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characterization of the chandipura virus leader rna-phosphoprotein interaction using single tryptophan mutants and its detection in viral infected cells.the phosphoprotein (p protein) of the chandipura virus (chpv), a negative strand rna virus, is involved in both transcription and replication of the viral life cycle. interaction between the p protein and the viral leader (le) rna under in vitro conditions has been previously reported for chpv and other negative strand rna viruses such as the rinderpest virus (rpv). however, till date, the region of the p protein involved in le rna binding remains undefined. moreover, the in vivo occurrence of t ...201323063516
biochemical and structural studies of the oligomerization domain of the nipah virus phosphoprotein: evidence for an elongated coiled-coil homotrimer.nipah virus (niv) is a recently emerged severe human pathogen that belongs to the henipavirus genus within the paramyxoviridae family. the niv genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (n) within a helical nucleocapsid that is the substrate used by the polymerase for transcription and replication. the polymerase is recruited onto the nucleocapsid via its cofactor, the phosphoprotein (p). the niv p protein has a modular organization, with alternating disordered and ordered domains. among these ...201324074578
paramyxovirus glycoprotein incorporation, assembly and budding: a three way dance for infectious particle production.paramyxoviruses are a family of negative sense rna viruses whose members cause serious diseases in humans, such as measles virus, mumps virus and respiratory syncytial virus; and in animals, such as newcastle disease virus and rinderpest virus. paramyxovirus particles form by assembly of the viral matrix protein, the ribonucleoprotein complex and the surface glycoproteins at the plasma membrane of infected cells and subsequent viral budding. two major glycoproteins expressed on the viral envelop ...201425105277
the first report of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in camels (camelus dromedarius) in iran.in mid-july 2013, an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) was observed in a herd of camels after they were imported from kuwait to the khuzestan province in southwest of iran. the clinical signs of the affected animals included sudden death, fever, oral erosion, and ecthyma like lesions, yellowish diarrhea, pneumonia and respiratory distress, enlargement of lymph node, severe dehydration, dermatitis, ulcerative keratitis, and conjunctivitis. necropsy findings included keratoconjunctiviti ...201627155951
protection of cattle against rinderpest by vaccination with wild-type but not attenuated strains of peste des petits ruminants virus.although rinderpest virus (rpv) has been eradicated in the wild, efforts are still continuing to restrict the extent to which live virus is distributed in facilities around the world and to prepare for any reappearance of the disease, whether through deliberate or accidental release. in an effort to find an alternative vaccine which could be used in place of the traditional live attenuated rpv strains, we have determined whether cattle can be protected from rinderpest by inoculation with vaccine ...201626984722
early events following experimental infection with peste-des-petits ruminants virus suggest immune cell targeting.peste-des-petits ruminants virus (pprv) is a viral pathogen that causes a devastating plague of small ruminants. pprv is an economically significant disease that continues to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world. the current understanding of pprv pathogenesis has been heavily assumed from the closely related rinderpest virus (rpv) and other morbillivirus infections alongside data derived from field outbreaks. there have been few studies re ...201323418464
[feasibility study on global peste des petits ruminants eradication based on rinderpest eradication].eradication can be defined as permanent elimination of the occurrence of a given infectious disease. a joint fao/oie announcement of global rinderpest eradication was declared in 2011. the announcement from two international organizations indicates that the rinderpest virus, like the smallpox virus, will remain only in authorized laboratories. after rinderpest eradication, the relevant researchers shifted their focus on next target-peste des petits ruminants, since they mostly share similarities ...201222416357
the rna triphosphatase domain of l protein of rinderpest virus exhibits pyrophosphatase and tripolyphosphatase activities.l protein of the rinderpest virus, an archetypal paramyxovirus possesses rna-dependent rna polymerase activity which transcribes the genome into mrnas as well as replicates the rna genome. the protein also possesses rna triphosphatase (rtpase), guanylyltransferase (gtase) and methyltransferase enzyme activities responsible for capping the mrnas in a conventional pathway similar to that of the host pathway. subsequent to the earlier characterization of the gtase activity of l protein and identifi ...201627170418
mapping the evolutionary trajectories of morbilliviruses: what, where and whither.morbilliviruses are pathogens of humans and other animals. live attenuated morbillivirus vaccines have been used to end endemic transmission of measles virus (mv) in many parts of the developed world and to eradicate rinderpest virus. entry is mediated by two different receptors which govern virus lymphotropism and epitheliotropism. morbillivirus transmissibility is unparalleled and mv represents the most infectious human pathogen on earth. their evolutionary origins remain obscure and their pot ...201626921570
identifying and reducing remaining stocks of rinderpest virus.in 2011, the world was declared free from rinderpest, one of the most feared and devastating infectious diseases of animals. rinderpest is the second infectious disease, after smallpox, to have been eradicated. however, potentially infectious rinderpest virus material remains widely disseminated among research and diagnostic facilities across the world and poses a risk for disease recurrence should it be released. member countries of the world organisation for animal health and the food and agri ...201526584400
evidence for nā· guanine methyl transferase activity encoded within the modular domain of rna-dependent rna polymerase l of a morbillivirus.post-transcriptional modification of viral mrna is essential for the translation of viral proteins by cellular translation machinery. due to the cytoplasmic replication of paramyxoviruses, the viral-encoded rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) is thought to possess all activities required for mrna capping and methylation. in the present work, using partially purified recombinant rna polymerase complex of rinderpest virus expressed in insect cells, we demonstrate the in vitro methylation of capped ...201526446666
