TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
development of a competitive elisa for detecting antibodies to the peste des petits ruminants virus using a recombinant nucleoprotein.a competitive elisa based on the reaction between a monoclonal antibody (mab) and a recombinant nucleoprotein of the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) was developed. this protein was obtained in large quantities from insect cells infected with a ppr nucleoprotein recombinant baculovirus (n-b). the competitive elisa was compared with the virus neutralisation test (vnt) for detecting specific antibodies to pprv in sheep and goats. the time consuming vnt is the only prescribed test that is ca ...19957709061
[first- time isolation of the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus in chad and experimental induction of the disease].in chad, in 1993-1994, investigation into "peste des petits ruminants" (ppr) outbreaks were carried out in flocks of sahelian goats. although in the early 1993 outbreaks the virus had not been isolated yet, a serological prevalence (34%) was observed using elisa test in 475 sera collected in the infested area. the virus was then isolated for the first time in chad and typical ppr cases were observed in sahelian goats, known to be little sensitive to the virus. to experimentally induce the diseas ...19958734226
regulatory framework and requirements for managing risks associated with veterinary biological products in africa: present systems and future needs.veterinary vaccines are considered to be medicinal products. as such, they are subject to assessment for managing risks associated with their marketing and use. the current risk assessment procedures used in africa are based on the quality testing methods standardised by the pan-african veterinary vaccine centre (panvac). the authors examine the risk assessment procedures related to the importation of products and to the release of live products into the environment. the lack of infrastructures, ...19958639954
rinderpest virus infection of bovine peripheral blood monocytes.the ability of rinderpest virus (rpv) to replicate in vitro in adherent peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages under non-stimulation conditions was investigated. when flow cytometry analysis on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) was performed, monocytic cells were seen to be targets for infection by the cell culture-attenuated rbok vaccine strain of rpv. viral glycoprotein (h) and nucleoprotein (n) expression in adherent blood monocytes and monocyte-derived mac ...19957595385
the sequence of the n and l genes of rinderpest virus, and the 5' and 3' extra-genic sequences: the completion of the genome sequence of the virus.we have sequenced the nucleocapsid (n) and polymerase (l) genes of the vaccine strain of rinderpest, and the 5' and 3' terminal domains of the genome. together with previously published data, this completes the sequence of the entire genome of rinderpest virus. the l gene is identical in length to that of measles virus, encoding a 2183 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 248,100. the l protein sequence of three morbilliviruses is highly conserved, greater than 76% of residue ...19958588311
editing of morbillivirus p gene transcripts in infected animals.rna editing in the morbillivirus genus in vivo was investigated by applying a polymerase chain reaction-based primer extension technique to measure the edited and non-edited mrna transcripts. in this genus of the paramyxoviridae the p gene transcript is altered by the co-transcriptional addition of one extra g residue to produce the mrna for the v non-structural protein. using tissues of phocine distemper virus (pdv) infected seals, canine distemper virus (cdv) infected dogs and rinderpest virus ...19958588325
[evaluation of vaccinal protection against rinderpest in cameroon. ii. the north province].cameroon joined the sero-survey component of the parc (pan african rinderpest campaign) program in 1989. during the 1992 campaign, a detailed sampling frame, adapted to the breeding conditions of the north province was drawn up according to parc recommendations. the four administrative divisions of the province were covered by sampling cattle in 14 sites chosen by randomisation. eight thousand six hundred and eighty sera samples from 217 cattle herds were tested using fao/iaea rinderpest competi ...19958745745
recent developments in the diagnosis of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants.effective implementation of control measures for rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants requires that a proper and rapid diagnosis of the disease is made. peste de petits ruminants (ppr) can be confused clinically with other infections such as pasteurellosis or contagious ecthyma. rinderpest, in its classical form, is easy to identify clinically; however, mass vaccination in many countries and also the emergence of mild strains of the virus have made clinical diagnosis more difficult. clinica ...19958588326
long-term immunity in cattle vaccinated with a recombinant rinderpest vaccine. 19958966974
evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for the detection and characterisation of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses for epidemiological studies.the high sequence variability found in rna viruses makes it difficult to design primers for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification which will be certain to work with all new field isolates. to overcome this problem for the detection and differential diagnosis of rinderpest (rp) and peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viruses (v), we have designed several sets of primers, based on well-conserved sequences in the p and f genes. analysis of a large number of field isolates from ...19958837881
stabilization of rinderpest vaccine by modification of the lyophilization process.rinderpest (rp), a lethal disease of cattle, was almost eradicated from the african continent under joint project 15 (jp15), using an excellent modified live virus vaccine. due to marked instability of the vaccine, a cold chain was required to ensure that the vaccine was potent at the time of application. rinderpest re-emerged in the early 1980s. the pan african rinderpest campaign (parc) was developed to combat the new epidemic. for parc to be efficacious and affordable, there was a clear need ...19968854023
rinderpest and other animal morbillivirus infections: comparative aspects and recent developments.the genus morbillivirus presently comprises measles virus of man, rinderpest virus (rpv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), and canine distemper virus (cdv). 'emerging' morbilliviruses, such as phocid distemper virus (pdv) of seals, dolphin (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) have probably been present for a long period of time and outbreaks are possibly related to introduction into a highly susceptible population and/or be the result of interspecies transmission. in this review some c ...19968885706
