the influence of bacterial superinfection on the clinical course of influenza. studies from the influenza epidemics in stockholm during the winters 1969-70 and 1971-72.during two epidemics of influenza a infection in stockholm 1969-72, 249 cases were selected for a study on the effect of bacterial superinfection. bacterial involvement was demonstrated through cultures and serologic reactions. the occurrence of c-reactive protein in increased amount in serum was significantly more common in the group which had the strongest indication of bacterial infection. an increased duration of fever, and a higher incidence of pneumonia, leukocytosis and erythrocyte sedime ...19751847
effect of intratumoral injection of bacterial and viral neuraminidase in rats.we studied the effect of neuraminidase injection in rat's tumor at different doses: 5,10,50,100, 500 u and we concluded that: there was no difference between the rats treated with 5,10,50 u and the controls. the y died 3 weeks after the injection. but the rats treated by 100 at 500 u of na died quickley, in the week, of long metastases.19753291
associated seroconversions to respiratory viruses in volunteers with experimental influenza infection.serological examinations of 573 volunteers with mild experimental influenza infection and 86 volunteers of a control group hospitalized in a special clinic revealed a significant rise in the titre of antibodies (seroconversion) not only to influenza a or b viruses used for the experimental infection but in 23.3 to 29.8% of cases also to other respiratory viruses. based on a number of arguments, associated seroconversions are interpreted as due to mixed or sequential infections of different aetio ...19765868
demonstration of influenza virus a in human heart by semiquantitative virus assay and immunofluorescence. 19765876
electrophoretic separation and characterization of subunits released from influenza virus by detergents.subunits released from influenza a/singapore/1/57 (h2n2) virus by either triton-x-100 (t-x-100); or sodium lauryl sarcosinate (sls) or ether were separated by electrophoresis in agarose suspension into a rapidly migrating fraction (i) and a slowly migrating fraction (ii). fraction i obtained after t-x-100 treatment contained the viral ribonucleoprotein (rnp) in a form indistinguishable from the obtained after ether treatment. sls treatment of the virus resulted in a rapidly migrating fraction co ...19767935
the value of complement fixation and haemagglutination inhibition tests in the diagnosis of influenza a.antibody response of 133 influenza a patients from three outbreaks since 1972-73 was analyzed by complement fixation (cf) and haemagglutination inhibition (hi) methods. during the first outbreak, a significant response was more often measured by cf than by hi. during the last outbreak hi appeared more useful than cf for routine serological diagnosis; 23% of cases verified by hi were missed by cf. the poor response of cf antibodies was associated with the high level of pre-infection antibodies.19767943
investigation on the biological activity of fowl plague virus ribonucleoprotein.fowl plague virus (fpv) ribonucleoprotein (rnp) bands in sucrose density gradient in a heterogeneous peak with sedimentation coefficients from 45 to 70 s, whereas in cesium chloride gradient it has a homogeneous density of 1.33-1.34 g/cm3. fpv rnp contains 7.4-8% rna. upon inoculation of chick embryo cell cultures. fpv rnp shows no infectivity, does not induce virus-specific protein synthesis and does not participate in complementation or recombination interactions with ts mutants of fpv. the bi ...19769817
interaction of plasma membranes with influenza virus. vi. the possible role of the adenylate cyclase system.the amounts of released soluble (s) antigen of influenza a/wsn virus were increased when the virus was allowed to interact with isolated plasma membranes in a medium containing substances enhancing the level of adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (c'amp) or activating the enzyme adenylate cyclase. by contrast, less s-antigen was released upon addition to the incubation medium of foetal calf serum or calf serum proteins which activate c'amp phosphodiesterase and thus decrease the level of c'amp. ...19769818
effect of adamantane derivatives on the activity of orthomyxovirus rna-dependent rna polymerase.the effect of several adamantane derivatives on the activity of virion-associated rna-dependent rna polymerase of fowl plague virus (fpv) and influenza b virus was studied in vitro. some of the derivatives inhibited the activity of the polymerase by 60 per cent. a correlation was established between the previously demonstrated capacity of these inhibitors to suppress orthomyxovirus reproduction in vivo and their ability to reduce the activity of virion-associated rna-dependent rna polymerase in ...19769825
recommendation of the public health service advisory committee on immunization practice. influenza vaccine--supplemental statement. 197610256
interaction of listeria monocytogenes and influenza in an animal model.this study was designed to investigate the effects of viruses in the pathogenesis of listeria monocytogenes. the organisms used in this study were: listeria monocytogenes type 1 isolated from a local fatal case; mouse adapted influenza a/pr8/34 (honi); streptococcus pneumoniae group b (u.m. med. ctr.) and poliovirus type 2 mef--g3m2. balb-c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with one ld50 of listeria monocytogenes. ten days later, the survivors were challenged intransally with 10 ld50 of inf ...197610263
some immunological mechanisms of the influenza virus antitumour effect.vaccine strains of influenza a virus inhibited the growth of ascitic tumour cells and outbred rats or inbred mice. the infected tumour bearers had an enhanced immune response to viral and specific tumour antigens. these phenomena are apparently due to the formation of complexes of both antigens on cell membranes and increased immunogenicity of such complexes.197611666
quantitative assay of influenza virus soluble antigen by complement-fixation micromethod.a modified micromethod of complement fixation (cf) reaction for quantitive assay of influenzavirus soluble (s) antigen was elaborated. the method makes it possible to determine microquantities of s-antigen with an accuracy of +/- 15%. the accuracy of the method was checked by theoretical calculations.197611669
