TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
re-infection of wildlife populations with rinderpest virus on the periphery of the somali ecosystem in east africa.we report surveillance for rinderpest virus in wildlife populations in three major ecosystems of east africa: great rift valley, somali and tsavo from 1994 to 2003. three hundred and eighty wild animals were sampled for detection of rinderpest virus, antigen or genome and 1133 sampled for antibody in sera from kenya, uganda, ethiopia and tanzania from 20 species. this was done modifying for wildlife the internationally recommended standards for rinderpest investigation and diagnosis in livestock ...200616551482
interference in the vaccination of cattle against rinderpest virus by antibodies against peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus.the ability of the attenuated vaccine 75/1 of peste des petits ruminants to interfere with rinderpest vaccination in cattle was investigated experimentally. young cattle (93) were selected and tested as being negative for antibodies against rp or ppr viruses. these were vaccinated with the peste des petits ruminants attenuated vaccine strain ppr75/1. all animals produced specific antibodies against the peste des petits ruminants vaccine after one or two doses. the cattle were then vaccinated wit ...200616757064
identification of t-helper and linear b epitope in the hypervariable region of nucleocapsid protein of pprv and its use in the development of specific antibodies to detect viral antigen.peste des petits ruminants is a highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants making its diagnosis difficult from the similar symptoms of rinderpest. computer based prediction algorithms was applied to identify antigenic determinants on the nucleocapsid (n) protein of pprv. specificity and antigenicity of each peptide was evaluated by solid phase elisa. six specific peptide sequences were evaluated in multiple antigenic peptide (map) form and immune response was evaluated by supplementing u ...200616962260
rinderpest seroprevalence in wildlife in kenya and tanzania, 1982-1993.eight hundred and thirty five serum samples collected from eight wild artiodactyl species in kenya and tanzania between 1982 and 1993 were tested for virus-neutralising (vn) antibodies to rinderpest (rp) virus. antibodies were found in 116 of 344 buffaloes (syncerus caffer) but not in the other species including 349 wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus). most of the antibody positive buffaloes were from the maasai mara-serengeti ecosystem (mm-se) and would have had opportunity for exposure to the v ...200616529830
matrix protein and glycoproteins f and h of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus function better as a homologous complex.the matrix (m) protein of paramyxoviruses forms an inner coat to the viral envelope and serves as a bridge between the surface glycoproteins (f and h) and the ribonucleoprotein core. previously, a marker vaccine (rpv-pprfh) was produced for the control of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease, where the f and h genes of rinderpest virus (rpv) were replaced with the equivalent genes from peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv); however, this virus grew poorly in tissue culture. the poor growth ...200616760405
the m and n genes-based simplex and multiplex pcrs are better than the f or h gene-based simplex pcr for peste-des-petits-ruminants virus.nucleocapsid (n), matrix (m) and hemagglutinin (h) genes-based simplex pcrs and an n and m genes-based multiplex pcr were developed for detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv). the m gene pcr was the most sensitive, followed by n, h and an already described fusion (f) gene pcrs, as they could detect the virus in samples with titers of 101, 102, 104and 105 tcid50/ml, respectively. the multiplex pcr was as sensitive as the m gene pcr, but it had the advantage of differentiating pprv f ...200617177605
control of peste des petits ruminants and poverty alleviation?peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a contagious and often fatal viral disease of sheep and goats and also wild small ruminants. the ppr virus is distinct from but closely related to rinderpest virus and both belong to the morbivillivirus genus within the family paramyxoviridae. ppr is a contagious transboundary disease with a significant impact on rural poor farmers. its control should therefore be considered in programs that aim at alleviating poverty in developing countries.200617123358
interaction of rice dwarf virus outer capsid p8 protein with rice glycolate oxidase mediates relocalization of p8.yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated that p8, an outer capsid protein of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv), interacts with rice glycolate oxidase (gox), a typical enzyme of peroxisomes. confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that p8 was colocalized with gox in peroxisomes. time course analysis demonstrated that the localization of p8 in spodoptera frugiperda cells changed from diffuse to discrete, punctuate inclusions during expression from 24 to 48 h post inoculatio ...200717174956
characterization of membrane association of rinderpest virus matrix protein.paramyxovirus matrix protein is believed to play a crucial role in the assembly and maturation of the virus particle by bringing the major viral components together at the budding site in the host cell. the membrane association capability of many enveloped virus matrix proteins has been characterized to be their intrinsic property. in this work, we have characterized the membrane association of rinderpest virus matrix (m) protein. the m protein of rinderpest virus when expressed in the absence o ...200717336269
retention of rice dwarf virus by descendants of pairs of viruliferous vector insects after rearing for 6 years.abstract rice dwarf virus (rdv) is characterized by its unusual ability to multiply in both plants and leafhopper vector insects and by its transovarial mode of transmission. colonies of nephotettix cincticeps, derived originally from pairs of leafhoppers infected with an ordinary strain of rdv, were maintained for 6 years in the laboratory and were found, at the end of this time, still to harbor rdv. moreover, the isolate of rdv, designated rdv-i, obtained from these colonies retained the abili ...200718943602
reverse genetics for peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv): promoter and protein specificities.peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) (family paramyxoviridae, genus morbillivirus) causes an acute febrile illness in sheep and goats resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in infected herds. the paramyxoviruses all have negative sense, non-segmented rna genomes and their host range and pathogenic determinants have been extensively studied using reverse genetics. this technology also enables a more rational approach to be taken with respect to vaccine design. in order to initiate th ...200717350130
peptidomimics of antigen are present in variable region of heavy and light chains of anti-idiotypic antibody and function as surrogate antigen for perpetuation of immunological memory.peptide antigens composed of relevant b cell and t cell epitopes, capable of inducing protective immune response against the whole pathogen, are potentially safe, alternative vaccine antigens for prevention of wide range of diseases. here, we show that short peptides derived from internal image sequences of anti-idiotypic antibody (peptidomimics) can function as both b and t cell epitopes and perpetuate antigen specific immunological memory. we have sequenced the variable regions of heavy and li ...200717408744