[epidemiology of rinderpest and cattle plague in mali: serological surveys].within the epidemiological surveillance of rinderpest in mali a serological survey has been carried out on 58 herds of small ruminants. out of 567 tested sera for the detection of antibodies against rinderpest 2 were positive. these sera were collected from two animals over 6 years old, probably infected during the last outbreak of rinderpest in mali in 1986. therefore, it can be assumed that the rinderpest virus has not circulated in mali since that year. however, the infection rate among goats ...19969239932
novel ntp binding property of rice dwarf phytoreovirus minor core protein p5.rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) mrna synthesized from purified virion has a cap structure, m7gpppam-, which suggests the presence of guanylyltransferase activity in the virion. we attempted to identify the enzyme involved in the cap formation by using a nucleoside triphosphate binding assay. incubation of virion with [alpha-32p]gtp resulted in labeling of an 89-kda protein that had not previously been identified in purified virus preparations. interestingly this protein also covalently bound utp ...19968638413
synthesis of leader rna and editing of p mrna during transcription by rinderpest virus.purified rinderpest virus was earlier shown to transcribe in vitro, all virus-specific mrnas with the promoter-proximal n mrna being the most abundant. presently, this transcription system has been shown to synthesize full length monocistronic mrnas comparable to those made in infected cells. small quantities of bi- and tricistronic mrnas are also synthesized. rinderpest virus synthesizes in vitro, a leader rna of approximately 55 nucleotides in length. purified rinderpest virus also exhibits rn ...19968725103
comparative analysis of the attachment protein gene (h) of dolphin morbillivirus.dmv, dolphin morbillivirus, a paramyxovirus of uncertain origin recently emerged in mediterranean dolphins. this study presents the complete nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin (h) gene including the gene boundaries. the single open reading frame of the dmv h gene encodes a protein of 604 residues which exhibits overall sequence characteristics similar to the h genes of other morbilliviruses. when compared to its closest homologues, measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus (rpv), dmv has, re ...19968725120
relative ability of different bovine leukocyte populations to support active replication of rinderpest virus.bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) were infected with the pathogenic saudi isolate of rinderpest virus (rpv) in order to identify the cell subpopulation(s) susceptible to active replication of this virus. flow cytometry analysis, using a monoclonal antibody recognizing the h glycoprotein of rpv, showed that monocytes were the main subpopulation in which the virus replicated, whereas <2% of lymphocytes expressed viral antigen. the activation of pbmc with concanavalin a before infect ...19968676465
immunohistochemical detection of rinderpest virus: effects of autolysis and period of fixation.samples of eyelid, tongue, soft palate and palatine tonsil were collected from calves infected experimentally with rinderpest virus. the tissues were fixed in 10 per cent neutral buffered formalin immediately, 24 or 48 hours post mortem. then, after three days, 10 days, 28 days or three months in formalin, they were processed into paraffin blocks and examined immunohistochemically for rinderpest viral antigen. the tonsil was the best of the four tissues in providing a consistently positive immun ...19968685543
ultrastructure of equine morbillivirus.the ultrastructure of the equine morbillivirus (emv) which was implicated in the death of one human and fourteen horses in queensland, australia during september 1994 and a 36 year old man from queensland in october 1995 is described. the ultrastructure of the virus and the intracellular virus-specific structures are characteristic for the family paramyxoviridae. cytoplasmic nucleocapsids were observed within the infected cells monolayers, endothelial cells (lung) of infected horses and the neur ...19968822630
p2 protein encoded by genome segment s2 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus is essential for virus infection.loss of infectivity to insect vector cell monolayers of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) after ccl4 treatment was associated with the removal of one of the viral proteins from the virus particles. this protein, encoded by genome segment s2 and thus named p2 protein, was located at the outer capsid of the virus particle. when rdv was treated with ccl4 for various times, the reduction in the amount of p2 protein and the loss of viral infectivity to vector cell monolayers were proportional to treatme ...19968874514
the nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin gene of the la strain of rinderpest virus, a seed virus strain used for vaccine production in japan.the sequence of the hemagglutinin (ha) gene of the la strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) has been determined by the direct sequencing method. the amino acid sequence of the protein which it encodes displays conservation of its structural determinants with the ha proteins of the other rpv strains. the la-ha protein was shown to have three conserved potential n-linked glycosylation sites, compared with four such sites in the ha protein of l strain. the glycosylation site at position 200 on the l-ha ...19968877976
[evaluation of vaccinal protection against rinderpest in cameroon. iii. general evaluation].the national veterinary laboratory, garoua (cameroon) has been carrying out rinderpest sero-surveillance since 1989 as part of an effort made by the panafrican rinderpest campaign (parc) to control rinderpest in africa. in 1993, 8517 serum samples collected from 286 cattle herds (from 0 to 3 years old) randomly chosen from six provinces with large cattle population (far-north, north, adamaoua, east, west, north-west) were tested using the rinderpest competitive elisa technique; the herd immunity ...19968881414
epidemiologic association between antibody titres against bovine virus diarrhoea virus, rinderpest disease virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in a buffalo herd.the association between antibody titres against bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) and rinderpest disease virus (rpdv) in buffaloes was investigated in a cross-sectional study. thirty-six lactating buffaloes from a herd in landhi cattle colony, karachi were bled and serum samples subjected to a micro-neutralisation test at the plum island animal disease center, usa, to categorise each buffalo either as positive or negative against each of 3 viral ...19968888525
the genome sequence of the virulent kabete 'o' strain of rinderpest virus: comparison with the derived vaccine.we have compared the complete genome sequences of the vaccine strain of rinderpest virus and the virulent strain from which it was derived. only 87 bases differed between the two genomes (0.55%). possibly significant differences in amino acid sequence were found in the n, p, f, h and l proteins. a number of differences were also found in the leader region (3' end of the genome), whilst the trailer region appears to be more conserved. in addition, the length of the genome was found in both cases ...19969000095
