antibody response in humans after administration of whole-virion and split vaccine prepared from two different influenza a/swine viruses.previous findings with sera of several different animal species had indicated a close antigenic similarity between the x53 recombinant (possessing both surface antigens of a/swine/new jersey/76 virus) and the a/swine/ann arbor/31 (aa) virus (1). since the latter virus grows much better in chick embryos than the former, we examined the possibility of using the ann arbor virus instead of x53 for inactivated vaccine production. the present paper describes our findings in sera of subjects immunized ...1977604101
serological response to an adsorbed killed trivalent influenza vaccine (including a/new jersey 8/76 antigen).the serological evaluation of a trivalent vaccine (a/victoria 3/75, a/new jersey 8/76, b/hong kong 8/73) has been done by hi and ni tests on 77 paired sera representing all age groups. the percentage of seroconversion induced by the antigens a/victoria 3/75, a/new jersey 8/75 and b/hong kong 8/73 were 85.95 and 89.6 respectively and the percentage of protective antibodies (greater than 1:40) were 84.4, 72.7 and 80.5 respectively.1977604102
human responses to purified surface antigen invluenza vaccine (fluvirin).the dose response to a bivalent purified surface antigen vaccine containing a/victoria/3/75 and b/hong kong/8/73 has been studied in volunteers. over the range studied the response was very flat for both components insofar as the hi antibody was concerned. the lower, but still satisfactory, conversion rate to the b component may reflect the absence of previous experience with this strain. in another study in schoolboys a trivalent surface antigen containing a/new jersey, a/victoria and b/hong ko ...1977604103
potentiation of the immune response to influenza virus subunit vaccines.influenza subunit vaccines are poorly immunogenic in unprimed lower animals and man and a method was sought to potentiate the humoral response. intact heterologous influenza a virus vaccine (a/victoria/3/75 [h3n2]) potentiated the antibody response of hamsters to a/nj/76 [hsw1 n1] subunit vaccines but large doses of intact virus were required. studies in seronegative young human adults showed that much lower doses of homologous a/nj/76 [hsw1 n1] virus potentiated the antibody response to both th ...1977604104
antibody response to anti-a/new jersey/76 vaccines.experimental inactivated influenza vaccines prepared with strain x 53, derived from a/new jersey/76 virus were injected to several groups of subjects. different compositions of vaccine were used and the subjects were selected from different age groups. antibody responses were measured 15 days after vaccination; it was then possible to evaluate the conversion rates, the percentages of subjects showing a protective level of antibodies and the average level of antibodies. the results show that a ve ...1977604105
biological, genetic and biochemical characterization of a cold-adapted recombinant a/victoria/3/75 virus and its evaluation in volunteers.a recombinant virus aa-cr19 was produced that contains rna segments coding for one polymerase protein, the nucleoprotein and the matrix protein of cold-adapted a/ann arbor/6/60, but ha, na and two other genes coding for polymerase proteins from a/victoria/3/75. the nonstructural protein gene is probably derived from a/ann arbor/6/60, but may contain a spontaneous mutation. biological characterization of aa-cr19 showed that it possesses the gene(s) responsible for cold-adaptation and temperature- ...1977604106
persistence of influenza a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) antibody one year after vaccination.serum hi and neuraminidase-inhibiting (ni) antibody measurements were made at 3, 32 and 50 weeks after inactivated influenza hsw1n1 vaccination of 438 adults in 1976. although the highest postvaccination geometric mean hi titers were observed in persons greater than or equal to 52 years of age, the rate of antibody decline was similar in adults of all ages. in 14 children who had a seroconversion following two doses of whole virus or split virus vaccine, the geometric mean hi antibody titer was ...1977604107
serological responses to whole and split a/new jersey vaccines in humans and mice following priming infection with influenza a viruses.experiments were performed in mice to investigate the role of previous infection on responses to a/nj/76 vaccines. results from human studies have demonstrated that the serological responses to a/nj/76 vaccines varied according to the age of the vaccinee and appeared to be related to their previous exposure to the different strains of influenza a virus. mice were infected with influenza a viruses representative of the major strains (hsw1n1, hon1, h2n2, h3n2) and later inoculated with varying dos ...1977604108
strain-specificity of antibody to haemagglutinin following inactivated a/port chalmers/1/73 vaccine in man: evidence for a paradoxical strain-specific antibody analysis was carried out of the anti-haemagglutinin antibody responses in adult human recipients of inactivated whole virus a/port chalmers/1/73 (h3n2) vaccine using single radial diffusion combined with antibody adsorption techniques to determine antibody specificity. antibody was characterised as cross-reactive (i.e. directed against antigenic determinants of haemagglutinin which are common for viruses within the h3 subtype) or strain-specific. strain-specific antibodies for the vaccine str ...1977604109
reactogenicity to primary and repeated vaccination with influenza split virus vaccine.influenza vaccines (split, adsorbed, low nitrogen) of two different antigen concentrations (commercial production) were administered to 1,111 adult persons of both sexes. up to five previous vaccinations had been given to the population under observation. their reactions both local and general were not different in primo-vaccinees or boostered persons. increasing numbers of previous vaccinations were not reflected by increasing rates of complaints. disregarding immunization history, the group gi ...1977604110
guillain-barre syndrome after administration of killed vaccines. 1977604111
segregation of an internal biochemical marker during influenza virus recombination and its possible correlation with biological properties.the internal matrix proteins of a/okuda/57, a/finland/4/74 and a/new jersey/8/76 viruses and several recombinant strains have been examined by radioiodination of the purified proteins followed by peptide mapping. the method is rapid and requires only small amounts of material. reproducible differences were detected between the matrix proteins of the above parents and allowed the origin of the matrix proteins of the recombinant viruses to be determined. the use of matrix protein identity as a mar ...1977604112