isolation of anti-haemagglutinin antibodies with an influenza a virus immunoadsorbent.the x-31 strain of influenza a (h3n2) virus has been covalently bound to cnbr activated agarose for the separation of anti-haemagglutinin antibodies. the virus immunoadsorbent was used repeatedly under high ionic strength alkali buffer and acid conditions without altering appreciably its antibody binding capacity. sequential elution of bound anti-haemagglutinin antibodies with increasing concentrations of sodium iodide has enabled the physical separation of antibody populations with low and high ...197613126
principles of complementation interaction of ts mutants of orthomyxoviruses.the possibility of complementation between ts mutants of fowl plague virus (fpv) belonging to 5 different complementation groups was studied using various time intervals between inoculation of the cells with two complementation partners. the structural proteins of virions formed on complementation of individual ts mutants with wild virus were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after amino acid pulse label followed by pulse chase. the features of complementation interactions between t ...197613639
role of viral-bacterial associations in meningitis in children.a total of 50 section cases of meningitis in children were investigated. all patients revealed acute viral respiratory infections with generalization, including lesions of the central nervous system (cns). in 14 children moreover meningococcal infection was diagnosed. in 30 children lesions of the cns were due to mixed bacterial microflora. in 6 children along with acute viral respiratory infections (avri) mycoplasmosis was also revealed. etiology of the process was determined on the basis of ch ...197613769
effect of a proteolytic enzyme inhbitor on influenza virus replication.n-tosyl-l-phenylalanyl chloromethane patially inhibited the multiplicatiion of fowl plague virus (fpv) in infected cells. the capacity of the inhibitor to suppress the muliplication of fpv depended on the host cell system.197715441
biochemical studies on influenza viruses. i. comparative analysis of equine 2 virus and virus n genes and gene products. 197717217
effect of influenza virus on the immune responsiveness of animals.infection of mice with a/hong kong/1/68 (h3n2) and a/pr8/34 (h0n1) influenza virus strains resulted in a significant inhibition of the formation of antibody-producing cells in response to administration of sheep erythrocytes and a reduced capacity of spleen cells to induce "graft-versus-host" reaction. the immunosuppression caused by influenza infection was observed for a long period of time post infection (3--6 months). the extent of inhibition of antibody production depended on the dose of vir ...197717278
interaction of plasma membranes with influenza virus. vii. effect on 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase chick embryo cells (cec) and plasma membranes (pm) isolated therefrom, three forms of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) phosphodiesterase (pde) were demonstrated: (1) pde activated only by ca2+ (ca-pde); (2) pde activated only by mg2+ (mg-pde); and (3) pde stimulated in the presence of 2 mm mg2+ by low concentrations of ca2+ (ca-mg-pde). purified influenza a virus, under suitable conditions, lowered the activities of these pdes. the decrease was greater in samples incubated in the p ...197717292
the outbreak of equine influenza in england: january 1976.equine influenza type 2 infections occurred in the newmarket areas in january 1976. the disease did not spread to any extent and while this may have been due to recent vaccination it was found that not all vaccinated horses were fully protected. the virus involved showed some antigenic drift from the prototype strain a/equine/miami/1/63 (heq 2 neq 2).197717942
serodiagnosis of influenza by indirect haemagglutination test.results of studies on serodiagnosis of influenza a and b by the indirect haemagglutination test (iha) with lyophilized erythrocyte diagnostic preparations, highly stable upon storage, are presented. the diagnostic value of the iha test was in good agreement with, that of virus neutralization tests.197718921
improved methods of influenza virus propagation. i. enhancement of virus reproduction in cell cultures.comparative studies on the reproduction of a set of influenza a and b virus strains in different cell cultures were carried out. a cultivation system yielding influenza virus with high infectivity, based on the use of roller cultures of bovine embryo kidney cells, of virus strains adapted to this culture, and of a maintenance medium of improved composition, was developed.197718922
improved methods of influenza virus propagation. ii. characteristics of cell culture and allantoic virus preparations.regular reproduction of influenza a virus with infectious titres of 7.4--8.5 log eid50/0.2 ml was observed in roller bovine embryo kidney cell cultures. the haemagglutinating activity of the cell culture preparations was 8-33-fold lower than that of the allantoic preparations, the infectivity being similar. cell culture preparations of influenza a/victoria/35/72 and a /leningrad/538/74 viruses were markedly immunogenic in laboratory animals and antigenically active in complement fixation (cf) te ...197718923
replication of swine and equine influenza viruses in canine kidney cells.both swine and equine influenza viruses were replicated in madin-darby canine kidney cells. hemagglutinin and complement-fixing antigens were synthesized at 4 to 8 hours postinfection and reached maximal synthesis at 16 to 20 hours. neuraminidase activity increased 9- to 11-fold; 50% of the total hemagglutinin antigen was made before the infective virus progeny was detected.197718972
hemagglutinin molecules of hong kong, equine-2, and duck/ukraine influenza viruses lack n-terminal aspartic acid. 197719875
