potentiation of experimental meningitis due to haemophilus influenzae by influenza a virus.when haemophilus influenzae type b was given intranasally to infant rats, a very large dose was required to produce histologic evidence of meningitis in even half of the animals tested; meningitis developed in 16 of 31 rats that received 10(7) viable bacteria at the age of five days. however, when the animals first received influenza virus, the dose of bacteria required to produce meningitis was reduced 100-fold; meningitis occurred in 10 of 21 rats given virus at two days and 10(5) viable bacte ...1977300760
cell-mediated immune responses in humans after induced infection with influenza a virus.cell-mediated immune responses were examined in 19 normal volunteers after intranasal administration of three strains of influenza a virus. eight volunteers manifested respiratory tract illness along with fourfold rises of serum antibody and/or virus shedding. samples of peripheral venous blood were obtained before and two days, five days, and four weeks after challenge. during acute illness, infected volunteers showed lymphopenia, which persisted for up to four weeks after challenge. the lympho ...1977300761
suppression of cell-mediated immunity by street rabies virus.mice lethally infected with street rabies virus failed to develop cytotoxic t cells specific for rabies virus-infected target cells, whereas high levels of cell-mediated cytotoxicity (cmc) were generated after nonfatal infection with the attenuated high egg passage (hep) or era rabies virus strains. furthermore concurrent infection with street, but not with hep, rabies virus suppresses development of a primary (but not a secondary) cmc response specific for influenza virus. no cross-reactivity i ...1977301176
isolation and characterization of influenza a viruses from avian species in hong kong.surveillance of apparently healthy ducks, chickens, and geese at a poultry dressing plant in hong kong yielded 51 haemagglutinating viruses 25 of which were influenza a viruses. of these, 24 were subtyped into 13 combinations based on haemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens. of the 13 different influenza a viruses isolated, 7 possessed combinations of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits that have not been reported previously-i.e., hav2n1, hav2nav5, hav4n2, hav7n2, hav7nav1, hav7n ...1977302152
immunologic recognition of influenza virus-infected cells. ii. expression of influenza a matrix protein on the infected cell surface and its role in recognition by cross-reactive cytotoxic t cells.two distinct subpopulations of cytotoxic t cells are generated in the primary or secondary response of mice to type a influenza viruses. one subpopulation is specific for the immunizing virus strain. the other subpopulation shows a high degree of cross-reactivity for heterologous type a virus of a different subtype. this report examines the possibility that distinct influenza virus antigens, expressed on the surface of the infected cell, are recognized by the different subpopulations of influenz ...1977302303
hemagglutinin-specific cytotoxic t-cell response during influenza infection.specific cytotoxic thymus-derived (t) lymphocytes were detected in the cervical lymph nodes and spleen during influenza infection of mice. the cytotoxic t cells can distinguish target cells infected with different influenza a subtypes. infection with parent viruses and their recombinant progeny possessing the hemagglutinin of one parent and the neuraminidase of the other demonstrated that significant cytotoxicity occurred only when the hemagglutinin of the immunizing viruses was the same as tha ...1977302310
influenza virus-induced interferon production in mouse spleen cell culture: t cells as the main producer. 1977302752
[effect of antilymphocyte serum on the course of influenzal infection in mice].the effect of antilymphocyte serum (als) on the course of infection produced by influenza a/pr8/34 virus in mice weighing 10-12 g was studied. inoculation of mice with als produced a longer persistence of influenza virus in the lung tissue and in the blood (up to 15 days of the observation period), whereas in the controls no influenza virus could be isolated after 9 days. no antibody production in als-treated mice was observed. the immunosuppression in mice reduced the extent of involvement of t ...1977303018
immunologic recognition of influenza virus-infected cells. i. generation of a virus-strain specific and a cross-reactive subpopulation of cytotoxic t cells in the response to type a influenza viruses of different subtypes. 1977303150
chronic pulmonary complications of early influenza virus infection in 3 male patients, chronic pulmonary sequelae followed influenza virus infection at 5, 24, and 42 months of age. varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, bronchial and bronchiolar erosions and metaplasia, obliterative bronchiolitis, and interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrates were found on lung biopsy. influenza a/hong kong/68 (h3n2) virus was isolated from the lung tissue of one patient 8 weeks after the onset of illness. this is the longest persistence of infectious virus in lung tissu ...1977303485
cytotoxic t cells to type a influenza virus; viral hemagglutinin induces a-strain specificity while infected cells confer cross-reactive cytotoxicity. 1977303568
