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the influenza virus: antigenic composition and immune response.the architecture and chemical composition of the influenza virus particle is described with particular reference to the protein constituents and their genetic control. the dominant role in infection of the surface proteins - haemagglutinins and neuraminidases - acting as antigens and undergoing variation in time known as antigenic drift and shift is explained. the immuno-diffusion technique has illuminated the interrelationships of the haemagglutinins of influenza a viruses recovered over long p ...197988726
analysis of antigenic drift in recently isolated influenza a (h1n1) viruses using monoclonal antibody preparations. 197988798
assessment of the antigenic relatedness among h3 hemagglutinins of type a influenza viruses by competition radioimmunoassay. 197988804
[hemagglutinin antigens of influenza viruses isolated from man and birds].immunological analysis has shown hemagglutinins of avian viruses like hemagglutinins of human viruses to have a complex antigenic composition. three antigenic determinants were discovered in hemagglutinin of a/chicken/12/71 virus previously designated h3 and in hemagglutinin of a/tern/18/73 virus previously designated hav7. the h3 determinant and the second determinant are identical in avian and a/hong kong/1/68 human viruses. in addition, hemagglutinins of avian viruses have a determinant speci ...197988816
macrophage immunity to influenza virus: in vitro and in vivo studies.using m-tur, a macrophage-adapted avian influenza a virus (hav1, nav3), antiviral resistance of peritoneal macrophages obtained from specifically or nonspecifically immunized mice towards in vitro infection was assessed. m-tur grew to high titers in macrophages from nonimmune mice thereby causing a marked cytopathic effect. in contrast, peritoneal macrophages from mice specifically immunized with tur virus were not affected by infection with m-tur in vitro. this antiviral immunity was specific: ...197989051
antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.three antigenic determinants were revealed in h3 hemagglutinin of influenza a viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. one of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing h3 hemagglutinin.197989090
[use of the precipitation reaction for studying viral antibodies in blood sera]. 197989261
[micromethod of carrying out the passive hemagglutination reaction for detecting antibodies to influenza a2 virus in tears and aqueous humor]. 197990190
variant-specific antihemagglutinin serum response to type a influenza natural infection and inactivated vaccines in adults. 197990369
antigenic drift in type a influenza virus: sequence differences in the hemagglutinin of hong kong (h3n2) variants selected with monoclonal hybridoma antibodies. 197990425
latex fetuin spheres as probes for influenza virus neuraminidase in productively and abortively infected cells.fetuin bound latex spheres do not adhere to the membranes of non-infected cells but adhere to those of cells productively infected by fowl plague virus (fpv dobson strain). in contrast, asialo fetuin spheres do not attach to the membranes of productively infected cells. moreover latex fetuin spheres incubated with extracts of productively infected cells and extensively washed are specifically enriched in neuraminidase activity without any trace of haemagglutinin. these observations suggest that ...197991354
antigenic determinants of influenza virus hemagglutinin. iv. immunogenicity of fragments isolated from the hemagglutinin of a/memphis/72. 197991638
further studies of the antigenic properties of h3n2 strains of influenza a isolated from swine in south east asia.h3n2 strains of influenza a isolated from swine in hong kong were compared with human strains of h3n2 influenza a variants in reciprocal hi tests using ferret sera. one isolate from swine was indistinguishable from a/hong kong/68, one set of viruses isolated in 1976 and 1977 was most related to a/hong kong/68 but was not identical to it, two isolates from 1976 were 'bridging strains' that cross-reacted equally with the contemporary variants a/victoria/3/75 and a/texas/1/77, similarly to a small ...197991663
dual recombination as origin of pandemic influenza viruses. 197991815
[antigenic and biological characteristics of the a (h1n1) strains that caused the 1977--1978 epidemic].by the antigenic specificity of the surface subunits, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, the influenza virus strains a (h1n1) isolated in 1977--1978 were related but not identical to the a (h1n1) strains circulating in 1950--1952. the a/fm/1/47 strain differed from the a/england/51, a/pan/52 strains and a/ussr/090/77 strain by its antigenic relations with the a/netherland/56 and a/denver/57 strains. biologically, the new a/h1n1/77 strains were similar to the reference strains circulating in 1947-- ...197992100