studies on the antigenicity of an inactivated, aluminum hydroxide adjuvant equine influenza inactivated, aluminum hydroxide adjuvant equine influenza vaccine was tested in horses and guinea pigs to determine the levels of antigen that would elicit maximum serological responses. vaccine containing serial twofold increments of a/equi-1/prague and a/equi-2/miami strains of equine influenza virus was administered to random groupings of both types of test animals. the hemagglutination inhibition antibody response for each group was then measured. results in horses and guinea pigs were co ...197720211
investigation on the mechanisms of the failure of human influenza virus to replicate in chick embryo cell cultures.thirteen strains of human influenza virus producing in chick embryo cell (cec) cultures either virions with low infectivity or no virions were studied. in cec, most of the strains induced synthesis of viral rna, polypeptides, and ribonucleoprotein and produced functionaly active haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and virions lower infectivity. the low infectivity of virions produced by strains of this functional group was due to disturbed cleavage of a polypeptide, haemagglutinin precursor, formed in ...197720762
a gas chromatographic study of the composition of neutral and amino sugars in two neuraminidases, of bacterial and viral origin.the neutral and aminosugar composition has been determined by gas-liquid chromatography for two neuraminidases, either bacterial, from streptococcus pneumoniae, or viral, from myxovirus influenzae a/hong kong/1/68.197721754
antigenic relationship between the tokyo and the miami strains of equine influenza subtype 2 virus. 197721985
influenza virus antigens in human leukocytes after oral administration of live tissue culture influenza a monovaccine.influenza a virus antigens were detected in leukocytes by immunofluorescence. after intravenous inoculation of the a/moscow/16/65 (h2n2) vaccine strain to chickens, cytoplasmic antigens of the virus were observed in mononuclear leukocytes from 24 to 72 hours post inoculation (p.i.). the course of antigen detectability was similar after two repeated inoculations of the virus. after oral vaccination of human volunteers with a live tissue culture influenza a monovaccine from the x-47 (h3n2) recombi ...197722233
intestinal influenza: replication and characterization of influenza viruses in ducks. 197823604
the course of influrenza infection in mice with graft-versus-host reaction.the course of influenza infection in mice with a developed graft-versus-host reaction (gvhr) was changed. due to disturbances in the inflammatory process the pneumonia was delayed and less marked. consequently, the infected mice died later than controls. influenza virus reproduction in the lungs was more intensive and its persistence more prolonged. interferon production in the lungs of mice with gvhr was similar to that in the controls.197723665
evaluation of the effectiveness of receptor destroying enzyme preparations.a procedure has been developed for testing receptor destroying enzyme (rde) preparations used to remove nonspecific inhibitors before carrying out haemagglutination inhibition tests with influenza virus. four criteria should be taken into account: (1) titre of rde, usually used to indicate the activity of the preparation; (2) neuraminidase activity of the preparation, determined biochemically, which partially corresponds to the rde titre; (3) direct demonstration of the complete removal of nonsp ...197723666
autoantibodies in sera of rabbits immunized with influenza virus.rabbits immunized with purified influenza a (h3n2) virus within 4 weeks developed autoantibodies of sma type (smooth muscle antibodies). in some of them also abba (antibodies against brush border of proximal renal tubuli) and ana (anti-nuclear antibodies) were detected. this autoimmune response was found to be unrelated to either the virus dose or the adjuvant used for immunization. autoantibodies were not parallel in titre with influenza antibody.197723669
animal influenza virus neuraminidase: studies on dependence of some of its properties on its association with hemagglutinin.neuraminidase (nase) thermostability and sensitivity to ph treatment as well as specific enzymatic activity (nase activity per 1 ha unit) were determined in two groups of animal influenza virus strains containing equine 1 and equine 2 nase subtypes, respectively (a/equine/prague/56 (heq1 neq1), a/equine/cambridge/63 (heq1 neq1), a/fpv/dutch/34 (hav1 neq1), a/chicken/germany "n" (hav2 neq1), in one group, and a/equine/miami/1/63 (heq2 neq2), a/turkey/canada/63 (hav6 neq2), a/duck/ukraine/1/63 (ha ...197723976
vaccination for influenza--any alternatives? 197824175
application of a tricin-buffered modification of the cmrl-1969 medium in cell and virus cultivation (author's transl).cmrl-1969 medium (healy et al., 1971) was modified by using 0.02 molar n-tris-(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-glycin (= tricin) instead of bicarbonate as the buffer substance. several permanent cell lines and primary cell cultures did not show growth differences in the two medium variants. like other non volatile buffers tricin abolishes the initial increase of the ph in freshly split or newly fed closed vessel cultures, but in 0.02 m concentration maintains the same buffering capacity of the medium as c ...197724962
radioimmunoassay of influenza a virus haemagglutinin. i. preparation and properties of radioactive 125i-labelled bromelain-released haemagglutinin.haemagglutinin released from influenza a virus recombinant mrc11 antigenically identical to the strain a/port chalmers/1/73 (h3n2) by bromelain treatment and purified by rate zonal centrifugation (further on b-ha) was examined for eventual contamination by neuraminidase. according to specific enzymatic activities corresponding to mrc11 virus and b-ha alone respectively, b-ha contained less than 0.1% of enzymatically active neuraminidase orginally present in the virus. gel double diffusion tests, ...197825002
comparative study of virion transcriptase of some influenza virus strains.the activities, the temperature and ph optima of in vitro functioning and stability upon heating of virion transcriptase of 10 human influenza virus a strains differing in reactogenicity and isolated in different epidemiological situations, and of fowl plague virus (fvp) were compared. as compared with virion transcriptase of human influenza virus strains studied, that of fpv had a higher ph optimum, was capable of functioning in vitro at a higher temperature and was more stable on heating. fres ...197826210