molecular analysis of the genome segments s1, s4, s6, s7 and s12 of a rice gall dwarf virus isolate from thailand; completion of the genomic sequence.the complete nucleotide sequences of the double-stranded rna segments s1, s4, s6, s7 and s12 of the genome of a rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) isolate from thailand were determined. the segments consisted of 4505, 2622, 1648, 1652 and 853 nucleotides, encoding putative proteins of 1458, 725, 489, 511 and 206 amino acids with molecular masses of approximately 166, 80, 53, 59 and 24 kda, respectively. homology searches indicated that each of the putative proteins has a counterpart in isolates of ric ...200717426918
immunization of mice with dna coding for the variable regions of anti-idiotypic antibody generates antigen-specific response.understanding the mechanisms of generation and maintenance of immunological memory is crucial for rational vaccine design. a hypothesis known as relay hypothesis was earlier proposed which explains the maintenance of immunological memory through interaction of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic lymphocytes. in the present study, we have shown that immunization with rinderpest virus hemagglutinin protein specific anti-idiotypic antibody (ab(2)v(beta)) dnas coding for heavy and light chains generates an ...200717531360
maintenance of antigen-specific immunological memory through variable regions of heavy and light chains of anti-idiotypic antibody.immunological memory is characterized by a quick and enhanced immune response after re-exposure to the same antigen. to explain the mechanism involved in generation and maintenance of immunological memory, we had earlier proposed a hypothesis involving the relay of memory by idiotypic and anti-idiotypic b cells. the peptidomimic present in the hypervariable region of anti-idiotypic antibody was hypothesized to carry forward immunological memory. in the present work, we provide evidence supportin ...200717229267
an improved procedure for rapid determination of viral rna sequences of avian rna viruses.a system for rapid determination of viral rna sequences, rdv, was improved for detection of avian rna virus in allantoic fluids. we detected avian paramyxovirus nucleotide sequences using rdv method ver 2.0.200717541697
a cd8+ t cell clone specific for antigen also recognizes peptidomimics present in anti-idiotypic antibody: implications for t cell memory.the relay hypothesis [r. nayak, s. mitra-kaushik, m.s. shaila, perpetuation of immunological memory: a relay hypothesis, immunology 102 (2001) 387-395] was earlier proposed to explain perpetuation of immunological memory without requiring long lived memory cells or persisting antigen. this hypothesis envisaged cycles of interaction and proliferation of complementary idiotypic b cells (burnet cells) and anti-idiotypic b cells (jerne cells) as the primary reason for perpetuation of immunological m ...200717582390
three-dimensional architecture of virus-packed tubule.when rice dwarf virus (rdv), a member of the reoviridae family, infects leafhopper cells, formation of protruding tubules composed of nonstructural viral protein pns 10 can be observed. we examined the three-dimensional (3d) structure of these tubules containing rdv particles using electron tomography. the thin section of rdv-infected leafhopper vector cells in monolayers was subjected to double-tilt tomography. the tomographic 3d map provides a more reliable estimation of the real dimensions of ...200717967810
the p2 capsid protein of the nonenveloped rice dwarf phytoreovirus induces membrane fusion in insect host cells.insect transmission is an essential process of infection for numerous plant and animal viruses. how an insect-transmissible plant virus enters an insect cell to initiate the infection cycle is poorly understood, especially for nonenveloped plant and animal viruses. the capsid protein p2 of rice dwarf virus (rdv), which is nonenveloped, is necessary for insect transmission. here, we present evidence that p2 shares structural features with membrane-fusogenic proteins encoded by enveloped animal vi ...200718042708
control of ruminant morbillivirus replication by small interfering rna.peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) are two morbilliviruses of economic relevance in african and asian countries. although efficient vaccines are available for both diseases, they cannot protect the animals before 14 days post-vaccination. in emergencies, it would be desirable to have efficient therapeutics for virus control. here, two regions are described in the nucleocapsid genes of pprv and rpv that can be targeted efficiently by synthetic short interfering rna ...200717622636
development of 2 types of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies to the rinderpest virus using a monoclonal antibody for a specific region of the hemagglutinin protein.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) has been developed and standardized for the detection of antibodies to the rinderpest virus (rpv) in sera from cattle, sheep, and goats. the test is specific for rinderpest because it does not detect antibodies to peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv). the test depends on the ability of the monoclonal antibody (mab) directed against the hemagglutinin (h) protein of rpv to compete with the binding of rpv antibodies in the positive serum ...200717668032
[establishment of a system for determination of emerging infectious diseases (rdv method), and its application].we developed a new system for detection of viral nucleic acids because rapid detection of pathogens is necessary to prevent potential outbreaks of infectious diseases. this system, named rapid determination of viral rna sequences (rdv), involves whole-genome amplification and a new direct sequencing technique. using the rdv system, it is possible to obtain viral nucleic acid sequences within 2 days. the nucleic acid sequences of sars-cov and west nile virus, which represent emerging and re-emerg ...200718357760
entry of rice dwarf virus into cultured cells of its insect vector involves clathrin-mediated endocytosis.electron microscopy revealed that the entry of rice dwarf virus (rdv) into insect vector cells involved endocytosis via coated pits. the treatment of cells with drugs that block receptor-mediated or clathrin-mediated endocytosis significantly reduced rdv infectivity. however, the drug that blocks caveola-mediated endocytosis had a negligible effect on such infection. infection was also inhibited when cells had been pretreated with bafilomycin a1, which interferes with acidification of endosomes. ...200717475659
observations on rinderpest and rinderpest-like diseases throughout west and central african countries during rinderpest eradication projects.between 1998 and 2005, the regional reference laboratory at bingerville (ivory-coast) received samples for analysis from western and central african countries. from a total of 606 sera; 65 tissue samples and 75 swabs received, no rinderpest virus or specific gene products or antibodies against rinderpest were detected. use of the pcr on the tissue and swabs (total of 140 samples) identified the genomic presence of bvd (4/140), mcf (2/140), ibr (1/140) and fmd (6/140) viruses. these cause disease ...200717316721