adaptation of caprinised rinderpest virus to grow in vero cells in vitro.caprinised rinderpest virus gtv strain (gtv) was adapted to grow in vero cells (vgtv) by polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of infected goat spleenocytes with non-infected vero cells. the usual methods of infection of cell culture, i.e. virus adsorption or co-cultivation, were not successful. vgtv-induced cytopathic changes in vero cells were similar to those reported for rinderpest virus. virus titers increased with the passage number but the virulence for goats decreased. immunoblot analysis ...19968886098
inhibition of replication of rinderpest virus by 5-fluorouracil.5-fluorouracil (5fu), an analogue of uracil, was found to inhibit the production of infectious particles of rinderpest virus (rpv) in vero cells (african green monkey kidney cells) by 99%, at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml. the levels of individual mrna specific for five of the virus genes were also reduced drastically, while the level of mrna for a cellular housekeeping gene-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh)-was unaltered by fluorouracil treatment of infected cells. both virus ...19968793007
rice ragged stunt oryzavirus genome segments s7 and s10 encode non-structural proteins of m(r) 68,025 (pns7) and m(r) 32,364 (pns10).the nucleotide sequences of genome segments s7 and s10 of a thai-isolate of rice ragged stunt virus (rrsv) were determined. the 1938 bp s7 sequence contains a single large open reading frame (orf) spanning nucleotides 20 to 1843 that is predicted to encode a protein of m(r) 68,025. the 1,162 bp s10 sequence has a major orf spanning nucleotides 142 to 1,032 that is predicted to encode a protein of m(r) 32,364. this s10 orf is preceded by a small orf (nt 20-55) which is probably a minicistron. cou ...19979672632
a review of three pathology-based techniques for retrospective diagnosis of rinderpest, with comparison to virus isolation.base of tongue, eyelid, and retropharyngeal lymph node were collected from three animals experimentally infected with rinderpest and utilised in a study comparing virus isolation with histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridisation to determine the usefulness of the latter three techniques as retrospective diagnostic aids for this disease. virus isolation was positive for all nine samples. histopathology was suggestive in all the tissues and definitive in some. immunohistochemist ...19979429240
nucleotide sequence analysis of the large (l) genes of phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus (corrected sequence).this paper corrects the previously published sequence of the l gene of canine distemper virus (cdv). errors in the published sequence (m. s. sidhu et al., 1993, virology 193, 50-65) led to frame shifts between residues 1021-1032, 1190-1219 and 1645-1650; a deletion of 21 amino acids between residues 1684-1705, and a single residue deletion at residue 1478. residue 237 is now found to be glycine rather than tryptophan and residue 1626 proline instead of threonine. the sequence of the l gene of ph ...19979049407
protective vaccination of ferrets against canine distemper with recombinant pox virus vaccines expressing the h or f genes of rinderpest investigate the ability of rinderpest virus (rpv) antigens, expressed in pox virus vectors, to protect against canine distemper virus (cdv) infection in ferrets.19979185963
trial of a capripoxvirus-rinderpest recombinant vaccine in african cattle.cattle were vaccinated with differing doses of an equal mixture of capripox-rinderpest recombinant viruses expressing either the fusion protein (f) or the haemagglutinin protein (h) of rinderpest virus. animals vaccinated with 2 x 10(4) p.f.u. or greater of the combined viruses were completely protected against challenge, 1 month later, with both virulent rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses. vaccination with any of the doses did not induce any adverse clinical response in the animals or tr ...19979042036
rinderpest: at war with the disease of war.rinderpest, the legendary cattle plague, has caused devastating losses for centuries and remains the biggest threat to sustainable livestock production in developing countries. strenuous efforts are now being made to achieve global eradication of this viral disease, a goal made feasible through the use of attenuated live vaccines developed in the 1950s. their use almost resulted in eradication in the 1970s but left several foci of disease from where the plague then re-emerged. recent mass vaccin ...19979161126
rinderpest virus isolates of different virulence vary in their capacity to infect bovine monocytes and macrophages.three isolates of rinderpest virus (rpv) with different in vivo virulence were able to infect and productively replicate in bovine monocytic cells. they differed in their kinetics of replication and the morphological changes induced in infected cultures. the highly virulent rpv-saudi infected > 80% of cells within 6 days p.i. (m.o.i. = 0.1 tcid50 per cell). under identical conditions, > 50% of cells were infected by the 'mild' (causes minimal mortality in vivo) isolate rpv-egypt, whereas only 25 ...19979266982
animal health risks associated with the transportation and utilisation of wildlife products.the animal health risks associated with the movement of wildlife products are infinitely less than those associated with the movement of live animals. very few pathogens are sufficiently robust to survive the significant changes in temperature, ph, moisture content and osmolality which occur post mortem, or which are associated with preservation processes such as pickling, smoking or drying. certain pathogens, however, (e.g. foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever [hog cholera] and african ...19979329110
the minor outer capsid protein p2 of rice gall dwarf virus has a primary structure conserved with, yet is chemically dissimilar to, rice dwarf virus p2, a protein associated with virus infectivity.the nucleotide sequence of the genome segment 2 (s2) of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv), a phytoreovirus, when compared with the amino acid sequence of a component protein of the virus, showed that s2 potentially encoded a 127k minor outer capsid protein. this 127k protein designated as p2 and the 127k minor outer capsid protein (also termed p2) of rice dwarf virus (rdv) are similar in size, located in the outer capsid, and have well-conserved predicted polypeptide sequences, suggesting similar fun ...19979413509
preliminary seromonitoring of rinderpest among cattle raised under different husbandry systems in saudi arabia.using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the seromonitoring of rinderpest in saudi arabia, antibodies were detected in 30% of the sera of 1,018 cattle slaughtered at riyadh abattoir during june and july 1995. the correlation between the detection of antibodies and the origins of the slaughtered animals was analysed. all the culled dairy cows had detectable antibodies. the proportions of bulls giving serologically positive results were as follows: 57% for animals imported from ...19979567303
