transmission of lapinized rinderpest virus by contact between rabbits. 196113909928
the inactivation of rinderpest virus by beta-propiolactone and its effect on homologous complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies. 196113917476
studies in tissue culture on ph-stability of rinderpest virus. 196313930574
rinderpest virus. 196213944098
adverse reactions in cattle after vaccination with lapinized rinderpest virus. 196313992530
electron microscopy of rinderpest virus in bovine kidney tissue culture cells. 196314015170
the propagation and growth characteristics of rinderpest virus in hela cells. 196314093840
histochemical studies on rabbits infected with lapinized rinderpest virus: ileum in the region of peyer's patches. 196414125932
[fluorescence serologic studies on cell cultures after infection with rinderpest virus. with a contribution to the problem of a group specific seroreaction between measles virus and rinderpest antibody]. 196314166423
the growth of virulent and attenuated strains of rinderpest virus in primary calf kidney cells. 196414184620
serological evidence for the susceptibility of the hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius linnaeus) to natural infection with rinderpest virus. 196414210780
segregation of an avirulent variant of rinderpest virus by the terminal dilution technique in tissue culture. 196414210798
analysis of rinderpest virus antigen. i. results of the diffusion precipitation test in agar-gel. 196414251569
studies on the hematology of rabbits infected with lapinized and caprinized strains of rinderpest virus. 196514284442
observations on post-vaccinal sequelae to rinderpest vaccination using caprinised vaccine, on cattle in tanganyika masailand. 196514286150
studies on the pathogenesis of rinderpest in experimental cattle. 3. proliferation of an attenuated strain in various tissues following subcutaneous inoculation. 196514311094
ph and thermal stability of rinderpest virus. 196414314775
histochemical study of alkaline phosphatase and glycogen in the liver of rabbits infected with lapinized rinderpest virus. 196514317476
methods of determining immunity, duration and character of immunity resulting from measles. 196514322862
tissue changes in goats used for rinderpest vaccine production. 196514338096
effect of caprinized rinderpest virus in rabbits. 195914444218
the morphology of rinderpest virus. 196214487243
studies with rinderpest virus in tissue culture. iii. the stability of cultured virus and its use in virus neutralization tests. 196214487244
monoclonal antibody-based competitive elisa for simultaneous detection of rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus experimental competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (morbillivirus celisa) using a recombinant n antigen (rrpv n) expressed in a baculovirus and a ruminant morbillivirus (rpv and pprv)-specific monoclonal antibody (p-13a9) was developed for simultaneous detection of rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) antibodies and its diagnostic performance was evaluated. a set of known reference antisera against rpv and pprv belonging to different lineages, experimenta ...200314516703
the atomic structure of rice dwarf virus reveals the self-assembly mechanism of component proteins.rice dwarf virus (rdv), the causal agent of rice dwarf disease, is a member of the genus phytoreovirus in the family reoviridae. rdv is a double-shelled virus with a molecular mass of approximately 70 million dalton. this virus is widely prevalent and is one of the viruses that cause the most economic damage in many asian countries. the atomic structure of rdv was determined at 3.5 a resolution by x-ray crystallography. the double-shelled structure consists of two different proteins, the core pr ...200314527391
a minor outer capsid protein, p9, of rice dwarf virus.partial amino acid sequence of a minor 30 kda polypeptide in purified rice dwarf virus (rdv) was identical to the deduced amino acid sequence encoded by the dsrna segment s9 of the virus. this polypeptide was specifically detected by western blotting analysis with antibodies raised against the product of s9 expressed in a baculovirus system. treatment of purified rdv particles with a relatively higher concentration of mgcl2 removed the polypeptide from core particles together with other outer ca ...200314579184
localization of antigenic sites at the amino-terminus of rinderpest virus n protein using deleted n mutants and monoclonal antibody.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) is highly conserved, immunogenic, and abundantly expressed during infection. six antigenic sites (sites a, b, c, d, e and f), defined previously by a competitive binding assay using corresponding monoclonal antibodies (mabs), have been further localized by immunoassays using deleted n mutants. five different forms of rpv n protein, containing residues aa 1-79, aa 1-149, aa 1-421, aa 414-525 and aa 1-525, were expressed as glutathione s trans ...200314610371
baculovirus display of fusion protein of peste des petits ruminants virus and hemagglutination protein of rinderpest virus and immunogenicity of the displayed proteins in mouse model.recombinant bombyx mori nucleopolyhedroviruses (bmnpv) displaying the immunodominant ectodomains of fusion glycoprotein (f) of peste des petitis ruminants virus (pprv) and the hemagglutinin protein (h) of rinderpest virus (rpv), on the budded virions as well as the surface of the infected host cells have been constructed. the f and h protein sequences were inserted in-frame within the amino-terminal region of bmnpv envelope glycoprotein gp64 expressing under the strong viral polyhedrin (polh) pr ...200314675623
development of new generation rinderpest vaccines.veterinary science has benefited much from the advances in biotechnology during the past 20 years. new and improved diagnostic techniques for infectious diseases have been developed and new and highly effective vaccines to prevent such diseases have been introduced and more have been, or are about to be, field-tested. the latest development in negative strand virology, reverse genetics, the ability to rescue live virus from a dna copy of the rna genome, is being used to address questions concern ...200314677680
