TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells.the genes coding for the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) of the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and hemagglutinin (h) of rinderpest virus (rpv) were cloned in a cytomagalovirus promoter driven expression vector and expressed transiently in mammalian cells. the protein expression was apparent 24 h after transfection and the expressed proteins were detected at the cell surface. the transiently expressed pprv hn protein was found to be biologically active in possessin ...200111325471
morbilliviruses use signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (cd150) as cellular receptors.morbilliviruses comprise measles virus, canine distemper virus, rinderpest virus, and several other viruses that cause devastating human and animal diseases accompanied by severe immunosuppression and lymphopenia. recently, we have shown that human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam) is a cellular receptor for measles virus. in this study, we examined whether canine distemper and rinderpest viruses also use canine and bovine slams, respectively, as cellular receptors. the onderstepoo ...200111390585
idiotypic-anti-idiotypic b cell interactions generated against a protective antigen of a morbillivirus in mice.the idiotypic network theory (n. k. jerne, ann. immunol. 125, 373-389, 1974) predicts that any antibody that can be made by an individual would have its preexisting specific complementary b cells in its germline repertoire. we transplanted syngeneic balb/c mice with live hybridoma cells and demonstrated the simultaneous presence of interacting idiotypic and anti-idiotypic b cells in an individual animal by immuno-cytoadherence assays. furthermore, we demonstrate that interacting b cells displayi ...200111414732
recombinant hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed in insect cells induces humoral and cell mediated immune responses in cattle.rinderpest virus causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease in domestic and wild ruminants. the surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) proteins of this enveloped virus are known to confer protective immunity in cattle. we have reported the generation of a recombinant baculovirus expressing h protein and studied its protective properties in cattle. in this report, we demonstrate that the recombinant baculovirus encoded h protein expressed in insect cells gets incorporated ...200111427260
idiotype and antigen-specific t cell responses in mice on immunization with antigen, antibody, and anti-idiotypic antibody.idiotypic determinants of immunoglobulin molecules can evoke both cd4(+) and cd8(+) t responses and exist not only as the integral components of a bona fide antigen binding receptor but also as distinct molecular entities in the processed forms on the cell surface of b lymphocytes. the present work provides experimental evidence for the concept that regulation of memory b cell populations can be achieved through the presentation of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic determinants to helper and cytotoxi ...200111446743
molecular properties of the matrixprotein(m) gene of the lapinized rinderpest virus.the nucleotide sequence of the matrixprotein (m) gene of the lapinized rinderpest virus (rpv-l) was determined. the full-length cdna of the rpv-l m gene is composed of 1460 base pairs and is supposed to contain an open reading frame of 1005 nucleotides encoding on m protein of 335 amino acids. the homology of the predicted amino acid among congeneric morbilliviruses such as rpv kabete 'o' strain (wild strain of rpv), rpv rbok strain (vaccine strain of rpv for cattle), measles virus (mv), and can ...200111503909
immune responses in goats to recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of peste des petits ruminants virus: identification of a t cell determinant.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), a member of the genus morbillivirus within the family paramyxoviridae, causes a fatal disease 'peste des petits ruminants' in goats and sheep. this enveloped virus is antigenically closely related to rinderpest virus (rpv), which causes a similar but distinct disease in large ruminants. pprv harbors two major surface glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) and the fusion (f) proteins. the surface glycoproteins of morbilliviruses are highly imm ...200111535334
complete genome sequence of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus pur46-mad clone and evolution of the purdue virus cluster.the complete sequence (28580 nt) of the pur46-mad clone of the purdue cluster of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (tgev) has been determined and compared with members of this cluster and other coronaviruses. the computing distances among their s gene sequences resulted in the grouping of these coronaviruses into four clusters, one of them exclusively formed by the purdue viruses. three new potential sequence motifs with homology to the alpha-subunit of the polymerase-associated nucleoca ...200111556396
the use of antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the diagnosis of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants in ethiopia.rinderpest had been reported in most parts of ethiopia when the pan african rinderpest campaign (parc) was launched. as a result of intensive disease investigation and strategic vaccination, most parts of the country are now considered provisionally free, and widespread vaccination has been replaced by clinical and serological surveillance. details of any episodes of disease are recorded and followed up after laboratory confirmation of suspected cass using antigen-capture elisa. this paper is ba ...200111556621
the fusion protein of peste des petits ruminants virus mediates biological fusion in the absence of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase study the process of membrane fusion in morbilliviruses, the fusion (f) glycoproteins of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were expressed transiently in mammalian cells. the recombinant f proteins were found to be localized at the surface of transfected cells. the fusion activity, as evident from cell fusion assays and lysis of chicken erythrocytes, documented that transiently expressed pprv f glycoprotein induces cell fusion in the absence of homotypic hemagg ...200111601920
scanning mutagenesis identifies critical residues in the rinderpest virus genome promoter.short regions at the 3' and 5' ends of the genome of rinderpest virus (rpv) contain signals that regulate transcription of the viral genome, known as the genome promoter and the (complement to the) antigenome promoter, respectively. an rpv minigenome construct carrying the cat coding sequence was used as a reporter to investigate residues in the 3'-terminal region of the genome important for these functions. single-base scanning mutagenesis showed that modifications to nucleotides 1, 3, 4, 10 an ...200111714965
three-dimensional structure of the inner core of rice dwarf virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a double-shelled icosahedral virus. using electron cryomicroscopy and computer reconstruction techniques, we have determined a 3.3 nm resolution three-dimensional (3d) structure of the inner shell capsid without the outer shell and viral rna. the results show that the inner shell is a thin, densely packed, smooth structure, which provides a scaffold for the full virus. a total of 120 copies of the major inner shell capsid protein p3 forms 60 dimers arranged in a t=1 ico ...200118726437