igm and igg antibody responses following immunization of children and adults with influenza a/nj/76 vaccines.the character of the immune response to inactivated monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 (a/nj/76) and bivalent influenza a/new jersey/76-a/victoria/75 (a/nj/76-a/vic/75) vaccines was studied in children 6 months to 18 years of age. hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody levels were measured in post-vaccination serums before and after 2-mercaptoethanol treatment. igg antibody predominated in responses to the influenza a/vic/75 component of bivalent vaccines. in contrast, specific igm antibody agai ...1977604113
effects of vaccination on an influenza epidemic in a geriatric hospital.during winter 75/76 (from february 1 to march 31) we got the opportunity to follow the incidence of an influenza epidemic that occurred in the geriatric hospital of ivry. its population was, on the average, 83 years old. 958 persons were involved in this study: 523 out of them had been vaccinated with pasteur bivalent mutagrip a + b vaccine. the epidemic had a double origin: it was due to a virus a/victoria and to a virus b/hong kong. a significant difference was noted between the vaccinated gro ...1977604114
the antibody response and immunity to challenge infection induced by whole, inactivated and tween-ether split influenza vaccines. 1977604115
use of influenza vaccine in non-high risk populations.the aim of most strategies for vaccination against influenza is the prevention of mortality. since individuals in the high risk group are mainly elderly, and the elderly have a low frequency of influenza infection, this strategy can have no significant controlling effect on morbidity. it has been shown in the longitudinal community study in tecumseh, michigan that highest frequency of infection with influenza is seen in the school-age population; this pattern is quite marked for type b influenza ...1977604116
a three-year evaluation of four commercial equine influenza vaccines in ponies maintained in isolation.ponies held in isolation for 40 months were vaccinated and revaccinated with four commercial equine influenza vaccines. little or no hi antibody was detected after the first inoculation; second and subsequent annual revaccinations produced peak hi antibody titres between 7 and 14 days. titres fell quickly between 14 and 28 days and less quickly thereafter. the decline of hi antibody appeared to be related more to the initial titre attained and to the period after vaccination than to the composit ...1977604118
field observations on influenza vaccination among horses in britain, 1971-1976.the observations reported in this paper were obtained as part of a long term surveillance programme designed to monitor the efficacy of influenza vaccines and study the prevalence of influenza and other respiratory viruses among horses in britain. inactivated influenza vaccines were found to be effective in protecting horses from disease caused by influenza a/equine-1 but were less successful in protecting horses against influenza a/equine-2. the paper presents the clinical, epidemiological viro ...1977604119
host factors and susceptibility to influenza a infection: the effect of abo blood groups and hl-a antigens.the effect of two host genetic factors on the outcome of influenza a infections has been examined, abo blood groups and hl-a antigens. a significantly higher proportion of blood group b subjects was found to have serological evidence of infection with epidemic influenza despite a high incidence of residual antibody among the volunteers. no difference was observed in the ability of subjects of different blood groups to seroconvert after receiving two doses of live attenuated influenza a vaccine, ...1977604120
a mouse model of influenza protection.a mouse model has been developed in order to examine the parts played by humoral and cellular mechanisms in influenza immunity. protection is assessed in terms of the amount of virus detectable in the lungs within 48 h of challenge. this system has two major advantages over the more common mouse lethality models. it is no longer necessary to use a mouse-lethal strain of virus; and protection is measured within days rather than weeks of challenge. thus it is possible to determine the ability of t ...1977604121
antibody formation in laboratory animals after parenteral application of a/swine influenza virus.antigenicity of swine influenza viruses, ann arbor/31 and recombinant x-53, was compared on the different animal species. the serological investigations of animals infected with live or immunized with the inactivated virus, demonstrated a close antigenic relationship between the h and n antigens of both viruses. for inactivated vaccine preparation it was recommended, on the basis of our results, to use ann arbor virus instead of virus x-53.1977604122
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the rnas of new influenza virus strains: an epidemiological tool.recently, we have shown by separating the rnas and proteins of different influenza a viruses on polyacrylamide gels, that influenza a viruses contain 8 genes corresponding to 8 virus specific proteins. by analyzing the rna patterns and the protein patterns of different recombinant viruses we, subsequently, succeeded in establishing a complete genetic map for influenza a viruses. these techniques were extended to characterize the genome of new influenza virus isolates. thus it was found that the ...1977604123
antigenic variation of influenza viruses isolated from the recent the winters of 1975-76 and 1976-77 there were fairly heavy epidemics of influenza in japan, and on those occasions considerable discussions were held on the efficacy of influenza vaccine in connection with the variability of antigenic structure of the influenza virus. the type of the virus which prevailed in the winter of 1975-76 belonged to type a, but detailed antigenic analysis revealed that there had been two main antigenic types somewhat but definitely distinguishable from each other, th ...1977604124