inexpensive vaccines and rapid diagnostic kits tailor-made for the global eradication of rinderpest, and technology transfer to africa and asia.rinderpest is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of ruminants, often resulting in greater than 90% mortality. we previously reported the development of first- and second-generation recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines which provide complete protection against rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste-des-petits ruminants virus (pprv). these vaccines are safe even for immunodeficient mice and macaques with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. we developed a third-generation recombinant vaccinia vi ...200314677681
development of a reconstitution system for rinderpest virus rna synthesis in vitro.the rna dependent rna polymerase of rinderpest virus consists of two subunits-the large protein (l) and the phosphoprotein (p), where l is thought to be responsible for the catalytic activities in association with p protein which plays multiple roles in transcription and replication. the nucleocapsid protein (n) is necessary for encapsidation of genomic rna, which is required as n-p complex. to understand the different steps of transcription and replication as well as the roles played by the thr ...200414749178
effect of single amino acid mutations in the conserved gdnq motif of l protein of rinderpest virus on rna synthesis in vitro and in vivo.the paramyxovirus rna-dependent rna polymerase consists of two subunits, the transcription co-factor phosphoprotein p and the large protein l, which possesses all the catalytic functions such as rna synthesis (both transcription replication), methylation, capping and polyadenylation. the l protein has high sequence homology among the negative sense rna viruses. the domains and residues on the l protein involved in the above-mentioned activities are not well defined, although the role of conserve ...200414749179
the utilisation of pigs for the production of lapinised rinderpest virus. 195014792098
reactions in cattle after vaccination with lapinised rinderpest virus. 195114836306
lapinised rinderpest virus and a vaccine: some observations in east africa. i. laboratory experiments. 195114888730
lapinised rinderpest virus and a vaccine: some observations in east africa. ii. field trials with lapinised vaccine. 195114888731
rinderpest virus rna polymerase subunits: mapping of mutual interacting domains on the large protein l and phosphoprotein p.the rna dependant rna polymerase of negative sense rna viruses is composed of two subunits - the large protein (l) and the phosphoprotein (p). these two proteins have to form a complex in order to carry out genome transcription and replication. employing the baculovirus expression system, we demonstrate here, the specific in vivo interaction between the l and p proteins of rinderpest virus and also the stabilization of l protein when it is present as l + p complex. the regions on either protein ...200414976416
detection of rinderpest virus using n-protein monoclonal antibodies.a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was generated against the rbok strain of rinderpest virus (rpv). all of them bound to the n protein of rpv. the antigen capture elisa using the mabs could detect the virus in crude viral preparations. the mab 12bf8.1.1 showed higher reactivity with cell-associated (ca) virus, whereas the mabs 12ad10.1.1, 12bd7.1.1 and 12dg7.1.1 showed higher reactivity with extracellular virus (hereafter referred to as cell-free (cf) virus). the mabs 12bf8.1.1 and 12ad10.1 ...200414979554
cellular casein kinase ii-mediated phosphorylation of rinderpest virus p protein is a prerequisite for its role in replication/transcription of the genome.phosphoprotein p of rinderpest virus (rpv), when expressed in e. coli, is present in the unphosphorylated form. bacterially expressed p protein was phosphorylated by a eukaryotic cellular extract, and casein kinase ii (ck ii) was identified as the cellular kinase involved in phosphorylation. in vitro phosphorylation of p-deletion mutants identified the n terminus as a phosphorylation domain. in vivo phosphorylation of single or multiple serine mutants of p protein identified serine residues at 4 ...200414993654
phosphoprotein of the rinderpest virus forms a tetramer through a coiled coil region important for biological function. a structural insight.phosphoprotein (p) of negative sense rna viruses functions as a transcriptional transactivator of the viral polymerase (l). we report here the characterization of oligomeric p protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) and provide a structural basis for its multimerization. by size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering analyses we show that bacterially expressed p protein exists as an oligomer, thus excluding the role of phosphorylation in p protein oligomerization. gel filtration analyse ...200415037604
rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment s6-encoded nonstructural protein has a cell-to-cell movement function.rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a member of the genus phytoreovirus, which is composed of viruses with segmented double-stranded rna genomes. proteins that support the intercellular movement of these viruses in the host have not been identified. microprojectile bombardment was used to determine which open reading frames (orfs) support intercellular movement of a heterologous virus. a plasmid containing an infectious clone of potato virus x (pvx) defective in cell-to-cell movement and expressing either ...200415113917