[antigenic determinants in the composition of the hemagglutinins of the influenza virus h1n1 isolated in 1977 and of the h1n1 viruses isolated in 1947--1956].a comparative analysis of hemagglutinins (ha) of the a/ussr/090/77 (h1n1) virus isolated in 1977 and a/fm/47, a/leningrad/49, a/pan/52, and a/netherlands/56 viruses with the antigenic formula (h1n1) was done. by the method of cross adsorption of rabbit influenza antisera, ha of the viruses under study were found to contain three antigenic determinants: one is common for all the variants studied, another characterizes the relationships of individual variants isolated in different years, and the t ...197992101
[antibody response to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase induced by an influenza subunit vaccine (author's transl)].to study antigenicity, persistence of antibody (efficacy) and reactogenicity of a new bivalent influenza subunit vaccine, sandovac, it was given in two different concentrations (1000 and 2000 iu) to 156 subjects from two epidemiologically destinct areas (119 students from essen, average age 22 years, 37 residents from kassel average age 56 years). serum antibody response was measured by hemagglutination inhibition (hi) and neuraminidase inhibition (ni) tests before, one, two and six months after ...197992113
efficacy of purified influenza subunit vaccines and relation to the major antigenic determinants on the hemagglutinin molecule.inactivated whole-virus vaccine of influenza a/scotland/74 (h3n2) virus containing 700 or 1,400 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units, a purified subunit vaccine of equivalent dosage, or placebo were studied in 186 adult volunteers. placebo was least reactogenic, 1,400-cca unit whole-virus vaccine was most reactogenic, and others were intermediate. vaccines were equally antigenic, and delineation of antibody specificities revealed antibody cross-reacting with a/hong kong/68 (h3n2) virus in all se ...197992511
human influenza a virus: comparative analysis of the structural polypeptides by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 197992854
investigation of the incidence of influenza a viraemia caused by virus strains circulating among children in 1968 - 1977.nineteen strains of type a influenza virus isolated from the blood of small children in 1968--77 were studied. the investigation of the strains in hair with antisera to the antigenic components of the strains in hair with antisera to the antigenic components of the strains a/hong-kong/68,a/anglia/72, a/port chalmers/73 and a/victoria/75 made it possible to demonstrate antigenic "drive" of the haemagglutinin in the years 1968--1977 and to divide the strains into 4 varieties. a high sensitivity t ...197993126
[use of immunosorbent to remove influenza antibodies from diagnostic sera]. 197993172
[monoreceptor sera to the antigenic determinants of influenza virus a hemagglutinin].the method of specific adsorption was used to produce monoreceptor sera to individual antigenic determinants of hemagglutinin of influenza a virus, hong kong variant. the sera were completely free of inhibitors, contained no antibody to neuraminidase or host cell antigens. the monoreceptor sera were used in hi tests and immunoelectrophoresis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the antigenic variants isolated in 1968--1977. it was shown that alongside with the appearance of qualitati ...197993350
antibodies to the strain-specific and cross-reactive determinants of the haemagglutinin of influenza h3n2 viruses. 1. preparation of antibodies and in vitro studies.the serological analysis of antibodies to the haemagglutinin (ha) of influenza a viruses of the hong kong (h3n2) subtype is described, using haemagglutination-inhibition, immuno-double-diffusion and single-radial-diffusion techniques. by cross-absorption of antisera to purified ha antigens, different populations of antibody molecules were obtained, which are designated strain-specific and cross-reactive and characterized in terms of their antigenic specificities for ha antigens of the homologous ...197993399
hla restriction of human influenza virus-immune cytotoxic t cells. 197993811
purification of antibodies to influenza a virus structural proteins by affinity chromatography, and their participation in haemagglutination-inhibition, neutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.affinity chromatography was used to purify rabbit antibodies to common and strain-specific antigeneic determinants of haemagglutinin, to neuraminidase, and to a combination of the internal proteins of influenza a viruses. the purity of the antibodies was assessed by haemagglutination-inhibition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and competition elisa. the antibodies were examined for their participation in neutralization and haemagglutination-inhibition assays, and in elisa. elisa was fo ...197993960