serological surveillance of influenza in hamburg and munich (1976/1977).a monthly serological survey (hi-test) of influenza infections was done in hamburg (1083 sera) and munich (955 sera) between june 1976-february 1977 in order to find out if environment influences the host's response to infection. a higher frequency of seropositive reactions and percentage of protective antibodies (titer 1:40 and over) was found in the population of hamburg versus munich. the frequency was greater in individuals over 60 years (group iv) followed by persons 25-29 years (group iii) ...1977604125
influenza activity in metropolitan rome, italy, during the cold-weather months of 1976-1977.several prospective methods for surveillance of influenza are systematically carried out among the population of this city: (a) monitoring of excess deaths from respiratory and other causes; (b) monitoring of excess absenteeism from work; (c) attempts to cultivate influenza virus from throat swabs obtained from patients with respiratory diseases attending outpatient services; (d) checking of increased antibody reactivity for prevailing influenza virus strains in serum samples obtained from healt ...1977604126
properties of a/victoria/3/75 recombinants: development of an attenuated strain rit attenuated influenza a strain, rit 4050, has been selected among the inhibitor resistant variants of a range of h3n2 recombinants of a/pr/8/34 and a/victoria/3/75. the criterion used for the selection of the vaccine strain was the homology rate of the viral rna of the recombinant with the complementary rna of a/pr/8/34 as determined by an rna-rna hybridization technique. safety has been assessed by administering the vaccine by the nasal route to double seronegative volunteers. incidence and n ...1977604127
monitoring of influenza in israel 1976/77.the main objectives of the monitoring were: (1) to define the prevalent virus involved in influenza activity: (2) to determine the time of its occurrence; and (3) to evaluate its extent and impact. a sudden rise in the frequency of visits associated with acute respiratory conditions in the age group 0-14 to the emergency rooms of 14 hospitals throughout the country, correlated well with the start of influenza b/hong kong activity; this was simultaneously attested by two different laboratories. t ...1977604128
antigenic subgroups of influenza a (hsw1 n1) virus differentiated by hemagglutination inhibition.eleven influenza a/swine virus strains could be arranged in three subgroups by hemagglutination inhibition (hi) titrations. the antisera used include post-infection ferret sera (native as well as after adsorption with heterologous hsw1 n1 virus) and paired human sera from recent influenza a patients, showing antibody titre rises against a/swine virus. for serological detection of infections with an unknown a/swine virus, virus strains of the subgroup with the broadest reactivity are more suitabl ...1977604129
influenza viruses from avian and porcine sources and their possible role in the origin of human pandemic strains.studies on influenza viruses from feral ducks trapped in canada in august 1976, gave a 26% isolation rate from cloacal samples of juvenile birds. several different influenza a viruses were isolated, some of which possessed novel hemagglutinin and/or neuraminidase antigens. influenza a viruses isolated from the rectum of feral ducks replicate in the upper respiratory tract and also in the intestinal tract of feral and domestic ducks. representative human influenza viruses of the h0n1, h3n2 and hs ...1977604130
isolation from birds of influenza viruses with human neuraminidase.attempts at virus isolation from cloacal swabs resulted in the recovery of 10 strains of hemagglutinating viruses from a total of 349 ducks, mainly shelducks (tadorna tadorna) captured in the north of france. four of these isolates were identified as influenza strains corresponding to the following antigenic composition: hav6-n2, hav6-nav4 and hav1-n2 (2 strains). shelduck is known to be a partially migratory species, wintering in western europe, some of them migrating northward to scandinavia d ...1977604131
an evaluation of influenza a/victoria/3/75-ts-1 [e] recombinant viruses for attenuation and immunogenicity in adult seronegative volunteers. 1977604132
serological and virological investigations fo orthomyxovirus in birds in south-east asian area.we have previously reported that some species of migrating ducks (pintail, mallard, widgeon and falcated teal) possess in their sera antibodies against h antigens of human or avian influenza viruses. such findings have also been reported from other workers, and the appearance of new types of influenza viruses accompanied by outbreaks of new influenza pandemics, or circulation of influenza virus antigens in animals, birds and humans have been discussed on the basis of such findings. recently a nu ...1977604133
rapid enzymologic anti-neuraminidase antibody microtest.a micro-neuraminidase-inhibition-technique (the essen nit) using a glycoprotein as substrate and employing the method of aminoff for the determination of free n-acetyl neuraminic acid has been developed by our group. the main difference between the micro ni-test and the who-method is the mathematical evaluation of ab titer (ti 50) from the investigation of a single dilution only. this procedure is possible, because it could be proved that this reaction follows enzyme-antienzyme kinetics of the m ...1977604134
influenza a virus and its influence on the outcome of pregnancy in the mouse.the effect of sub-lethal doses of influenza a strains wsn (h0n1), mel (h0n1) and mrc-7 (h3n2) administered intranasally during pregnancy was studied in c3h inbred and prince henry outbred mice. maternal and neonatal mortality rates were significantly increased by infections in the last third of the gestational period. infection with influenza strain wsn in the last part of the first third of the gestational period significantly depressed the growth rate of neonates. no evidence of viraemia, tran ...1977604135
further researches on live influenza virus vaccines.a/port chalmers 1/73 and a/victoria 3/75 live vaccines were well tolerated after oral administration and showed good immunogenic properties in subjects devoid of immune-defence or having low antibody titer. a/victoria 3/75 vaccine was prepared before the epidemiological appearance of the corresponding virus which demonstrates that the preparation of a vaccine with new strains can be made in a comparatively short time. our experiments and controls allow us to establish that the oral administratio ...1977604136