rinderpest virus phosphoprotein gene is a major determinant of species-specific pathogenicity.we previously demonstrated that the rinderpest virus (rpv) hemagglutinin (h) protein plays an important role in determining host range but that other viral proteins are clearly required for full rpv pathogenicity to be manifest in different species. to examine the effects of the rpv nucleocapsid (n) protein and phosphoprotein (p) genes on rpv cross-species pathogenicity, we constructed two new recombinant viruses in which the h and p or the h, n, and p genes of the cattle-derived rpv rbok vaccin ...200415163758
systemic and oral immunogenicity of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed by transgenic peanut plants in a mouse model.rinderpest causes a devastating disease, often fatal, in wild and domestic ruminants. it has been eradicated successfully using a live, attenuated vaccine from most part of the world leaving a few foci of disease in parts of africa, the middle east, and south asia. we have developed transgenic peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) plants expressing hemagglutinin (h) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv), which is antigenically authentic. in this work, we have evaluated the immunogenicity of peanut-expressed ...200415193924
pathological and immunohistochemical study of experimental peste des petits ruminants virus infection in goats.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an emerging, economically important viral disease of goats and sheep in the indian subcontinent. in the present investigation, 15 hill goats were experimentally infected with 2 ml of 10% splenic suspension of a virulent isolate of ppr virus (ppr/izatnagar/94) that had caused heavy mortality (>75%) in goats during 1994 outbreaks in northern india. more than 86% (13 of 15) animals died between 9 and 13 days post inoculation at the height of temperature or when t ...200415228548
characterization of immunodominant linear b-cell epitopes on the carboxy terminus of the rinderpest virus nucleocapsid protein.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) is one of the most abundant and immunogenic viral proteins expressed during natural or experimental infection. to identify immunogenic epitopes on the n protein, different forms of rpv n protein, including the full-length protein (n(1-525)), an amino-terminal construct (n(1-179)), and a carboxy-terminal construct (n(414-496)), were expressed in escherichia coli as glutathione s-transferase (gst) fusion proteins. the antigenicity of each reco ...200415242937
leader rna of rinderpest virus binds specifically with cellular la protein: a possible role in virus replication.rinderpest virus (rpv) is an important member of the morbillivirus genus in the family paramyxoviridae and employs a similar strategy for transcription and replication of its genome as that of other negative sense rna viruses. cellular proteins have earlier been shown to stimulate viral rna synthesis by isolated nucleocapsids from purified virus or from virus-infected cells. in the present work, we show that plus sense leader rna of rpv, transcribed from 3' end of genomic rna, specifically inter ...200415246647
phosphoprotein p of rinderpest virus binds to plus sense leader rna: regulation by phosphorylation.the negative sense genome rna of rinderpest virus, a paramyxoviridae, is encapsidated with the nucleocapsid protein n and serves as a template for the viral rna dependent rna polymerase for transcription and replication. the viral rna polymerase consists of the large protein l and the phosphoprotein p functioning as the p-l complex. we provide in this report, evidences for specific binding of p protein of rinderpest virus to the plus sense leader rna depending on its phosphorylation status. we h ...200415246656
cytotoxic t cell epitope in cattle from the attachment glycoproteins of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses.the surface glycoproteins of rinderpest virus (rpv) confer protective immunity in cattle. we demonstrated that cattle immunized with a recombinant extracellular baculovirus expressing the hemagglutinin (h) protein of rpv (recv-h) generate virus neutralizing antibody responses, bovine leukocyte antigen (bola) class ii restricted helper t cell responses and bola class i restricted cytotoxic t cell (ctl) responses against rpv-h and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) glycoprotein of closely related pe ...200415357906
an assembly model of rice dwarf virus particle.the phytoreovirus rice dwarf virus (rdv) has a complex nucleocapsid architecture composed of multiple proteins and rnas. however, specific rna-protein and protein-protein interactions involved in virion packaging have not been entirely elucidated. in order to define mechanisms governing rdv particle assembly, interactions between individual components were analyzed both in vivo and in vitro. the p7 core protein binds specifically and with high affinity to all 12 genomic rdv dsrnas. p1, a putativ ...200415382681
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an acute, febrile viral disease of small ruminants, caused by a virus of the genus morbillivirus. ppr and rinderpest viruses are antigenically related and need to be differentiated serologically. in the present study, 23 mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced by polyethyleneglycol (peg)-mediated fusion of sensitized lymphocytes and myeloma cells. among these, two belong to the igm class and the remaining 21 to various subclasses of igg. the mabs from the ig ...200415563110
transcapsidation and the conserved interactions of two major structural proteins of a pair of phytoreoviruses confirm the mechanism of assembly of the outer capsid layer.the strongly conserved amino acid sequences of the p8 outer capsid proteins of rice dwarf virus (rdv) and rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) and the distribution of electrostatic potential on the proteins at the interfaces between structural proteins suggested the possibility that p8-trimers of rgdv might bind to the 3-fold symmetrical axes of rdv core particles, with vertical interaction between heterologous p3 and p8 proteins and lateral binding of homologous p8 proteins, thereby allowing formation ...200515571717