correlation between morbidity and the level of serum antibodies and virus-neutralizing inhibitors in different influenza a/hong-kong epidemics. 197994079
[prevention of influenza]. 197994691
exposure of m-protein at the surface of influenza virus [proceedings]. 197994803
role of interferon in mice in protection against influenza a virus by bacterial ribosomes together with membranal glycoproteins of klebsiella pneumoniae as adjuvant.nonspecific protection against infectious aerosols of influenza a virus was obtained in swiss mice after vaccination by aerosols of bacterial ribosomes together with membranal glycoproteins extracted from klebsiella pneumoniae as the adjuvant. it was shown that repeated stimulant aerosols were necessary to obtain this protection. routine estimation of serum interferon levels after administration of the association of ribosomes plus membranal glycoproteins to the animals by aerosol or intravenous ...197994908
[effect of various plant preparations on influenza virus replication. ii. interferon induction]. 197995152
single-radial-complement-fixation: a new immunodiffusion technique. assay of the antibody response to the type-specific antigens of influenza virus in post-infection human sera.a new immunodiffusion technique in agarose gel for the quantification of complement-fixing antibodies is described. the test involves the incorporation of antigen and complement in a primary agarose gel. heat-inactivated serum samples are allowed to diffuse radially from wells overnight at 4 degrees c. a secondary gel, containing antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes, is layered on top of the first gel and the system is incubated for 45 min at 37 degrees c. where complement is fixed, i.e., around w ...197896950
the use of ferret trachea organ cultures for therapeutic studies of anti-influenzal drugs. ii. comparison of four compounds in tissue culture and in organ culture. 197897260
congenital hydrocephalus. animal model: congenital hydrocephalus produced by attenuated influenza a virus vaccine in rhesus monkeys. 197899044
immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type a influenza viruses.radioimmunoprecipitation (rip) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (ha) of type a influenza virus in nasal secretions. rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin a (iga) and rabbit anti-human igg were used as second antibodies. a third antibody, goat anti-rabbit igg, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated ha, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. the utilization of t ...1978100506
cytotoxic t-cell responses in mice infected with influenza and vaccinia viruses vary in magnitude with h-2 genotype.secondary effector t-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza a viruses operate only in h-2k or h-2d compatible situations, when assayed on sv40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza a viruses. the h2-kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic t cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. in both influenza and vaccinia development of effector t cells operating at ...1978100569
experimental production of respiratory tract disease in cebus monkeys after intratracheal or intranasal infection with influenza a/victoria/3/75 or influenza a/new jersey/76 virus.a total of 28 cebus monkeys were inoculated intratracheally or intranasally with 10(6) 50% tissue culture infective doses of a/new jersey/76 virus or 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses of a/victoria/75 virus, and 8 additional monkeys received sterile allantoic fluid. each of the animals became infected as evidenced by a serological response and/or shedding of the virus. of the 10 animals inoculated intratracheally with a/victoria/75 virus, 8 developed a systemic illness, and pulmonary infi ...1978101457
hemolysis-in-gel (hig) test for antibodies to influenza a, measles and mumps using liquid nitrogen freezed erythrocytes coupled with the respective viral antigen.a drawback with the hemolysis-in-gel test is the constant need for fresh erythrocytes which must be treated with virus before incorporation in the gel. this problem was overcome by freezing small droplets containing erythrocytes to which antigen had been attached. the droplets were stored at -70 degrees c or in liquid nitrogen. this modification was applied in detecting antibodies to influenza, measles and mumps viruses and the results were shown to equal those obtained with fresh erythrocytes.1978102699