nine-year study of who virus reports on fatal viral 1963, the world health organization established a system for the collection and distribution of information on viruses. the present study is based on 2737 reports of fatal viral infections received from laboratories in 39 out of a total of 47 countries participating in the scheme. in the industrially developed countries, from which most of the reports came, more than one-third of the total number of deaths were associated with influenza a virus, while in the developing countries, the enterovi ...1977304388
distinct recognition of influenza virus hemagglutinin and h-2 antigens by cytotoxic thymus derived lymphocytes.cytotoxic thymus derived (t) lymphocytes were readily detected in balb/c and c3h mice during infection with influenza a (h0n1, h3n2, heq1neq1) and b viruses. t cell mediated lysis was specific for h-2 compatible target cells infected with the same strain of virus used to immunize the mice. the viral specificity was found to be related to the hemagglutinin antigen by the use of parent strains (h3n2 and heqneq) and their recombinant viruses which included the antigenic hybrids for hemagglutinin an ...1977304819
effects of cell mediated immunity in influenza virus infection in mice.the role of cell mediated immune responses in recovery of mice from influenza virus infection was studied by immunosuppression and by adoptive immunization. virus infections persisted longer and produced more severe lung lesions in animals injected with anti-thymocyte serum (ats), and immunosuppressed animals failed to mount a serum hi antibody response. mice injected with ats after the 4th day of infection produced antibody in titers equivalent to those of control animals but still did not reco ...1977304820
[antibodies against a/ussr/90/77 (h1n1) following vaccination with a/new jersey/76 (hsw 1 n1)-vaccine]. 1978304967
influenza a viruses of the h2n2 subtype are lymphocyte mitogens. 1978305001
cytotoxic t cells in the lungs of mice infected with an influenza a virus.cytotoxic t cells are present in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar washings of mice infected intravenously (i.v.) or intranasally (i.n.) with live influenza a/wsn virus. after i.v. injection, cytotoxic t cell activity in both spleens and lungs reaches a peak at 6 days when the level of infectious virus recovered from the lungs falls sharply and the mice do not die. if a lethal dose of virus is given intranasally, very high levels of virus appear rapidly in the lungs, and the development of lung ...1978305613
role of viral infectivity in the induction of influenza virus-specific cytotoxic t cells.this report examines the requirement for infectious virus in the induction of influenza virus-specific cytotoxic t cells. infectious influenza virus was found to be highly efficient at generating both primary and secondary cytotoxic t-cell response in vivo. inactivated influenza virus however, failed to stimulate a detectable cytotoxic t-cell response in vivo even at immunizing doses 10(5)-10(6)-fold higher than the minimum stimulatory dose of infectious virus. likewise inactivated virus failed ...1978306410
[manifestations of influenza-virus variability during its cultivation in the system of passively immunized chick embryos].a method of immunological actions on the influenza virus in the system of chick embryos passively immunized with isologous sera was elaborated. with the aid of the suggested method it was possible to induce in strains (with different hemagglutinin type and different degree of attenuation) the transformation of signs characterizing the virus variability in the epidemic process. variants of the vaccine strains of the influenza virus with increased immunogenic activity and signs of antigenic "outru ...1978307317
[immunological precursors of influenza epidemics].the authors studied the immuno-epidemiological manifestations of ciculation and variability of the influenza virus during the periods preceding the officiallly recorded rise of the incidence of this disease. the following epidemic precursors were revealed: a) an increase of the number of persons who fell sick with subclinical form of the disease, accompanied by a rise in the population of the antibody level to the type of influenza virus whose latest variant later caused an epidemic morbidity el ...1978307321
influenzal vaccine response in systemic lupus erythematosus.the response of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and normal subjects to systemic immunization and boosting with influenza a vaccines was studied. symptoms after vaccination were somewhat more frequent in the patients than in the normal subjects; however, all symptoms were minor and no major flare of illness occurred. no significant induction or increase of pre-existing autoantibodies among the patients was detected after vaccination. the immunogenecity of the vaccinations, as assessed ...1978307353
interferon and other antiviral agents, with special reference to influenza: a memorandum.recent progress in the production of interferons and in knowledge of their mode of action has opened new possibilities for their prophylactic or therapeutic use, for example, in the treatment of influenza. such use still needs further evaluation as do the presently available chemical antiviral drugs. the activity of interferon against other viral infections is also promising and preliminary trials on their effect on certain tumours have begun at a number of centres. there is, however, a need for ...1978307453