potency testing of tissue culture rinderpest vaccine in rabbits.rinderpest (rp) vaccine potency testing requires virulent bovine rinderpest virus (rpv). use of virulent rpv is a biosafety hazard. in this study we had vaccinated rabbits with tissue culture rp vaccine at different doses and thereafter challenged with lapinized virus. no thermal reaction in vaccinated rabbits was observed. serum neutralizing antibody response to vaccine was dose dependent until the second week post-vaccination but by the fourth week post-vaccination all the rabbits had similar ...19979178458
cellular immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19979191319
use of dot-immunobinding assay for visual detection of rinderpest antibodies in vaccinated cattle.a dot-immunobinding (dib) assay was used to detect rinderpest antibodies in cattle vaccinated with kabete 'o' strain vaccine, using purified rinderpest virus. of 120 serum samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals, rinderpest antibodies were detected in 80%, 88.4% and 91.6% of samples at 2, 3 and 4 weeks postvaccination respectively. all the serum samples from non-vaccinated animals were negative. the dib results had a good correlation with those of the micro neutralisation test. the te ...19979203306
molecular cloning, sequencing, functional analysis and expression in e. coli of major core protein gene (s3) of rice dwarf virus chinese isolate.the complete nucleotide sequence of major core protein gene (segment s3) of rice dwarf virus (rdv) chinese isolate was determined after cdna cloning from the viral genomic rna. sequence analysis showed that the cloned fragment is 3195 bp in length and contains a single open reading frame (orf), encoding the major core protein (p3) which m(r) of 114 k. the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of s3 of this isolate share significant homology (94.1% and 97%, respectively) with those of s3 of ...19979385405
immunogenic and protective properties of haemagglutinin protein (h) of rinderpest virus expressed by a recombinant baculovirus.the hemagglutinin (h) protein of rinderpest virus expressed by a recombinant baculovirus used as a vaccine produced high titres of neutralizing antibody to rinderpest virus in the vaccinated cattle, comparable to the levels produced by live attenuated vaccine. the immunized cattle were protected against a vaccine-virus challenge, as demonstrated by the failure of development of antibodies to n protein of the vaccine virus. the lack of replication of vaccine virus in the immunized cattle indicate ...19979178457
sequence and structure alignment of paramyxoviridae attachment proteins and discovery of enzymatic activity for a morbillivirus hemagglutinin.on the basis of the conservation of neuraminidase (n) active-site residues in influenza virus n and paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn), it has been suggested that the three-dimensional (3d) structures of the globular heads of the two proteins are broadly similar. in this study, details of this structural similarity are worked out. detailed multiple sequence alignment of paramyxovirus hn proteins and influenza virus n proteins was based on the schematic representation of the previousl ...19979223510
characterization of membrane-bound and membrane anchor-less forms of hemagglutinin glycoprotein of rinderpest virus expressed by baculovirus recombinants.the rinderpest virus (rpv) hemagglutinin (h) is a class 2 glycoprotein by means of which the virus attaches to the host cell receptor. a full length cdna coding for h protein was used to construct a recombinant baculovirus expressing the h protein, rech(m), on the surface of insect cells. the small n terminal cytoplasmic domain was deleted and the transmembrane domain which extends from amino acids 35 to 59 was replaced with a signal peptide derived from the ecdysteroid udp glycosyl transferase ...19979237348
rescue of rinderpest virus from cloned cdna.rinderpest virus is a morbillivirus and is the causative agent of a widespread and important disease of cattle. the viral genome is a single strand of rna in the negative sense. we have constructed plasmids containing cdna copies of the 5' and 3' termini of the virus separated by a reporter gene and have shown that antigenome-sense rna transcripts of these model genomes can be replicated, transcribed, and packaged by helper virus, both rinderpest virus and the related measles virus. further, the ...19978995650
immunizing effect of vaccinia virus expressing the nucleoprotein of rinderpest virus on systemic rinderpest virus infection in rabbits.a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing the nucleoprotein (np) of rinderpest virus (rpv) was examined in rabbits for the involvement of the np protein in protection from the rpv infection. despite their production of anti-np antibody, the rvv-immunized rabbits succumbed to the rpv challenge, although there was a slight delay in the onset of disease after the low-dose challenge. on the other hand, the animals immunized with rvv expressing the hemagglutinin (h) protein of the rpv were comple ...19989611679
[primary structure of gene h of cattle plague virus strain k].synthesis, cdna cloning, and identification of h gene nucleotide sequence of rinderpest virus (rpv) k strain are carried out. analysis of the identified nucleotide sequence has revealed the single open reading frame encoding a protein consisting of 609 amino acids with molecular weight of 68 kda. the mean nucleotide homology between h genes of k, kabete o and l strains in 88.0%, the mean amino acid homology of the corresponding proteins is 88.2%. rpv k strain hemagglutinin contains 5 potential g ...19989611757
construction of recombinant vaccinia virus expressing rinderpest virus nucleocapsid protein and its immunogenicity in mice.recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) was constructed by inserting rinderpest virus (rpv) nucleocapsid (n) protein gene. the rvv expressed rpv-n protein in the rvv-infected cells. the rvv was shown to produce rpv-n-specific antibody in mice.19989637306
rediscovery of the second african lineage of rinderpest virus: its epidemiological significance. 19989670447
rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment s11 encodes a nucleic acid binding protein.the function of rice dwarf virus segment 11 and the corresponding segments of other phytoreoviruses is not yet determined. the amino acid sequence of pns11, encoded by segment 11, contains a putative zinc finger and five flanking basic regions at the c-terminus. the full-length pns11 protein and three truncated derivatives, which lack the n-terminus, the zinc-finger or the c-terminal five basic regions were expressed in escherichia coli and their nucleic acid binding properties were studied. pns ...19989454700
serological evidence of morbillivirus infection in small cetaceans from the southeast pacific.the presence of morbillivirus-specific serum antibodies was examined by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) and virus neutralization tests in serum samples from 30 dusky dolphins (lagenorhynchus obscurus), 8 long-snouted common dolphins (delphinus capensis), 2 inshore and 6 offshore bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and 20 burmeister's porpoises (phocoena spinipinnis) taken in fisheries off central peru in 1993-1995. the sera from six dusky dolphins, one common dolphin ...19989549850
