rinderpest: a case study of animal health emergency management.the history of rinderpest and control of the disease in africa and asia is reviewed briefly. the present distribution of rinderpest virus in relation to its phylogenetic lineages is presented. rinderpest-free countries bordering rinderpest-infected countries are considered to be under permanent threat of a transboundary rinderpest incursion and therefore face continuous and serious emergency situations. the nature of these emergencies in relation to the remaining foci of the three lineages is de ...199910190212
protection of rabbits against lapinized rinderpest virus with purified envelope glycoproteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants and rinderpest viruses.haemagglutinin (ha) and fusion (f) proteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. the purified proteins were characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds-page). rabbit hyperimmune sera were raised against the purified ha and f proteins and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), haemagglutination-inhibition (hai) and virus neutralization (vn) tests. ...199810358730
preparation of monoclonal antibodies to n protein of rinderpest virus and their use in viral antigen detection. 199810358739
domains of rinderpest virus phosphoprotein involved in interaction with itself and the nucleocapsid protein.the yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify domains involved in specific in vivo interactions between the rinderpest virus (rpv) phosphoprotein (p) and nucleocapsid protein (n). n and p genes were cloned in both the yeast gal4 dna-binding and gal4 activation domain vectors, which enabled analysis of self and interprotein interactions. mapping of the domain of p protein involved in its association with itself revealed that the cooh-terminal 32 amino acids (316-347) that forms a part of the h ...199910366579
rinderpest vaccination and the incidence and development of trypanosomosis in investigation was made into whether recent vaccination of cattle with tissue culture rinderpest virus would cause immunosuppression and lead to more frequent or more severe infection with trypanosomes in animals grazing in tsetse-infested areas. herds of cattle on galana ranch in kenya were divided, with approximately half of each herd being vaccinated with tissue culture rinderpest virus strain kabete 'o', while the rest remained unvaccinated. the herds were then exposed to the risk of natur ...199910371005
rinderpest antibody detected in sheep and goats before an outbreak of rinderpest reported in cattle in northern january 1997, serum samples from 1346 adult sheep and goats were tested by a competitive elisa to determine the prevalence of rinderpest in the northern zone of tanzania. seroconversion rates of 20%, 13%, 9%, 7% and 3% in sheep and goats were recorded in ngorongoro, monduli, hai, arumeru and simanjiro districts, respectively. the low profile and insidious nature of the rinderpest virus involved caused very mild disease in cattle in some of these area. the mild signs associated with this outbr ...199910399812
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the phosphoprotein (p) gene of the lapinized rinderpest virus.we determined the nucleotide sequence of the coding region for the phosphoprotein (p) gene of the l strain of rinderpest virus (rpv). the gene encodes two overlapping open reading frames of 1521 and 531 nucleotides. use of the first atg would produce a p polypeptide of 507 amino acids, while use of the second atg would produce a c polypeptide of 177 amino acids. in addition, the insertion of an extra g residue at the editing site generates an alternative mrna potentially encoding the v protein o ...199910403704
cell-mediated immune responses in cattle vaccinated with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a member of the genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae which causes an acute and often fatal disease in large ruminants. to examine the immune response to the virus nucleocapsid (n) protein, a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing rpv nucleocapsid protein (rvv-rpv-n) was used to vaccinate cattle. the recombinant vaccine induced low levels of non-neutralizing anti-n antibodies. rpv-specific cell-mediated immunity induced by the recombinant was assessed by meas ...199910423130
expression in cattle of epitopes of a heterologous virus using a recombinant rinderpest virus.we have investigated the bovine immune response to heterologous proteins expressed using a recombinant rinderpest virus (rpv). a new gene unit was created in a cdna copy of the genome of the vaccine strain of rpv, and an open reading frame inserted that encodes the polymerase (3dpol) and parts of the capsid protein vp1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). infectious recombinant rpv was rescued and shown to express the fmdv-derived protein at good levels in infected cells. the rescued virus ...199910466801