antibody production and protection against influenza virus in immunodeficient mice.the roles of t and b cells in the immune response to influenza virus were studied by using mice deficient in either t cells (athymic nude) or immunoglobulin production (cba/n). the serological responses of these mice to either whole or disrupted a/aichi/2/68 influenza virus vaccines were examined, and the protective effect of these inoculations was tested by challenge infection with mouse-adapted a/aichi/2/68 influenza virus. in contrast to normal mice, neither strain of immunodeficient mouse pr ...1978307534
[effect of protease inhibitors on the course of experimental influenza]. 1978307725
clones of cytotoxic lymphocytes can recognise uninfected cells in a primary response against influenza virus. 1978308188
heterotypic protective immune reactions in mice infected with distinct serotypes of human influenza virus.infection of mice with subtype a0 or a2 human influenza viruses, by a non-respiratory route causing no lethality, renders the animals markedly resistant to subsequent respiratory challenge with a strain differing from the first one through its haemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens. this state of heterotypic immunity which appears rapidly (5 days) after the first infection, manifests itself during the second infection by a much reduced mortality, by less extensive lung lesions than in the con ...1978308787
influenzal pneumonia: early appearance of cross-reactive t cells in lungs of mice primed with heterologous type a viruses.mice were first primed with a type a or a type b influenza virus and then challenged intranasally at least 1 month later with another type a virus. potent cytotoxic t cell populations were found in lung, and effector t cell function was also demonstrated in blood, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes. lymphocytes isolated from all of these anatomical sites were active against target cells infected with the same, or with serologically different, type a influenza viruses. also, prior exposure to ano ...1978308930
individual antigen-specific t lymphocytes: helper function in enabling the expression of multiple antibody recent years antigen-specific t cells have been shown to be capable of mediating a number of diverse functions in collaboration with b cells in humoral immune responses. one of the more intriguing roles attributed to helper t cells is the promotion of the synthesis of multiple immunoglobulin isotypes by b cells in t-dependent antibody responses. the experiments presented in this report were carried out to determine if an individual antigen-specific t lymphocyte has the capability to enable th ...1978308985
influenza virus infection in newborn rats: a possible marker of attenuation for man.the growth of parent influenza viruses a/england/939/69 and a/pr/8/34, and clones 6, 7, and 64c, derived by recombination, was studied in newborn rats. using an inoculum of 10(4.0) eid50, influenza virus a/england/939/69 produced the highest titres of virus in rat turbinates at 48 hours after inoculation; clones 6 and 7 and a/pr/8/34 grew to lower titres; and clone 64c grew to the lowest titre. these differences were less apparent when 10(2.0) eid50 of virus was used as an inoculum, and rats wer ...1978308996
influenza virus-specific cytotoxic t cells in man; induction and properties of the cytotoxic cell.human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been sensitized in vitro to influenza virus antigen. after an induction period of 4--14 days, cytotoxic cells which lyse autologous influenza virus-infected lymphoid cells could be demonstrated. the cytotoxic cell is a t lymphocyte which shows specificity for sensitizing influenza virus type a or b. it cannot distinguish between major subtypes of influenza a virus. the use of virus-infected normal lymphoid cells as target cells overcame the difficulties of ...1978309394
hla restriction of human cytotoxic t lymphocytes specific for influenza virus. poor recognition of virus associated with hla a2.cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl), specific for influenza a/x31 virus, were generated from human peripheral blood lymphocytes. these ctl lysed target cells that were infected with the same virus and that shared hla a or b locus antigens. minimal lysis was observed when hla-d antigens were shared. not all hla a and b antigens were equally effective. efficient lysis of target cells was seen when hla a1, a3, b7, b8, b27 and bw21 were shared with the ctl, but when hla a2 was the only shared antigen lysi ...1978309917
cellular changes in lungs of mice infected with influenza virus: characterization of the cytotoxic responses.transpleural lavage of lungs from uninfected c3h mice yielded an average of 300,000 leukocytes per mouse. this number increased eightfold within 6 days after intranasal inoculation with virulent influenza a/hong kong/68 (h3n2) virus. macrophages and lymphocytes in approximately equal numbers comprised 90% or more of the leukocytes both before and during infection. b, t, and null lymphocytes comprised, respectively, 9, 21, and 18% of the leukocytes before infection and 7, 26, and 5% by day 6. in ...1978310424
influenza in china in 1977: recurrence of influenzavirus a subtype h1n1.preliminary results from epidemiological and laboratory studies on the new h1n1 influenza virus show that the 7-20 years age group suffered the highest morbidity; some adults over 20 years of age were also affected. the influenza epidemic caused by the h1n1 virus was characterized by slow spread, unevenness of attack rates, and the occurrence of many mild cases and inapparent infections. at least up to the end of 1977 there was concurrent persistence and spread of both h1n1 and h3n2 viruses. the ...1978310732