rescue of a chimeric rinderpest virus with the nucleocapsid protein derived from peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: use as a marker vaccine.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of all morbilliviruses has a highly conserved central region that is thought to interact with and encapsidate the viral rna. the c-terminal third of the n protein is highly variable among morbilliviruses and is thought to be located on the outer surface and to be available to interact with other viral proteins such as the phosphoprotein, the polymerase protein and the matrix protein. using reverse genetics, a chimeric rinderpest virus (rpv)/peste-des-petits-ruminants ...200717554036
molecular characterization of the largest and smallest genome segments, s1 and s12, of rice gall dwarf virus.the nucleotide sequences of segments s1 and s12 of a chinese isolate of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) were determined. this provides the first complete sequences of these segments. the complete sequence of s1, the largest genome segment of rgdv, was 4,505 nucleotides in length and was predicted to encode a large protein of 1,458 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of nearly 166.2 kda. the protein was related to that encoded by s1 of rice dwarf virus (rdv; 50% identity and 67% similarity) ...200717674177
averaging tens to hundreds of icosahedral particle images to resolve protein secondary structure elements using a multi-path simulated annealing optimization algorithm.accurately determining a cryoem particle's alignment parameters is crucial to high resolution single particle 3-d reconstruction. we developed multi-path simulated annealing, a monte-carlo type of optimization algorithm, for globally aligning the center and orientation of a particle simultaneously. a consistency criterion was developed to ensure the alignment parameters are correct and to remove some bad particles from a large pool of images of icosahedral particles. without using any a priori m ...200717698370
rapid determination of viral rna sequences in mosquitoes collected in the field.a method for rapid determination of viral rna sequences (rdv) was applied to homogenates of aedes aegypti collected in thailand in an area in which dengue fever (dengue hemorrhagic fever) is endemic, using the mosquito cell line c6/36. nucleic acid sequences of dengue virus type 4 and cell fusing agent virus were detected. this rdv method has the potential to become a standard method for detection of both known and newly emerging, unknown mosquito-borne viruses.200717869351
molecular analysis of six segments of tobacco leaf enation virus, a novel phytoreovirus from tobacco.tobacco leaf enation virus (tlev) is a putative member of the genus phytoreovirus within the family reoviridae. previous western blot analysis of structural viral proteins (apparent molecular weights of 93 kda; 58 kda; 48 kda; 39 kda and 36 kda) associated with tlev, isolated from infected tobacco in south africa, suggested that these proteins may correspond to structural wound tumor virus (wtv) proteins. to further establish the nature of this novel virus disease phenotype in tobacco, molecular ...200717356907
mapping and structural analysis of b-cell epitopes on the morbillivirus nucleoprotein amino analysing the antigenic structure of the morbillivirus nucleoprotein (n) using a competitive-binding assay of monoclonal antibodies (mabs), six different antigenic sites were identified previously. by using pepscan methodology complemented by analysis of truncated n proteins, a better characterization of five of these antigenic sites was provided: i, ii, iii, iv and vi. mabs specific to rinderpest virus, defining antigenic sites ii, iii and iv, and those common to four morbilliviruses, deline ...200717374767
beta-defensin antibiotic peptides in the innate immunity of the buffalo: in vivo and in vitro studies.beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional biomolecules, which are a major component of the oxygen-independent microbicidal system of buffalo polymorphonuclear (pmn) cells. they have great potential for use as proteomic biomarkers of host cell responses in the presence of microbial agents. on purifying these peptides by rp-hplc, four defensin peptides were revealed. the results from testing against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes, candida albicans, r ...200818826332
the detection of antibody against peste des petits ruminants virus in sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes.monoclonal antibody-based competitive elisa (c-elisa) has been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viruses in sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo. serum samples from sheep (n = 232), goats (n = 428), cattle (n = 43), buffalo (n = 89) were tested. the animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or ppr. findings suggested that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in sheep (51.29%) than in goats (39.02%) (p = 0.002). the overall sero- ...200818716909
receptor interactions, tropism, and mechanisms involved in morbillivirus-induced immunomodulation.induction of immunomodulation and -suppression is a common feature of morbilliviruses such as measles virus (mv), rinderpest virus (rpv), and canine distemper virus (cdv) in their respective hosts. as major uptake receptor, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (slam, cd150) essentially determines their tropism for immune cells, which is of considerable importance with regard to immunosuppression and the systemic spread to organs including secondary lymphoid organs, the skin, the respiratory ...200818585529
identification and mapping of a region on the mrna of morbillivirus nucleoprotein susceptible to rna interference.the morbillivirus genus includes important pathogens such as measles virus (mv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), and rinderpest virus (rpv) and forms a group of antigenically related viruses. the viral nucleoprotein (n) is a well-conserved protein among the genus and plays a central role in the replication of the virus. using a comprehensive approach for sirna screening of the conserved sequences of the n gene, including sequence analysis and functional in vitro tests, we have identifie ...200818634829
development of one-step real-time rt-pcr assay for detection and quantitation of peste des petits ruminants this study, a rapid and specific taqman-based, one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription pcr (qrt-pcr) has been described for the detection of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv). primers and probe were designed based on the nucleocapsid protein gene sequence. the real-time qrt-pcr assay was able to detect pprv isolates from very distinct geographical areas (africa, middle east and asia). the specificity of the assay was assessed by including rinderpest virus and other morbill ...200818243345
recombinant l and p protein complex of rinderpest virus catalyses mrna synthesis in vitro.rinderpest virus belongs to the family of paramyxoviridae, consisting of non-segmented negative sense rna viruses. viral transcription and replication are carried out by the rna dependent rna polymerase l protein which functions together with p protein as l-p complex. the exact events triggering the polymerase complex from transcription to replication function is poorly understood. in the present work, an in vitro transcription system has been described with partially purified l-p complex expres ...200818430484