the cattle plague in cheshire, 1865-1866. 200118630384
animal diseases and human populations in colonial zimbabwe: the rinderpest epidemic of 1896-1898. 200118561450
idiotype and anti-idiotype specific t cell responses on transplantation with hybridomas reactive to viral hemagglutinin and human tumor antigen.b cell hybridomas expressing class i and ii mhc molecules and producing antibodies directed against hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus and human mucin-1 have been used as surrogate b cells to study t cell responses against the antigens. the observed ctl and lymphoproliferative response indicates that anti-idiotypic b cells termed jerne cells stimulate both t helper and t cytotoxic cells by virtue of their ability to present recycled or regurgitated peptido-mimics of antigen to t helper ce ...200211750038
long-term sterilizing immunity to rinderpest in cattle vaccinated with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing high levels of the fusion and hemagglutinin glycoproteins.rinderpest is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of ruminants, often resulting in greater than 90% mortality. we have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine (v2rvfh) that expresses both the fusion (f) and hemagglutinin (h) genes of rinderpest virus (rpv) under strong synthetic vaccinia virus promoters. v2rvfh-infected cells express high levels of the f and h glycoproteins and show extensive syncytium formation. cattle vaccinated intramuscularly with as little as 10(3) pfu of ...200211752138
approaches in the understanding of morbillivirus neurovirulence.certain members of the morbillivirus genus, canine distemper virus, phocine distemper virus, and the cetacean viruses of dolphins and porpoises exhibit high levels of central nervous system (cns) infection in their natural hosts. cns complications are rare for measles virus (mv) and are not associated with rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection. however, both rpv and pprv are neurovirulent in permissive murine strains. human postmortem tissue, neural cell cu ...200212491157
the control of rinderpest in tanzania between 1997 and january 1997, tanzania requested international assistance against rinderpest on the grounds that the virus had probably entered the country from southern kenya. over the next few months, a variety of attempts were made to determine the extent of the incursion by searching for serological and clinical evidence of the whereabouts of the virus. at the clinical level, these attempts were hampered by the low virulence of the strain, and at the serological level by the lack of a baseline against wh ...200212537386
identification of immunodominant neutralizing epitopes on the hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus.the immunodominant epitopes on the hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus (rpv-h) were determined by analyzing selected monoclonal antibody (mab)-resistant mutants and estimating the level of antibody against each epitope in five rpv-infected rabbits with the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa). six neutralizing epitopes were identified, at residues 474 (epitope a), 243 (b), 548 to 551 (d), 587 to 592 (e), 310 to 313 (g), and 383 to 387 (h), from the data on the amino acid ...200211799164
rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses exhibit neurovirulence in mice.members of the morbillivirus genus, canine distemper (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv), and the cetacean viruses of dolphins and porpoises exhibit high levels of cns infection in their natural hosts. cns complications are rare for measles virus (mv) and are not associated with rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection. however, it is possible that all morbilliviruses infect the cns but in some hosts are rapidly cleared by the immune response. in this study, ...200211847591
inhibition of in vitro leukocyte proliferation by morbilliviruses.immune suppression associated with morbillivirus infections may influence the mortality rate by allowing secondary bacterial infections that are lethal to the host to flourish. using an in vitro proliferation assay, we have shown that all members of the genus morbillivirus inhibit the proliferation of a human b-lymphoblast cell line (bjab). proliferation of freshly isolated, stimulated bovine and caprine peripheral blood lymphocytes is also inhibited by uv-inactivated rinderpest (rpv) and peste- ...200211884584
immunization with a plasmid dna expressing rinderpest virus hemagglutinin protein protects rabbits from lethal challenge.rinderpest virus haemagglutinin (h) protein was expressed in eukaryotic cells and the plasmid encoding h gene was used for immunization of rabbits. the immunized rabbits were completely protected from lethal challenge with virulent lapinized rinderpest virus. similar results were also observed in rabbits vaccinated with tissue culture rinderpest (tcrp) vaccine. about 80% of control rabbits vaccinated with empty vector (mock-vaccinated) died after challenge. the thermal reactions and clinical sym ...200211958458
long term immunity in african cattle vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest virus vaccine.cattle were vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest vaccine designed to protect cattle from infection with either rinderpest virus (rpv) or lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). vaccination did not induce any adverse clinical responses or show evidence of transmission of the vaccine virus to in-contact control animals. approximately 50% of the cattle were solidly protected from challenge with a lethal dose of virulent rpv 2 years after vaccination while at 3 years approx. 30% were fully pro ...200212002554
the morbillivirus receptor slam (cd150).morbilliviruses are highly contagious pathogens that cause some of the most devastating viral diseases of humans and animals, including measles virus (mv), canine distemper virus (cdv), and rinderpest virus (rpv). they replicate mainly in lymphoid organs throughout the body and cause severe immunosuppression accompanied with lymphopenia. we have recently shown that human, canine, and bovine signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (slams; also known as cd150) act as cellular receptors for mv, c ...200212008921
rinderpest virus h protein: role in determining host range in rabbits.a major molecular determinant of virus host-range is thought to be the viral protein required for cell attachment. we used a recombinant strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) to examine the role of this protein in determining the ability of rpv to replicate in rabbits. the recombinant was based on the rbok vaccine strain, which is avirulent in rabbits, carrying the haemagglutinin (h) protein gene from the lapinized rpv (rpv-l) strain, which is pathogenic in rabbits. the recombinant virus (rrpv-laph) ...200212029161
effect of immunization with plasmid dna encoding for rinderpest virus matrix protein on systemic rinderpest virus infection in rabbits.plasmid vaccine pbk-cmvmpilc113 expressing the matrix (m) gene of rinderpest virus was assessed for its potential to protect rabbits against a lethal viral challenge. rabbits immunized with plasmids expressing the m gene were not protected when challenged with lapinized rinderpest virus, despite the production of anti-m antibodies, while rabbits immunized with rinderpest tissue culture vaccine were completely protected from a lethal challenge with lapinized rinderpest virus. the plasmid vaccine ...200212090294