a rapid chromatographic strip test for the pen-side diagnosis of rinderpest virus.rinderpest is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. eradication of the virus following outbreaks depends on rapid and accurate diagnosis of infection and the implementation of control measures. reporting and confirmatory diagnosis precede the implementation of control measures. a number of techniques have been used for diagnosis such as agar gel immunodiffusion, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), molecular biological techniques such as polymerase chain re ...199910488772
rinderpest epidemic in wild ruminants in kenya 1993-97.a severe epidemic of rinderpest, affecting mainly wild ruminants, occurred between 1993 and 1997 in east africa. buffalo (syncerus caffer), eland (taurotragus oryx) and lesser kudu (tragelaphus imberbis) were highly susceptible. the histopathological changes, notably individual epithelial cell necrosis with syncytia formation, were consistent with an infection with an epitheliotrophic virus. serology, the polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation confirmed the diagnosis and provided epidemi ...199910579537
prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibodies in india.a study was undertaken regarding the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) antibodies in bovine sera which tested negative for rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies. the samples were collected between january 1996 and december 1997. a total of 439 samples (327 cattle and 112 buffalo from 17 states of india) were tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit. the mean prevalence of bvdv antibodies in cattle was 15.29% (50/327) in 16 state ...199910588010
research collaborations on rinderpest. 200010649747
development of a genetically marked recombinant rinderpest vaccine expressing green fluorescent order to effectively control and eliminate rinderpest, a method is required to allow serological differentiation between animals that have been vaccinated and those which have recovered from natural infection. one way of doing this would be to engineer the normal vaccine to produce a genetically marked rinderpest virus (rpv) vaccine. we constructed two modified cdna clones of the rpv rbok vaccine strain with the coding sequence of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene inserted as a potenti ...200010675408
rinderpest viruses lacking the c and v proteins show specific defects in growth and transcription of viral rnas.rinderpest virus is a morbillivirus and the causative agent of an important disease of cattle and wild bovids. the p genes of all morbilliviruses give rise to two proteins in addition to the p protein itself: use of an alternate start translation site, in a second open reading frame, gives rise to the c protein, while cotranscriptional insertion of an extra base gives rise to the v protein, a fusion of the amino-terminal half of p to a short, highly conserved, cysteine-rich zinc binding domain. ...200010684274
long-term protective immunity to rinderpest in cattle following a single vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the virus haemagglutinin protein.a recombinant vaccine, produced by using a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine (lc16mo) as a vector and which expresses the rinderpest virus (rpv) haemagglutinin protein, has been developed. the properties of this vaccine, including its heat stability, efficacy in short-term trials, safety and genetic stability, have been confirmed in an earlier report. in the present study, the duration of the protective immunity generated by the vaccine in cattle was examined for up to 3 years following the adm ...200010811927
a fast, sensitive and specific method for rice dwarf virus detection by northern blot hybridization.based on stability of double-stranded (ds) rna, a new, fast, sensitive, and specific method for detection of genomic rice dwarf virus (rdv) dsrna by molecular hybridization was developed. in contrary to the commonly used, standard northern blot analysis, dsrna is denatured in the immobilized state on the blot. therefore, risk of degradation of single-stranded (ss) rna by ribonuclease (rnase) during sample preparation, electrophoresis and blotting is eliminated. this method overcomes disadvantage ...199910825925
identification of t-helper cell epitopes in the hypervariable region of the nucleocapsid (n) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) in cattle.the proliferative responses to synthetic peptides by lymphocytes derived from rinderpest virus (rpv)-infected cattle, the natural host for rpv, were assayed by determining [3h]thymidine incorporation into the dna. in eight out of twelve cattle tested, significant responses were detected to peptides representing amino acids 452-501 in the c-terminal hypervariable region of the virus nucleocapsid (n) protein. it appears that helper t-cell epitope(s) for cattle which can be broadly recognized withi ...200010856786