influenza in the ussr in 1977: recurrence of influenzavirus a subtype h1n1.early in november 1977, several outbreaks of influenza were reported in the far eastern region of the ussr. the epidemic spread rapidly throughout the country affecting mainly people under the age of 20 years. most of the strains of virus isolated were found to be influenza a subtype h1n1. the serological characterization of the strains is described in this paper.1978310733
comparison of influenza viruses isolated from man and from whales.four isolates of influenza virus strains from moscow and habarovsk that caused outbreaks of influenza in november and december 1977 in several cities of the ussr were studied and their haemagglutinins and neuraminidases were compared with those of other human and animal influenza viruses including a/whale/pacific ocean/76. in h1 tests these isolates, designated a/ussr/77, reacted with immune serum against a/fm/1/47 (h1n1) to the homologous titre, and with antiserum against a/whale/po/19/76 virus ...1978310734
epidemiology of influenza during 1957--75 in the union of soviet socialist republics and the german democratic republic.analysis of clinical data collected by the epidemiological services in both countries showed that each shift or drift in the antigenic structure of the influenza virus resulted in epidemics in both countries. depending on the degree of antigenic change, both shifts and drifts influenced the speed of epidemic spread and the time of occurrence and the intensity of the epidemics. however, the analyses did not reveal a direct relation between degree of antigenic variation and the attack rate or the ...1978310735
the use of a continuous cell line for the isolation of influenza viruses.cultures of mdck cells exposed to trypsin were as efficient as cultures of rhesus monkey kidney cells for detecting influenza virus, both in dilutions of infected allantoic fluids and in nose and throat swabs. we suggest that the mdck cell/trypsin system provides a satisfactory alternative to monkey kidney cultures for the isolation of influenza viruses from clinical specimens.1978310738
hla-linked genetic control of the specicity of human cytotoxic t-cell responses to influenza virus.we have investigated elements of the genetic control of human in vitro cytotoxic t-cell responses to influenza virus-infected autologous cells by studies of a large family. the pattern of virus-immune cytotoxicity among siblings demonstrated t-cell recognition of influenza virus predominantly (greater than 90%) in association with determinants which are coded by genes linked to hla (p less than 0.0002). many family members consistently generated cytotoxic activity against influenza predominantly ...1979311809
specificity of cytotoxicity t cells directed to influenza virus hemagglutinin.purified type a influenza viral hemagglutinin stimulates an in vitro cell-mediated cytotoxic cell response that exhibits a high degree of specificity for the immunizing hemagglutinin. the response magnitude is proportional to the hemagglutinin dose used for stimulation. the lytic activity of the effector cells is h-2 restricted. analysis of the specificity of the response indicated that these cytotoxic t cells readily distinguish target cells expressing serologically unrelated hemagglutinin from ...1979311817
the infant rat as a model for assessment of the attenuation of human influenza viruses.the intranasal infection of infant rats with haemophilus influenzae type b can be considerably enhanced by prior infection of the rats with influenza virus. when influenza virus a/england/939/69 was used to infect the animals a minimum of 10(4-0) eid50 was required to enhance h. influenzae infection; infection with 4 x 10(6) h. influenzae bacteria was needed to reveal this enhancement and infant rats two days old at the time of virus inoculation had to be used. by this method, nine strains of in ...1979311833
[immune structure of the population of moscow to the strains of the influenza viruses a(h3n2), a(h1n1) and b circulating in 1977].examinations for the presence of antihemagglutinins to influenza a(h3n2), a(h1n1) and b virus strains in the sera from people of different ages collected in april-may and october-november, 1977, showed that influenza a(h1n1) virus began to circulate in the human population of moscow before the onset of an overt epidemic, in the period between june and october, 1977. this conclusion has been drawn on the basis of the absence of antihemagglutinins to a(h1n1) virus in the sera from subjects of 16-2 ...1979311977
reconsideration of influenza a virus nomenclature: a who memorandum.the system of nomenclature for influenza a viruses recommended by who in 1971 provided a basis for the designation of these viruses into types based on their nucleoprotein antigens. influenza a viruses were further divided into subtypes based on the antigenic character of their haemagglutinin and neuraminidase components. to review the relevance to influenza virus nomenclature of new information on the antigenic and molecular characterization of influenza a viruses a meeting was held in atlanta, ...1979312157
influenza virus-specific t cell-mediated cytotoxicity: integration of the virus antigen into the target cell membrane is essential for target cell formation.this study deals with the requirements for target cell recognition by influenza a virus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl). h-2-identical cells were incubated with infectious or uv light-inactivated influenza a virus expressing either cleaved or uncleaved hemagglutinin (ha). thereafter, the treated cells were tested in a 4-h 51cr assay for susceptibility to ctl-mediated cytolysis. regardless whether the influenza virus was infectious, virions expressing cleaved ha were efficient in target ce ...1979312203