antigenic and immunogenic investigation of b-cell epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein of peste des petits ruminants virus.attempts were made to identify and map epitopes on the nucleocapsid (n) protein of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) (nigeria75/1 strain) using seven monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and deletion mutants. at least four antigenic domains (a-i, a-ii, c-i, and c-ii) were identified using the mabs. domains a-i (mab 33-4) and a-ii (mabs 38-4, p-3h12, and p-13a9) were determined to be located on the amino-terminal half (amino acids [aa] 1 to 262), and domains c-i (p-14c6) and c-ii (p-9h10 and p-11a6 ...200515642994
rna-binding domain of the key structural protein p7 for the rice dwarf virus particle assembly.the rice dwarf virus (rdv) p7 structural protein is the key protein in the rdv particle assembly. the p7 protein was digested partially or completely by staphylococcus aureus v8 protease and/or pseudomonas fragi asp-n protease. the molecular mass and the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the polypeptide fragments of the p7 protein were determined by sds-page and the edman degradation method, respectively. then the polypeptides were located in the deduced amino acid sequence of the rdv p7 protein ...200515645082
the polymerase (l) protein of rinderpest virus interacts with the host cell protein striatin.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a morbillivirus that causes a highly contagious disease affecting members of the order artiodactyla. the viral l protein is the catalytic subunit of the rna-dependent rna polymerase. to search for host cell proteins with which l interacts, a library screen was performed using the yeast two-hybrid system. several host cell proteins were recovered from the library screen as putative l-interactors; one of these was identified as striatin. a direct interaction between rpv l ...200515661155
vaccination for the control of peste des petits ruminants. 200415742621
development of a n gene-based pcr-elisa for detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus in clinical samples.a highly sensitive n gene-based pcr-elisa for the detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) was developed. the rt-pcr yielded a digoxigenin (dig)-labeled product of 336 bp comprising a sequence from pprv n gene, which was then detected by elisa. the assay could detect the viral rna in pprv-infected tissue culture fluids with a titer as low as 0.1 tcid(50)/ml. the assay is 10,000 times more sensitive than a classical rt-pcr combined with agarose gel electrophoresis. the assay could det ...200415745048
recombinant dna technology for producing new rinderpest virus vaccines.with few exceptions, vaccination aims to control rather than eliminate or eradicate disease. the eradication of smallpox in the 1970s led to two other human diseases, polio and measles, being targeted for eradication by the world health organization. in general, animal diseases are ignored by the public, however, recent targeting of the rinderpest virus, the agent of cattle plague, has put this virus on the verge of global extinction. for centuries, this virus was responsible for major cattle pl ...200515757478
'rescue' of mini-genomic constructs and viruses by combinations of morbillivirus n, p and l proteins.chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat)-expressing negative-sense mini-genomic constructs of measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were rescued by standard technology with helper plasmids expressing the nucleocapsid (n), phospho- (p) and large (l) proteins of mv, canine distemper virus (cdv) or rpv in order to determine whether the proteins of different viruses can function together. homogeneous sets consisting of n, p and l plasmids derived from one virus were able to generate reporter ...200515784901
a role for virus promoters in determining the pathogenesis of rinderpest virus in cattle.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a morbillivirus that causes cattle plague, a disease of large ruminants. the viral genome is flanked at the 3' and 5' genome termini by the genome promoter (gp) and antigenome promoter (agp), respectively. these promoters play essential roles in directing replication and transcription as well as rna encapsidation and packaging. it has previously been shown that individual changes to the gp of rpv greatly affect promoter activity in a minigenome assay and it was therefor ...200515784902
the plowright vaccine strain of rinderpest virus has attenuating mutations in most genes.the currently used vaccine strain of rinderpest virus was derived by serial passage of the highly virulent kabete 'o' strain (ko). a full-length cdna copy of the ko strain was made from which a virus identical in pathogenicity to the wild-type virus was rescued. a series of chimeric viruses was prepared in which the coding sequences for the n, p, f, h or l proteins were replaced with the corresponding sequences from the vaccine strain. the ko-based virus with the vaccine strain h gene and that w ...200515784903
rapid competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to peste des petits ruminants virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants that is of economic importance in africa, the middle east, and asia. we developed a rapid competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rapid c-elisa) for the diagnosis and surveillance of ppr. this assay detects ppr virus (pprv) antibodies in serum samples by quantifying the amount of monoclonal antibody (mab) p-3h12 after 30 min of incubation of a serum-mab conjugate mixture on plates coated with a pprv recombin ...200515817764
serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia and the united arab emirates.a total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) distributed in saudi arabia (sa) and the united arab emirates (uae) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine adenovirus 3 (bav-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disea ...200515827212