rinderpest virus infection in primary bovine skin fibroblasts.rinderpest virus (rpv) replicated to a high titre in primary bovine skin fibroblasts. the course of infection was similar to that seen in established cell lines. virulent field virus grew at a faster rate than the fully attenuated vaccine strain of the virus. virus antigen expression, as measured by facscan analysis, correlated with the time course of infection for the two strains in cell cultures. wild type virus, obtained directly from cattle, infected cells at a slower rate than virus passage ...200010948995
vaccination of cattle with attenuated rinderpest virus stimulates cd4(+) t cell responses with broad viral antigen specificity.the immune responses of cattle inoculated with either a virulent or an attenuated vaccine strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) were examined by measuring the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) to whole rpv antigen preparations and to individual rpv major structural proteins expressed using recombinant adenoviruses. responses to the t cell mitogen concanavalin a (cona) were also measured as a control to monitor non-specific effects of infection with rpv on t cell responses. in ...200010950969
recovery and characterization of a chimeric rinderpest virus with the glycoproteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: homologous f and h proteins are required for virus viability.rinderpest (rp) and peste-des-petits-ruminants (ppr) are two important diseases of domestic ruminants. to improve on currently available vaccines against ppr, we have created cdna copies of the rp virus genome in which either the fusion (f) or hemagglutinin (h) gene, or both, was replaced with the corresponding gene from ppr virus. it was necessary to develop a modified rescue system in which the t7 rna polymerase was provided by a recombinant fowlpox virus and the entire rescue procedure took p ...200010982348
improved technique for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue using fowlpox t7 recombinant virus in mammalian cells.the suitability of recombinant t7 polymerase produced using either the highly attenuated mva strain of vaccinia (mva-t7) or fowlpox virus (fp-t7) for transient expression and negative strand virus rescue was compared in two mammalian cell lines (mdbk and vero) and in primary cells of bovine, ovine and caprine origin. such primary cells are more permissive for the growth of wild type strains of morbilliviruses, such as rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus. mva-t7 was found to be ...200010996645
assembly of double-shelled, virus-like particles in transgenic rice plants expressing two major structural proteins of rice dwarf virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a double-shelled particle that contains a major capsid protein (p8), a major core protein (p3), several minor core proteins, and viral genomic double-stranded rna. coexpression of p8 and p3 in transgenic rice plants resulted in formation of double-shelled, virus-like particles (vlps) similar to the authentic rdv particles. the vlps were not detected in transgenic rice plant cells expressing p8 alone. this in vivo result suggests that p8 interacted with p3 and that these ...200011000259
recombinant rinderpest vaccines expressing membrane-anchored proteins as genetic markers: evidence of exclusion of marker protein from the virus envelope.rinderpest virus (rpv) causes a severe disease of cattle resulting in serious economic losses in parts of the developing world. effective control and elimination of this disease require a genetically marked rinderpest vaccine that allows serological differentiation between animals that have been vaccinated against rinderpest and those which have recovered from natural infection. we have constructed two modified cdna clones of the vaccine strain rna genome of the virus, with the coding sequence o ...200011024145
ribozyme-mediated resistance to rice dwarf virus and the transgene silencing in the progeny of transgenic rice plants.a hammerhead ribozyme (rz) with long hybridizing arms targeting the mrna of rice dwarf virus (rdv) segment 5 and a mutated nonfunctional ribozyme (mrz) were constructed. as predicted, rz transcribed in vitro cleaved the target mrna of rdv segment 5 into two fragments of 138 and 238 nucleotides in length. the rz and mrz genes were each placed under the control of the camv 35s promoter and used to transform japonica rice variety 'tongling no. 1' via agrobacterium tumefaciens. a total of 32 indepen ...200011032368
establishment of a rescue system for canine distemper virus.canine distemper virus (cdv) has been rescued from a full-length cdna clone. besides measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus, a third morbillivirus is now available for genetic analysis using reverse genetics. a plasmid p(+)cdv was constructed by sequential cloning using the onderstepoort vaccine strain large-plaque-forming variant. the presence of a t7 promoter allowed transcription of full-length antigenomic rna by a t7 rna polymerase, which was provided by a host range mutant of vaccinia viru ...200011044118