prevalence, distribution, and host range of peste des petits ruminants virus, turkey.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv, genus morbillivirus), which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, has only recently been officially declared to be present in turkey. we carried out a study to determine the prevalence, distribution, and host range of pprv in turkey. a total of 1,607 animals, reared in 18 different locations, were monitored for the presence of antibodies to pprv and the related virus of large ruminants, rinderpest virus (rpv). only two farms had animals that were fre ...200212095439
mapping of b-cell epitopes of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against secreted hemagglutinin (h) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) expressed by a recombinant baculovirus were generated to characterize the antigenic sites on h protein and regions of functional significance. three of the mabs displayed hemagglutination inhibition activity and these mabs were unable to neutralize virus infectivity. western immunoblot analysis of overlapping deletion mutants indicated that three mabs recognize antigenic regions at the extreme carbo ...200212127784
recent epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv).peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an economically important viral disease of goats and sheep first described in west africa in the 1940s. the virus has been circulating in parts of sub-saharan africa for several decades and in the middle east and southern asia since 1993, although the first description of the virus in india dates to 1987. to study the genetic relationship between isolates of distinct geographical origin, a selected region of the fusion (f) protein gene of the viruses was ampli ...200212135634
induction of apoptotic cellular death in lymphatic tissues of cattle experimentally infected with different strains of rinderpest virus.the presence, type, and extent of cellular death in lymphatic tissues of cattle experimentally infected with rinderpest virus strains of different virulence was investigated morphologically. cells with dna strand breaks were identified in histological sections of palatine tonsil, spleen, and mesenteric and mandibular lymph nodes by the tunel (terminal desoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dutp nick end labelling) assay. in addition, representative samples of lymphatic tissues were examined by t ...200212354541
detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in sera of cattle, camels, sheep and goats in sudan.detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in sera of cattle, camels, sheep and goats in sudan.200212416868
rinderpest.rinderpest, also known as cattle plague, was for centuries the most dreaded bovine plague known and one that changed the course of history and still seriously compromises trade. it can lay waste not only to farming communities but the wildlife heritage of countries also is threatened because its broad host spectrum extends across cattle, asian buffaloes, yaks, and many other artiodactyls, both domesticated and wild, including swine. this article provides a brief history of rinderpest before desc ...200212442581
monoclonal antibody-based competitive elisa for simultaneous detection of rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus experimental competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (morbillivirus celisa) using a recombinant n antigen (rrpv n) expressed in a baculovirus and a ruminant morbillivirus (rpv and pprv)-specific monoclonal antibody (p-13a9) was developed for simultaneous detection of rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) antibodies and its diagnostic performance was evaluated. a set of known reference antisera against rpv and pprv belonging to different lineages, experimenta ...200314516703
the atomic structure of rice dwarf virus reveals the self-assembly mechanism of component proteins.rice dwarf virus (rdv), the causal agent of rice dwarf disease, is a member of the genus phytoreovirus in the family reoviridae. rdv is a double-shelled virus with a molecular mass of approximately 70 million dalton. this virus is widely prevalent and is one of the viruses that cause the most economic damage in many asian countries. the atomic structure of rdv was determined at 3.5 a resolution by x-ray crystallography. the double-shelled structure consists of two different proteins, the core pr ...200314527391
a minor outer capsid protein, p9, of rice dwarf virus.partial amino acid sequence of a minor 30 kda polypeptide in purified rice dwarf virus (rdv) was identical to the deduced amino acid sequence encoded by the dsrna segment s9 of the virus. this polypeptide was specifically detected by western blotting analysis with antibodies raised against the product of s9 expressed in a baculovirus system. treatment of purified rdv particles with a relatively higher concentration of mgcl2 removed the polypeptide from core particles together with other outer ca ...200314579184
localization of antigenic sites at the amino-terminus of rinderpest virus n protein using deleted n mutants and monoclonal antibody.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) is highly conserved, immunogenic, and abundantly expressed during infection. six antigenic sites (sites a, b, c, d, e and f), defined previously by a competitive binding assay using corresponding monoclonal antibodies (mabs), have been further localized by immunoassays using deleted n mutants. five different forms of rpv n protein, containing residues aa 1-79, aa 1-149, aa 1-421, aa 414-525 and aa 1-525, were expressed as glutathione s trans ...200314610371
baculovirus display of fusion protein of peste des petits ruminants virus and hemagglutination protein of rinderpest virus and immunogenicity of the displayed proteins in mouse model.recombinant bombyx mori nucleopolyhedroviruses (bmnpv) displaying the immunodominant ectodomains of fusion glycoprotein (f) of peste des petitis ruminants virus (pprv) and the hemagglutinin protein (h) of rinderpest virus (rpv), on the budded virions as well as the surface of the infected host cells have been constructed. the f and h protein sequences were inserted in-frame within the amino-terminal region of bmnpv envelope glycoprotein gp64 expressing under the strong viral polyhedrin (polh) pr ...200314675623
development of new generation rinderpest vaccines.veterinary science has benefited much from the advances in biotechnology during the past 20 years. new and improved diagnostic techniques for infectious diseases have been developed and new and highly effective vaccines to prevent such diseases have been introduced and more have been, or are about to be, field-tested. the latest development in negative strand virology, reverse genetics, the ability to rescue live virus from a dna copy of the rna genome, is being used to address questions concern ...200314677680
inexpensive vaccines and rapid diagnostic kits tailor-made for the global eradication of rinderpest, and technology transfer to africa and asia.rinderpest is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of ruminants, often resulting in greater than 90% mortality. we previously reported the development of first- and second-generation recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines which provide complete protection against rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste-des-petits ruminants virus (pprv). these vaccines are safe even for immunodeficient mice and macaques with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. we developed a third-generation recombinant vaccinia vi ...200314677681