[influenza epidemic in fukuoka prefecture during the period from december 1977 to march 1978 (author's transl)]. 1978103979
antigenic relationship between influenza c viruses.the object of this study was to determine whether antigenic groupings exist among influenza c viruses. altogether seven influenza type c strains were examined by reciprocal haemagglutination-inhibition and serum neutralization tests with sera produced in ferrets. some biological properties were also compared and differences were found in their ability to agglutinate erythrocytes from various species, in their ability to adsorb onto rat and fowl erythrocytes, and in their rates of elution from th ...1978104696
the specificity of the anti-haemagglutinin antibody response induced in man by inactivated influenza vaccines and by natural infection.the anti-haemagglutinin antibody response in adult human volunteers to inactivated whole virus or tween ether split influenza a/victoria/75 (h3n2) and a/scotland/74 (h3n2) virus vaccines was investigated using antibody absorption and single-radial-haemolysis (srh) techniques. the concentrations of haemagglutinin (ha), nucleoprotein (np) and matrix (m) antigens measured by single radial diffusion (srd) and rocket immunoelectrophoresis were similar for both the whole virus and split vaccines. whol ...1979105040
a simple method for testing antigenic variation of influenza virus antigenicity. 1979105843
the measurement of haemagglutinin and matrix protein present on the surface of influenza virus infected p815 mastocytoma cells.a thermodynamic approach has been used to measure the amount of haemagglutinin and matrix protein expressed at the surface of p815 cells infected for periods between 4.5 and 11 h with either wsn (h0n1) or jap (h2n2) strains of type a influenza virus. this involved measuring the interaction of different concentrations of labelled (fab)2 preparations of specific antibody with normal and infected cells. assuming that one molecule of (fab)2 bound to one molecule of antigen, values for the number of ...1979107273
[effective methods of obtaining antisera to hemagglutinin h3].schedules for production of antisera to pure influenza a virus hemagglutinin (h3) in rats and rabbits are described. the antisera prepared in rats were shown to be better than rabbit sera as they had low levels of inhibitors readily eliminated by heating. the best sera were obtained by immunizations of rats into the tail. both rat and rabbit antisera, in addition to the hi test, can be used satisfactorily in the immunodiffusion test and in radioimmunoassay.1978107656
isolation of an influenza virus subtype hav4navl from a budgerigar. 1979108521
vaccination against influenza: a five-year study in the post office.an injection of influenza vaccine was offered to approximately 60 000 postal and telecommunications staff at the beginning of five successive winters. the sickness absence of this group, which included those who accepted the offer of vaccine as well as those who did not, was compared throughout the winter with that of a similar number of employees who were not offered vaccine. the two groups, ;vaccinated' and control, comprised the staff of nearly 400 post office units scattered throughout great ...1979110876
reagents for single-radial-diffusion assay of the haemagglutinin antigen of influenza virus a/ussr/92/77 (h1n1). 1979113412
[isolation and study of influenza a viruses in different cell cultures].the usefulness of some cells cultures (bsc-i, vero, mdsk) for isolation and study of reproduction of influenza a viruses was explored. out of 50 clinical specimens examined, in 16 cases the virus was isolated both in chick embryos and in mdsk cell cultures. mdsk cultures were found to be highly sensitive to influenza a viruses, which produced cytopathic effect and hemagglutinin accumulation. the plaques formed by freshly isolated strains under an agar overlay containing trypsin were markedly pol ...1979113939
the effect of protein-deprivation on the susceptibility to influenza virus infection: a murine model system.the effect of a 4% albumin diet initiated at weaning on the susceptibility to influenza virus infection was studied in c57bl mice. protein-deprivation was found to enhance markedly the susceptibility to a lethal infection with both mouse-virulent and avirulent strains of virus. viraemia was observed more frequently in protein-deprived mice, and virus persisted longer in the lungs. the humoral immune response following intranasal infection was depressed, with normal levels of igg antibody but red ...1979114154
[the influenza epidemic 1977-1978. epidemiological and clinical studies]. 1979117310
[virological and seroepidemiological studies on type a influenza prevalent in kawasaki city from january to march, 1978 (author's transl)]. 1979119019