complete genome sequence of japanese vaccine strain la-ako of rinderpest virus.rinderpest vaccine strain la-ako, which is less virulent especially to highly susceptible asian cattle breeds, was established from a lapinized vaccine strain by further passages in rabbit and chick embryos. here, we report the genome sequence of la-ako, which currently remains active for the production of an emergent vaccine in japan.201526337882
a carboxy terminal domain of the l protein of rinderpest virus possesses rna triphosphatase activity - the first enzyme in the viral mrna capping pathway.the large protein l of negative-sense rna viruses is a multifunctional protein involved in transcription and replication of genomic rna. it also possesses enzymatic activities involved in capping and methylation of viral mrnas. the pathway for mrna capping followed by the l protein of the viruses in the morbillivirus genus has not been established, although it has been speculated that these viruses may follow the unconventional capping pathway as has been shown for some viruses of rhabdoviridae ...201526168720
molecular evolution of haemagglutinin (h) gene in measles virus.we studied the molecular evolution of the haemagglutinin (h) gene (full length) in all genotypes (24 genotypes, 297 strains) of measles virus (mev). the gene's evolutionary timescale was estimated by the bayesian markov chain monte carlo (mcmc) method. we also analysed positive selection sites. the mcmc tree indicated that the mev h gene diverged from the rinderpest virus (same genus) about 250 years ago and that 24 mev genotypes formed 3 lineages dating back to a 1915 ancestor (95% highest post ...201526130388
morbillivirus infections: an introduction.research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. in 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated - only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insigh ...201525685949
the second eradication: rinderpest.the eradication of rinderpest virus was less celebrated than the eradication of smallpox virus. however, this is only the second campaign to eradicate a virus worldwide which is successful. this gives the opportunity to recall how important rinderpest had been these past centuries for farmers and for public health.201424566884
the risk of rinderpest re-introduction in post-eradication era.in 2011, ten years after the last reported outbreak, the eradication of rinderpest was declared. however, as rinderpest virus stocks still exist, there remains a risk of rinderpest re-introduction. a semi-quantitative risk assessment was conducted to assess this risk, which was defined as the probability of at least one host becoming infected and infectious outside a laboratory anywhere in the world within a one-year period. pathways leading to rinderpest re-introduction were: deliberate or acci ...201424299903
different functions of the common p/v/w and v-specific domains of rinderpest virus v protein in blocking ifn signalling.the v proteins of paramyxoviruses are composed of two evolutionarily distinct domains, the n-terminal 75ā€Š% being common to the viral p, v and w proteins, and not highly conserved between viruses, whilst the remaining 25ā€Š% consists of a cysteine-rich v-specific domain, which is conserved across almost all paramyxoviruses. there is evidence supporting a number of different functions of the v proteins of morbilliviruses in blocking the signalling pathways of type i and ii ifns, but it is not clear ...201424158397
modelling the expected rate of laboratory biosafety breakdowns involving rinderpest virus in the post-eradication era.now that we are in the rinderpest post-eradication era, attention is focused on the risk of re-introduction. a semi-quantitative risk assessment identified accidental use of rinderpest virus in laboratories as the most likely cause of re-introduction. however there is little data available on the rates of laboratory biosafety breakdowns in general. in addition, any predictions based on past events are subject to various uncertainties. the aims of this study were therefore to investigate the pote ...201324029703
fao and oie ease moratorium on research on rinderpest virus. 201323873452
rinderpest virus sequestration and use in posteradication era.after the 2011 declaration of rinderpest disease eradication, we surveyed 150 countries about rinderpest virus stocks. forty-four laboratories in 35 countries held laboratory-attenuated strains, field strains, or diagnostic samples. vaccine and reagent production and laboratory experiments continued. rigorous standards are necessary to ensure that stocks are kept under safe conditions.201323260811
complete genome analysis of three live attenuated rinderpest virus vaccine strains derived through serial passages in different culture systems.the genomes of three south korean rinderpest virus vaccine strains (l72, la77, and la96) were analyzed in order to investigate their genetic variability. these three vaccine strains were all derived from the same virus strain origin (fusan) through repeated passages in different culture systems. the full genome length of the three strains was 15,882 nucleotides, and the sequence similarity between the three south korean rpv strains at the nucleotide level was 98.1 to 98.9%. the genetic distance ...201223118448
fao and oie urge laboratories to destroy their stocks of rinderpest virus. 201222843737
rinderpest eradication: lessons for measles eradication?in 2011 the food and agriculture organization formally announced that rinderpest was eradicated from the globe. rinderpest virus had long been associated with huge disease outbreaks among cattle. the disease not only had a devastating effect on cattle herds world-wide, but also on human populations that depended on them. rinderpest virus - a member of the genus morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae - is a close relative of measles virus. both viruses are highly infectious and share many ot ...201222709518
[morbilliviruses].the genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae contains many pathogens, which are important for medicine or veterinary medicine. because each morbillivirus has restricted host range and serologically monotypic, the virus infection and transmission is effectively controlled by vaccinations and surveillance. rinderpest virus has been eradicated in 2011, and elimination of measles virus progresses worldwide. recently, a new cell receptor for measles virus, nectin4 was identified. both slam, ...201224153228
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