structure of double-shelled rice dwarf virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv), a member of the reoviridae family, is a double-stranded rna virus. infection of rice plants with rdv reduces crop production significantly and can pose a major economic threat to southeast asia. a 25-a three-dimensional structure of the 700-a-diameter rdv capsid has been determined by 400-kv electron cryomicroscopy and computer reconstruction. the structure revealed two distinctive icosahedral shells: a t=13l outer icosahedral shell composed of 260 trimeric clusters of p8 ...19989765392
the 42k protein of rice dwarf virus is a post-translational cleavage product of the 46k outer capsid protein.the outer capsid protein (p8) heterogeneity of rice dwarf virus (rdv) exists not only in purified virus particles, but also in rdv-infected rice, transgenic rice expressing p8, e. coli expression of p8 product and the in vitro translation products of s8. n-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that p8 is a cleavage product of p8'. the cleavage occurs specifically at the residues of asp362 and pro363. the function of the proteolytic processing is unknown.19989787666
recommended standards for epidemiological surveillance systems for rinderpest. office international des epizooties.a process involving time-bound steps used to verify the transition from the status of freedom from rinderpest to that of freedom from infection with the rinderpest virus is described. the procedure, informally but widely known as the 'oie pathway' (oie: office international des epizooties), originated with the report of the 1989 expert consultation on rinderpest surveillance systems. the oie foot and mouth disease and other epizootics commission, with the assistance of experts on the disease, pr ...19989850554
seroepidemiology of rinderpest in bovids in sri lanka using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) technique.approximately 0.2% (n = 4397) of the bovids (cattle and buffalo) in sri lanka were sampled, from june 1992 using a multi-stage sampling procedure. serum antibodies for the rinderpest virus were detected using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the age, the agroclimatic zone, the management system practiced in the farms, and the vaccination history of the sampled bovids were studied as potential risk factors for being seropositive. the prevalence of rinderpest antibodies in non-va ...19989879581
eradication of rinderpest from ethiopia. 19989881430
use of prokaryotically expressed nucleocapsid protein as positive antigen in elisa.a cdna library of rinderpest vaccine virus was prepared in zap express vector (stratagene). the rinderpest 'n' gene specific clones were selected, characterized and thereafter expressed in e. coli xlolr strain. the expressed protein was found to be immunogenic in western blot with hyperimmune sera. it reacted with rinderpest and 'n' protein specific monoclonal antibodies in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). prokaryotically expressed 'n' protein also gave precipitin band in counter immun ...19989891841
preparation of monoclonal antibodies to n protein of rinderpest virus and their use in viral antigen detection. 199810358739
morbillivirus downregulation of cd46.there is evidence that cd46 (membrane cofactor protein) is a cellular receptor for vaccine and laboratory-passaged strains of measles virus (mv). following infection with these mv strains, cd46 is downregulated from the cell surface, and consequent complement-mediated lysis has been shown to occur upon infection of a human monocytic cell line. the mv hemagglutinin (h) protein alone is capable of inducing this downregulation. some wild-type strains of mv fail to downregulate cd46, despite infecti ...19989811778
protection of rabbits against lapinized rinderpest virus with purified envelope glycoproteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants and rinderpest viruses.haemagglutinin (ha) and fusion (f) proteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. the purified proteins were characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds-page). rabbit hyperimmune sera were raised against the purified ha and f proteins and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), haemagglutination-inhibition (hai) and virus neutralization (vn) tests. ...199810358730
[nucleotide and protein sequence analysis of rice dwarf virus replicase(segment s1)].the full length cdna of rice dwarf virus (rdv) fujian isolate genome segment s1 was cloned and full length sequence was determined. the results showed that s1 is 4422 bp in length and contains a major open reading frame which encodes a polypeptide with 1444 amino acids. the major orf contains the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) consensus sequences, such as motif i (dxxxxd) motif ii (sgxxxtxxxn) and motif iii(gdd). in addition to the three motifs, a well-conserved region (exxkxy) is found fol ...199812549398
[molecular cloning and sequencing of outer capsid protein gene of rice dwarf virus and its expression in escherichia coli].the s2 full-length cdna of rice dwarf phytoreovirus which enocodes the viral outer capsid protein was cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. the results showed that s2 is 3512 bp long with a large open reading frame which encodes a protein of 1116 amino acids. it shares 94.6% and 95.4% identity with rdv of japanese h isolate in terms of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, and it also shows some homology with vp2 of rotavirus at the level of amino acid sequence ...199912555568
cell-mediated immune responses in cattle vaccinated with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a member of the genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae which causes an acute and often fatal disease in large ruminants. to examine the immune response to the virus nucleocapsid (n) protein, a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing rpv nucleocapsid protein (rvv-rpv-n) was used to vaccinate cattle. the recombinant vaccine induced low levels of non-neutralizing anti-n antibodies. rpv-specific cell-mediated immunity induced by the recombinant was assessed by meas ...199910423130
a fast, sensitive and specific method for rice dwarf virus detection by northern blot hybridization.based on stability of double-stranded (ds) rna, a new, fast, sensitive, and specific method for detection of genomic rice dwarf virus (rdv) dsrna by molecular hybridization was developed. in contrary to the commonly used, standard northern blot analysis, dsrna is denatured in the immobilized state on the blot. therefore, risk of degradation of single-stranded (ss) rna by ribonuclease (rnase) during sample preparation, electrophoresis and blotting is eliminated. this method overcomes disadvantage ...199910825925