an explosive outbreak of influenza caused by a/ussr/77-like virus on a united states naval ship. 1979119926
characterization of a new avian influenza virus subtype and proposed designation of this haemagglutinin as hav10.the haemagglutinin of a/dk/alb/60/76, an influenza a virus isolated from feral ducks in canada, possesses no antigenic relatedness to any of the 16 reference haemagglutinin subtypes. results of serological tests (hi and double immunodiffusion) with monospecific antisera to the haemagglutinin of this virus indicate that it represents a new avian haemagglutinin subtype. we propose that this haemagglutinin be designated as hav10 under the current system of nomenclature.1979120414
[determination of the quantitative hemagglutinin content in influenza vaccine by means of radial immunodiffusion]. 1979121647
recurring hemolytic anemia, babesiasis, and influenza a viruses in a yak at low altitude in nepal.episodes of hemolysis and leukocytosis which were associated with babesia bigemina followed each of 3 challenge exposures to influenza a viruses. it is possible that viral infection altered the immunologic host-parasite equilibrium. acute thrombocytopenia and rouleaux formation were also observed. death, attributed to liver flukes, occurred 168 days after the yak was transferred from high to low altitude. a 2nd yak died of foot-and-mouth disease, thus supporting the nepali belief that yaks will ...1975125056
[characteristics of immunity in influenza].immunity in influenza is a complex phenomenon that depends upon numerous factors whose importance is not yet sufficiently known. the following mechanisms of defence are triggered by infection with the influenza virus: (a) the immune secretory system: -- iga antibodies, --immune response in terms of the vaccinating dose, previous immunologic experience and time (appraised according to the moment in which infection started). (b) serum antibodies: -- to the soluble antigen, -- to surface particulat ...1975128102
[supplementary data on the theory concerning the cyclic evolution of influenza viruses].the distribution per age groups of antibodies to influenza viruses a/hong kong/1/68, a/england/837/69 and a/england/42/72 in the sera collected in 1970 demonstrates that antigenically similar strains also dominated the epidemiologic picture of influenza in the past century. the results suggest that the pandemic of 1893 and infection in persons born before 1885 were caused by a strain similar to a/hong kong/1/68 and in those born in 1895-1897 by the antigenic variant a/england/42/72. the anamnest ...1975128105
[spreading of influenza a--simulation through a mathematical model (author's transl)]. 1975129732
results of virological and serological studies of three influenza a hong-kong epidemics in leningrad.an analysis of morbidity of the population in the course of 3 influenza a/hong-kong epidemics showed a pronounced decrease in influenza affection of adult population in the last epidemic in 1971--1972. comparative studies of the diagnostic value of cfr and hit demonstrated identical sensitivity of cfr as a method of influenza diagnostics in both the epidemic and interepidemic periods. hit was suitable for the detection of influenza only in the epidemic period. in the interepidemic period, the pe ...1976135027
labeling of animal cells with fluorescent dansyl cerebroside.a dansyl (diaminoaphthalenesulfonyl)-derivative of cerebroside was prepared which could be effectively incorporated into the plasma membranes of tissue culture cells and erythrocytes. the cells which had assimilated the glycolipid fluoreced intensely and could be observed under a fluorescent microscope. cells were initially labeled rather homogeneously over the whole surface. with longer incubation time organization of the fluorescent glycolipid took place and patches of the lipid in the membran ...1976138295
[study of cattle influenza]. 1976139738
selective inhibition of influenza virus protein synthesis by inhibitors of dna function. 1977141164
further studies on the activation of influenza virus by proteolytic cleavage of the haemagglutinin. 1977142124
[virological and serological examination of wild birds during the spring migrations in the region of the manych reservoir, rostov province].in accordance with the soviet-american collaboration program on influenza and ard, cooperative field studies were undertaken in 1975 in the ussr in order to test the field and laboratory methods for studies on influenza virus ecology. in the rostov region of the ussr, virological and serological examinations of 321 birds of 25 species were carried out. virological tests were performed with 678 biological specimens and in various serological tests 308 blood serum specimesn from wild birds were ex ...1977144367