neuraminidase antibodies in serum and nasal washings after immunization by means of live and killed whole virion, split virion and subunit (ha and n) influenza vaccines.anti-neuraminidase antibody (anab) formation was determined in serum and nasal washing fluids pre- and post-vaccination in 278 adult healthy volunteers vaccinated with different types of current experimental and conventional influenza vaccines. the best systemic anab formation expressed as conversion rate (cr) was observed with the subunit vaccine "sandovac" (cr = 90%) followed by the split virion vaccine "begrivac s" (cr = 66%), the whole virion vaccine "alorbat" (cr = 65%) and the live attenua ...1977604137
live attenuated influenza vaccines in young seronegative children.seronegative children undergoing primary infection sensitively reflect the residual virulence of an experimental attenuated respiratory vitral vaccine. two temperature sensitive (ts) a/hong kong influenza vaccines derived following chemical mutagenesis of a cloned stock of a/great lakes/65 have been evaluated in vaccine trials in seronegative children. the two vaccines, ts-1[a] and ts 1[e], differ in their laboratory characteristics. ts-1[a] has a lower shut-off temperature, 37 degrees c vs 38 d ...1977604140
isolation, identification and serological diagnosis of influenza epidemic in hyderabad during 1972-73. 1977604251
[immunity to the hsw1n1 virus in the older population of chieti]. 1977606290
influenza in new jersey in 1976: isolations of influenza a/new jersey/76 virus at fort outbreak of febrile respiratory disease at fort dix, new jersey, beginning in january 1976, yielded five isolates of influenza a/new jersey/76 virus and 42 isolates of strains resembling influenza a/victoria/75 virus. despite extraordinary efforts and the study of 305 verified cases of infection with type a influenza virus throughout the region, no additional instances of infections with influenza a/new jersey virus were detected in humans.1977606758
swine influenza a at fort dix, new jersey (january-february 1976). i. case finding and clinical study of cases.after the isolation of a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) influenza virus from five soldiers at fort dix, new jersey, case finding was initiated by obtaining specimens for viral isolation from 95 patients with acute respiratory disease and determining antibody to influenza a/mayo clinic/103/74 (hsw1n1) antigen in paired sera from 74 soldiers who had been hospitalized with acute respiratory disease. influenza a/new jersey virus was not isolated, but serologic studies identified eight additional soldiers as ...1977606759
swine influenza a at fort dix, new jersey (january-february 1976). ii. transmission and morbidity in units with cases.epidemiologic study of 13 influenza a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) patients indicated that person-to-person transmission had occurred in several distinct military units. soldiers in eight of these units (companies) were studied to determine whether they had experienced influenza a/new jersey infections and associated acute respiratory disease. titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to influenza a/mayo clinic/103/74 (hsw1n1) antigen were determined. in seven of these eight companies, individual ...1977606760
swine influenza a at fort dix, new jersey (january-february 1976). iii. extent of spread and duration of the outbreak.the extent and duration of transmission of influenza a/new jersey/76 virus at fort dix, new jersey, was examined with use of titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to influenza a/mayo clinic/74 (hswn1) antigen as an index of infection. five hundred ninety-three soldiers (a 9.3% sample) in basic combat training (bct) were grouped in weekly cohorts by the date on which bct was started. cohorts with 11 of the 12 bct cases of a/swine influenza began training on january 12, 19, and 26, 1976, ...1977606761
identification and preliminary antigenic analysis of swine influenza-like viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak at fort dix, new jersey.the sequence of events and the laboratory procedures that resulted in the identification of swine influenza-like viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak at fort dix, new jersey in january and february of 1976 are described. preliminary antigenic analysis suggested that the isolates from fort dix are closely related to a 1975 isolate of swine influenza virus and distinguishable from earlier swine influenza strains.1977606762
correlation of laboratory studies with clinical responses to a/new jersey influenza vaccines.the large, uniformly performed clinical investigations with influenza a/new jersey vaccines provided an opportunity to correlate results of laboratory tests of vaccine with human reactivity and antibody responses. these vaccines were given to large numbers of subjects under code, and significant differences in immunogenicity and reactivity were observed in unprimed individuals. a single, relatively large dose of intact virus was more immunogenic and reactive than split-virus vaccines in unprimed ...1977606763
neuraminidase content of influenza vaccines and neuraminidase antibody responses after vaccination of immunologically primed and unprimed populations.vaccines prepared with influenza a/swine/1976/37-like virus contained neuraminidase activity comparable to that of h3n2 vaccines, whereas little neuraminidase activity could be detected in influenza a/new jersey/76 vaccines. in single-dose vaccine studies, a/swine/1976/37-like split-virus vaccine induced antibody to neuraminidase (naab) in about 20% of children younger than 18 years and this naab response was better than or equal to the antibody response to the vaccine's hemagglutinin (haab). in ...1977606765
antibody response of young adults to experimental influenza a/new jersey/76 virus military personnel aged 17-25 years, only one of four experimental influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccines produced a satisfactory hemagglutination-inhibiting (hai) antibody response when a dose of 200 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units was used. a second injection of 400 cca units of vaccine caused seroconversion in all persons. although an early comparison of experimental split-product and whole-virus vaccines suggested that the former were relatively ineffective, a later comparison with ...1977606766
antigenicity and reactivity of influenza a/new jersey/8/76 virus vaccines in military volunteers at fort ord, california. 1977606767