expression in cattle of epitopes of a heterologous virus using a recombinant rinderpest virus.we have investigated the bovine immune response to heterologous proteins expressed using a recombinant rinderpest virus (rpv). a new gene unit was created in a cdna copy of the genome of the vaccine strain of rpv, and an open reading frame inserted that encodes the polymerase (3dpol) and parts of the capsid protein vp1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). infectious recombinant rpv was rescued and shown to express the fmdv-derived protein at good levels in infected cells. the rescued virus ...199910466801
a rapid chromatographic strip test for the pen-side diagnosis of rinderpest virus.rinderpest is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. eradication of the virus following outbreaks depends on rapid and accurate diagnosis of infection and the implementation of control measures. reporting and confirmatory diagnosis precede the implementation of control measures. a number of techniques have been used for diagnosis such as agar gel immunodiffusion, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), molecular biological techniques such as polymerase chain re ...199910488772
rinderpest antibody detected in sheep and goats before an outbreak of rinderpest reported in cattle in northern january 1997, serum samples from 1346 adult sheep and goats were tested by a competitive elisa to determine the prevalence of rinderpest in the northern zone of tanzania. seroconversion rates of 20%, 13%, 9%, 7% and 3% in sheep and goats were recorded in ngorongoro, monduli, hai, arumeru and simanjiro districts, respectively. the low profile and insidious nature of the rinderpest virus involved caused very mild disease in cattle in some of these area. the mild signs associated with this outbr ...199910399812
rinderpest epidemic in wild ruminants in kenya 1993-97.a severe epidemic of rinderpest, affecting mainly wild ruminants, occurred between 1993 and 1997 in east africa. buffalo (syncerus caffer), eland (taurotragus oryx) and lesser kudu (tragelaphus imberbis) were highly susceptible. the histopathological changes, notably individual epithelial cell necrosis with syncytia formation, were consistent with an infection with an epitheliotrophic virus. serology, the polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation confirmed the diagnosis and provided epidemi ...199910579537
prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibodies in india.a study was undertaken regarding the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) antibodies in bovine sera which tested negative for rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies. the samples were collected between january 1996 and december 1997. a total of 439 samples (327 cattle and 112 buffalo from 17 states of india) were tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit. the mean prevalence of bvdv antibodies in cattle was 15.29% (50/327) in 16 state ...199910588010
domains of rinderpest virus phosphoprotein involved in interaction with itself and the nucleocapsid protein.the yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify domains involved in specific in vivo interactions between the rinderpest virus (rpv) phosphoprotein (p) and nucleocapsid protein (n). n and p genes were cloned in both the yeast gal4 dna-binding and gal4 activation domain vectors, which enabled analysis of self and interprotein interactions. mapping of the domain of p protein involved in its association with itself revealed that the cooh-terminal 32 amino acids (316-347) that forms a part of the h ...199910366579
rinderpest vaccination and the incidence and development of trypanosomosis in investigation was made into whether recent vaccination of cattle with tissue culture rinderpest virus would cause immunosuppression and lead to more frequent or more severe infection with trypanosomes in animals grazing in tsetse-infested areas. herds of cattle on galana ranch in kenya were divided, with approximately half of each herd being vaccinated with tissue culture rinderpest virus strain kabete 'o', while the rest remained unvaccinated. the herds were then exposed to the risk of natur ...199910371005
rinderpest: a case study of animal health emergency management.the history of rinderpest and control of the disease in africa and asia is reviewed briefly. the present distribution of rinderpest virus in relation to its phylogenetic lineages is presented. rinderpest-free countries bordering rinderpest-infected countries are considered to be under permanent threat of a transboundary rinderpest incursion and therefore face continuous and serious emergency situations. the nature of these emergencies in relation to the remaining foci of the three lineages is de ...199910190212
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the phosphoprotein (p) gene of the lapinized rinderpest virus.we determined the nucleotide sequence of the coding region for the phosphoprotein (p) gene of the l strain of rinderpest virus (rpv). the gene encodes two overlapping open reading frames of 1521 and 531 nucleotides. use of the first atg would produce a p polypeptide of 507 amino acids, while use of the second atg would produce a c polypeptide of 177 amino acids. in addition, the insertion of an extra g residue at the editing site generates an alternative mrna potentially encoding the v protein o ...199910403704
a newly identified horseshoe crab lectin with specificity for blood group a antigen recognizes specific o-antigens of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.a 14-kda lectin, named tachylectin-3, was newly identified from hemocytes of the japanese horseshoe crab, tachypleus tridentatus. this lectin exhibited hemagglutinating activity against human a-type erythrocytes, but not against the b- and o-types of erythrocytes and animal erythrocytes, including those of sheep, rabbit, horse, and bovine. the hemagglutinating activity of tachylectin-3 was equivalent to that of a previously identified lectin, named tachylectin-2, with affinity for n-acetyl-d-glu ...19999920866
structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for cd46 interaction.the entry of measles virus (mv) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (ha) to the complement regulatory protein cd46. two subdomains, one each within cd46 short consensus repeats (scrs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. however, little is known about the regions within mv ha needed for a high-affinity cd46 interaction. to better define the ha-cd46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanin ...199910087234
development of a genetically marked recombinant rinderpest vaccine expressing green fluorescent order to effectively control and eliminate rinderpest, a method is required to allow serological differentiation between animals that have been vaccinated and those which have recovered from natural infection. one way of doing this would be to engineer the normal vaccine to produce a genetically marked rinderpest virus (rpv) vaccine. we constructed two modified cdna clones of the rpv rbok vaccine strain with the coding sequence of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene inserted as a potenti ...200010675408