[relations between human and animal influenza viruses].the following more important problems are dealth with in the present paper:--antigenic relationships between human and animal influenza viruses;--recombination of human and animal influenza viruses;--epidemiological relationships between human and animal influenza viruses;--the theory of cyclical evolution of influenza viruses.1977144990
[controlled study of influenza prophylaxis by vufb amantadin (author's transl)]. 1977145906
the carbohydrates of influenza virus. ii. gas chromatographic analysis of glycopeptides derived from viral glycoproteins and mucopolysaccharides.two carbohydrate fractions can be obtained from egg-grown influenza virus after pronase digestion followed by gel chromatography. one fraction contains glycopeptides (mw ca. 2000--2600) which represent the carbohydrate side chains of the viral glycoproteins. the constituent sugars of this material are fucose, galactose, glucosamine, and mannose, and their position within the side chain has been partially elucidated by methylation studies. the other fraction (mw greatest than 6000) appears to be ...1978147662
[some particularities of influenza epidemics caused by a/port chalmers influenza virus in the region of north moravia in 1974--1975 (author's transl)]. 1977147741
the antibody response of institutionalized down's syndrome patients to seven microbial antigens.an earlier cross-sectional study had revealed that institutionalized down's syndrome (ds) patients possessed much lower titres of hepatitis b surface antibodies (anti-hbs) than did their non-down's (nd) counterparts. in an attempt to determine whether ds patients were generally deficient in humoral antibody response, the inmates of an institution for the mentally retarded (110 ds, seventy-eight nd) were immunized with tetanus, diphtheria (toxoids), influenza a, influenza b (inactivated vaccines) ...1978148342
[formation and persistence of antibodies against envelope antigens of influenza virus after vaccination by formolized monovaccine (author's transl)]. 1978149598
[evaluation of the therapeutic and antiepidemic effect of remantadine in influenza]. 1978150050
cell-mediated cytotoxicity against virus-infected target cells in humans. ii. interferon induction and activation of natural killer cells.the mechanisms by which human lymphocytes lyse virus-infected allogeneic fibroblast cultures were analyzed with particular consideration of the role of anti-viral antibodies and interferon. human cells infected with viruses were able to induce high levels of interferon upon contact with human lymphocytes. interferon, whether produced by lymphocytes after direct infection with virus or induced upon exposure of lymphocytes to virus-infected fibroblasts, appeared to be responsible for enhancing the ...1978150448
[epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza in leningrad in 1973-1976]. 1976150657
host antigen as the sulphated moiety of influenza virus haemagglutinin.inorganic sulphate (35s) was incorporated into the haemagglutinin molecule of a/memphis/1/71 (h3n2) influenza virus when a keratosulphate-like host antigen was also incorporated into the glycoproteins of virus grown in the chorioallantoic membrane of the embryonated hen's egg. little or no 35s-sulphate was incorporated when this hose antigen was not present in the glycoproteins of virus grown in chick embryo kidney cells or in the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated duck eggs. the presence o ...1978152802
[evaluation of immunization against influenza with adenovirus containing strains a/port chalmers and a/swine (author's transl)]. 1978153798
[isolation of influenza virus with the antigenic formula hav4 nav2 and hav5 nav2 during epizootic infection among sea gulls in the astrakhan district in the summer of 1976].virological examinations of nesting colonies of laridae birds in the avandelta of the volga, astrakhan region, during an epizootic in july, 1976, yielded 5 strains of influenza virus: 3 from sterna albifrons, 1 from s. hirundo and 1 from larus genei, identical with a/sterna hirundo/s. africa/61 (hav5 nav2) virus. at the same period two strains were isolated from larus genei showing a previously unknown composition of the surface antigens: hav4 nav2. all the strains were isolated only from cloaca ...1978155358
[characteristics of the clinical course of influenza a and b during the epidemic outbreaks of recent years]. 1979155885
[incidence of tonsillitis during influenza epidemic in 1977-1978]. 1979156479
[properties of the influenza viruses isolated in 1976 from gulls in astrakhan province].investigation of a number of properties of influenza viruses isolated from laridae birds in the astrakhan region showed that in one epizootic focus avian influenza viruses with different hemagglutinins and identical neuraminidase may circulate among laridae birds. among viruses with the antigenic formula hav5nav2 clear-cut differences in virulence and plaque-forming capacity were demonstrated.1979156983