development and evaluation of a monoclonal antibody based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of rinderpest virus antibodies.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been standardised for the detection of antibodies to rinderpest virus in sera from cattle, sheep and goats. the test uses a neutralising monoclonal antibody (mab) directed against the haemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus. the test is specific for rinderpest, as it failed to detect antibodies to peste des petits ruminants virus in convalescent goat sera. a 45% inhibition of the binding of the mab to the antigen was used as the cut-off poin ...200011107618
xerovac: an ultra rapid method for the dehydration and preservation of live attenuated rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants vaccines.the accepted procedure for the long-term preservation of live viruses and bacteria in vaccines has been lyophilisation. we show that thermolabile viruses can be dehydrated in vitro, within 18 h, in an excipient containing trehalose. we further demonstrate that in the resulting dehydrated state, where the viruses are captive in a metastable glass composed of trehalose, they are capable of resisting 45 degrees c for a period of 14 days with minimal loss of potency. the degree of thermotolerance ac ...200011115706
protection of cattle against rinderpest by intranasal immunisation with a dry powder tissue culture vaccine.dry powder tissue culture rinderpest vaccine containing 10(2.5) tcid(50) of virus per dose administered intranasally to cattle induced high titre circulating antibody responses and protection against challenge with a virulent strain of rinderpest virus. a reduction in the dose of virus to 10(1.1) tcid(50) resulted in a failure to elicit detectable antibody responses and a lack of protection. intranasal powder vaccine offers several advantages over conventional needle-administered aqueous rinderp ...200011115707
identification of a cytotoxic t-cell epitope on the recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses presented as assembled nucleocapsids.the nucleocapsid protein (n) of morbilliviruses is not only a major structural protein but also the most abundant protein made in infected cells. we overexpressed the n proteins of rinderpest virus and peste des petits ruminants virus in e. coli, which assemble into nucleocapsids in the absence of viral rna that resemble nucleocapsids made in the virus-infected cells. employing these assembled structures resembling subviral particles, we studied the induction of both the antibody response and th ...200111145903
[primary structure of the f-gene from rinderpest virus strain k].synthesis, cdna cloning, and nucleotide sequencing of f gene of rinderpest virus strain k was carried out. analysis of nucleotide sequence showed the only open reading frame coding for protein from 546 a.o. with mol. weight 58.6 kda. the mean percentage of identical nucleotide residues between f genes of strains k, kabete o, and l is 76.4% for 5'-untranslated region and 90.5% for translated region, the share of similar amino acid residues in the respective proteins is 92.9%. the structure of res ...200011186456
[significance of paramyxovirinae protein f in physiopathology and immunity].the paramyxovirinae sub-family contains viruses of major importance for humans (measles and mumps viruses) and animals (newcastle disease virus, canine distemper virus, rinderpest virus) but also zoonotic viruses (hendra and nipah viruses). newcastle disease virus, a rubulavirus, which is specific of birds, can be used as a model for understanding the pathogenicity mechanisms of paramyxovirinae and for the study of vaccination against the diseases they cause. the f protein of pathogenic strains ...200011268674
mapping of t-helper epitopes of rinderpest virus hemagglutinin protein.rinderpest virus (rpv) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease of domestic and wild ruminants, caused by rinderpest virus of the genus morbillivirus under the family paramyxoviridae. hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) proteins of this enveloped virus confer protective immunity against experimental challenge with virulent rinderpest virus. we have earlier demonstrated that immunization with a single dose of recombinant extracellular baculovirus expressing h protein elicits h-specific humoral ...200111270599
rinderpest virus c and v proteins interact with the major (l) component of the viral polymerase.rinderpest virus, like other morbilliviruses, expresses three proteins from the single p gene. in addition to the p protein, which interacts both with the viral polymerase (l) and the nucleocapsid (n) protein, the virus expresses a c and a v protein from the same gene. the functions of these two proteins in the viral life cycle are not clear. although both c and v proteins are dispensable, in that viable viruses can be made that express neither, each seems to play a role in optimum viral replica ...200111277692