inhibition of influenza-immune t cell effector function by virus-specific hybridoma antibody.the in vitro activity of influenza-specific cytotoxic t cells can be inhibited by incubation of the target cells with monoclonal anti-influenza antibodies. hybridoma antibodies that bind to the virus ha inhibit the cytotoxic activity of tdl for the virus-infected target by as much as 80%, whereas these same antibodies never reduce splenic t cell function by more than 40%. this reflects the fact that tdl from anti-influenza strain a/wsn/33 (hon1) are highly subtype-specific, whereas splenic effec ...1979313952
in vitro antibody response to influenza virus. i. t cell dependence of secondary response to hemagglutinin.a good secondary igg response to the hemagglutinin (ha) of influenza virus has been obtained in vitro in marbrook-type cultures of influenza-primed mouse spleen cell suspensions stimulated with inactivated influenza virus. anti-ha antibody was quantitated by a solid phase radioimmunoassay (ria) by using purified ha as substrate. the t dependence of this secondary response was shown by depletion of t cells and reconstitution with a source of primed or unprimed t cells. the help given by t cells p ...1979313954
diversity of influenza a virus subtypes isolated from domestic poultry in hong kong.the second phase of a 2-year influenza virus surveillance programme of domestic avian species in hong kong (up to october 1977) yielded influenza a virus, newcastle disease virus, and hong kong paramyxovirus, as well as unidentified haemagglutinating agents. these viruses were isolated from the trachea or cloaca of apparently healthy domestic ducks, geese, and chickens originating from china and hong kong. twenty-five combinations of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens were identif ...1979314357
regional b-cell responses to inactivated influenza virus vaccine in ferrets. 1979314480
cytotoxic t-cell and antibody responses to influenza infection of mice.the immune response to influenza infection was evaluated in mice using recently developed techniques to measure the induction of cytotoxic thymus-derived (t) lymphocytes and complement-dependent cytolytic antibody, locally and systemically, during primary and secondary immunization. cytolytic antibody responses were compared to antibody titres measured by haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) and neutralization in the same samples. the development of these responses was also correlated with the titr ...1979314495
the lymphocyte response to influenza in humans.enumeration of total lymphocytes and t, b, and null lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of normal volunteers was performed before and at intervals after inoculation with type a influenza virus. volunteers who subsequently developed infection and illness had larger t-cell counts before inoculation and exhibited an increased number of b lymphocytes during the incubation period and a decrease in all subpopulations during illness, although the greatest decrease occurred in t cells. a decre ...1979314763
specific in vitro antibody response to influenza virus by human blood lymphocytes.advances in understanding of human immune responses depend, for obvious reasons, on the use of in vitro techniques for culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl). we report here that specific antibody responses to influenza virus can readily be obtained using simple, reproducible methods. the system will be useful for the analysis of the cellular requirements for antibody production, the genetics of immune responsiveness and in clinical studies of immunosuppressed and immunodeficient patients ...1979316116
induction and characterization of delayed-type hypersensitivity to influenza virus in mice. 1979316392
patterned acquisition of the antibody repertoire: diversity of the hemagglutinin-specific b-cell repertoire in neonatal balb/c mice.the b-cell response of 12- to 14-day old balb/c mice to the hemagglutinin molecule of influenzae virus a/pr/8/34(h0n1) has been examined with monoclonal antibodies obtained by the splenic focus technique. an analysis of the specificity of these antibodies with a panel of heterologous viruses indicates that the antibody repertoire is highly restricted at an intermediate stage in postnatal development of the immune system. in toto, only 10 distinct reactivity patterns have been observed in an anal ...1979316542
[a revised system of nomenclature for influenza a viruses: who report]. 1979316738
t cells primed by influenza virion internal components can cooperate in the antibody response to haemagglutinin. 1979317881
the assay of influenza antineuraminidase activity by an elution inhibition technique. 1977319203
small-scale trial of live-attenuated influenza vaccine (a/hong kong/68).seventy-one men who were given live-attenuated a/hong kong/68 (h3n2) influenza vaccine during november 1973, and 34 men given placebo were examined for changes in antibody level. overall, 12 of the 71 men (17%) given the vaccine showed a fourfold rise in haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibody titre after 14 days. no such rises were seen in the 34 men given placebo. however, 10 of the men showing a fourfold rise were from 19 who had no detectable hi antibody to this virus before vaccination, ...1977322827