full genome sequence of peste des petits ruminants virus, a member of the morbillivirus genus.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) causes an acute febrile illness in small ruminant species, mostly sheep and goats. pprv is a member of the morbillivirus genus which includes measles, rinderpest (cattle plague), canine distemper, phocine distemper and the morbilliviruses found in whales, porpoises and dolphins. full length genome sequences for these morbilliviruses are available and reverse genetic rescue systems have been developed for the viruses of terrestrial mammals, with the excepti ...200515845262
ex-ante economic analysis of animal disease surveillance.this paper provides an ex-ante economic analysis comparing four alternative intervention strategies for the control and eradication of rinderpest against a scenario of no intervention in a cattle population similar in size to that of ethiopia. the interventions were three different coverage levels of mass vaccination and one surveillance-based programme where vaccination targeted infected sub-populations. for each scenario, the disease impact was estimated using an open-population, state-transit ...200415861869
a model of lineage-1 and lineage-2 rinderpest virus transmission in pastoral areas of east africa.the development of a stochastic, state-transition model of rinderpest transmission dynamics is described using parameter estimates obtained from both laboratory and participatory research. using serological data, the basic reproduction numbers for lineage-1 rinderpest virus in southern sudan and for lineage-2 rinderpest virus in somali livestock were estimated as 4.4 and between 1.2 and 1.9, respectively. the model predictions for the inter-epidemic period in sudan and somalia (1.2 and 4.2 years ...200515907573
wild-type rinderpest virus uses slam (cd150) as its receptor.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a morbillivirus, related closely to the human pathogen measles virus (mv). although cell culture-adapted strains of rpv can infect many kinds of cell from different hosts, one such strain has previously been shown to have a detectable preference for cells expressing the mv receptor cd150 (slam), a protein found only on certain types of activated t cells, b cells and dendritic cells. here, it is shown that the wild-type, virulent parent of the most common vaccine strain ...200515914854
evaluation of novel diagnostic tools for peste des petits ruminants virus in naturally infected goat herds.a survey was carried out in two goat herds during a single peste des petits ruminant (ppr) outbreak. clinical examination showed that animals belonging to the west african dwarf species had severe symptoms while those belonging to the west african long-legged species had mild symptoms. to confirm and to monitor the disease in each species, the study required specific monoclonal antibody-based diagnostic tools. an association of shedding of ppr virus (pprv) and acute or mild clinical signs of the ...200516050518
location of, immunogenicity of and relationships between neutralization epitopes on the attachment protein (g) of hendra virus.epitopes involved in a protective immune response to hendra virus (hev) (henipavirus, paramxyoviridae) were investigated by generating five neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the virus attachment protein (g) of hev (hev g) and sequencing of the g gene of groups of neutralization-escape variants selected with each mab. amino acid substitutions occurred at eight distinct sites on hev g. relationships between these sites were investigated in binding and neutralization assays using heterol ...200516186240
identification of an rna silencing suppressor from a plant double-stranded rna virus.rna silencing is a mechanism which higher plants and animals have evolved to defend against viral infection in addition to regulation of gene expression for growth and development. as a counterdefense, many plant and some animal viruses studied to date encode rna silencing suppressors (rss) that interfere with various steps of the silencing pathway. in this study, we report the first identification of an rss from a plant double-stranded rna (dsrna) virus. pns10, encoded by s10 of rice dwarf phyt ...200516189004
booster immunization of antigen primed mice with anti-idiotypic t cells generates antigen-specific memory t cell response.immunological memory is characterized by quick and enhanced immune response after re-exposure to the same antigen. in the present work, we have shown that anti-idiotypic t cells are generated in mice after immunization with idiotypic t cell clone or polyclonal t cell specific for nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus. further, we have shown that n specific idiotypic t cell receptors from apoptotic idiotypic t cells are processed by bone marrow derived dendritic cells and presented to cognate ...200616239053
rational attenuation of a morbillivirus by modulating the activity of the rna-dependent rna polymerase.negative-strand rna viruses encode a single rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) which transcribes and replicates the genome. the open reading frame encoding the rdrp from a virulent wild-type strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) was inserted into an expression plasmid. sequences encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) were inserted into a variable hinge of the rdrp. the resulting polymerase was autofluorescent, and its activity in the replication/transcription of a synthetic minigenome wa ...200516254367
inhibition of host peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation ex vivo by rinderpest virus.rinderpest, or cattle plague, is caused by rinderpest virus (rpv), which is related most closely to human measles virus (mv), both being members of the genus morbillivirus, a group of viruses known to have strong immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo. here, it was shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) isolated from cattle experimentally infected with either wild-type or vaccine strains of rpv impaired the proliferation of pbmcs derived from uninfected animals; however, i ...200516298981