rinderpest virus lineage differentiation using rt-pcr and rt-pcr/elisa system has been developed that detects and differentiates rinderpest virus (rpv) from the other closely related morbillivirus of ruminants, peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv). in addition, using lineage specific probes, it is possible to determine whether the virus sample is wild-type or vaccine, and the likely origin of the outbreak if it is wild-type. it involves carrying out a rt-pcr with one digoxygenin (dig)-labelled primer followed by a hybridisation step with a virus- ...200312445935
competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on monoclonal antibody and recombinant hemagglutinin for serosurveillance of rinderpest virus.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) which detects antibodies unique to rinderpest virus (rpv) has been developed. this test can differentiate antibodies against rpv and those against peste des petits ruminants virus. the recombinant rpv hemagglutinin (h)-protein c-elisa (rech c-elisa) is based on the ability of a well-characterized monoclonal antibody (mab) produced with the soluble, secreted form of the h protein (sec h protein) of rpv made in a baculovirus expression syst ...200312624013
expression of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus in transgenic tobacco and immunogenicity of plant-derived protein in a mouse model.the use of transgenic plants as a production system for recombinant subunit vaccines has been considered safe and economical compared to cell culture methods. we have exploited this approach to produce rinderpest virus hemagglutinin (h) protein in transgenic tobacco as a model plant for testing the immunogenicity of plant-derived hemagglutinin protein. the transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by molecular analysis such as gene specific pcr and southern hybridization using full-length h ...200312706071
[canine distemper virus--an agent looking for new hosts].canine distemper is caused by the canine distemper virus (cdv), a rna virus belonging to the genus morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae. the genus morbillivirus includes measles virus, rinderpest virus and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus. the host spectrum of cdv, which includes numerous families of carnivores, has been changed in the last years and distemper-like diseases have been observed in numerous other species. these include epidemics in large felids, marine mammals and javelinas. ...200312756952
expression of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus in transgenic pigeon pea [cajanus cajan (l.) millsp.] plants.rinderpest virus is the causative agent of a devastating, often fatal disease in wild and domestic bovids that is endemic in africa, the middle east and south asia. the existing live attenuated vaccine is heat-labile, and thus there is a need for the development of new strategies for vaccination. this paper reports the development of transgenic pigeon pea [ cajanus cajun (l.) millsp.] expressing one of the protective antigens, the hemagglutinin (h) protein of rinderpest virus. a 2-kb fragment co ...200312789415
use of participatory epidemiology in studies of the persistence of lineage 2 rinderpest virus in east 1994, rinderpest virus of african lineage 2 was detected in east africa after an apparent absence of more than 30 years. in 1996, a disease search, based on participatory epidemiological techniques supplemented by serological and virological analyses, was undertaken in southern somalia and north-eastern kenya to collate past and current epidemiological information about rinderpest-compatible disease events, and to test the hypothesis that african lineage 2 rinderpest virus persists in populat ...200312790233
oral immunization of cattle with hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed in transgenic peanut induces specific immune responses.rinderpest is an acute, highly contagious often fatal disease of large and small ruminants, both domestic and wild. global eradication of rinderpest needs a robust, safe and cost-effective vaccine. the causative agent, rinderpest virus (rpv) is an important member of the genus morbillivirus in the paramyxoviridae family. we have generated transgenic peanut (arachis hypogea l.) plants expressing hemagglutinin protein of rpv and report here, the induction of immune responses in cattle following or ...200312804859
characterization of antigenic sites on the rinderpest virus n protein using monoclonal antibodies.the n protein of the rinderpest virus (rpv) was analyzed topologically and antigenically by using anti-n monoclonal antibodies (mabs). ten mabs were raised against the n protein of the rpv. at least six non-overlapping antigenic sites (sites a-f) were delineated by competitive binding assays using biotinylated mabs. of them 5 sites (a, c, d, e and f) on the n protein were recognized by rpv-specific mabs in elisa and ifa while site b was recognized by mabs reacting with both rpv and pprv. non- re ...200312819366
the fusion core complex of the peste des petits ruminants virus is a six-helix bundle assembly.we describe the properties of the two heptad repeats (hr1 and hr2) of the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) fusion protein (f) to obtain insights into the mechanism by which these repeats influence pprv-mediated cell fusion. both hr1 and hr2 inhibit pprv-mediated syncytia formation in vero cells in vitro. of these, hr2 was found to be more effective than hr1. we studied the mechanism of fusion inhibition by these two repeats by using various biophysical and biochemical methods either separ ...200312549911
development of a reconstitution system for rinderpest virus rna synthesis in vitro.the rna dependent rna polymerase of rinderpest virus consists of two subunits-the large protein (l) and the phosphoprotein (p), where l is thought to be responsible for the catalytic activities in association with p protein which plays multiple roles in transcription and replication. the nucleocapsid protein (n) is necessary for encapsidation of genomic rna, which is required as n-p complex. to understand the different steps of transcription and replication as well as the roles played by the thr ...200414749178
effect of single amino acid mutations in the conserved gdnq motif of l protein of rinderpest virus on rna synthesis in vitro and in vivo.the paramyxovirus rna-dependent rna polymerase consists of two subunits, the transcription co-factor phosphoprotein p and the large protein l, which possesses all the catalytic functions such as rna synthesis (both transcription replication), methylation, capping and polyadenylation. the l protein has high sequence homology among the negative sense rna viruses. the domains and residues on the l protein involved in the above-mentioned activities are not well defined, although the role of conserve ...200414749179
vaccination for the control of peste des petits ruminants. 200415742621
development of a n gene-based pcr-elisa for detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus in clinical samples.a highly sensitive n gene-based pcr-elisa for the detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) was developed. the rt-pcr yielded a digoxigenin (dig)-labeled product of 336 bp comprising a sequence from pprv n gene, which was then detected by elisa. the assay could detect the viral rna in pprv-infected tissue culture fluids with a titer as low as 0.1 tcid(50)/ml. the assay is 10,000 times more sensitive than a classical rt-pcr combined with agarose gel electrophoresis. the assay could det ...200415745048