the immunizing effect of influenza a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) virus vaccine administered intradermally and intramuscularly to adults.2the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of inactivated influenza a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) whole-virus vaccine administered intradermally (40 chick cell-agglutinating units/0.1-ml dose) and intramuscularly (im; 200 chick cell-agglutinating units/0.5-ml dose) to human adults were evaluated. among 18-24-year-old persons initially free of detectable antibody, intradermal vaccination induced lower titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies than did im vaccination, and a sequence of intradermal a ...1977606768
comparison of the hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibody responses of volunteers given 400 chick cell-agglutinating units of influenza a/new jersey/76 split-virus vaccine.thirty-two volunteers 25 years of age or older who were employees of the laboratory of infectious diseases (national institute of allergy and infectious diseases, bethesda, md.) were given 400 chick cell-agglutinating units of influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine (wyeth laboratories, philadelphia, pa.) intramuscularly. sera were assayed for hemagglutination-inhibiting (hai) and neutralizing antibody before and after inoculation. all 32 subjects had a fourfold rise in titer of hai antibody, an ...1977606769
acceptibility and antigenicity of influenza a/victoria/75 virus vaccines in adults of different ages.influenza a/victoria/75 virus vaccines were tested for acceptability and antigenicity in adults of different ages. whole-virus vaccines prepared by merck sharp and dohme (west point, pa.) and merrell-national laboratories (cincinnati, ohio) and subunit vaccines prepared by parke, davis and company (detroit, mich.) and wyeth laboratories (philadelphia, pa.) were given intramuscularly in concentrations of 800, 400, or 200 chick cell-agglutinating units per dose. systemic and local side effects of ...1977606770
serologic responses after two sequential doses of influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine in normal young adults.the serologic responses after two sequential nonreactive doses of either chemically disrupted or whole-virus influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine were evaluated in 112 normal young adults. in general, levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting (hai) antibody were low after the first dose of vaccine and increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in response to a second dose. whereas one dose of the preparation from merck sharp and dohme (west point, pa.) effectively vaccinated this population, two ...1977606771
sequential immunization of laboratory personnel with influenza a/new jersey/76 split- and whole-virus hundred thirty-three healthy, at-risk fort detrick laboratory workers were inoculated with 400 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units of influenza a/new jersey/76 split-virus vaccine (wyeth laboratories, philadelphia, pa.). systemic and local reactions were infrequent, mild, and comparable to those of a sham-vaccinated group of volunteers. only 28% of subjects 19-24 years old developed titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting (hai) antibody of greater than or equal to 1:20, whereas titers of 91%- ...1977606772
ether-treated, subunit hsw1n1 influenza vaccines: response of immunologically primed subjects to two antigenic variants.two bivalent, ether-treated, subunit influenza vaccines were compared in adults greater than or equal to 45 years old. both vaccines contained 200 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units of a/victoria/3/75 antigen/dose. the hsw1n1 components, also at a level of 200 cca units/dose and designated a/shope and a/x-53, were antigenically representative of the a/swine/1976/31 and a/new jersey/8/76 viruses, respectively. a/shope virus possessed about 100 times more neuraminidase activity than a/x-53 virus ...1977606773
single-dose trials of monovalent a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) influenza virus vaccine in children in durham, north carolina.ninety-two children received single doses of one of 13 monovalent vaccines derived from influenza virus strain a/new jersey/8/76 (a/nj), and 18 children received placebo. five influenza virus vaccines were whole-virus vaccines, and eight were split-product vaccines. samples of sera were taken once three weeks after vaccination. all of the 29 children receiving whole-virus vaccines developed a titer of antibody to a/nj virus of greater than or equal to 1:20, and the geometric mean titers were 1:1 ...1977606774
response of normal children to influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine administered by jet injector.ninety-seven children six to 10 years old received monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine by jet injector. comparison with groups receiving vaccine intramuscularly revealed that local reactions (tenderness and erythema) were more frequent and more severe in the group vaccinated by jet injector. antibody response, however, was similar for all groups.1977606775
safety and antigenicity of inactivated influenza virus vaccines in children: trials with monovalent and bivalent a/new jersey/76 (hswn1) and a/victoria/75 virus vaccines in washington, and antigenicity of monovalent and bivalent a/new jersey/nj)/76 (hssn1) and a/victoria/75 inactivated influenza virus vaccines were studied in 125 children aged three to 18 years. in recruitment, families who knew the study team, who were professionally involved, and/or who were under close continuing care were more likely to volunteer for such studies than those who were unfamiliar with the team or institution. antibody responses and systemic reactions occurred more often after administr ...1977606776
evaluation of influenza a/new jersey/76 split-product virus vaccine in a summer evaluation of two doses of split-product a/new jersey/76 virus vaccines was conducted at a boys' summer camp. two doses of either 200 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) or 400 cca units of vaccine were administered four weeks apart. there were no significant side effects. of 60 subjects, 59 developed a significant titer of serum antibody after two doses. there was no correlation between titer of antibody and total dose of vaccine. younger subjects developed a higher titer than older subjects. a s ...1977606777