the rice dwarf virus p2 protein interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases in vivo, leading to reduced biosynthesis of gibberellins and rice dwarf symptoms.the mechanisms of viral diseases are a major focus of biology. despite intensive investigations, how a plant virus interacts with host factors to cause diseases remains poorly understood. the rice dwarf virus (rdv), a member of the genus phytoreovirus, causes dwarfed growth phenotypes in infected rice (oryza sativa) plants. the outer capsid protein p2 is essential during rdv infection of insects and thus influences transmission of rdv by the insect vector. however, its role during rdv infection ...200516299167
importance of the extracellular and cytoplasmic/transmembrane domains of the haemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus for recovery of viable virus from cdna copies.a specific interaction between the f and h proteins is required to enable fusion of the virus and host cell membranes and in some cases these proteins are not interchangeable between related viruses of the family paramyxoviridae. for example, the f and h proteins of two ruminant morbilliviruses, rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv), are not interchangeable since viable virus could not be rescued from cdna constructs where an individual glycoprotein gene of rpv was r ...200616343677
structural analysis of the human respiratory syncytial virus phosphoprotein: characterization of an alpha-helical domain involved in oligomerization.human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) phosphoprotein (p), an essential cofactor of the viral polymerase, is much shorter (241 aa) than and has no sequence similarity to p of other paramyxoviruses. nevertheless, bioinformatic analysis of hrsv p sequence revealed a modular organization, reminiscent of other paramyxovirus ps, with a central structured domain (aa 100-200), flanked by two intrinsically disordered regions (1-99 and 201-241). to test the predicted structure experimentally, hrsv p wa ...200616361428
morbilliviruses and human disease.morbilliviruses are a group of viruses that belong to the family paramyxoviridae. the most instantly recognizable member is measles virus (mv) and individuals acutely infected with the virus exhibit a wide range of clinical symptoms ranging from a characteristic mild self-limiting infection to death. canine distemper virus (cdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) cause a similar but distinctive pathology in dogs and cattle, respectively, and these, alongside experimental mv infection of primates, have b ...200616362981
pns12 protein of rice dwarf virus is essential for formation of viroplasms and nucleation of viral-assembly complexes.cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, known as viroplasms or viral factories, are assumed to be the sites of replication of members of the family reoviridae. immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out to characterize the poorly understood viroplasms of the phytoreovirus rice dwarf virus (rdv). within 6 h of inoculation of cells, viroplasms, namely discrete cytoplasmic inclusions, were formed that contained the non-structural proteins pns6, pns11 and pns12 of rdv, which appeared to be t ...200616432031
response of white-tailed deer to infection with peste des petits ruminants virus.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were infected experimentally with two strains of peste des petits ruminants virus. the response varied from fatal consequence to subclinical infection. the clinical signs and gross lesions were similar to those in goats. virus was recovered from all the infected deer, and survivors developed specific antibodies demonstrated by complement fixation and virus neutralization tests. survivors also resisted challenge with virulent rinderpest virus that was le ...197616502689
rinderpest seroprevalence in wildlife in kenya and tanzania, 1982-1993.eight hundred and thirty five serum samples collected from eight wild artiodactyl species in kenya and tanzania between 1982 and 1993 were tested for virus-neutralising (vn) antibodies to rinderpest (rp) virus. antibodies were found in 116 of 344 buffaloes (syncerus caffer) but not in the other species including 349 wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus). most of the antibody positive buffaloes were from the maasai mara-serengeti ecosystem (mm-se) and would have had opportunity for exposure to the v ...200616529830
re-infection of wildlife populations with rinderpest virus on the periphery of the somali ecosystem in east africa.we report surveillance for rinderpest virus in wildlife populations in three major ecosystems of east africa: great rift valley, somali and tsavo from 1994 to 2003. three hundred and eighty wild animals were sampled for detection of rinderpest virus, antigen or genome and 1133 sampled for antibody in sera from kenya, uganda, ethiopia and tanzania from 20 species. this was done modifying for wildlife the internationally recommended standards for rinderpest investigation and diagnosis in livestock ...200616551482
pns4 of rice dwarf virus is a phosphoprotein, is localized around the viroplasm matrix, and forms minitubules.rice dwarf virus (rdv), a member of the family reoviridae, has a 12-segmented dsrna genome. seven segments, designated s1, s2, s3, s5, s7, s8, and s9, encode structural proteins, while the remainder encode nonstructural proteins. one of the nonstructural proteins, pns4, which is encoded by s4, was characterized. pns4 was a phosphorylatable substrate in a phosphorylation assay in vivo; it associated with large cytoplasmic fibrils and formed novel minitubules in infected cultured cells of its leaf ...200616609816