rinderpest. driven to extinction. 200818356500
phosphorylation status of the phosphoprotein p of rinderpest virus modulates transcription and replication of the genome.the phosphoprotein p of paramyxoviruses is known to play more than one role in genome transcription and replication. phosphorylation of p at the nh(2) terminus by cellular casein kinase ii has been shown to be necessary for transcription of the genome in some of the viruses, while it is dispensable for replication. the phosphorylation null mutant of rinderpest virus p protein, in which three serine residues have been mutated, has been shown earlier to be non-functional in an in vivo minigenome r ...200818227968
identification of functional domains of phosphoproteins of two morbilliviruses using chimeric proteins.the paramyxovirus p protein is an essential component of the transcriptase and replicase complex along with l protein. in this article, we have examined the functional roles of different domains of p proteins of two closely related morbilliviruses, rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv). the pprv p protein physically interacts with rpv l as well as rpv n protein when expressed in transfected cells, as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. the heterologous l-p complex is bi ...200818427968
ligation-mediated amplification for effective rapid determination of viral rna sequences (rdv).emerging infectious diseases pose a significant risk to public health. methods for rapid detection of pathogens are needed to effectively treat these diseases. recently, we developed new methods for the rapid determination of viral rna sequences, rdv ver1.0 and ver2.0. we demonstrated that these methods were able to simultaneously detect cdna fragments of many different viruses without using sequence specific primers. however, some species of viruses, including the yokose virus (yokv), a flavivi ...200818595773
endomembranes and myosin mediate assembly into tubules of pns10 of rice dwarf virus and intercellular spreading of the virus in cultured insect vector cells.rice dwarf virus (rdv) spreads, along actin-based filopodia, as one of the ways of its transport, from infected to non-infected cells of its vector insect via tubules that are composed of the viral nonstructural protein pns10 and contain viral particles. an inhibitor that perturbs the endomembrane system, namely, brefeldin a, and butanedione monoxime, an inhibitor of myosin motor activity, abolished the formation of such tubules, preventing the direct cell-to-cell spread of rdv without any signi ...200818061230
detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antigen using immunofiltration and antigen-competition elisa methods.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting sheep and goats in india. an immunofiltration-based test has been developed using either mono-specific serum/monoclonal antibodies (mab) prepared against a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) cross-reactive with ppr virus. this method consists of coating ocular swab eluate from suspected animals onto a nitrocellulose membrane housed in a plastic module, which is allowed ...200818182256
infection of bovine dendritic cells by rinderpest or measles viruses induces different changes in host transcription.the morbilliviruses are a closely related genus which are very similar in their sequences and share a common receptor, but nevertheless show significant restriction in the host species in which they cause disease. one contribution to this restriction might be the nature of the hosts' responses to infection. we have used microarrays to study the changes in the transcriptome of bovine dendritic cells after infection with wild-type (pathogenic) and vaccine (apathogenic) strains of rinderpest virus ...200919854460
lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host.the mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. to investigate lymphotropism and host responses, we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (cdv) infection in mink. this model displays multisystemic infection, similar to measles virus and rinderpest virus infections in their susceptible natural hosts. the wild-type cdvs investigated provoked marked virulence differences, inducing mild versu ...200919494053
real-time rt-pcr assays for the rapid and differential detection of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses.real-time rt-pcr (rtrt-pcr) assays for identifying and differentiating infections caused by dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) were developed by targeting the hypervariable c-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid (n) gene. total dmv and pmv rna extracted from infected vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (slam) produced positive cycle threshold (c(t)) values after the 17th and 25th cycles, respectively. the assays were then validated u ...200919084557
novel virus discovery in field-collected mosquito larvae using an improved system for rapid determination of viral rna sequences (rdv ver4.0).in this study, we improved a method for rapid determination of viral rna sequences (rdv) to overcome the limitations of previous versions. the rdv ver4.0 method can detect rna sequences with at least 1,000 copies as starting material. a novel virus, which was isolated from field-collected aedes aegypti larvae in the phasi charoen district of thailand using c6/36 cells, was identified using the rdv ver4.0 protocol. the virus was named phasi charoen virus (phav). we used a high-throughput pyrosequ ...200919089585
the rinderpest virus non-structural c protein blocks the induction of type 1 interferon.the innate immune response, in particular the production of type 1 interferons, is an essential part of the mammalian host response to viral infection. we have previously shown that rinderpest virus, a morbillivirus closely related to the human pathogen measles virus, blocks the actions of type 1 and type 2 interferons. we show here that this virus can also block the induction of type 1 interferon. the viral non-structural c protein appears to be the active agent, since expressing this protein i ...200919108859
structural basis for the function of anti-idiotypic antibody in immune memory.we had earlier proposed a hypothesis to explain the mechanism of perpetuation of immunological memory based on the operation of idiotypic network in the complete absence of antigen. experimental evidences were provided for memory maintenance through anti-idiotypic antibody (ab(2)) carrying the internal image of the antigen. in the present work, we describe a structural basis for such memory perpetuation by molecular modeling and structural analysis studies. a three-dimensional model of ab(2) was ...200919157554
disruption of a novel gene for a nac-domain protein in rice confers resistance to rice dwarf virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a serious viral pest that is transmitted to rice plants (oryza sativa l.) by leafhoppers and causes a dwarfism in infected plants. to identify host factors involved in the multiplication of rdv, we screened tos17 insertion mutant lines of rice for mutants with reduced susceptibility to rdv. one mutant, designated rim1-1, did not show typical disease symptoms upon infection with rdv. the accumulation of rdv capsid proteins was also drastically reduced in inoculated rim1- ...200918980655