evaluation of the single radial hemolysis test for measuring hemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific antibodies to h3n2 influenza strains and antibodies to influenza b.antibodies to the h3 hemagglutinin of influenza a virus could be specifically measured by single radial hemolysis (srh) when test antigens were recombinant viruses containing the relevant h3 hemagglutinin antigen and irrelevant neq1 neuraminidase of a/equine/prague/1/56 virus. antibodies to influenza b virus could also be measured by the srh technique. antibody rises to influenza a or b virus measured by srh agreed with results of hemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests for about 80% of the sera ...1977323281
[membrane glycoproteins: the glycoproteins of erythrocytes]. 1977331435
[comparative measurement of influenza virus antibodies in horse sera by the single radial hemolysis test and the hemagglutination inhibition test (author's transl)]. 1977331755
[comparative study of experimental streptococcal, influenzal and mixed infections]. 1977333242
[results and prospects for vaccinal prevention of influenza]. 1977333765
lymphocyte cytotoxicity to influenza virus-infected cells. ii. requirement for antibody and non-t lymphocytes.peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) obtained from humans were cytotoxic for influenza virus-infected target cells. the pbl were shown to have associated influenza virus anti-hemagglutinin antibody (ahab) detectable only by radioimmunoassay. this antibody could be removed by incubating pbl at 37 degrees c for 30 min. the lymphocyte population that was effective in this system was nonadherent and nonphagocytic cells. pbl gave comparable levels of cytotoxicity when tested by using either a xenogenei ...1977334984
a controlled double-blind comparison of reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of whole-virus and split-product influenza vaccines in children.a double-blind randomized study with bivalent influenza virus vaccines was conducted to compare the local and systemic reactions and immunogenicity of a whole-virus vaccine and a split-product vaccine in children. fevers of greater than 100 f were more frequent after vaccination with whole-virus than split-product vaccine especially in children one to four years old (69% vs 22%; p less than 0.01). fevers of greater than or equal to 103 f did not occur in children who previously had been given in ...1977335000
[use of the genetic recombination method for obtaining vaccinal strains of the influenza virus]. 1977335659
the rapid concentration and purification of influenza virus from allantoic fluid.influenza virus was quantitatively recovered from infectious allantoic fluid by precipitation with 8 percent (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol 6000 (peg-6000). virus concentrated by peg-6000 treatment was rapidly purified by gel permeation chromatography through controlled pore glass beads. the purity of virus preparations achieved by this method, when judged by three independent criteria, was comparable to virus preparations purified by conventional density gradient procedures.1977336007
intracellular development of membrane protein of influenza virus.the intracellular development of membrane protein (mp) of influenza a virus was investigated by immunofluorescent staining. monospecific antiserum was prepared by immunizing rabbits with mp eluted from sds-polyacrylamide gels of sds-disrupted nws virions. in the productive infection in clone 1-5c-4 cells, mp antigen was first detected over the whole cell at 4 hr after infection, concomitantly with the appearance of hemagglutinin (ha) antigen in the cytoplasm, and bright nuclear fluorescence was ...1977337056
the use of ferret trachea organ cultures for therapeutic studies of anti-influenzal drugs. i. evaluation of the model in comparison with infection in humans. 1977340440
myxoviruses as model viruses. 1977340870
an attenuated influenza virus vaccine: protection against homologous and heterologous strains of effective influenza vaccine should be capable of providing protection against both the homologous virus strain and heterologous strains representing antigenic "drift". two attenuated vaccines were evaluated, an a/hong kong/8/68 (h3n2) and an a/england/42/72 (h3n2) strain. volunteers were immunized intranasally with either placebo or vaccine in a "double-blind" fashion in two doses, 2 weeks apart. eighty-four subjects were challenged 30-100 days after the second dose with either the homologous ...1977342305
challenge versus natural infection as an index or protection after influenza immunization.the most important consideration in evaluating an immunization procedure is protection from infection. protection provided by influenza vaccines can best be determined by large scale field trials and natural infection. however, these are difficult to control and epidemics cannot always be accurately predicted. on the other hand, representative artificial challenge studies can be controlled and are easier to perform. in the studies, reported protection achieved against artificial challenge is com ...1977342306
humoral and cell mediated immune response to bivalent influenza a/nj/76 and a/vict/75 vaccine in renal allograft recipients. 1977342308