surveillance of wildlife as a tool for monitoring rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants in west africa.the authors provide a report on the surveillance of rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) in the wildlife population in côte d'ivoire. for this purpose, 266 animals from nine different species, selected according to susceptibility and abundance, were captured and sampled from comoé, marahoué and lamto parks. two hundred and forty seven sera and 214 nasal swabs were collected and analysed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) and reverse-transcript ...200516642757
morbilliviral infection in a pygmy sperm whale (kogia breviceps) from taiwanese waters.morbilliviral infection was diagnosed in an adult male pygmy sperm whale (kogia breviceps) from southwestern taiwan on the basis of pathological findings, immunohistochemical staining, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. the whale was found alive stranded on the beach and died after 5 days of medical care. it was thin and had dozens of nematode in the first stomach. the lungs were dark red and heavy. histopathological examination revealed diffuse, moderate bronchointerstitial pn ...200616644147
characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against the canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein.we have established four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the nucleocapsid protein (np) of canine distemper virus (cdv). a competitive binding assay has revealed that the mabs are directed against two antigenic domains. an immunofluorescence assay using a series of deletion clones of the np and an immunoprecipitation assay using the np have revealed that two of the mabs recognize the c-terminal region of the np while the other two recognize the tertiary structure of the n-terminal domain. th ...200616697903
morbillivirus nucleoprotein possesses a novel nuclear localization signal and a crm1-independent nuclear export signal.morbilliviruses, which belong to the mononegavirales, replicate its rna genome in the cytoplasm of the host cell. however, they also form characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies, consisting of nucleoprotein (n), in infected cells. to analyze the mechanisms of nucleocytoplasmic transport of n protein, we characterized the nuclear localization (nls) and nuclear export (nes) signals of canine distemper virus (cdv) n protein by deletion mutation and alanine substitution of the protein. the nls ...200616716375
interference in the vaccination of cattle against rinderpest virus by antibodies against peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus.the ability of the attenuated vaccine 75/1 of peste des petits ruminants to interfere with rinderpest vaccination in cattle was investigated experimentally. young cattle (93) were selected and tested as being negative for antibodies against rp or ppr viruses. these were vaccinated with the peste des petits ruminants attenuated vaccine strain ppr75/1. all animals produced specific antibodies against the peste des petits ruminants vaccine after one or two doses. the cattle were then vaccinated wit ...200616757064
matrix protein and glycoproteins f and h of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus function better as a homologous complex.the matrix (m) protein of paramyxoviruses forms an inner coat to the viral envelope and serves as a bridge between the surface glycoproteins (f and h) and the ribonucleoprotein core. previously, a marker vaccine (rpv-pprfh) was produced for the control of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease, where the f and h genes of rinderpest virus (rpv) were replaced with the equivalent genes from peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv); however, this virus grew poorly in tissue culture. the poor growth ...200616760405
immunomodulatory properties of morbillivirus nucleoproteins.morbillivirus infections have been known for a long time to be associated with an acute immunosuppression in their natural hosts. here, we show that recombinant morbillivirus nucleoproteins from canine distemper virus, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus, and rinderpest virus bind b-lymphocytes from dogs, goats, and cattle, respectively, similarly to measles virus nucleoprotein in humans. the use of surface plasmon resonance imaging allowed the real time detection of differential interactions betwe ...200616817775
one-step multiplex rt-pcr assay for the detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in clinical samples.a single-tube one-step multiplex rt-pcr was standardized to amplify both 337 bp and 191 bp fragments of n and m genes of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), respectively, and only a 337 bp fragment of n gene of rinderpest virus (rpv). the rt-pcr using purified viral rna was easily adopted for direct detection of pprv in clinical field samples and its differentiation from rpv. the amplified n and m gene products were confirmed to be pprv- and rpv-specific by their size in 1.5% agarose gel an ...200616838207
rinderpest virus blocks type i and type ii interferon action: role of structural and nonstructural proteins.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a paramyxovirus closely related to the human pathogen measles virus. it causes severe disease in cattle, buffalo, and some wild animals; although it can infect humans, it does not cause disease. here, we demonstrate that rpv blocks the action of both type i (alpha) and type ii (gamma) interferons (ifns) by blocking the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat1 and stat2 and that this block is not related to species specificity. in addition, both wild-type virul ...200616840335