pathogenesis and immunopathology of systemic and nervous canine distemper.canine distemper is a worldwide occurring infectious disease of dogs, caused by a morbillivirus, closely related to measles and rinderpest virus. the natural host range comprises predominantly carnivores. canine distemper virus (cdv), an enveloped, negative-sense rna virus, infects different cell types, including epithelial, mesenchymal, neuroendocrine and hematopoietic cells of various organs and tissues. cdv infection of dogs is characterized by a systemic and/or nervous clinical course and vi ...200919019458
rna triphosphatase and guanylyl transferase activities are associated with the rna polymerase protein l of rinderpest virus.rinderpest virus (rpv) large (l) protein is an integral part of the ribonucleoprotein (rnp) complex of the virus that is responsible for transcription and replication of the genome. previously, we have shown that recombinant l protein coexpressed along with p protein (as the l-p complex) catalyses the synthesis of all viral mrnas in vitro and the abundance of mrnas follows a gradient of polarity, similar to the occurrence in vivo. in the present work, we demonstrate that the viral mrnas synthesi ...200919297608
a new phytoreovirus infecting the glassy-winged sharpshooter (homalodisca vitripennis).a new virus species of the genus phytoreovirus was isolated from glassy-winged sharpshooter (gwss), homalodisca vitripennis germar (hemiptera: cicadellidae), in california and designated here as homalodisca vitripennis reovirus (hovrv). extraction of nucleic acid from gwss adults collected from three californian populations revealed an array of double-stranded (ds) rna species that was soluble in 2 m licl and resistant to degradation upon exposure to s1 nuclease and dnase. analysis of nucleic ac ...200919239972
release of rice dwarf virus from insect vector cells involves secretory exosomes derived from multivesicular bodies.plant reoviruses in insect vector cells are sequestered in spherical multivesicular compartments. we demonstrated previously that the plant-infecting reovirus rice dwarf virus (rdv) exploits multivesicular compartments for the transport and release of viral particles from infected insect vector cells. these multivesicular compartments contain small vesicles and, morphologically, they resemble previously reported endosomal multivesicular bodies (mvbs) exploited by enveloped rna viruses during bud ...200919721879
a disease-mediated trophic cascade in the serengeti and its implications for ecosystem c.tree cover is a fundamental structural characteristic and driver of ecosystem processes in terrestrial ecosystems, and trees are a major global carbon (c) sink. fire and herbivores have been hypothesized to play dominant roles in regulating trees in african savannas, but the evidence for this is conflicting. moving up a trophic scale, the factors that regulate fire occurrence and herbivores, such as disease and predation, are poorly understood for any given ecosystem. we used a bayesian state-sp ...200919787022
a sero-survey of rinderpest in nomadic pastoral systems in central and southern somalia from 2002 to 2003, using a spatially integrated random sampling approach.a cross-sectional sero-survey, using a two-stage cluster sampling design, was conducted between 2002 and 2003 in ten administrative regions of central and southern somalia, to estimate the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of rinderpest (rp) in the study area, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the observed seroprevalence distribution. the study was also used to test the feasibility of the spatially integrated investigation technique in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral s ...201021309450
calcium phosphate coupled newcastle disease vaccine elicits humoral and cell mediated immune responses in chickens.calcium phosphate (cap) particles were coupled with inactivated newcastle disease virus (ndv) vaccine. the surface morphology of cap particles coupled to ndv was found to be spherical, smooth and with a tendency to agglomerate. the mean (± se) size of cap particles was found 557.44±18.62nm. the mean percent encapsulation efficiency of cap particles coupled to ndv assessed based on total protein content and haemagglutination (ha) activity in eluate was found to be 10.72±0.89 and 12.50±2.09, respe ...201020951398
rinderpest virus expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein as a separate transcription unit retains pathogenicity for cattle.a full-length dna clone of a virulent strain of rinderpest virus was constructed with the gene for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) inserted as a separate transcription unit between the p and m genes. rescue of the virus from the modified clone using reverse genetics generated a virus that grew to the same levels as the virus rescued from the unmodified dna clone in cell culture. the recombinant virus expressed egfp to a high level and was used to follow virus replication in real-ti ...201020719989
credit to plowright for rinderpest eradication. 201021148375
rice dwarf viruses with dysfunctional genomes generated in plants are filtered out in vector insects: implications for the origin of the virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv), with 12 double-stranded rna (dsrna) genome segments (s1 to s12), replicates in and is transmitted by vector insects. the rdv-plant host-vector insect system allows us to examine the evolution, adaptation, and population genetics of a plant virus. we compared the effects of long-term maintenance of rdv on population structures in its two hosts. the maintenance of rdv in rice plants for several years resulted in gradual accumulation of nonsense mutations in s2 and s10, abse ...201021191024
comparative and mutational analyses of promoter regions of rinderpest virus.comparative and mutational analysis of promoter regions of rinderpest virus was conducted. minigenomic rnas harboring the genomic and antigenomic promoter of the lapinized virulent strain (lv) or an attenuated vaccine strain (rbok) were constructed, and the expression of the reporter gene was examined. the activities of the antigenomic promoters of these strains were similar, whereas the activity of the genomic promoter (gp) of the rbok strain was significantly higher than that of the lv strain, ...201019913269
the nac transcription factor rim1 of rice is a new regulator of jasmonate signaling.jasmonates (jas) are lipid-derived regulators that play crucial roles in both host immunity and development. we recently identified the nac transcription factor rim1 as a host factor involved in multiplication of rice dwarf virus (rdv). here, we report that rim1 functions as a transcriptional regulator of ja signaling and is degraded in response to ja treatment via a 26s proteasome-dependent pathway. plants carrying rim1 mutations show a phenotype of root growth inhibition. the expression profil ...201020015061
stable expression of rice dwarf virus pns10 suppresses the post-transcriptional gene silencing in transgenic nicotiana benthamiana plants.rna silencing is a conserved mechanism that defends against viral infection and retrotransposon activity for protection of the genome. segment 10 (s10) of rice dwarf virus (rdv) encodes pns10 protein, a viral suppressor of rnai that suppresses the host rna silencing machinery. in this study, we obtained stable transgenic rdv-s10 nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing pns10. suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (ptgs) by pns10 supported the conclusion that this protein exhibited th ...201020545438