the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells.the genes coding for the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) of the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and hemagglutinin (h) of rinderpest virus (rpv) were cloned in a cytomagalovirus promoter driven expression vector and expressed transiently in mammalian cells. the protein expression was apparent 24 h after transfection and the expressed proteins were detected at the cell surface. the transiently expressed pprv hn protein was found to be biologically active in possessin ...200111325471
rinderpest virus (rpv) iscom vaccine induces protection in cattle against virulent rpv challenge.rinderpest virus (rpv), a member of genus morbillivirus in the family paramyxoviridae, causes an acute and often fatal disease in cattle and other large ruminants. a subunit rinderpest vaccine consisting of an immune-stimulating complex (iscom) incorporating the rpv haemaggulutinin (h) protein, was examined for its ability to induce protective immunity in cattle, the natural host of rpv. all of four cattle vaccinated with the iscom vaccine survived challenge with virulent virus. three were solid ...200111348698
morbilliviruses use signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (cd150) as cellular receptors.morbilliviruses comprise measles virus, canine distemper virus, rinderpest virus, and several other viruses that cause devastating human and animal diseases accompanied by severe immunosuppression and lymphopenia. recently, we have shown that human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam) is a cellular receptor for measles virus. in this study, we examined whether canine distemper and rinderpest viruses also use canine and bovine slams, respectively, as cellular receptors. the onderstepoo ...200111390585
idiotypic-anti-idiotypic b cell interactions generated against a protective antigen of a morbillivirus in mice.the idiotypic network theory (n. k. jerne, ann. immunol. 125, 373-389, 1974) predicts that any antibody that can be made by an individual would have its preexisting specific complementary b cells in its germline repertoire. we transplanted syngeneic balb/c mice with live hybridoma cells and demonstrated the simultaneous presence of interacting idiotypic and anti-idiotypic b cells in an individual animal by immuno-cytoadherence assays. furthermore, we demonstrate that interacting b cells displayi ...200111414732
recombinant hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed in insect cells induces humoral and cell mediated immune responses in cattle.rinderpest virus causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease in domestic and wild ruminants. the surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) proteins of this enveloped virus are known to confer protective immunity in cattle. we have reported the generation of a recombinant baculovirus expressing h protein and studied its protective properties in cattle. in this report, we demonstrate that the recombinant baculovirus encoded h protein expressed in insect cells gets incorporated ...200111427260
idiotype and antigen-specific t cell responses in mice on immunization with antigen, antibody, and anti-idiotypic antibody.idiotypic determinants of immunoglobulin molecules can evoke both cd4(+) and cd8(+) t responses and exist not only as the integral components of a bona fide antigen binding receptor but also as distinct molecular entities in the processed forms on the cell surface of b lymphocytes. the present work provides experimental evidence for the concept that regulation of memory b cell populations can be achieved through the presentation of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic determinants to helper and cytotoxi ...200111446743
molecular properties of the matrixprotein(m) gene of the lapinized rinderpest virus.the nucleotide sequence of the matrixprotein (m) gene of the lapinized rinderpest virus (rpv-l) was determined. the full-length cdna of the rpv-l m gene is composed of 1460 base pairs and is supposed to contain an open reading frame of 1005 nucleotides encoding on m protein of 335 amino acids. the homology of the predicted amino acid among congeneric morbilliviruses such as rpv kabete 'o' strain (wild strain of rpv), rpv rbok strain (vaccine strain of rpv for cattle), measles virus (mv), and can ...200111503909