a clinical trial with monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine in preschool and school-age hundred thirty-three children in san antonio, texas, received intramuscular injections of split-virus or whole-virus preparations of killed, monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine or placebo. thirty-three children were in the three- to five-year-old age group, and 100 were in the six- to 11-year-old group. a minimal antibody response occurred following injection of the first dose of vaccine. a second or booster dose that was administered approximately four months after the first ...1977606778
evaluation of a two-dose regimen of influenza a/new jersey/76 subunit virus vaccine in three- to 10-year-old children.fifty-one caucasian, middle-class children (aged three to 10 years) from the suburbs of hartford, connecticut, were immunized with two subcutaneous doses each of 200 chick cell-agglutinating units of influenza a/new jersey/76 subunit virus vaccine/0.5 ml. the reactivity of the vaccine was negligible, and there was no increase in reactivity with a second dose. administration of a single dose resulted in seroconversion in one-third of the subjects. two weeks following the second dose, 84% of the c ...1977606779
reactions and serologic responses after administration of inactivated monovalent influenza a/swine virus vaccines. i. immunization of children and adults with influenza a/shope virus vaccines.reactivity and immunogenicity of three inactivated, zonally purified, monovalent influenza a/swine virus vaccines were studied in children and adults. each dose of vaccine contained either 400 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units/0.5 ml or 200 cca units/0.25 ml. the vaccines contained either whole virus or ether-extracted, subunit virus with or without 1.5 mg of a1po4/0.5 ml. children younger than 10 years of age received a half dose. substantial system reactions, including temperature increases ...1977606780
reactions and serologic responses after administration of inactivated monovalent influenza a/swine virus vaccines. ii. immunization of children with influenza a/new jersey/x-53 virus vaccines.reactivity and immunogenicity of two inactivated, zonally purified, ether-extracted, influenza a/new jersey/x-53 subunit virus vaccines were studied in 103 children three to 18 years of age. children aged nine years of younger received doses of 100 or 200 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units, and those older than nine years received doses of 200 or 400 cca units. vaccines were given intramuscularly. two doses were given at intervals of four weeks. the vaccines were minimally pyrogenic, causing o ...1977606781
monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccines in asthmatic children: pulmonary function and skin tests for allergy.eighty-eight asthmatic children aged six to 16 years received monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccines. forty-one of these children were given skin tests for allergy to eggs and vaccines, and 57 were given pulmonary function tests before and after immunization. only four children reacted to the vaccines in the skin tests, with three of these children reacting to only one of four test preparations. only two of the four children showed a correlation between reactivity to vaccine and all ...1977606782
reactogenicity and immunogenicity of bivalent influenza vaccine in one- and two-dose trials in children: a summary. 1977606783
clinical trials of bivalent a/new jersey/76-a/victoria/75 influenza vaccines in high-risk children.various doses of two whole-virus and one split-product bivalent influenza a/new jersey/76-a/victoria/75 vaccines were administered to 253 children aged six to 18 years. there were no statistically significant differences in either reactivity or humoral antibody response among the 167 children in seven chronic disease categories and 86 healthy children. the whole-virus vaccines were associated with unacceptably high rates of reaction when given in sufficiently antigenic initial doses but were rel ...1977606784
response of children with cardiac disease to the bivalent influenza a vaccines.during the recent nationwide trials of influenza vaccine, 121 children with cardiac disease, aged three to 18 years, were evaluated with respect to their immune response and reaction rate after administration of a whole-virus or split-virus bivalent influenza a/new jersey/76-a/victoria/75 vaccine given as a single dose or two divided doses. the serologic response of the cardiac children did not differ significantly from that of the total group of high-risk children or normal children who recived ...1977606785
reactivity and antibody response to vaccination with bivalent influenza a/victoria/75-a/new jersey/76 vaccines in children with chronic pulmonary diseases.reactogenicity and antibody responses of high-risk children and adolescents (aged three to 18 years) to bivalent influenza a/victoria/75-a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine from nine participating centers were compared to the response of the total population of vaccinees in the multicenter study of the national institute of allergy and infectious diseases. split-product vaccines given in two doses four weeks apart offered protection without a significant risk of side effects. patients with chronic pul ...1977606786
multicenter two-dose trials of bivalent influenza a vaccines in asthmatic children aged six to 18 from all of the vaccination centers that immunized asthmatic children six to 18 years old with bivalent influenza a/new jersey/76 and a/victoria/75 vaccines were analyzed. systemic reaction indexes were somewhat higher in asthmatic children receiving the first dose of whole-virus vaccines than in similar vaccinees without asthma. antibody levels after immunization, while different in some instances, did not show any significant trends toward either hypo- or hyperresponsiveness in the asthma ...1977606787
trial of bivalent influenza a vaccine in high-risk infants.a vaccine trial involving 50 high-risk infants, aged six to 36 months, was performed for evaluation of the safety of a split-virus bivalent influenza a vaccine. after immunization, 18% of the infants developed a fever of greater than or equal to 100 f and 7% had fever of greater than or equal to 102 f. other reactions to the vaccine were few. however, the reaction index of these high-risk infants to the bivalent vaccine was higher than those of older children receiving the same vaccine and norma ...1977606788