host factor ebp1 inhibits rinderpest virus transcription in vivo.erbb3 binding protein ebp1 has been shown to downregulate erbb3 receptor-mediated signaling to inhibit cell proliferation. rinderpest virus belongs to the family paramyxoviridae and is characterized by the presence of a non-segmented negative-sense rna genome. in this work, we show that rinderpest virus infection of vero cells leads to the down-regulation of the host factor ebp1, at both the mrna and protein levels. ebp1 protein has been shown to co-localize with viral inclusion bodies in infect ...201020127373
origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.measles, caused by measles virus (mev), is a common infection in children. mev is a member of the genus morbillivirus and is most closely related to rinderpest virus (rpv), which is a pathogen of cattle. mev is thought to have evolved in an environment where cattle and humans lived in close proximity. understanding the evolutionary history of mev could answer questions related to divergence times of mev and rpv. we investigated divergence times using relaxed clock bayesian phylogenetics. our est ...201020202190
gene structures, classification and expression models of the ap2/erebp transcription factor family in rice.we identified 163 ap2/erebp (apetala2/ethylene-responsive element-binding protein) genes in rice. we analyzed gene structures, phylogenies, domain duplication, genome localizations and expression profiles. conserved amino acid residues and phylogeny construction using the ap2/erf conserved domain sequence suggest that in rice the osap2/erebp gene family can be classified broadly into four subfamilies [ap2, rav (related to abi3/vp1), dreb (dehydration-responsive element-binding protein) and erf ( ...201021169347
genetic characterization of the korean latc06 rinderpest vaccine strain.we sequenced the genome of latc06 generated by in vitro passage in vero cells of the lapinized-avianized (la) strain and compared its sequence to those of other rinderpest viruses. the latc06 genome consists of 15882 nucleotides. its transcriptional regulatory control sequences (trss) at gene boundaries are identical to those of the kabete o strain. cleavage sites for generating f1/f2 proteins were identified in the same amino acid position (aa 108) as f proteins in latc06, l13, rbt1, kabete o, ...201021053063
rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) is the causative agent of peste des petits ruminants (ppr), an economically important viral disease of small ruminants. in this report, a one-step, single-tube, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay was developed for the detection of pprv. a set of six lamp primers were designed based on the matrix gene sequence of pprv to amplify the target rna by incubation at 63°c for 60min with bst dna polymerase and reverse trans ...201020813134
[construction and sequencing of full-length cdna of peste des petits ruminants virus].to develop a reverse genetics system of peste des petits ruminants virus(pprv), five pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed on the basis of the full-length genomic sequence of pprv nigeria 75/ 1 strain. using rt-pcr technique, five over-lapping cdna fragments, designated as jf1, jf2, jf3, jf4 and jf5, respectively, were amplified, followed by cloning into pcdna3.1(+)vector. an asci restriction enzyme site and a t7 promoter sequence were introduced immediately upstream of 5'-end, while a ...201020836386
[genome sequencing and analysis of a peste des petits ruminants virus isolate, china/tib/07].peste des petits ruminants virus is a member of morbillivirus paramyxoviridae. the complete genome of a peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) isolate, china/tib/07 was sequenced and molecular characteristics was analyzed. the internal sequences of the virus genome were amplified by rt-pcr with primers designed according to the published data in genbank, while the sequences of the 3' and 5' ends of the genome were determined by race. amplification products were directly sequenced,assembled and ...201020836387
molecular detection of nine rice viruses by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay was established for the detection of nine viruses from infected rice plants, including rice black-streaked dwarf virus (rbsdv), rice dwarf virus (rdv), rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv), rice ragged stunt virus (rrsv), rice transitory yellowing virus (rtyv), rice stripe virus (rsv), rice grassy stunt virus (rgsv), rice tungro spherical virus (rtsv), and rice tungro bacilliform virus (rtbv). virus-specific primer sets were ...201020837064
specific detection of rinderpest virus by real-time reverse transcription-pcr in preclinical and clinical samples from experimentally infected cattle.a highly sensitive detection test for rinderpest virus (rpv), based on a real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rrt-pcr)system, was developed. five different rpv genomic targets were examined, and one was selected and optimized to detect viral rna in infected tissue culture fluid with a level of detection ranging from 0.59 to 87.5 50% tissue culture infectious doses (tcid(50)) per reaction depending on the viral isolate. the strain sensitivity of the test was validated on 16 rpv strains belonging ...201020844216
multiple functions of rice dwarf phytoreovirus pns10 in suppressing systemic rna silencing.rna silencing is a potent mechanism of antiviral defense response in plants and other organisms. for counterdefense, viruses have evolved a variety of suppressors of rna silencing (vsrs) that can inhibit distinct steps of a silencing pathway. we previously identified pns10 encoded by rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) as a vsr, the first of its kind from double-stranded rna (dsrna) viruses. in this study we investigated the mechanisms of pns10 function in suppressing systemic rna silencing in the wi ...201020926568
characterization of the complete genomic sequence of the rinderpest virus fusan strain cattle type, which is the most classical isolate in asia and comparison with its lapinized this study, we characterized the rinderpest virus (rpv) fusan strain cattle type (b), which is the most classical isolate in asia, by complete genomic sequence analysis and compared it with its lapinized nakamura iii (l) strain. the transversion rates of the m, f, and h genes were higher than those of other genes. in contrast, the deduced amino acid (aa) substitution rates of the p, c, and v genes were higher than those of other genes, although their transversion rates were not higher. the ch ...201121643766
a novel sapelovirus-like virus isolation from wild boar.a novel sapelovirus-like virus was isolated from a wild boar (sus scrofa). in this study, partial viral genomic nucleotide sequences were determined using the rapid determination system of viral nucleic acid sequences (rdv) ver. 3.1, which we recently developed for discovering novel viruses. phylogenetic analysis of vp1 and 3a proteins and their encoding nucleotide sequences of enteroviruses and sapeloviruses indicated that the isolated virus was closely related to porcine sapelovirus. rt-pcr de ...201121643767