[virological and serological examination of the patients in a period of influenza a1 outbreak in aktyubinsk].in october--december, 1977, an epidemic outbreak of influenza predominantly among young people of an organized community was recorded in aktyubinsk. for decifering the outbreak virological and serological examinations of 325 subjects in foci of the disease as well as hospitalized patients were carried out. the etiology of influenza was confirmed clinically, epidemiologically, and by laboratory examinations in 150 patients. in chick embryos, 53 strains of influenza a1 virus were isolated. investi ...1979156984
[outbreak of equine influenza in chile]. 1979157748
[isolation of strains of the hong kong complex (h3n2) influenza virus from nyctalus noctula bats in kazakhstan].four antigenically related hemagglutinating agents were isolated from pools of lungs and tracheas of nyctalus noctula bats in chick embryos. identification of the isolates by the hemagglutination inhibition, neuraminidase activity inhibition and double immunodiffusion methods revealed close antigenic relationships with a/port chalmers/73 virus.1979158260
[incidence of antibodies against influenza viruses a/victoria 3/75 (h3 n2) and a--swine (hsw1 n1) in large pig farms and attendants of pigs in the north moravian region (author's transl)]. 1979159135
[virological characteristics of influenza a in leningrad in 1977-1978]. 1979162084
[type b influenza in leningrad]. 1979162085
clinically useful method for the isolation of respiratory syncytial virus.a simple method for the isolation of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is reported; it is relatively rapid and results in a high frequency of recovery of virus. a nasal secretion specimen with high titers of virus is inoculated at the bedside onto susceptible cell lines to avoid loss of viral infectivity due to liability of the virus. during an outbreak of rsv, viral specimens were obtained by this method from all young children admitted to the hospital with lower respiratory tract disease. rsv ...1975162921
two different mechanisms of the inhibition of the multiplication of enveloped viruses by glucosamine. 1975163046
an outbreak of severe pneumonia due to respiratory syncytial virus in isolated arctic populations.a rapidly developing outbreak of pneumonia in young infants was documented in two isolated artic populations in may 1972. these were studied virologically, serologically and clinically. in addition to the two stricken communities, one apparently unaffected with serious clinical illness and a fourth, in which are located the major hospital and airport in the eastern arctic, were also studied. one hundred and twenty-four patients were studied serologically and 81 respiratory and other specimens we ...1975163574
etiological relationship between several respiratory viruses and acute respiratory diseases in 1973 in the gdr.the role of some important respiratory viruses (influenza a, b, parainfluenza, adeno and mycoplasma) in morbidity due to acute respiratory diseases during 1973 in the gdr is analysed on account of serological data (cfr) obtained with paired sera (a -5 percent of all cases comprising all age groups) and virus isolations. the serological surveillance provides an important base for evaluating the significance of respiratory agents for the development of the morbidity due to ard.1975165122
the sudden infant death syndrome and epidemic viral disease.a study was done to investigate the relationship between the sudden infant death syndrome (sids) and epidemic respiratory viral disease among hospitalized children under 18 months of age. during the 42 month-period of this study, there were 778 sudden infant deaths in chicago and 3244 hospital admissions of children under 18 months for respiratory disease. four outbreaks of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infections, three outbreaks of influenza a virus infections, and several small clusters of ...1975165718
studies on the immune response and pathogenesis of sendai virus infection of mice. iii. the effects of cyclophosphamide.studies of the effects of cyclophosphamide on a non-lethal primary sendai virus infection of mice are reported. treatment with cyclophosphamide resulted in failure to limit or eradicate virus, diminished and delayed the appearance of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the lungs and the production of local and serum antibody, reduced and delayed the appearance of bronchial basement membrane damage and the desquamation of infected mucosal cells, and reduced the incidence of immune complex depositio ...1975166035