immune responses in goats to recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of peste des petits ruminants virus: identification of a t cell determinant.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), a member of the genus morbillivirus within the family paramyxoviridae, causes a fatal disease 'peste des petits ruminants' in goats and sheep. this enveloped virus is antigenically closely related to rinderpest virus (rpv), which causes a similar but distinct disease in large ruminants. pprv harbors two major surface glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) and the fusion (f) proteins. the surface glycoproteins of morbilliviruses are highly imm ...200111535334
complete genome sequence of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus pur46-mad clone and evolution of the purdue virus cluster.the complete sequence (28580 nt) of the pur46-mad clone of the purdue cluster of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (tgev) has been determined and compared with members of this cluster and other coronaviruses. the computing distances among their s gene sequences resulted in the grouping of these coronaviruses into four clusters, one of them exclusively formed by the purdue viruses. three new potential sequence motifs with homology to the alpha-subunit of the polymerase-associated nucleoca ...200111556396
the use of antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the diagnosis of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants in ethiopia.rinderpest had been reported in most parts of ethiopia when the pan african rinderpest campaign (parc) was launched. as a result of intensive disease investigation and strategic vaccination, most parts of the country are now considered provisionally free, and widespread vaccination has been replaced by clinical and serological surveillance. details of any episodes of disease are recorded and followed up after laboratory confirmation of suspected cass using antigen-capture elisa. this paper is ba ...200111556621
the fusion protein of peste des petits ruminants virus mediates biological fusion in the absence of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase study the process of membrane fusion in morbilliviruses, the fusion (f) glycoproteins of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) were expressed transiently in mammalian cells. the recombinant f proteins were found to be localized at the surface of transfected cells. the fusion activity, as evident from cell fusion assays and lysis of chicken erythrocytes, documented that transiently expressed pprv f glycoprotein induces cell fusion in the absence of homotypic hemagg ...200111601920
scanning mutagenesis identifies critical residues in the rinderpest virus genome promoter.short regions at the 3' and 5' ends of the genome of rinderpest virus (rpv) contain signals that regulate transcription of the viral genome, known as the genome promoter and the (complement to the) antigenome promoter, respectively. an rpv minigenome construct carrying the cat coding sequence was used as a reporter to investigate residues in the 3'-terminal region of the genome important for these functions. single-base scanning mutagenesis showed that modifications to nucleotides 1, 3, 4, 10 an ...200111714965
idiotype and anti-idiotype specific t cell responses on transplantation with hybridomas reactive to viral hemagglutinin and human tumor antigen.b cell hybridomas expressing class i and ii mhc molecules and producing antibodies directed against hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus and human mucin-1 have been used as surrogate b cells to study t cell responses against the antigens. the observed ctl and lymphoproliferative response indicates that anti-idiotypic b cells termed jerne cells stimulate both t helper and t cytotoxic cells by virtue of their ability to present recycled or regurgitated peptido-mimics of antigen to t helper ce ...200211750038
long-term sterilizing immunity to rinderpest in cattle vaccinated with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing high levels of the fusion and hemagglutinin glycoproteins.rinderpest is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of ruminants, often resulting in greater than 90% mortality. we have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine (v2rvfh) that expresses both the fusion (f) and hemagglutinin (h) genes of rinderpest virus (rpv) under strong synthetic vaccinia virus promoters. v2rvfh-infected cells express high levels of the f and h glycoproteins and show extensive syncytium formation. cattle vaccinated intramuscularly with as little as 10(3) pfu of ...200211752138
recombinant hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed in insect cells induces cytotoxic t-cell responses in cattle.rinderpest virus (rpv), a member of the genus morbillivirus within the paramyxoviridae family, causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease known as rinderpest in wild and domestic ruminants. the envelope of the virus contains two surface glycoproteins, namely the hemagglutinin (h) and the fusion (f) proteins, both of which have been shown to confer protective immunity in animals. in this paper, we demonstrate that single administration of low doses of recombinant h protein of rpv expresse ...200111792064