marked difference in electrophoretic migration rates between two influenza a viruses.comparative moving boundary electrophoresis revealed that influenza virus a/pr/8/34 (h0n1) has a 2.5 times higher electrophoretic migration rate at ph 7 than influenza virus a/singpore/1/57 (h2n2). this difference was the same whether the compared viruses were purified first by either ammonium sulphate precipitation or adsorption onto and elution from red blood cells and then by density gradient centrifugation. the same electrophoretic methods was used for testing the homogeneity of influenza vi ...197827965
effect of interferon and poly i:c on replication of influenza virus in organ cultures of human origin.interferon and poly i : c inhibited the growth of influenza virus in organ cultures of foetal nasal mucosa, trachea, oesophagus and adult nasal mucosa. no antiviral effect was observed in decidua organ cultures. the combined use of interferon and poly i : c resulted in the enhancement of the antiviral effect.197827973
conditions for production of thermosensitive attenuated influenza virus recombinants.recombination and cross-reactivation between virulent influenza viruses and a cold-adapted thermosensitive vaccine strain regularly produced genetically stable attenuated recombinants, the selection of which was based on the thermosensitivity marker. this marker, correlating with the safety of the recombinants for man was inherited independently on the properties of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens. there was no relationship between the thermosensitivity of the resulting rec ...197829464
antiviral activity of dipyridamole derivatives.among 46 novel pyrimido 5.4-d pyrimidine derivatives, 26 compounds were found to exhibit antiviral activity as revealed in a test programme against mengo, coxsackie b1, fowl plague, vaccinia and pseudorabies viruses, as concerns inhibition of plaque formation and of infectious virus yield. attempts to disclose structure-activity relationships by discriminant analysis pointed to a possible importance of hydrophobic substitution for the antiviral effectiveness against mengo virus of the derivative ...197829467
isolation of influenza virus from wild ducks (anas platyrhynchos).in the course of studies on influenza virus ecology, influenzavirus a was isolated from a cloacal smear from a wild duck (anas platyrhynchos) caught in west slovakia. the strain was identified as a(hav7nav1). the results of virus isolation experiments from other species of aquatic and other small birds were negative.197829468
strain differences in electrophoretic mobility of influenzavirus a polypeptides.slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of influenza-virus a strains varying in antigenic composition of the envelope and in the natural host species showed the nucleprotein and membrane proteins to have a standard molecular weight of 58,000 and 24,000 daltons, respectively. the electrophoretic mobility and molecular weights of the light and heavy chains of haemagglutinin varied in the strains under study. the differences observed persisted on passaging and were transferred upon genome recombina ...197829472
antigenic glycopolypeptides ha1 and ha2 of influenza virus haemagglutinin. i. gel filtration in 6 m guanidine hydrochloride.highly purified glycopolypeptides ha1 and ha2 were separated from bromelain-released haemagglutinin of influenza virus a/dunedin/4/73 (h3n2) by gel filtration in 6 m guanidine hydrochloride under reducing conditions. the purity of both glycopolypeptides was proved by extensive studies. despite the lack of c-terminal end, the isolated ha2 glycopolypeptide displayed some hydrophobic properties.197830262
improved detection by immunodiffusion of type-specific influenza antibody in avian sera.various solvents and kinds of agar and agarose as well as various ribonucleoprotein (rnp) antigen preparations were tested in a search for optimal conditions for the detection of low levels of type-specific influenza antibody in avian sera by gel double diffusion. the best results were obtained with one kind of agarose in a solvent with lowered ionic strength (approx. 0.075 m). a hypertonic solvent usually gave worse or negative results, with the exception of one kind of agarose. in general, aga ...197830266
some properties of rna polymerases of different influenza viruses.the transcriptases of several influenza viruses were tested for ph and temperature dependence and for thermal stability. marked differences in ph dependence and thermostability were determined.197934580
etiology and antimicrobial therapy of acute maxillary sinusitis.eighty-one adults with symptoms of acute sinusitis were studied by direct needle puncture and aspiration of the maxillary sinus (105 sinuses). fifty-nine bacterial strains were isolated in titers of greater than or equal to 10(4) colony-forming units/ml; streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae accounted for 64% of the isolates. other bacteria recovered included anaerobes (12%), neisseria species (8.5%). streptococcus pyogenes (3%), alpha-hemolytic streptococcus (3%), non-group a beta ...197935571
influence of experimental influenza infection of the eye on the course of herpetic keratitis in rabbits.influenza virus monoinfection and combined influenza and herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection of the eye was studied in rabbits. influenza a/hong kong/1/68 (h3n2) virus caused a clinically overt disease of the eye only after inoculation into the eye chamber. the combined influenza and hsv infection of the eye induced severe iridocyclitis. the combined infection of the eye with influenza virus and hsv had a more severe course than hsv monoinfection. the occurence of influenza antibody in the lacr ...197835945
antigenic glycopolypeptides ha1 and ha2 of influenza virus haemagglutinin. iii. reactivity with human convalescent sera.the immune reactivity to both haemagglutinin glycopolypeptides ha1 and ha2 [prepared from bromelain-released haemagglutinin of influenza virus a/dunedin/4/73 (h3n2)], was demonstrated by both gel double immundiffusion and radioimmunoassay in human convalescent sera obtained after natural infection during influenza epidemics in 1974/75 and 1976/77. in gel double immunodiffusion, the precipitin line(s) corresponding to glycopolypeptide ha1 were always more distinct than precipin line(s) correspond ...197935954