rinderpest virus rna polymerase subunits: mapping of mutual interacting domains on the large protein l and phosphoprotein p.the rna dependant rna polymerase of negative sense rna viruses is composed of two subunits - the large protein (l) and the phosphoprotein (p). these two proteins have to form a complex in order to carry out genome transcription and replication. employing the baculovirus expression system, we demonstrate here, the specific in vivo interaction between the l and p proteins of rinderpest virus and also the stabilization of l protein when it is present as l + p complex. the regions on either protein ...200414976416
detection of rinderpest virus using n-protein monoclonal antibodies.a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was generated against the rbok strain of rinderpest virus (rpv). all of them bound to the n protein of rpv. the antigen capture elisa using the mabs could detect the virus in crude viral preparations. the mab 12bf8.1.1 showed higher reactivity with cell-associated (ca) virus, whereas the mabs 12ad10.1.1, 12bd7.1.1 and 12dg7.1.1 showed higher reactivity with extracellular virus (hereafter referred to as cell-free (cf) virus). the mabs 12bf8.1.1 and 12ad10.1 ...200414979554
cellular casein kinase ii-mediated phosphorylation of rinderpest virus p protein is a prerequisite for its role in replication/transcription of the genome.phosphoprotein p of rinderpest virus (rpv), when expressed in e. coli, is present in the unphosphorylated form. bacterially expressed p protein was phosphorylated by a eukaryotic cellular extract, and casein kinase ii (ck ii) was identified as the cellular kinase involved in phosphorylation. in vitro phosphorylation of p-deletion mutants identified the n terminus as a phosphorylation domain. in vivo phosphorylation of single or multiple serine mutants of p protein identified serine residues at 4 ...200414993654
phosphoprotein of the rinderpest virus forms a tetramer through a coiled coil region important for biological function. a structural insight.phosphoprotein (p) of negative sense rna viruses functions as a transcriptional transactivator of the viral polymerase (l). we report here the characterization of oligomeric p protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) and provide a structural basis for its multimerization. by size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering analyses we show that bacterially expressed p protein exists as an oligomer, thus excluding the role of phosphorylation in p protein oligomerization. gel filtration analyse ...200415037604
rinderpest virus phosphoprotein gene is a major determinant of species-specific pathogenicity.we previously demonstrated that the rinderpest virus (rpv) hemagglutinin (h) protein plays an important role in determining host range but that other viral proteins are clearly required for full rpv pathogenicity to be manifest in different species. to examine the effects of the rpv nucleocapsid (n) protein and phosphoprotein (p) genes on rpv cross-species pathogenicity, we constructed two new recombinant viruses in which the h and p or the h, n, and p genes of the cattle-derived rpv rbok vaccin ...200415163758
systemic and oral immunogenicity of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed by transgenic peanut plants in a mouse model.rinderpest causes a devastating disease, often fatal, in wild and domestic ruminants. it has been eradicated successfully using a live, attenuated vaccine from most part of the world leaving a few foci of disease in parts of africa, the middle east, and south asia. we have developed transgenic peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) plants expressing hemagglutinin (h) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv), which is antigenically authentic. in this work, we have evaluated the immunogenicity of peanut-expressed ...200415193924
pathological and immunohistochemical study of experimental peste des petits ruminants virus infection in goats.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an emerging, economically important viral disease of goats and sheep in the indian subcontinent. in the present investigation, 15 hill goats were experimentally infected with 2 ml of 10% splenic suspension of a virulent isolate of ppr virus (ppr/izatnagar/94) that had caused heavy mortality (>75%) in goats during 1994 outbreaks in northern india. more than 86% (13 of 15) animals died between 9 and 13 days post inoculation at the height of temperature or when t ...200415228548
characterization of immunodominant linear b-cell epitopes on the carboxy terminus of the rinderpest virus nucleocapsid protein.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) is one of the most abundant and immunogenic viral proteins expressed during natural or experimental infection. to identify immunogenic epitopes on the n protein, different forms of rpv n protein, including the full-length protein (n(1-525)), an amino-terminal construct (n(1-179)), and a carboxy-terminal construct (n(414-496)), were expressed in escherichia coli as glutathione s-transferase (gst) fusion proteins. the antigenicity of each reco ...200415242937
leader rna of rinderpest virus binds specifically with cellular la protein: a possible role in virus replication.rinderpest virus (rpv) is an important member of the morbillivirus genus in the family paramyxoviridae and employs a similar strategy for transcription and replication of its genome as that of other negative sense rna viruses. cellular proteins have earlier been shown to stimulate viral rna synthesis by isolated nucleocapsids from purified virus or from virus-infected cells. in the present work, we show that plus sense leader rna of rpv, transcribed from 3' end of genomic rna, specifically inter ...200415246647
phosphoprotein p of rinderpest virus binds to plus sense leader rna: regulation by phosphorylation.the negative sense genome rna of rinderpest virus, a paramyxoviridae, is encapsidated with the nucleocapsid protein n and serves as a template for the viral rna dependent rna polymerase for transcription and replication. the viral rna polymerase consists of the large protein l and the phosphoprotein p functioning as the p-l complex. we provide in this report, evidences for specific binding of p protein of rinderpest virus to the plus sense leader rna depending on its phosphorylation status. we h ...200415246656
cytotoxic t cell epitope in cattle from the attachment glycoproteins of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses.the surface glycoproteins of rinderpest virus (rpv) confer protective immunity in cattle. we demonstrated that cattle immunized with a recombinant extracellular baculovirus expressing the hemagglutinin (h) protein of rpv (recv-h) generate virus neutralizing antibody responses, bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) class ii restricted helper t cell responses and bola class i restricted cytotoxic t cell (ctl) responses against rpv-h and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) glycoprotein of closely related pe ...200415357906
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an acute, febrile viral disease of small ruminants, caused by a virus of the genus morbillivirus. ppr and rinderpest viruses are antigenically related and need to be differentiated serologically. in the present study, 23 mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced by polyethyleneglycol (peg)-mediated fusion of sensitized lymphocytes and myeloma cells. among these, two belong to the igm class and the remaining 21 to various subclasses of igg. the mabs from the ig ...200415563110