identification of t-helper and linear b epitope in the hypervariable region of nucleocapsid protein of pprv and its use in the development of specific antibodies to detect viral antigen.peste des petits ruminants is a highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants making its diagnosis difficult from the similar symptoms of rinderpest. computer based prediction algorithms was applied to identify antigenic determinants on the nucleocapsid (n) protein of pprv. specificity and antigenicity of each peptide was evaluated by solid phase elisa. six specific peptide sequences were evaluated in multiple antigenic peptide (map) form and immune response was evaluated by supplementing u ...200616962260
measles virus: cellular receptors, tropism and pathogenesis.measles virus (mv), a member of the genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae, is an enveloped virus with a non-segmented, negative-strand rna genome. it has two envelope glycoproteins, the haemagglutinin (h) and fusion proteins, which are responsible for attachment and membrane fusion, respectively. human signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam; also called cd150), a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, acts as a cellular receptor for mv. slam is expressed on ...200616963735
control of peste des petits ruminants and poverty alleviation?peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a contagious and often fatal viral disease of sheep and goats and also wild small ruminants. the ppr virus is distinct from but closely related to rinderpest virus and both belong to the morbivillivirus genus within the family paramyxoviridae. ppr is a contagious transboundary disease with a significant impact on rural poor farmers. its control should therefore be considered in programs that aim at alleviating poverty in developing countries.200617123358
interaction of rice dwarf virus outer capsid p8 protein with rice glycolate oxidase mediates relocalization of p8.yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated that p8, an outer capsid protein of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv), interacts with rice glycolate oxidase (gox), a typical enzyme of peroxisomes. confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that p8 was colocalized with gox in peroxisomes. time course analysis demonstrated that the localization of p8 in spodoptera frugiperda cells changed from diffuse to discrete, punctuate inclusions during expression from 24 to 48 h post inoculatio ...200717174956
the m and n genes-based simplex and multiplex pcrs are better than the f or h gene-based simplex pcr for peste-des-petits-ruminants virus.nucleocapsid (n), matrix (m) and hemagglutinin (h) genes-based simplex pcrs and an n and m genes-based multiplex pcr were developed for detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv). the m gene pcr was the most sensitive, followed by n, h and an already described fusion (f) gene pcrs, as they could detect the virus in samples with titers of 101, 102, 104and 105 tcid50/ml, respectively. the multiplex pcr was as sensitive as the m gene pcr, but it had the advantage of differentiating pprv f ...200617177605
maintenance of antigen-specific immunological memory through variable regions of heavy and light chains of anti-idiotypic antibody.immunological memory is characterized by a quick and enhanced immune response after re-exposure to the same antigen. to explain the mechanism involved in generation and maintenance of immunological memory, we had earlier proposed a hypothesis involving the relay of memory by idiotypic and anti-idiotypic b cells. the peptidomimic present in the hypervariable region of anti-idiotypic antibody was hypothesized to carry forward immunological memory. in the present work, we provide evidence supportin ...200717229267
observations on rinderpest and rinderpest-like diseases throughout west and central african countries during rinderpest eradication projects.between 1998 and 2005, the regional reference laboratory at bingerville (ivory-coast) received samples for analysis from western and central african countries. from a total of 606 sera; 65 tissue samples and 75 swabs received, no rinderpest virus or specific gene products or antibodies against rinderpest were detected. use of the pcr on the tissue and swabs (total of 140 samples) identified the genomic presence of bvd (4/140), mcf (2/140), ibr (1/140) and fmd (6/140) viruses. these cause disease ...200717316721
characterization of membrane association of rinderpest virus matrix protein.paramyxovirus matrix protein is believed to play a crucial role in the assembly and maturation of the virus particle by bringing the major viral components together at the budding site in the host cell. the membrane association capability of many enveloped virus matrix proteins has been characterized to be their intrinsic property. in this work, we have characterized the membrane association of rinderpest virus matrix (m) protein. the m protein of rinderpest virus when expressed in the absence o ...200717336269
reverse genetics for peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv): promoter and protein specificities.peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) (family paramyxoviridae, genus morbillivirus) causes an acute febrile illness in sheep and goats resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in infected herds. the paramyxoviruses all have negative sense, non-segmented rna genomes and their host range and pathogenic determinants have been extensively studied using reverse genetics. this technology also enables a more rational approach to be taken with respect to vaccine design. in order to initiate th ...200717350130
molecular analysis of six segments of tobacco leaf enation virus, a novel phytoreovirus from tobacco.tobacco leaf enation virus (tlev) is a putative member of the genus phytoreovirus within the family reoviridae. previous western blot analysis of structural viral proteins (apparent molecular weights of 93 kda; 58 kda; 48 kda; 39 kda and 36 kda) associated with tlev, isolated from infected tobacco in south africa, suggested that these proteins may correspond to structural wound tumor virus (wtv) proteins. to further establish the nature of this novel virus disease phenotype in tobacco, molecular ...200717356907
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