monkey cv1 cell line expressing the sheep-goat slam protein: a highly sensitive cell line for the isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from pathological specimens.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an important economically transboundary disease of sheep and goats caused by a virus which belongs to the genus morbillivirus. this genus, in the family paramyxoviridae, also includes the measles virus (mv), canine distemper virus (cdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), and marine mammal viruses. one of the main features of these viruses is the severe transient lymphopaenia and immunosuppression they induce in their respective hosts, thereby favouring secondary bacteri ...201121371505
improvement and development of rapid chromatographic strip-tests for the diagnosis of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses.this paper describes the improvement of a rapid diagnostic test for the detection of rinderpest virus (rpv) at pen-side and the development of a similar test for the detection of another morbillivirus, peste de petits ruminants virus (pprv). using the svanova biotech format, prototype chromatographic strip test devices were developed for rpv and pprv detection. for the rp device, the incorporation of a monoclonal antibody (mab), which recognises additional rpv strains of rpv lineage 2, enhanced ...201121419802
relationship between symptoms and gene expression induced by the infection of three strains of rice dwarf virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv) is the causal agent of rice dwarf disease, which often results in severe yield losses of rice in east asian countries. the disease symptoms are stunted growth, chlorotic specks on leaves, and delayed and incomplete panicle exsertion. three rdv strains, o, d84, and s, were reported. rdv-s causes the most severe symptoms, whereas rdv-o causes the mildest. twenty amino acid substitutions were found in 10 of 12 virus proteins among three rdv strains.201121445363
novel dna virus isolated from samples showing endothelial cell necrosis in the japanese eel, anguilla japonica.economic loss due to viral endothelial cell necrosis of eel (vecne) of anguilla japonica is a serious problem for the cultured japanese eel market. however, the viral genome responsible for vecne is unknown. we recently developed a rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (rdv) to determine viral genome sequences. in this study, viral dna fragments were obtained using rdv, and approximately 15-kbp circular full genome sequences were determined using a next-generation sequencin ...201121277610
differentiating pestes des petits ruminants and rinderpest viruses by a novel monoclonal antibody.peste des petits ruminant (ppr) is an acute, febrile, viral disease of small ruminants with great economic importance. ppr and rinderpest (rp) viruses are antigenically related and need to be differentiated serologically. the use of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) in elisa for specific diagnostics and separation of ppr and rpv is important. for this purpose, six balb/c mice were immunized with inactivated antigen from the nijeria strain. fusion cloning was performed 3 months later by directly using ...201121707365
simultaneous detection of rift valley fever, bluetongue, rinderpest, and peste des petits ruminants viruses by a single-tube multiplex reverse transcriptase-pcr assay using a dual-priming oligonucleotide system.the aim of this study was to develop a highly sensitive and specific one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase pcr assay for the simultaneous and differential detection of rift valley fever virus (rvfv), bluetongue virus (btv), rinderpest virus (rpv), and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv). these viruses cause mucosal lesions in cattle, sheep, and goats, and they are difficult to differentiate from one another based solely on their clinical presentation in suspected disease cases. in this st ...201121307219
Evidence of Endemic Hendra Virus Infection in Flying-Foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus)-Implications for Disease Risk Management.This study investigated the seroepidemiology of Hendra virus in a spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus) population in northern Australia, near the location of an equine and associated human Hendra virus infection in late 2004. The pattern of infection in the population was investigated using a serial cross-sectional serological study over a 25-month period, with blood sampled from 521 individuals over six sampling sessions. Antibody titres to the virus were determined by virus neutrali ...201122194920
viral infection induces expression of novel phased micrornas from conserved cellular microrna precursors.rna silencing, mediated by small rnas including micrornas (mirnas) and small interfering rnas (sirnas), is a potent antiviral or antibacterial mechanism, besides regulating normal cellular gene expression critical for development and physiology. to gain insights into host small rna metabolism under infections by different viruses, we used solexa/illumina deep sequencing to characterize the small rna profiles of rice plants infected by two distinct viruses, rice dwarf virus (rdv, dsrna virus) and ...201121901091
the detection of rinderpest virus rna extracted from a rapid chromatographic strip-test by rt-pcr.the global rinderpest eradication program (grep) aimed to eradicate rinderpest by 2010 and it is widely believed to have been successful. an integral part of the program was the submission of samples from suspect rinderpest positive animals to a local reference laboratory for final confirmation. confirmation of rinderpest in field samples is often hampered because of poor quality of the sample upon receipt. as part of grep a rapid diagnostic strip test for the detection of rinderpest virus (rpv) ...201121352855
two distinct conformations of a rinderpest virus epitope presented by bovine major histocompatibility complex class i n*01801: a host strategy to present featured peptides.the presentation of viral peptide epitopes to host cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) is crucial for adaptive cellular immunity to clear the virus infection, especially for some chronic viral infections. indeed, hosts have developed effective strategies to achieve this goal. the ideal scenario would be that the peptide epitopes stimulate a broad spectrum of ctl responses with diversified t-cell receptor (tcr) usage (the tcr repertoire). it is believed that a diversified tcr repertoire requires a "fe ...201121450819
sequential infection of rice dwarf virus in the internal organs of its insect vector after ingestion of virus.confocal microscopy revealed that rice dwarf virus (rdv) initially accumulated in epithelial cells of the filter chamber of leafhopper vector nephotettix cincticeps 2 days after acquisition access feeding on diseased plants. subsequently, rdv accumulation progressed to the anterior midgut, and then spread to the nervous system before infection of other organs. furthermore, rdv accumulation progressed to the visceral muscles surrounding the anterior midgut. later, rdv accumulation was detected in ...201121570430
biological feasibility of measles eradication.because of the success of global measles control programs, the world health organization (who), along with its partner agencies, is once again considering the possibility of setting a target date for measles eradication. measles would be the fourth viral agent to be eradicated joining the successful programs to eradicate smallpox and rinderpest virus, and the continuing effort to eradicate polio virus. a description of the recent progress toward measles eradication was recently published as a su ...201121963661