identification of immunodominant neutralizing epitopes on the hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus.the immunodominant epitopes on the hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus (rpv-h) were determined by analyzing selected monoclonal antibody (mab)-resistant mutants and estimating the level of antibody against each epitope in five rpv-infected rabbits with the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa). six neutralizing epitopes were identified, at residues 474 (epitope a), 243 (b), 548 to 551 (d), 587 to 592 (e), 310 to 313 (g), and 383 to 387 (h), from the data on the amino acid ...200211799164
rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses exhibit neurovirulence in mice.members of the morbillivirus genus, canine distemper (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv), and the cetacean viruses of dolphins and porpoises exhibit high levels of cns infection in their natural hosts. cns complications are rare for measles virus (mv) and are not associated with rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection. however, it is possible that all morbilliviruses infect the cns but in some hosts are rapidly cleared by the immune response. in this study, ...200211847591
inhibition of in vitro leukocyte proliferation by morbilliviruses.immune suppression associated with morbillivirus infections may influence the mortality rate by allowing secondary bacterial infections that are lethal to the host to flourish. using an in vitro proliferation assay, we have shown that all members of the genus morbillivirus inhibit the proliferation of a human b-lymphoblast cell line (bjab). proliferation of freshly isolated, stimulated bovine and caprine peripheral blood lymphocytes is also inhibited by uv-inactivated rinderpest (rpv) and peste- ...200211884584
development of a thermoresistant tissue culture rinderpest vaccine virus.the currently used plowright's tissue culture rinderpest vaccine (rbok strain) gives full protection and lifelong immunity, but it is highly thermolabile and requires maintenance of cold chain from vaccine production till delivery. keeping in view the need for a thermostabile vaccine in tropical developing countries with limited refrigeration facilities, we passaged serially the rbok strain of rinderpestvirus (rpv) at gradually elevated temperature up to 40 degrees c to obtain a thermoresistant ...200111885930
immunization with a plasmid dna expressing rinderpest virus hemagglutinin protein protects rabbits from lethal challenge.rinderpest virus haemagglutinin (h) protein was expressed in eukaryotic cells and the plasmid encoding h gene was used for immunization of rabbits. the immunized rabbits were completely protected from lethal challenge with virulent lapinized rinderpest virus. similar results were also observed in rabbits vaccinated with tissue culture rinderpest (tcrp) vaccine. about 80% of control rabbits vaccinated with empty vector (mock-vaccinated) died after challenge. the thermal reactions and clinical sym ...200211958458
long term immunity in african cattle vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest virus vaccine.cattle were vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest vaccine designed to protect cattle from infection with either rinderpest virus (rpv) or lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). vaccination did not induce any adverse clinical responses or show evidence of transmission of the vaccine virus to in-contact control animals. approximately 50% of the cattle were solidly protected from challenge with a lethal dose of virulent rpv 2 years after vaccination while at 3 years approx. 30% were fully pro ...200212002554
the morbillivirus receptor slam (cd150).morbilliviruses are highly contagious pathogens that cause some of the most devastating viral diseases of humans and animals, including measles virus (mv), canine distemper virus (cdv), and rinderpest virus (rpv). they replicate mainly in lymphoid organs throughout the body and cause severe immunosuppression accompanied with lymphopenia. we have recently shown that human, canine, and bovine signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (slams; also known as cd150) act as cellular receptors for mv, c ...200212008921
rinderpest virus h protein: role in determining host range in rabbits.a major molecular determinant of virus host-range is thought to be the viral protein required for cell attachment. we used a recombinant strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) to examine the role of this protein in determining the ability of rpv to replicate in rabbits. the recombinant was based on the rbok vaccine strain, which is avirulent in rabbits, carrying the haemagglutinin (h) protein gene from the lapinized rpv (rpv-l) strain, which is pathogenic in rabbits. the recombinant virus (rrpv-laph) ...200212029161