detection and tissue localization of components of the immune complex in animals infected and immunized with influenza virus.mice previously vaccinated or convalescents after infection with mouse-adapted influenza virus were challenged by various routes with live or inactivated virus. the components of the immune complex (antigen-antibody-complement) could be detected by immunofluorescence in lungs, kidneys, and heart. the frequency of positive immunofluorescence reaction was related to serum antibody level and, to some extent, to the route the animals were challenged.197935959
live tissue culture influenza vaccine for oral administration. i. specific immune response to monovaccine a (h3n2) in volunteers.oral immunization of volunteers with a live tissue culture influenza a (h3n2) vaccine induced an increase in virus neutralizing (vn), haemagglutination inhibiting (hi) and neuraminidase inhibiting (ni) antibody. the dynamics of antibody and igm and igg immunoglobulin formation in the blood depended to a great extent on their prevaccination levels. the highest per cent of seroconversions was observed after the 3rd vaccination: a 4-fold or greater rise of vn antibody was found in 80% (titre increa ...197935960
antigenic glycopolypeptides ha1 and ha2 of influenza virus haemagglutinin. iv. immunogenic properties of separated haemagglutinin glycopolypeptides.highly purified haemagglutinin glycopolypeptides ha1 and ha2 were effective in eliciting an antibody response. ha2 had a markedly greater immunogenic potential than ha1. in gel double immunodiffusion, sera from rabbits immunized with ha2 produced more distinct precipitin lines than sera obtained by immunization with ha1. both kinds of rabbit sera gave precipitation with homologous antigen and with bromelain-released and purified haemagglutinin (b-ha). in radioimmunoassay, sera from rabbits immun ...197935964
natural, genetically determined resistance toward influenza virus in hemopoietic mouse chimeras. role of mononuclear phagocytes.radiation chimeras produced by crosswise transfers of bone-marrow cell among histocompatible mice susceptible, or genetically resistant, to lethal challenge by a number of myxoviruses were used to test whether macrophage resistance (as assessed in vitro) and resistance of the animal (as measured in vivo), both previously shown to be brought about by the gene mx, were causally related. 49 chimeras were tested individually, both of resistance of their macrophages to in vitro challenge with m-tur ( ...197936443
use of staphylococcus aureus for rapid radioimmunoassay of influenza a virus a rapid method for the radioimmunoassay (ria) of influenza a virus haemagglutinin, staphylococcus aureus (strain cowan i, czechoslovak state collection no mau 55/64) was used for separation of bound and free antigens. with rabbit and human immune sera, the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to heat-killed, formalin-fixed staphylocci was comparable to the double antibody technique. the time required for the completion of binding reaction was about 10 min compared to 18--24 hr required for d ...197939433
detection of "alpha-type" inhibitors in the presence of low levels of specific influenza native, heated or otherwise treated egg white and in sera of men and guinea pigs, haemagglutination inhibition titres were determined against three inhibitor-sensitive (is) strains and one inhibitor-resistant (ir) variant on influenza a virus. a few human sera with no detectable antibody revealed high inhibition titres even against the ir variant. human sera after treatment with trypsin and periodate revealed mostly a reduction or no change, and exceptionally an increase of their inhibition t ...197939434
autoantibodies in human sera after vaccination with inactivated influenza vaccine.sera from persons vaccinated with inactivated bivalent influenza vaccine were tested for the presence of smooth-muscle antibodies (sma) and antibodies against the brush border of proximal renal tubuli (abba). the autoantibodies were found with the highest frequency in persons repeatedly vaccinated with the vaccine.197939440
recombination and complementation between orthomyxoviruses under conditions of abortive infection.on interaction of ts mutants of fowl plague virus (fpv) belonging to different complementation groups and human influenza a viruses under conditions of abortive infection for both partners, complementation was marked and recombinants occurred with a high frequency. the level and degree of complementation as well as the frequency of recombinants depended on the stage at which the reproduction of the human influenza a viruses involved was blocked. on simultaneous inoculation of chicks with two apa ...197939444
role of calcium dependent regulator protein (cdr) in inhibition of 3',5'-c amp-phosphodiesterase by influenza virus. i. isolation and purification of cdr and cdr-dependent 3',5'-c' amp-phosphodiesterase from chick embryos.calcium-dependent regulator protein (cdr) and cdr-dependent 3',5'-c amp-phosphodiesterase were isolated and partially purified from 12-day chick embryos. some basic properties of the preparations obtained were described. native (infectious) but not noninfectious (heat-inactivated) influenza virus in the presence of cdr and atp reduced the activity of cdr-dependent phosphodiesterase.197940416
role of calcium-dependent regulator protein (cdr) in inhibition of 3',5'-c amp-phosphodiesterase by influenza virus. ii. kinetic studies on inhibition of cdr-dependent phosphodiesterase by influenza revealed by spectrophotometry, native but not heat-inactivated influenza virus in the presence of atp reduced the activity of calcium-dependent regulator protein-stimulated 3',5'-c amp-phosphodiesterase (cdr-pde). atp could be partially replaced by adp but not by amp. the degree of cdr-pde inhibition increased with increasing virus concentration. but at very high virus concentrations the rate of 3',5'-c amp hydrolysis by cdr-pde was not linearly dependent on time. at appropriate virus concent ...197940417