ex-ante economic analysis of animal disease surveillance.this paper provides an ex-ante economic analysis comparing four alternative intervention strategies for the control and eradication of rinderpest against a scenario of no intervention in a cattle population similar in size to that of ethiopia. the interventions were three different coverage levels of mass vaccination and one surveillance-based programme where vaccination targeted infected sub-populations. for each scenario, the disease impact was estimated using an open-population, state-transit ...200415861869
an assembly model of rice dwarf virus particle.the phytoreovirus rice dwarf virus (rdv) has a complex nucleocapsid architecture composed of multiple proteins and rnas. however, specific rna-protein and protein-protein interactions involved in virion packaging have not been entirely elucidated. in order to define mechanisms governing rdv particle assembly, interactions between individual components were analyzed both in vivo and in vitro. the p7 core protein binds specifically and with high affinity to all 12 genomic rdv dsrnas. p1, a putativ ...200415382681
rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment s6-encoded nonstructural protein has a cell-to-cell movement function.rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a member of the genus phytoreovirus, which is composed of viruses with segmented double-stranded rna genomes. proteins that support the intercellular movement of these viruses in the host have not been identified. microprojectile bombardment was used to determine which open reading frames (orfs) support intercellular movement of a heterologous virus. a plasmid containing an infectious clone of potato virus x (pvx) defective in cell-to-cell movement and expressing either ...200415113917
identification of an rna silencing suppressor from a plant double-stranded rna virus.rna silencing is a mechanism which higher plants and animals have evolved to defend against viral infection in addition to regulation of gene expression for growth and development. as a counterdefense, many plant and some animal viruses studied to date encode rna silencing suppressors (rss) that interfere with various steps of the silencing pathway. in this study, we report the first identification of an rss from a plant double-stranded rna (dsrna) virus. pns10, encoded by s10 of rice dwarf phyt ...200516189004
location of, immunogenicity of and relationships between neutralization epitopes on the attachment protein (g) of hendra virus.epitopes involved in a protective immune response to hendra virus (hev) (henipavirus, paramxyoviridae) were investigated by generating five neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the virus attachment protein (g) of hev (hev g) and sequencing of the g gene of groups of neutralization-escape variants selected with each mab. amino acid substitutions occurred at eight distinct sites on hev g. relationships between these sites were investigated in binding and neutralization assays using heterol ...200516186240
recombinant dna technology for producing new rinderpest virus vaccines.with few exceptions, vaccination aims to control rather than eliminate or eradicate disease. the eradication of smallpox in the 1970s led to two other human diseases, polio and measles, being targeted for eradication by the world health organization. in general, animal diseases are ignored by the public, however, recent targeting of the rinderpest virus, the agent of cattle plague, has put this virus on the verge of global extinction. for centuries, this virus was responsible for major cattle pl ...200515757478
rna-binding domain of the key structural protein p7 for the rice dwarf virus particle assembly.the rice dwarf virus (rdv) p7 structural protein is the key protein in the rdv particle assembly. the p7 protein was digested partially or completely by staphylococcus aureus v8 protease and/or pseudomonas fragi asp-n protease. the molecular mass and the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the polypeptide fragments of the p7 protein were determined by sds-page and the edman degradation method, respectively. then the polypeptides were located in the deduced amino acid sequence of the rdv p7 protein ...200515645082
a model of lineage-1 and lineage-2 rinderpest virus transmission in pastoral areas of east africa.the development of a stochastic, state-transition model of rinderpest transmission dynamics is described using parameter estimates obtained from both laboratory and participatory research. using serological data, the basic reproduction numbers for lineage-1 rinderpest virus in southern sudan and for lineage-2 rinderpest virus in somali livestock were estimated as 4.4 and between 1.2 and 1.9, respectively. the model predictions for the inter-epidemic period in sudan and somalia (1.2 and 4.2 years ...200515907573
wild-type rinderpest virus uses slam (cd150) as its receptor.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a morbillivirus, related closely to the human pathogen measles virus (mv). although cell culture-adapted strains of rpv can infect many kinds of cell from different hosts, one such strain has previously been shown to have a detectable preference for cells expressing the mv receptor cd150 (slam), a protein found only on certain types of activated t cells, b cells and dendritic cells. here, it is shown that the wild-type, virulent parent of the most common vaccine strain ...200515914854
evaluation of novel diagnostic tools for peste des petits ruminants virus in naturally infected goat herds.a survey was carried out in two goat herds during a single peste des petits ruminant (ppr) outbreak. clinical examination showed that animals belonging to the west african dwarf species had severe symptoms while those belonging to the west african long-legged species had mild symptoms. to confirm and to monitor the disease in each species, the study required specific monoclonal antibody-based diagnostic tools. an association of shedding of ppr virus (pprv) and acute or mild clinical signs of the ...200516050518
rational attenuation of a morbillivirus by modulating the activity of the rna-dependent rna polymerase.negative-strand rna viruses encode a single rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) which transcribes and replicates the genome. the open reading frame encoding the rdrp from a virulent wild-type strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) was inserted into an expression plasmid. sequences encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) were inserted into a variable hinge of the rdrp. the resulting polymerase was autofluorescent, and its activity in the replication/transcription of a synthetic minigenome wa ...200516254367
inhibition of host peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation ex vivo by rinderpest virus.rinderpest, or cattle plague, is caused by rinderpest virus (rpv), which is related most closely to human measles virus (mv), both being members of the genus morbillivirus, a group of viruses known to have strong immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo. here, it was shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) isolated from cattle experimentally infected with either wild-type or vaccine strains of rpv impaired the proliferation of pbmcs derived from uninfected animals; however, i ...200516298981