rinderpest viruses lacking the c and v proteins show specific defects in growth and transcription of viral rnas.rinderpest virus is a morbillivirus and the causative agent of an important disease of cattle and wild bovids. the p genes of all morbilliviruses give rise to two proteins in addition to the p protein itself: use of an alternate start translation site, in a second open reading frame, gives rise to the c protein, while cotranscriptional insertion of an extra base gives rise to the v protein, a fusion of the amino-terminal half of p to a short, highly conserved, cysteine-rich zinc binding domain. ...200010684274
establishment of a rescue system for canine distemper virus.canine distemper virus (cdv) has been rescued from a full-length cdna clone. besides measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus, a third morbillivirus is now available for genetic analysis using reverse genetics. a plasmid p(+)cdv was constructed by sequential cloning using the onderstepoort vaccine strain large-plaque-forming variant. the presence of a t7 promoter allowed transcription of full-length antigenomic rna by a t7 rna polymerase, which was provided by a host range mutant of vaccinia viru ...200011044118
development and evaluation of a monoclonal antibody based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of rinderpest virus antibodies.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been standardised for the detection of antibodies to rinderpest virus in sera from cattle, sheep and goats. the test uses a neutralising monoclonal antibody (mab) directed against the haemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus. the test is specific for rinderpest, as it failed to detect antibodies to peste des petits ruminants virus in convalescent goat sera. a 45% inhibition of the binding of the mab to the antigen was used as the cut-off poin ...200011107618
xerovac: an ultra rapid method for the dehydration and preservation of live attenuated rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants vaccines.the accepted procedure for the long-term preservation of live viruses and bacteria in vaccines has been lyophilisation. we show that thermolabile viruses can be dehydrated in vitro, within 18 h, in an excipient containing trehalose. we further demonstrate that in the resulting dehydrated state, where the viruses are captive in a metastable glass composed of trehalose, they are capable of resisting 45 degrees c for a period of 14 days with minimal loss of potency. the degree of thermotolerance ac ...200011115706
recombinant rinderpest vaccines expressing membrane-anchored proteins as genetic markers: evidence of exclusion of marker protein from the virus envelope.rinderpest virus (rpv) causes a severe disease of cattle resulting in serious economic losses in parts of the developing world. effective control and elimination of this disease require a genetically marked rinderpest vaccine that allows serological differentiation between animals that have been vaccinated against rinderpest and those which have recovered from natural infection. we have constructed two modified cdna clones of the vaccine strain rna genome of the virus, with the coding sequence o ...200011024145
ribozyme-mediated resistance to rice dwarf virus and the transgene silencing in the progeny of transgenic rice plants.a hammerhead ribozyme (rz) with long hybridizing arms targeting the mrna of rice dwarf virus (rdv) segment 5 and a mutated nonfunctional ribozyme (mrz) were constructed. as predicted, rz transcribed in vitro cleaved the target mrna of rdv segment 5 into two fragments of 138 and 238 nucleotides in length. the rz and mrz genes were each placed under the control of the camv 35s promoter and used to transform japonica rice variety 'tongling no. 1' via agrobacterium tumefaciens. a total of 32 indepen ...200011032368
protection of cattle against rinderpest by intranasal immunisation with a dry powder tissue culture vaccine.dry powder tissue culture rinderpest vaccine containing 10(2.5) tcid(50) of virus per dose administered intranasally to cattle induced high titre circulating antibody responses and protection against challenge with a virulent strain of rinderpest virus. a reduction in the dose of virus to 10(1.1) tcid(50) resulted in a failure to elicit detectable antibody responses and a lack of protection. intranasal powder vaccine offers several advantages over conventional needle-administered aqueous rinderp ...200011115707
[primary structure of the f-gene from rinderpest virus strain k].synthesis, cdna cloning, and nucleotide sequencing of f gene of rinderpest virus strain k was carried out. analysis of nucleotide sequence showed the only open reading frame coding for protein from 546 a.o. with mol. weight 58.6 kda. the mean percentage of identical nucleotide residues between f genes of strains k, kabete o, and l is 76.4% for 5'-untranslated region and 90.5% for translated region, the share of similar amino acid residues in the respective proteins is 92.9%. the structure of res ...200011186456
[significance of paramyxovirinae protein f in physiopathology and immunity].the paramyxovirinae sub-family contains viruses of major importance for humans (measles and mumps viruses) and animals (newcastle disease virus, canine distemper virus, rinderpest virus) but also zoonotic viruses (hendra and nipah viruses). newcastle disease virus, a rubulavirus, which is specific of birds, can be used as a model for understanding the pathogenicity mechanisms of paramyxovirinae and for the study of vaccination against the diseases they cause. the f protein of pathogenic strains ...200011268674
research collaborations on rinderpest. 200010649747
long-term protective immunity to rinderpest in cattle following a single vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the virus haemagglutinin protein.a recombinant vaccine, produced by using a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine (lc16mo) as a vector and which expresses the rinderpest virus (rpv) haemagglutinin protein, has been developed. the properties of this vaccine, including its heat stability, efficacy in short-term trials, safety and genetic stability, have been confirmed in an earlier report. in the present study, the duration of the protective immunity generated by the vaccine in cattle was examined for up to 3 years following the adm ...200010811927
identification of t-helper cell epitopes in the hypervariable region of the nucleocapsid (n) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) in cattle.the proliferative responses to synthetic peptides by lymphocytes derived from rinderpest virus (rpv)-infected cattle, the natural host for rpv, were assayed by determining [3h]thymidine incorporation into the dna. in eight out of twelve cattle tested, significant responses were detected to peptides representing amino acids 452-501 in the c-terminal hypervariable region of the virus nucleocapsid (n) protein. it appears that helper t-cell epitope(s) for cattle which can be broadly recognized withi ...200010856786
rinderpest virus infection in primary bovine skin fibroblasts.rinderpest virus (rpv) replicated to a high titre in primary bovine skin fibroblasts. the course of infection was similar to that seen in established cell lines. virulent field virus grew at a faster rate than the fully attenuated vaccine strain of the virus. virus antigen expression, as measured by facscan analysis, correlated with the time course of infection for the two strains in cell cultures. wild type virus, obtained directly from cattle, infected cells at a slower rate than virus passage ...200010948995