annual examination of influenza virus infection among pigs in miyagi prefecture, japan: the appearance of hsw1n1 virus.annual dissemination of swine and hong kong influenza viruses among hogs in miyagi prefecture, japan, was examined by virus recovery and serological tests. the serological examination revealed that two distinct influenza a viruses, h3n2 and hsw1n1, had caused dual epidemic in pigs since mid-1977. some individual sera contained antibodies against both strains. although positive sera against hong kong or swine influenza viruses appeared in the serosurvey throughout the year, the positive ratios in ...197941437
clearance of antibody and complement in serum after challenge of mice previously vaccinated or infected with influenza virus.mice previously vaccinated or convalescent after infection with mouse-adapted influenza virus were challenged by various routes with live or inactivated virus. the levels of haemagglutination inhibiting and complement-fixing antibodies and complement in serum were found to decrease distinctly within several hours after challenge: the reconstitution to initial levels occurred within three days.197941439
heterotypic interference between influenza viruses a/aichi/2/68 and b/massachusetts/1/71.virus particles produced by mdck cells mixedly infected with 3 pfu/cell each of a/aichi/2/68 (h3n2) (aichi) and b/massachusetts/1/71 (mass) influenza viruses exclusively possessed haemagglutinin (ha) of mass, although approximately one-fifth of the mixed yield had coding potential for aichi serotype. synthesis of major viral proteins of aichi was markedly suppressed by co-infecting mass. by increasing the multiplicity of co-infecting aichi to 30 pfu/cell, interference became reciprocal. aichi in ...197941442
properties of influenzavirus nucleocapsids in nonpermissive cells.the properties of fowl plague virus (influenzavirus a) nucleocapsids isolated from the cytoplasm of infected ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and chick embryo cells were compared. nucleocapsids isolated from both systems possessed similar polypeptides (p and np) but differed in their biophysical characteristics. nucleocapsids from ascites cells sedimented in velocity sucrose gradients slower (from 25 to 50 s) and the majority of them banded at higher density in cscl gradients (rho 1.38 as compare ...197942293
isolation and characterization of influenza a viruses from wild ducks in northern japan: appearance of hsw1 antigens in the japanese duck population.twenty-six influenza a viruses were isolated from cloacal and tracheal samples of 235 resident and 396 migratory ducks in miyagi prefecture, japan, in 1977--78. of these, twelve were antigenically related to the avian-origin hsw1 virus, a/duck/alberta/35/76 (hsw1n1), but their neuraminidase antigens were characterized as nav2-3, nav4 or n2. these antigenic configuration have not previously been reported. in addition, one strain in which the neuraminidase antigen was identified as nav4, was demon ...197942296
the effect of immunization on polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in influenza.challenge of human subjects with influenza virus produced a significant fall in the chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukoyctes (pmn's) obtained from their peripheral blood. this was seen by 3 days with some return toward normal function at 7 days but with a persistent defect still found at 20 days after challenge.197942304
vaccination of an adolescent group with a (h3n2) + a(hsw1n1) bivaccine before an a (h1n1) influenza epidemic.a group of 35 adolescents aged 18--22 years were vaccinated intradermally with 0.2 ml of a mixed a (h3n2) + a (hsw1n1) formolized vaccine and revaccinated with a (hsw1n1) monovaccine 10 days before an a (h1n1) influenza epidemic. the vaccination had no effect on morbidity or the clinical course of disease. serology revealed a primary immune response to a (hsw1n1) and a booster response to a (h3n2). apparently, prevention of a new influenza subtype by formolized vaccine possessing only the corres ...197942307
[role of carbohydrates in the manifestation of the hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities of the influenza virus].suspensions of influenza virions (mrc-11, x-7, and a/pr8/34 strains) were treated with a mixture of glycosidases including alpha-d-mannosidase, alpha-l-fucosidase, beta-d-galactosidase, and beta-d-n--acetylglucosaminidase for the study of the influence of carbohydrate part of influenza virus surface glycoproteins on the hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activity. the availability of oligosaccharide chains for the effect of glycosidases was found to change in relation to the functional status of ...197943031
[influenza virus hemagglutinin affinity for bentonite]. 197943460
[influenza immunization, clinical results and serological tests (author's transl)].207 patients of a geriatric department were immunized against influenza with either tween-ether-split-vaccine or subunit-vaccine in a double blind study. for 6 months the following data were daily registered: rest in bed, fever over 38,5 degrees c, rhinitis, laryngopharingitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, enteritis, medication with antibiotics or chemotherapeutics. in cases with fever over 38,5 degrees c blood tests were taken for serological examination. the immune response against influenza a was e ...197944117
site of replication of influenza virus a/budgerigar/hokkaido/1/77 (hav 4 nav 1) in budgerigars. 197944601
squamous metaplasia of the lung alveolar epithelium in mice after influenza virus infection.metaplasia of the lung alveolar epithelium was observed in mice challenged with influenza virus after previous infection, and in mice repeatedly infected. immunological factors are suggested to contribute to the development of the process.197944665
antiviral effect of 3-[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino]-acetophenone-[4,5-diphenyl-oxyazolyl-(2)]hydrazone (imet 98/69) in mice.the potential in vivo antiviral activity of 3-[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino]-acetophenone-[4,5-diphenyl-oxazolyl-(2)]-hydrazone (imet 98/69) was evaluated on model infections in mice. animals treated subcutaneously (s.c.) with 1 mmole of the drug per kg body weight once daily for five days were significantly protected against a lethal infection with cardioviruses, semliki forest virus and vaccinia virus. in influenza a and b virus models no antiviral activity was observed either after s.c. or oral ...197944666