immunofluorescent diagnosis of acute viral infection. 1975166450
failure of attenuated temperature-sensitive influenza a (h3n2) virus to induce heterologous interference in humans to parainfluenza type 1 virus.the present investigation was undertaken to determine if a candidate live vaccine virus, influenza a/hong kong/68-ts-1 [e] (h3n2), induced heterologous interference against an interferon-sensitive, wild-type, parainfluenza type 1 challenge virus. the parainfluenza virus was administered 7 days after hong kong/68-ts-1 [e] virus infection. the clinical response, daily quantitative virus shedding, interferon production, and serum and nasal wash antibody responses were determined in an experimental ...1975166929
[effect of influenza a 29 virus infection on the immunogenicity of surface fractions of hamster polyoma tumor cells]. 1975167244
an immunoprecipitin study of the incidence of influenza a antibodies in animal sera in the ottawa area.a survey of over 600 'normal' sera from 14 animal species by immunoprecipitin tests in cellulose acetate using viron antigens revealed a high incidence of precipitating activity against a broad range of influenza a virus strains, particularly a2hhong kong/1/68 and /pr8. however, serum treatments trypsin-heat-periodate, naio4, v. cholerae receptor-destroying enzyme (rde), or kaolin eliminated most precipitating activity, which suggests that it was due to "non-specific" inhibitors of influenze vir ...1975167931
epidemiology of herpesvirus and respiratory virus infections. part 1. serologic findings.the majority of the population group studied had complement-fixation antibodies toward the following viruses: influenza type a, respiratory syncytial, cytomegalovirus, and epstein-barr. the herpesvirus infections (cytomegalovirus and epstein-barr virus) seemed to be prevalent. only low incidences of antibodies were found toward adenovirus, influenza type b, influenza type c, and parainfluenza type ii. a total of 70 aucte virus infections (increases of antibody titer) were diagnosed in 49 patient ...1975168127
streptovirudins, new antibiotics with antibacterial and antiviral activity. i. culture taxonomy, fermentation and production of streptovirudin complex.a new antibiotic complex has been isolated from cultures of streptomyces strain no. ja 10124. on the basis of taxonomic studies, the producing microorganism is described as streptomyces griseoflavus (krainsky, 1914) waksman et henrici, 1948, subsp. thuringiensis subsp. nov., type strain ja 10124. the antibiotic complex, designated as streptovirudin, was isolated from extracts of both mycelium and culture filtrate. it is a white amorphous material which consists of ten closely related components ...1975168173
haemorrhagic manifestations of influenza a infection in children. 1975168394
antibody levels to parainfluenza, rubella, measles, and influenza a virus in children with polymyositis.the cf and hi antibody titers to rubella and measles viruses, the cf titers to influenxa a, and the hi titers to parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3 were carried out on the sera of 20 patients with childhood polymyositis and their matched controls. the titers for measles, parainfluenxa 1, and influenza a were slightly higher for patients than for controls. the control group had antibody titers to rubella and parainfluenza 2 and 3 higher than or similar to those of patients. strong patterns or significant ...1975168906
physicochemical and serological characteristics of respiratory virus fluorescein-isothiocyanate conjugates for fluorescent-antibody diagnosis.fluorescein-isothiocyanate (fitc) conjugates were prepared by improved methods from standard reference antisera to influenza a and b, mumps, parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, and 4, herpesvirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus hexon. the antisera, prepared in a variety of animals, were fractionated three times with selected optimal concentrations of ammonium sulfate and yielded gamma globulins of adequate purity for conjugation with fitc. conjugates containing optimal fluorescein-to-protein rat ...1975170315
a review of routine tests for respiratory viruses in hospital inpatients.during the period june 1967 to may 1972, viral tests were performed upon 1195 inpatients aged 12 and over in the brompton hospital. the overall diagnostic rate was 21-5%, comparing 9-3% by isolation and 14-9% by complement fixation (6-5% by four-fold rises in titre in paired sera, 8-4% by titres larger than or equal to 160 in single sera). only 42% of all patients had an acute respiratory illness within one week prior to admission, which seriously curtailed the chances of isolating viruses and o ...1975170701
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