vaccination of cattle with attenuated rinderpest virus stimulates cd4(+) t cell responses with broad viral antigen specificity.the immune responses of cattle inoculated with either a virulent or an attenuated vaccine strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) were examined by measuring the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) to whole rpv antigen preparations and to individual rpv major structural proteins expressed using recombinant adenoviruses. responses to the t cell mitogen concanavalin a (cona) were also measured as a control to monitor non-specific effects of infection with rpv on t cell responses. in ...200010950969
recovery and characterization of a chimeric rinderpest virus with the glycoproteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: homologous f and h proteins are required for virus viability.rinderpest (rp) and peste-des-petits-ruminants (ppr) are two important diseases of domestic ruminants. to improve on currently available vaccines against ppr, we have created cdna copies of the rp virus genome in which either the fusion (f) or hemagglutinin (h) gene, or both, was replaced with the corresponding gene from ppr virus. it was necessary to develop a modified rescue system in which the t7 rna polymerase was provided by a recombinant fowlpox virus and the entire rescue procedure took p ...200010982348
improved technique for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue using fowlpox t7 recombinant virus in mammalian cells.the suitability of recombinant t7 polymerase produced using either the highly attenuated mva strain of vaccinia (mva-t7) or fowlpox virus (fp-t7) for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue was compared in two mammalian cell lines (mdbk and vero) and in primary cells of bovine, ovine and caprine origin. such primary cells are more permissive for the growth of wild type strains of morbilliviruses, such as rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus. mva-t7 was found to be ...200010996645
assembly of double-shelled, virus-like particles in transgenic rice plants expressing two major structural proteins of rice dwarf virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a double-shelled particle that contains a major capsid protein (p8), a major core protein (p3), several minor core proteins, and viral genomic double-stranded rna. coexpression of p8 and p3 in transgenic rice plants resulted in formation of double-shelled, virus-like particles (vlps) similar to the authentic rdv particles. the vlps were not detected in transgenic rice plant cells expressing p8 alone. this in vivo result suggests that p8 interacted with p3 and that these ...200011000259
[expression of rice dwarf virus outer coat protein gene(s8) in insect cells].outer coat protein gene(s8) of rdv was cloned into the transfer vector pvl 1393 to construct a recombinant vector pvl1393-s8. the recombinant vector pvl1393-s8 and the linear baculovirus rp23. lacz were cotransfected into sf9 cells to produce the recombinant virus rp23-s8. rp23-s8 infected sf9 cells were collected and analysed by sds-page and western-blot. the results showed that the s8 gene of rdv was expressed in sf9 cells and the expression level of sf9 cells was higher between 72-96 h after ...200112549020
[construction of rice dwarf virus genome database].secondary database construction is an important subject in the field of bioinformatics. as the full genomic sequences of some organisms are being completed and followed by structural and functional studies, construction of secondary database becomes essential on the agenda. the rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a pathogen infecting rice in china, japan and the southeastern asia region and leading to considerable economic loss. based on the data generated from recent genomic research and earlier biochemi ...200112549187
the cattle plague in cheshire, 1865-1866. 200118630384
the fusion protein of peste des petits ruminants virus mediates biological fusion in the absence of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase study the process of membrane fusion in morbilliviruses, the fusion (f) glycoproteins of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were expressed transiently in mammalian cells. the recombinant f proteins were found to be localized at the surface of transfected cells. the fusion activity, as evident from cell fusion assays and lysis of chicken erythrocytes, documented that transiently expressed pprv f glycoprotein induces cell fusion in the absence of homotypic hemagg ...200111601920
scanning mutagenesis identifies critical residues in the rinderpest virus genome promoter.short regions at the 3' and 5' ends of the genome of rinderpest virus (rpv) contain signals that regulate transcription of the viral genome, known as the genome promoter and the (complement to the) antigenome promoter, respectively. an rpv minigenome construct carrying the cat coding sequence was used as a reporter to investigate residues in the 3'-terminal region of the genome important for these functions. single-base scanning mutagenesis showed that modifications to nucleotides 1, 3, 4, 10 an ...200111714965
the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells.the genes coding for the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) of the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and hemagglutinin (h) of rinderpest virus (rpv) were cloned in a cytomagalovirus promoter driven expression vector and expressed transiently in mammalian cells. the protein expression was apparent 24 h after transfection and the expressed proteins were detected at the cell surface. the transiently expressed pprv hn protein was found to be biologically active in possessin ...200111325471
rinderpest virus (rpv) iscom vaccine induces protection in cattle against virulent rpv challenge.rinderpest virus (rpv), a member of genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae, causes an acute and often fatal disease in cattle and other large ruminants. a subunit rinderpest vaccine consisting of an immune-stimulating complex (iscom) incorporating the rpv haemaggulutinin (h) protein, was examined for its ability to induce protective immunity in cattle, the natural host of rpv. all of four cattle vaccinated with the iscom vaccine survived challenge with virulent virus. three were solid ...200111348698
recombinant hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed in insect cells induces cytotoxic t-cell responses in cattle.rinderpest virus (rpv), a member of the genus morbillivirus within the paramyxoviridae family, causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease known as rinderpest in wild and domestic ruminants. the envelope of the virus contains two surface glycoproteins, namely the hemagglutinin (h) and the fusion (f) proteins, both of which have been shown to confer protective immunity in animals. in this paper, we demonstrate that single administration of low doses of recombinant h protein of rpv expresse ...200111792064
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