serological evidence of h1 influenza virus infection among japanese hogs.classical h1 influenza firus infection among japanese hogs was confirmed in 1978 by serological examination. of 820 swine sera collected from july 1977 to february 1979 in miyagi prefecture, northern japan, six sera were found to contain haemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibodies to the a/fm/1/47 (h1n1) strain. of the six sera, one showed a significant high hi antibody titre, which was classified as igm, to the fm1 strain, but not the other h1n1 variants. these results strongly suggest that ho ...197944667
[comparative studies on the vaccination of mice with inactivated influenza virus administered by the aerosol technique, by the intranasal or intramuscular route (author's transl)].nmri mice were immunized intramuscular, intranasal or by aerosol, using the ethylethylenimine inactivated and polyethylenglycolconcentrated influenza virus strain a/pr/8/34 (ho/n1). differences in the immune response resulted from all three routes. intranasal and intramuscular vaccination were superior to aerosol application. a possible explanation for this could be the fact that relatively small amounts of the inhaled virus antigen developed antigenic activity on the mucous membrane. a single v ...197944935
a/new jersey/76 influenza vaccine trial in seronegative schoolchildren: comparison of a subunit vaccine with a whole-virus the present vaccination trial, 202 seronegative schoolchildren comprising both sexes and aged 11 to 12 years were vaccinated i.m. in the upper arm with either the subunit vaccine at a dosage of 600 cca or 200 cca or with a whole-virus vaccine at a dosage of 200 cca, using the double-blind procedure. both vaccines were prepared from the strain a/new jersey/76 (x 53a-recombinant). the vaccination was followed four weeks later by a booster injection. in tests of local and systemic reactogenicity ...197845602
[complement fixation reaction in the typing of influenza viruses isolated in rio de janeiro].the author studied by the complement fixation test the influenza virus strains isolated in rio de janeiro during the 1973 epidemic. he prepared immunesera in hamsters by the inoculation of the allantoic fluid from infected chick embryos with each of the 7 isolated strains and the standard strains. the soluble antigens were prepared with the allantoic fluid of infected chick embryos. the tests were identically positive with the a2/hong kong/68 and a2/england/72 antigens and negative with the b/ma ...197645710
[simple method of preparation of a semifluid coating medium with methylcellulose for the determination of the plaque-forming abilities of viruses]. 197545981
increased influenza pneumonia mortality of mice adoptively immunized with node and spleen cells sensitized by inactivated but not live virus.syngeneic mice adoptively immunized intravenously with 25 million washed node and spleen cells from donors vaccinated subcutaneously with formolized influenza a pr8 had a higher mortality with influenza pneumonia after challenge with homologous virus than occurred in recipients of similar cells from unsensitized donors, and this increased mortality was prevented by treatment of the sensitized cells with antithymocyte serum. mice adoptively immunized with cells from donors vaccinated with formoli ...197547313
immunity to influenza.immunity to influenza virus may be considered from the standpoints of viral and hostfactors. amonst viral factors the phenomena of antigenic 'shift' and 'drift' of the surface antigens. hemagglutinin ha and neuraminidase na, are of utmost importance in enabling the virus to combat host immunity and to produce recurrent pandemics and epidemics of disease. 'shift' involves major changes in the antigenic character of the ha and na antigens, and serological studies reveal little or no crossreactions ...197547824
myxoviruses.myxoviruses can be divided into 2 groups, orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses. the former comprise the influenza group which is subdivided into types a,b and c. influenza b and c are purely human pathogens but influenza a, which includes a large number of antigenic subtypes, occurs in nature in pigs, horses, birds and man. all influenza a viruses irrespective of origin are chemically, biologically and genetically related. the epidemics which they cause are curious and puzzling and are an import ...197547825
inhibition of synthesis of influenza virus proteins: evidence of two host-cell-dependent events during multiplication. 197551536
antigenic relationship between the surface antigens of avian and equine influenze viruses.influenza virus equine 1 (a/equine/prague/56) has a hemagglutinin which is antigenically related to the hemagglutinin of fowl plague virus strain rostock (fpv) and a neuraminidase which cross-reacts with the enzyme of virus n (a/chick/germany/49). after a single injection of chickens with equine 1 virus no hemagglutination inhibiting (hi) and neutralizing antibodies against fpv can be demonstrated, although the birds are fully protected against a lethal dose of fpv. hi and neutralizing antibodie ...197553781
influenza at christ's hospital: march, 1974.boys in a boarding-school given inactivated influenza-a or influenza-b vaccine have been observed during a simultaneous outbreak of influenza due to a/port chalmers, b/hong kong, and b/intermediate strains. influenza-b vaccine conferred substantial protection, the attack-rates in boys given b vaccine being 24% compared with 45% in a control group. a/hong kong vaccine, by preventing infection during the previous influenza a/england outbreak, left the boys vulnerable to influenza a/port chalmers. ...197654631
[age profile of the antihemagglutinins and antineuraminidase antibodies in type a influenza (author's transl)].antineuraminidase and antihemagglutinating antibody studies were carried out in parallel in sera from subjects born in bulgaria in 1968-1972, 1956-1960, 1946-1950, 1925-1935 and 1917-1920. it was found that the amount of both antineuraminidase and antihemagglutinating antibody in sera from normal subjects could vary depending upon the year of birth and the strain used for the test. the antibody spectrum was most narrow in children under 4 and wider in subjects born before 1925. serograms of the ...197554996