the rice dwarf virus p2 protein interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases in vivo, leading to reduced biosynthesis of gibberellins and rice dwarf symptoms.the mechanisms of viral diseases are a major focus of biology. despite intensive investigations, how a plant virus interacts with host factors to cause diseases remains poorly understood. the rice dwarf virus (rdv), a member of the genus phytoreovirus, causes dwarfed growth phenotypes in infected rice (oryza sativa) plants. the outer capsid protein p2 is essential during rdv infection of insects and thus influences transmission of rdv by the insect vector. however, its role during rdv infection ...200516299167
surveillance of wildlife as a tool for monitoring rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants in west africa.the authors provide a report on the surveillance of rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) in the wildlife population in côte d'ivoire. for this purpose, 266 animals from nine different species, selected according to susceptibility and abundance, were captured and sampled from comoé, marahoué and lamto parks. two hundred and forty seven sera and 214 nasal swabs were collected and analysed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) and reverse-transcript ...200516642757
transcapsidation and the conserved interactions of two major structural proteins of a pair of phytoreoviruses confirm the mechanism of assembly of the outer capsid layer.the strongly conserved amino acid sequences of the p8 outer capsid proteins of rice dwarf virus (rdv) and rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) and the distribution of electrostatic potential on the proteins at the interfaces between structural proteins suggested the possibility that p8-trimers of rgdv might bind to the 3-fold symmetrical axes of rdv core particles, with vertical interaction between heterologous p3 and p8 proteins and lateral binding of homologous p8 proteins, thereby allowing formation ...200515571717
antigenic and immunogenic investigation of b-cell epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein of peste des petits ruminants virus.attempts were made to identify and map epitopes on the nucleocapsid (n) protein of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) (nigeria75/1 strain) using seven monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and deletion mutants. at least four antigenic domains (a-i, a-ii, c-i, and c-ii) were identified using the mabs. domains a-i (mab 33-4) and a-ii (mabs 38-4, p-3h12, and p-13a9) were determined to be located on the amino-terminal half (amino acids [aa] 1 to 262), and domains c-i (p-14c6) and c-ii (p-9h10 and p-11a6 ...200515642994
the polymerase (l) protein of rinderpest virus interacts with the host cell protein striatin.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a morbillivirus that causes a highly contagious disease affecting members of the order artiodactyla. the viral l protein is the catalytic subunit of the rna-dependent rna polymerase. to search for host cell proteins with which l interacts, a library screen was performed using the yeast two-hybrid system. several host cell proteins were recovered from the library screen as putative l-interactors; one of these was identified as striatin. a direct interaction between rpv l ...200515661155
'rescue' of mini-genomic constructs and viruses by combinations of morbillivirus n, p and l proteins.chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat)-expressing negative-sense mini-genomic constructs of measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were rescued by standard technology with helper plasmids expressing the nucleocapsid (n), phospho- (p) and large (l) proteins of mv, canine distemper virus (cdv) or rpv in order to determine whether the proteins of different viruses can function together. homogeneous sets consisting of n, p and l plasmids derived from one virus were able to generate reporter ...200515784901
a role for virus promoters in determining the pathogenesis of rinderpest virus in cattle.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a morbillivirus that causes cattle plague, a disease of large ruminants. the viral genome is flanked at the 3' and 5' genome termini by the genome promoter (gp) and antigenome promoter (agp), respectively. these promoters play essential roles in directing replication and transcription as well as rna encapsidation and packaging. it has previously been shown that individual changes to the gp of rpv greatly affect promoter activity in a minigenome assay and it was therefor ...200515784902
the plowright vaccine strain of rinderpest virus has attenuating mutations in most genes.the currently used vaccine strain of rinderpest virus was derived by serial passage of the highly virulent kabete 'o' strain (ko). a full-length cdna copy of the ko strain was made from which a virus identical in pathogenicity to the wild-type virus was rescued. a series of chimeric viruses was prepared in which the coding sequences for the n, p, f, h or l proteins were replaced with the corresponding sequences from the vaccine strain. the ko-based virus with the vaccine strain h gene and that w ...200515784903
rapid competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to peste des petits ruminants virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants that is of economic importance in africa, the middle east, and asia. we developed a rapid competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rapid c-elisa) for the diagnosis and surveillance of ppr. this assay detects ppr virus (pprv) antibodies in serum samples by quantifying the amount of monoclonal antibody (mab) p-3h12 after 30 min of incubation of a serum-mab conjugate mixture on plates coated with a pprv recombin ...200515817764
serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia and the united arab emirates.a total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) distributed in saudi arabia (sa) and the united arab emirates (uae) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine adenovirus 3 (bav-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disea ...200515827212
full genome sequence of peste des petits ruminants virus, a member of the morbillivirus genus.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) causes an acute febrile illness in small ruminant species, mostly sheep and goats. pprv is a member of the morbillivirus genus which includes measles, rinderpest (cattle plague), canine distemper, phocine distemper and the morbilliviruses found in whales, porpoises and dolphins. full length genome sequences for these morbilliviruses are available and reverse genetic rescue systems have been developed for the viruses of terrestrial mammals, with the excepti ...200515845262
morbilliviral infection in a pygmy sperm whale (kogia breviceps) from taiwanese waters.morbilliviral infection was diagnosed in an adult male pygmy sperm whale (kogia breviceps) from southwestern taiwan on the basis of pathological findings, immunohistochemical staining, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. the whale was found alive stranded on the beach and died after 5 days of medical care. it was thin and had dozens of nematode in the first stomach. the lungs were dark red and heavy. histopathological examination revealed diffuse, moderate bronchointerstitial pn ...200616644147
characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against the canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein.we have established four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the nucleocapsid protein (np) of canine distemper virus (cdv). a competitive binding assay has revealed that the mabs are directed against two antigenic domains. an immunofluorescence assay using a series of deletion clones of the np and an immunoprecipitation assay using the np have revealed that two of the mabs recognize the c-terminal region of the np while the other two recognize the tertiary structure of the n-terminal domain. th ...200616697903
morbillivirus nucleoprotein possesses a novel nuclear localization signal and a crm1-independent nuclear export signal.morbilliviruses, which belong to the mononegavirales, replicate its rna genome in the cytoplasm of the host cell. however, they also form characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies, consisting of nucleoprotein (n), in infected cells. to analyze the mechanisms of nucleocytoplasmic transport of n protein, we characterized the nuclear localization (nls) and nuclear export (nes) signals of canine distemper virus (cdv) n protein by deletion mutation and alanine substitution of the protein. the nls ...200616716375
interference in the vaccination of cattle against rinderpest virus by antibodies against peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus.the ability of the attenuated vaccine 75/1 of peste des petits ruminants to interfere with rinderpest vaccination in cattle was investigated experimentally. young cattle (93) were selected and tested as being negative for antibodies against rp or ppr viruses. these were vaccinated with the peste des petits ruminants attenuated vaccine strain ppr75/1. all animals produced specific antibodies against the peste des petits ruminants vaccine after one or two doses. the cattle were then vaccinated wit ...200616757064
matrix protein and glycoproteins f and h of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus function better as a homologous complex.the matrix (m) protein of paramyxoviruses forms an inner coat to the viral envelope and serves as a bridge between the surface glycoproteins (f and h) and the ribonucleoprotein core. previously, a marker vaccine (rpv-pprfh) was produced for the control of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease, where the f and h genes of rinderpest virus (rpv) were replaced with the equivalent genes from peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv); however, this virus grew poorly in tissue culture. the poor growth ...200616760405
immunomodulatory properties of morbillivirus nucleoproteins.morbillivirus infections have been known for a long time to be associated with an acute immunosuppression in their natural hosts. here, we show that recombinant morbillivirus nucleoproteins from canine distemper virus, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus, and rinderpest virus bind b-lymphocytes from dogs, goats, and cattle, respectively, similarly to measles virus nucleoprotein in humans. the use of surface plasmon resonance imaging allowed the real time detection of differential interactions betwe ...200616817775
one-step multiplex rt-pcr assay for the detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in clinical samples.a single-tube one-step multiplex rt-pcr was standardized to amplify both 337 bp and 191 bp fragments of n and m genes of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), respectively, and only a 337 bp fragment of n gene of rinderpest virus (rpv). the rt-pcr using purified viral rna was easily adopted for direct detection of pprv in clinical field samples and its differentiation from rpv. the amplified n and m gene products were confirmed to be pprv- and rpv-specific by their size in 1.5% agarose gel an ...200616838207
rinderpest virus blocks type i and type ii interferon action: role of structural and nonstructural proteins.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a paramyxovirus closely related to the human pathogen measles virus. it causes severe disease in cattle, buffalo, and some wild animals; although it can infect humans, it does not cause disease. here, we demonstrate that rpv blocks the action of both type i (alpha) and type ii (gamma) interferons (ifns) by blocking the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat1 and stat2 and that this block is not related to species specificity. in addition, both wild-type virul ...200616840335
identification of t-helper and linear b epitope in the hypervariable region of nucleocapsid protein of pprv and its use in the development of specific antibodies to detect viral antigen.peste des petits ruminants is a highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants making its diagnosis difficult from the similar symptoms of rinderpest. computer based prediction algorithms was applied to identify antigenic determinants on the nucleocapsid (n) protein of pprv. specificity and antigenicity of each peptide was evaluated by solid phase elisa. six specific peptide sequences were evaluated in multiple antigenic peptide (map) form and immune response was evaluated by supplementing u ...200616962260
measles virus: cellular receptors, tropism and pathogenesis.measles virus (mv), a member of the genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae, is an enveloped virus with a non-segmented, negative-strand rna genome. it has two envelope glycoproteins, the haemagglutinin (h) and fusion proteins, which are responsible for attachment and membrane fusion, respectively. human signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam; also called cd150), a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, acts as a cellular receptor for mv. slam is expressed on ...200616963735
control of peste des petits ruminants and poverty alleviation?peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a contagious and often fatal viral disease of sheep and goats and also wild small ruminants. the ppr virus is distinct from but closely related to rinderpest virus and both belong to the morbivillivirus genus within the family paramyxoviridae. ppr is a contagious transboundary disease with a significant impact on rural poor farmers. its control should therefore be considered in programs that aim at alleviating poverty in developing countries.200617123358
the m and n genes-based simplex and multiplex pcrs are better than the f or h gene-based simplex pcr for peste-des-petits-ruminants virus.nucleocapsid (n), matrix (m) and hemagglutinin (h) genes-based simplex pcrs and an n and m genes-based multiplex pcr were developed for detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv). the m gene pcr was the most sensitive, followed by n, h and an already described fusion (f) gene pcrs, as they could detect the virus in samples with titers of 101, 102, 104and 105 tcid50/ml, respectively. the multiplex pcr was as sensitive as the m gene pcr, but it had the advantage of differentiating pprv f ...200617177605
importance of the extracellular and cytoplasmic/transmembrane domains of the haemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus for recovery of viable virus from cdna copies.a specific interaction between the f and h proteins is required to enable fusion of the virus and host cell membranes and in some cases these proteins are not interchangeable between related viruses of the family paramyxoviridae. for example, the f and h proteins of two ruminant morbilliviruses, rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv), are not interchangeable since viable virus could not be rescued from cdna constructs where an individual glycoprotein gene of rpv was r ...200616343677
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