rinderpest: the end of cattle plague.this paper describes the demise of rinderpest, focussing on the 20th century and especially the period of the global rinderpest eradication programme, before proceeding to describe the process of accreditation of rinderpest freedom which is now virtually complete.201121783268
peste des petits ruminants: a suitable candidate for eradication?this year will see the final announcement, accompanied by much justifiable celebration, of the eradication from the wild of rinderpest, the 'cattle plague' that has been with us for so many centuries. the only known rinderpest virus (rpv) remaining is in a relatively small number of laboratories around the world, and in the stockpiles of vaccine held on a precautionary basis. as we mark this achievement, only the second virus ever eradicated through human intervention, it seems a good time to lo ...201121724765
a novel approach to generating morbillivirus vaccines: negatively marking the rinderpest vaccine.the eradication of rinderpest virus (rpv) from the globe was possible through the availability of a safe and effective live attenuated vaccine and a suitable companion diagnostic test. however, the inability to serologically 'differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated animals' (diva) meant that both the time taken to complete the eradication programme and the economic burden on countries involved was significantly greater than if a vaccine and companion diagnostic test that fulfille ...201222265946
peste des petits ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a widespread viral disease caused by a morbillivirus (paramyxoviridae). there is a single serotype of ppr virus, but four distinct genetic lineages. morbidity and mortality are high when occurring in naive sheep and goats populations. cattle and african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) are asymptomatically infected. other wild ruminants and camels may express clinical signs and mortality. ppr has recently spread in southern and northern africa, and in central and f ...201223313537
the role of nuclear technologies in the diagnosis and control of livestock diseases--a review.nuclear and nuclear-related technologies have played an important role in animal health, particularly in relation to disease diagnosis and characterization of pathogenic organisms. this review focuses primarily on how and where nuclear technologies, both non-isotopic and isotopic methods, have made their impact in the past and where it might be expected they could have an impact in the future. the review outlines the extensive use of radiation attenuation in attempts to create vaccines for a mul ...201222286376
[feasibility study on global peste des petits ruminants eradication based on rinderpest eradication].eradication can be defined as permanent elimination of the occurrence of a given infectious disease. a joint fao/oie announcement of global rinderpest eradication was declared in 2011. the announcement from two international organizations indicates that the rinderpest virus, like the smallpox virus, will remain only in authorized laboratories. after rinderpest eradication, the relevant researchers shifted their focus on next target-peste des petits ruminants, since they mostly share similarities ...201222416357
complete genome analysis of three live attenuated rinderpest virus vaccine strains derived through serial passages in different culture systems.the genomes of three south korean rinderpest virus vaccine strains (l72, la77, and la96) were analyzed in order to investigate their genetic variability. these three vaccine strains were all derived from the same virus strain origin (fusan) through repeated passages in different culture systems. the full genome length of the three strains was 15,882 nucleotides, and the sequence similarity between the three south korean rpv strains at the nucleotide level was 98.1 to 98.9%. the genetic distance ...201223118448
fao and oie urge laboratories to destroy their stocks of rinderpest virus. 201222843737
rinderpest eradication: lessons for measles eradication?in 2011 the food and agriculture organization formally announced that rinderpest was eradicated from the globe. rinderpest virus had long been associated with huge disease outbreaks among cattle. the disease not only had a devastating effect on cattle herds world-wide, but also on human populations that depended on them. rinderpest virus - a member of the genus morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae - is a close relative of measles virus. both viruses are highly infectious and share many ot ...201222709518
[morbilliviruses].the genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae contains many pathogens, which are important for medicine or veterinary medicine. because each morbillivirus has restricted host range and serologically monotypic, the virus infection and transmission is effectively controlled by vaccinations and surveillance. rinderpest virus has been eradicated in 2011, and elimination of measles virus progresses worldwide. recently, a new cell receptor for measles virus, nectin4 was identified. both slam, ...201224153228
morbillivirus receptors and tropism: multiple pathways for infection.morbilliviruses, which include measles virus (mev), canine distemper virus, and rinderpest virus, are among the most important pathogens in their respective hosts and cause severe syndromes. morbilliviruses are enveloped viruses with two envelope proteins, one of which is hemagglutinin (h) protein, which plays a role in binding to cellular receptors. during morbillivirus infection, the virus initially targets lymphoid cells and replicates efficiently in the lymph nodes. the principal cellular re ...201222403577
biochemical and structural studies of the oligomerization domain of the nipah virus phosphoprotein: evidence for an elongated coiled-coil homotrimer.nipah virus (niv) is a recently emerged severe human pathogen that belongs to the henipavirus genus within the paramyxoviridae family. the niv genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (n) within a helical nucleocapsid that is the substrate used by the polymerase for transcription and replication. the polymerase is recruited onto the nucleocapsid via its cofactor, the phosphoprotein (p). the niv p protein has a modular organization, with alternating disordered and ordered domains. among these ...201324074578
[entry mechanism of morbillivirus family].the genus morbillivirus includes measles virus, canine distemper virus and rinderpest virus. these are highly contagious and exhibit high mortality. these viruses have the attachment glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (h), at the virus surface, which bind to signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam) and nectin 4 as receptors for the entry. however, the molecular mechanism for this entry has been limitedly understood. here we summarize the current topics, (1) newly identified receptor, nectin 4, ( ...201323649396
morbillivirus v proteins exhibit multiple mechanisms to block type 1 and type 2 interferon signalling pathways.morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins v, w and c in their p gene. previous studies with rinderpest virus (rpv) and measles virus (mev) have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type i (ifnα/β) and type ii (ifnγ) interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. we have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (rpv), measles virus (me ...201323431397
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