diversity of the antibody response to the different antigenic determinants on the hemagglutinin subunits of influenza viruses.sera from rabbits hyperimmunized with hemagglutinin (ha) subunits isolated from the a/port chalmers/73 (h3n2)strain of influenza virus showed great differences in their cross-reactions with different strains of influenza virus. in hemagglutination-inhibition tests, some sera reacted to about the same titer with a/port chalmers/73 and a/hong kong/68 viruses, suggesting that these two strains were very closely related. other sera, which reacted to high titer with a/port chalmers/73 virus, had only ...197655438
[similarity and difference in the antigenic composition of hemagglutinins isolated from influenza a2 viruses at different time intervals]. 197556816
antigenic variation of neuraminidase of human type a influenza (h3n2) viruses isolated in berlin (west).after the emergence of the a/hong kong/1/68 (h3n2) strain of influenza virus antigenic variation of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens have been demonstrated leading to the identification of the variants a/england/42/72,a/port chalmers/1/73 and a/scotland/840/74. this study describes antigenic changes of neuraminidases in influenza viruses isolated since 1968 in berlin (west). a collection of 13 isolates of human type a influenza was studied in neuraminidase inhibition tests. the resul ...197556831
antigenic relationships among influenza virua a neuraminidase (n2) antigens by immunodiffusion and postinfection neutralization tests.the antigenic relationships among the neuraminidases of influenza a strains from 1957 to 1973 were examined by postinfection application of neuraminidase antisera. this procedure causes inhibition of virus spread and apparent neutralization. neuraminidase (apparent) neutralization and neuraminidase inhibition tests with chicken antisera gave similar results. neuraminidase inhibition tests were more discriminating than neuraminidase neutralization tests when rabbit and goat antisera were used. an ...197657967
from the national institute of allergy and infectious diseases of the national institutes of health, the center for disease control, and the bureau of biologics of the food and drug administration: a status report on national immunization against influenza. 197658953
editorial: planning for pandemics. 197659080
swine influenza virus in man. zoonosis or human pandemic? 197659086
virulence for man of a human influenza-a virus antigenically similar to "classical" swine viruses.the newly isolated human influenza-a strain containing swine antigens isolated in new jersey, u.s.a., was inoculated into six volunteers. clinical reactions were mild although all volunteers were infected. the longest period for which the virus was excreted was 8 days and the shortest 3 days. in its virulence for man the new jersey strain was intermediate between a human and animal virus, and was quite clearly more virulent than known swine viruses. it seems possible that the outbreak in the u.s ...197659094
swine influenza virus and the recycling of influenza-a viruses in man.sera collected in 1967 and 1972 from people in the 0-100 age-group showed haemagglutination-inhibition (h.i.) antibody to swine virus a/iowa/15/30 (hsw1n1) in greatest number and with highest titre in people born before 1918. a slight decrease was observed from 1967 to 1972 in the number of sera with antibody to swine virus and in the height of the titres. the recently isolated a/new jersey/10/76 (hsw1n1) virus showed a result comparable to that of the swine/1930 virus in sera of 1972. on the an ...197659252
characteristics of antigenic and biological properties of influenza a viruses isolated different epidemics of the same cycle.the antigenic character of the haemagglutinin and of the neuraminidase from myxovirus influenzae strains isolated in the ussr during the 1968, 1970, 1971-1972 and 1972-1973 epidemics, are studied. the haemagglutinins were, at first, relatively, homogenous and constant, but subsequently changed gradually newer isolates became less and less reactive against a specific serum prepared with a/hong kong/68. however, this druft up to 1972-1973, did go beyond the limits of the h3 subtype. there were als ...197559567
early synthesis of semliki forest virus-specific proteins in infected chicken cells.cells preinfected with fowl plague virus followed by treatment with actinomycin d are a suitable system for studying early protein synthesis in cells infected with semliki forest virus. one and one-half hours after superinfection, three new nonstructural proteins (nvp) were detected: nvp 145, nvp, 112, and nvp 65. they appeared in parallel with a low incorporation of mannose at the beginning of the infectious cycle. behavior on chasing suggested a precursor relationship of nvp 112 to the envelop ...197659814
[contribution to the antigenic study of influenza viruses in animals. i.--neuraminidase of the equine influenza viruses (author's transl)].from the revised nomenclature of who, the fowl influenza virus a/duck/ukraine/63 (hav7 neq2) has the same neuraminidase as the equine virus a/equi 2/miami/63 (heq2 neq2); the a/chicken germany "n"/49 virus has the same neuraminidase as the equine virus a/equi 1/prague/56. a comparative study of the antigenic specificities confirms that the neq2 neuraminidases are closely connected, whatever their animal origin, and that the fowl strain hav7 neq2 can be used for the titration of anti neq2 antibod ...197560076
influenza a virus interaction with murine lymphocytes. i. the influence of influenza virus a/japan 305 (h2n2) on the pattern of migration of recirculating lymphocytes.the effect of influenza virus a/japan 305 (h2n2) on the path of migration of recirculating lymphocytes has been studied. 51cr-labeled rat thoracic duct lymphocytes (tdl) were incubated with virus at 37 degrees c for 1 hr and then infused i.v. into syngeneic recipients which were killed 1 hr later. virus-treated tdl accumulated in the liver and their recovery in lymph nodes and spleen was severely reduced. changes in lymphocytes induced by virus developed rapidly and were evident after incubation ...197660451
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