experience with monovalent and bivalent influenza vaccines in canada 1976. clinical evaluation of vaccines from four sources.clinical trials in adults of monovalent (200 cca units per dose) and bivalent (400 cca units per dose) inactivated influenza whole virus a/swine and a/victoria vaccines from different sources resulted in variations in clinical reactivity which may not be significant because of lack of controls and observer bias. in adults with no pre-vaccine antibody (hi less than 1/10) the a/swine monovalent vaccine from one source evoked significantly lower response than did the a/swine component of the bivale ...1977342309
clinical reactions to an adsorbed killed trivalent influenza vaccine (including a/new jersey 8/76 antigen) with different immunization methods.the local and general reactions of 489 individuals vaccinated with an adsorbed killed influenza vaccine (containing a/new jersey 8/76, a/victoria 3/75, b/hong kong 8/73 antigens) were studied on the fourth day after vaccination. 179 participants were vaccinated by syringe, the rest by jet injector. local indurations were observed in 7.3% of participants injected by needle versus 14.1% to 19.5%, respectively in individuals immunized with two different jet guns (lodi, scherer). 2 ulcerations on th ...1977342310
clinical trials with a new influenza subunit vaccine in adults and children.the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new influenza subunit vaccine containing essentially only hemagglutinin and neuraminidase has been studied in man. studies in primed individuals demonstrated that the subunit vaccine induced antibody levels as high as those induced by a comparable whole virus vaccine, or a commercially available whole virus vaccine or by a split vaccine. the commercial whole virus vaccine caused systemic reactions, including fever and headache in 15% of volunteers. in c ...1977342311
inactivated influenza a/new jersey/76 vaccines in children: results of a mult-center trial. 1977342312
serum srh antibody level as a measure of the immunity against natural and artificial a/victoria/3/75 infections.a natural influenza a/victoria/3/75 outbreak occurred in two communities where part of the residents had been vaccinated with a live recombinant vaccine strain, the rit 4025 strain (a/scotland/840/74 serotype). using the single radial hemolysis technique to measure the antibody level, a relationship was established between the rate of infection and the pre-epidemic serum antibody titer. the higher the pre-epidemic antibody titer, the lower the rate of infection and illness. the protective titer ...1977342314
influenza surveillance of wisconsin (usa) population-detection of a/new jersey by isolation and serologic monitoring and vaccine evaluation.the 1976-77 influenza surveillance in wisconsin consisted of three major areas of study. serum and virus isolation specimens were obtained from the practicing medical community and from epidemiologic studies. from all sources 1,132 throat specimens were tested by egg and tissue culture inoculations. three isolations similar to a/new jersey/8/76 were recovered from pig farm associated patients. one contact with one of the isolate patients seroconverted to a/new jersey suggesting patient to patien ...1977342315
a placebo-controlled dose-response study of the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a cold-adapted recombinant a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) live influenza virus candidate vaccine in healthy volunteers. 1977342317
attenuation of influenza a/new jersey/76 virus strain, preparation of live vaccine and vaccine reactogenicity in volunteers.the nib-3 strain (a recombinant of influenza a/new jersey/76 and x-31 strains) was further attenuated by nine egg passages at 28 degrees c for the purpose of obtaining a "cold-adapted variant" suitable for preparation of live freeze-dried vaccine with 5% peptone. the vaccine with two infectivity titres, of 7 and 6 log eid50/dose respectively, administered intranasally, was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled field trial. the reactogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated on the basis of fe ...1977342318
hi antibody response in volunteers vaccinated with live influenza a/new jersey/76 freeze-dried influenza a/new jersey/76 vaccine prepared from the "cold-adapted variant" of nib-3 strain. three groups of about 50 persons were included in a double-blind placebo-controlled field trial. one group received the vaccine with 7 log eid50/dose, the other 6 log eid50/dose and the third received placebo. one half of persons from each group were given a second dose of the corresponding preparation after two weeks. the immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated by the determination ...1977342319
swine influenza a at fort dix, new jersey (january-february 1976). iv. summary and speculation.influenza a/new jersey/76 virus was detected at fort dix from january 19 through february 9, 1976 and infected at least 230 military personnel. thirteen hospital admissions for acute respiratory disease were associated with influenza a/new jersey infection, and additional members of index training companies may have been hospitalized with influenza a/new jersey. this virus was likely introduced into the reception center by an incoming trainee. although our studies could not eliminate the possibi ...1977342615
swine influenza virus infections in humans.influenza in swine was first recognized as an epizootic disease in 1918. during that same year influenza virus in humans caused the worst pandemic on record. the virus of swine influenza was isolated in 1930. swine influenza virus was first isolated from humans in 1974. since then, including the cases at fort dix, there have been a total of nine viral isolations from humans in the united states. serologic evidence of infections with swine influenza virus in humans has also been obtained. evidenc ...1977342616