reactogenicity and immunogenicity of bivalent influenza a and monovalent influenza b virus vaccines in high-risk children.seventy-nine high-risk children were immunized with either commercial, bivalent, split-product influenza a vaccine or purified hemagglutinin-neuraminidase bivalent influenza a vaccine, and 78 of these subjects were immunized with commercial, monovalent, influenza b split-product vaccine. the reactogenicity of all three vaccines was low, and there were no severe reactions. twenty-nine subjects who received hemagglutinin-neuraminidase vaccine as their initial dose and commercial split-product vac ...1977606790
alternative approaches to immunization of children with inactivated influenza virus vaccines. 1977606791
age-related heterologous antibody responses to influenza virus vaccination.heterologous hemagglutination-inhibiting (hai) antibody responses to influenza a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) virus vaccine were examined in individuals receiving doses of 200, 400, or 800 chick cell-agglutinating units of whole-virus or split-virus products during the 1976 national influenza vaccine test program. vaccination with influenza a/new jersey/76 virus produced a high rate of heterologous antibody response to influenza a/pr/8/34 (h0n1) and a/fm/1/47 (h1n1) viruses in persons whose original a ...1977606792
utilization and acceptability of influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine in oakland county, michigan.the program of mass inoculation of adults in oakland county, michigan, with monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine was monitored. a stratified random sample of participants was selected, and telephone interviews were conducted two days after inoculation. the group of vaccines differed from the overall county population in that it had a higher percentage of females and more of the vaccinees were older, better educated, and of higher income. minor complaints following vaccination were ...1977606793
infection and vaccination of pigs with influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus.pigs were infected and had mild signs of illness when exposed to influenza a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1n1) virus. virus was recovered for up to eight days after exposure. the virus was readily transmitted to susceptible pen mates. vaccination with inactivated whole-virus vaccine did not provide protection against infection or disease. there was some protection against challenge when the pigs were vaccinated with a temperature-sensitive strain of influenza a/new jersey/8/76 virus.1977606794
evaluation of a/new jersey/76 influenza whole-virus vaccine in hysterectomy-derived pigs.twenty-one pigs delivered by hysterectomy from three sows were used to evaluate influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine in neonatal pigs. pigs were vaccinated on the day of birth or at three days of age with either 200 or 400 chick cell-agglutinating (cca) units of vaccine, and pigs were bled two and four weeks after vaccination. the 21 vaccinated pigs and two unvaccinated control pigs were challenged intranasally at five weeks of age, and nasal swabs were obtained for six consecutive days after ...1977606795
effect of priming infection on serologic response to whole and subunit influenza virus vaccines in animals.results from studies in humans demonstrated that the serologic responses to a/new jersey (nj)/76 virus vaccines varied according to the age of the vaccine and appeared to be related to previous exposure of vaccinees to the different strains and influenza a virus. experiments in animals were therefore performed to investigate the role of previous infection on responses to a/nj/76 virus vaccines. mice were infected with influenza a viruses representative of the major strains (hsw1n1, h0n1, h2n2, h ...1977606796
summary of clinical trials of influenza virus vaccines in adults.trials in approximately 3,900 adults were conducted with influenza a/new jersey/76, a/victoria/75, and b/hong kong/72 virus vaccines. subjects were observed following a standard protocol, and serologic testing was performed in a single laboratory. the data indicate that prior experience of the population with earlier influenza viruses ("priming") is a determinant in response to vaccination. thus, participants older than 25 years showed good serologic response following a single inoculation of a/ ...1977606797
trials of influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine in normal children: an overview of age-related antigenicity and reactogenicity.the total multicenter data from trials with inactivated monovalent influenza a/new jersey/76 virus vaccine in 2,326 normal children were collected and summarized at vanderbilt university (nashville, tenn.). these combined data provided the best measure of the relative antigenicity and reactogenicity of each manufacturer's vaccine. children younger than 10 years of age were shown to have vaccine-associated reactions to doses of whole-virus vaccine containing as little as 50 chick cell-agglutinati ...1977606798
[isolation of influenza viruses in guayaquil in 1976]. 1977607323
[presence and reproduction of the influenza virus in the organs of white mice with an experimental infection. ii. after intracerebral and intravenous applications]. 1977607787
[virological and serological observations on the occurrence of variants of influenza a viruses (h3n2) in berlin (west) (author's transl)]. 1977610244
[presence and reproduction of the influenza virus in the organs of white mice with an experimental infection. i. after nasal application of the virus]. 1977610400
naturally acquired immunity to influenza type a: a further prospective study.during the 1976 influenza epidemic, the incidence and severity of attack by a/victoria/3/75 strain were studied in 312 participants who were divided into two groups: in group 1 were 216 participants who had a history of laboratory-proven infection by one of the earlier strains of hong kong subtype; in group 2 were 96 participants who had no known history of such prior infection. no participant in either group received influenza vaccine. the efficacy of clinical immunity, acquired as a result of ...1977611373
[studies of the distribution of hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2), b/hong kong/8/73 and a/new jersey/76 (hsw1n1) influenza viruses in a turin population sample].53%, and 29.8% respectively, of a sample of 500 adults living in turin have been shown lacking of any antibody against a/victoria/3/75 and b/hong kong/8/73 influenza strains; less than 20%, and 45.4% respectively, possessed antibodies at a protective level (greater than or equal to 1:40). furthermore, the study of age distribution of immunity against a/new jersey/76 has confirmed specific h.a.i. antibodies to be present, at a significant level, only from the sixth decade onwards.1977614146
biomedical survey in north samar province, philippine islands.a biomedical survey was carried out in north samar province, philipines to update information on the prevalence of parasitic and other infectious diseases. a total of 1,394 stool specimens, 1,859 blood smears and 1,274 sera were collected from persons living in 8 barrios. stools were examined for intestinal parasites, bloods smears for malaria and filariasis and sera tested for antibodies to schistosoma japonicum, entamoeba histolytica, toxoplasma gondii, influenza a and b, and japanese encephal ...1977614707
the ecology of influenza. isolation of type 'a' influenza viruses from australian pelagic birds.three different type a influenza viruses have been isolated from pelagic birds nesting on islands of the great barrier reef. one of these, isolated in 1972, was of subtype hav6nav5. the other two, which are described in this paper, were isolated in 1975 and belonged to subtypes hav5nav2 and hav3nav6. of eight isolates of the latter virus, seven were recovered from cloacal swabs and only one from the trachea.1977614832
one flu over the cuckoo's nest. 1977617198
mass immunizations: legal problems and a proposed solution. 1977617201
chromosomal changes of cultured cells as a marker test for virulent and attenuated influenza viruses. 1977617662
influenza a/victoria/3/75 (h3n2) seroepidemiological survey in rome 1975--1977. 1977618061
single radial haemolysis: a survey of antibody titres in the highland region of scotland to recent strains of influenza a.the single radial haemolysis test is conveniently practical and economical and promises to have wide applicability in the study of influenza antibodies in human populations. it can also be adapted for preliminary examination of new virus isolates during epidemics. using this test a rather higher proportion of the population in the highland region of scotland were found to possess antibody to a recent epidemic strain of influenza (a/scotland/74) than was the case in the south of england. antibody ...1978621377
haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against influenza a and influenza b in maternal and neonatal sera.haemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibodies against the influenza viruses a/hong kong/8/68 (h3n2) and b/nederland/77/66 were determined in 420 paired sera from mothers and newborns (umbilical cord sera), sampled in 1970-1. a higher concentration of antibodies against influenza a virus was found more frequently in neonatal than in maternal sera. by contrast, low titres against influenza b virus were more frequently observed in neonatal than in maternal sera. maternal age, duration of pregnancy, ...1978621378
the effect of abo blood groups on the incidence of epidemic influenza and on the response to live attenuated and detergent split influenza virus vaccines.the effect of blood group status on the incidence of epidemic influenza a (h3n2) infections and on serological response to influenza vaccination with killed subunit and live attenuated vaccines have been investigated during comparative vaccine trials in western australia. a significantly higher incidence of epidemic influenza was observed in subjects of blood group b compared with those of other blood groups, regardless of whether they had serological evidence of previous exposure to h3n2 antige ...1978621379
quantification of influenza virus structural proteins using rocket immunoelectrophoresis.the major influenza a virus structural antigens, matrix protein, nucleoprotein, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase were measured rapidly and accurately using a rocket immunoelectrophoresis technique. virus was disrupted with 1% (w/v) sodium sarcosyl and electrophoresed into agarose containing specific antiserum to the individual virus structural proteins in 0.05 m-barbitone buffer, ph 8.6, for 1 to 4 h. for haemagglutinin antigen assays statistical analysis indicated that the coefficient of variat ...1978621498
common sequence at the 5' ends of the segmented rna genomes of influenza a and b viruses.guanylyl- and methyltransferases, isolated from purified vaccinia virus, were used to specifically label the 5' ends of the genome rnas of influenza a and b viruses. all eight segments were labeled with [alpha-(32)p]guanosine 5'-triphosphate or s-adenosyl[methyl-(3)h]methionine to form "cap" structures of the type m(7)g(5')pppn(m)-, of which unmethylated (p)ppn- represents the original 5' end. further analyses indicated that m(7)g(5')pppa(m), m(7)g(5')pppa(m)pgp, and m(7)g(5')pppa(m)pgpup were r ...1978621778
influenza a infection should not simulate pulmonary embolism. 1978621891
[influenza vaccination in dialysis patients].50 stabilized long-term hemodialysis patients were randomly selected to receive one intramuscular injection of a new influenza subunit vaccine containing only the surface antigens hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, or of an adjuvant containing whole virus vaccine. both vaccines contained strains a/victoria/3/75 and b/hongkong/8/73. both vaccines were very well tolerated and caused significant rises in the antibody titers within 4 weeks against both strains. the subunit vaccine produced significant ...1978622534
effects of glucosamine, 2-deoxyglucose, and tunicamycin on glycosylation, sulfation, and assembly of influenza viral proteins. 1978622804
reagents for single-radial-diffusion assay of the haemagglutinin antigens of a/new jersey/8/76 (hsw1 n1) and b/hong kong/8/73 strains of influenza virus. 1978624736
susceptibility of human skeletal muscle culture to influenza virus infection. i. cytopathology and immunofluorescence.we found that fused human muscle in culture supports neurotropic influenza a viral infection, as demonstrated by viral growth experiments, hemadsorption, observation of cytopathic changes and detection of intracellular viral antigen. the time of peak virion production and the appearance of cytopathic effects in these experiments were similar to previously described characteristics in influenza a-susceptible organotypic cultures of other tissues. cytopathological changes occurred earlier in monon ...1978624960
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