measurement of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to influenza virus in the 1976 influenza vaccine program: methods and test reproducibility.titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting (hai) antibody were determined for all sera obtained from participants in the 1976 influenza vaccine test program. at least eight control sera were included in each test during the vaccine trial period for the purpose of monitoring hai test reproducibility. estimates of day-to-day reproducibility were defined as the percentages of duplicate aliquots of the same sera, tested on two separate days, having hai antibody titers that did not differ by more than one ...1977342617
immunogenicity and reactogenicity of influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccines in normal adults.inactivated influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccines were administered intramuscularly to 199 normal adults, aged 19-59, in doses of 200, 400, or 800 chick cell-agglutinating units in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. systemic reactions (including fever) were uncommon, were mild, lasted less than 24 hr, and were more frequently associated with the largest dose. local reactions were common but mild. a single, rapidly reversible, allergic reaction was noted in a volunteer 2 hr after vaccin ...1977342618
comparative study of reactogenicity and immunogenicity of influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus vaccines in normal volunteers.local and systemic reactions and antibody responses to three different doses of influenza virus vaccine (a/new jersey/76 [hsw1n1]) produced by four different manufacturers were studied. local and systemic reactions that peaked between 8 and 24 hr after vaccine administration were related to the source of the vaccine more than to the dose. antibody conversion occurred in almost 90% of subjects over the age of 25 years but in only 61% of subjects 25 years or younger. this low response rate was due ...1977342619
clinical trials of monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccines in adults: reactogenicity, antibody response, and antibody persistence.responses to monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccines were evaluated in 22-43-year-old, antibody-negative males. three doses of vaccine (200, 400, and 800 chick cell-agglutinating [cca] units) from each of four manufacturers and a placebo were given intramuscularly. mild systemic complaints occurred in 12% of vaccines and moderate reactions in 5%, mostly in recipients of 800 cca units of the vaccines. reactogenicities of subvirion vaccines were intermediate, while different preparatio ...1977342620
antibody responses and reactogenicity of graded doses of inactivated influenza a/new jersey/76 whole-virus vaccine in humans.graded doses of inactivated whole influenza a/new jersey/8/76 virus vaccine were injected into healthy volunteers. presence of hemagglutination-inhibiting (hai) antibody was uncommon before vaccination in persons younger than 45 years and most common in those older than 65 years. all vaccine doses (4-61 microgram of hemagglutinin) induced hai antibody in at least 50% of recipients, although a booster dose was required to induce high titers in those younger than 24 years of age. a tendency for ha ...1977342621
reactogenicity and immunogenicity of parenteral monovalent influenza a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) virus vaccine in healthy adults.monovalent influenza a/victoria/3/75 whole-virus vaccines prepared by merck sharp and dohme (west point, pa.) and merrell-national laboratories (cincinnati, ohio) and split-virus vaccines prepared by parke, davis and company (detroit, mich.) and wyeth laboratories (philadelphia, pa.) containing 200, 400, and 800 chick cell-agglutinating units per dose were compared with a placebo in double-blind trials in which 208 adults participated. titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody of greater th ...1977342622
serologic responses and systemic reactions in adults after vaccination with bivalent a/victoria/75-a/new jersey/76 and monovalent b/hong kong/72 influenza vaccines.bivalent a/victoria/75-a/new jersey/76 and monovalent b/hong kong/72 influenza vaccines were given alone or together to adutls, and systemic reactions and antibody responses were determined. the rates of systemic reactivity observed varied among vaccine groups. disrupted vaccines and whole-virus vaccines containing type b antigen only did not cause significant reactivity. systemic reactions were observed after administration of the bivalent a whole-virus vaccines, and this reactivity was increas ...1977342623
clinical trials of bivalent influenza a/new jersey/76-a/victoria/75 vaccines in the elderly.this placebo-controlled evaluation in elderly persons of inactivated influenza virus vaccines containing 200 or 400 chicke cell-agglutinating units of both a/new jersey/76 and a/victoria/75 antigens revealed mild systemic reactions in 7.8% and moderate reactions in 4.9% of vaccinees. these reactions were more common after administration of whole-virus than subvirion vaccines, more frequent in females than males, and more frequent in persons with low initial titers of antibody to a/new jersey ant ...1977342624
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