effect of immunization with plasmid dna encoding for rinderpest virus matrix protein on systemic rinderpest virus infection in rabbits.plasmid vaccine pbk-cmvmpilc113 expressing the matrix (m) gene of rinderpest virus was assessed for its potential to protect rabbits against a lethal viral challenge. rabbits immunized with plasmids expressing the m gene were not protected when challenged with lapinized rinderpest virus, despite the production of anti-m antibodies, while rabbits immunized with rinderpest tissue culture vaccine were completely protected from a lethal challenge with lapinized rinderpest virus. the plasmid vaccine ...200212090294
prevalence, distribution, and host range of peste des petits ruminants virus, turkey.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv, genus morbillivirus), which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, has only recently been officially declared to be present in turkey. we carried out a study to determine the prevalence, distribution, and host range of pprv in turkey. a total of 1,607 animals, reared in 18 different locations, were monitored for the presence of antibodies to pprv and the related virus of large ruminants, rinderpest virus (rpv). only two farms had animals that were fre ...200212095439
mapping of b-cell epitopes of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against secreted hemagglutinin (h) protein of rinderpest virus (rpv) expressed by a recombinant baculovirus were generated to characterize the antigenic sites on h protein and regions of functional significance. three of the mabs displayed hemagglutination inhibition activity and these mabs were unable to neutralize virus infectivity. western immunoblot analysis of overlapping deletion mutants indicated that three mabs recognize antigenic regions at the extreme carbo ...200212127784
recent epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv).peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an economically important viral disease of goats and sheep first described in west africa in the 1940s. the virus has been circulating in parts of sub-saharan africa for several decades and in the middle east and southern asia since 1993, although the first description of the virus in india dates to 1987. to study the genetic relationship between isolates of distinct geographical origin, a selected region of the fusion (f) protein gene of the viruses was ampli ...200212135634
induction of apoptotic cellular death in lymphatic tissues of cattle experimentally infected with different strains of rinderpest virus.the presence, type, and extent of cellular death in lymphatic tissues of cattle experimentally infected with rinderpest virus strains of different virulence was investigated morphologically. cells with dna strand breaks were identified in histological sections of palatine tonsil, spleen, and mesenteric and mandibular lymph nodes by the tunel (terminal desoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dutp nick end labelling) assay. in addition, representative samples of lymphatic tissues were examined by t ...200212354541
detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in sera of cattle, camels, sheep and goats in sudan.detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in sera of cattle, camels, sheep and goats in sudan.200212416868
rinderpest.rinderpest, also known as cattle plague, was for centuries the most dreaded bovine plague known and one that changed the course of history and still seriously compromises trade. it can lay waste not only to farming communities but the wildlife heritage of countries also is threatened because its broad host spectrum extends across cattle, asian buffaloes, yaks, and many other artiodactyls, both domesticated and wild, including swine. this article provides a brief history of rinderpest before desc ...200212442581
rinderpest virus lineage differentiation using rt-pcr and rt-pcr/elisa system has been developed that detects and differentiates rinderpest virus (rpv) from the other closely related morbillivirus of ruminants, peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv). in addition, using lineage specific probes, it is possible to determine whether the virus sample is wild-type or vaccine, and the likely origin of the outbreak if it is wild-type. it involves carrying out a rt-pcr with one digoxygenin (dig)-labelled primer followed by a hybridisation step with a virus- ...200312445935
approaches in the understanding of morbillivirus neurovirulence.certain members of the morbillivirus genus, canine distemper virus, phocine distemper virus, and the cetacean viruses of dolphins and porpoises exhibit high levels of central nervous system (cns) infection in their natural hosts. cns complications are rare for measles virus (mv) and are not associated with rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection. however, both rpv and pprv are neurovirulent in permissive murine strains. human postmortem tissue, neural cell cu ...200212491157
the control of rinderpest in tanzania between 1997 and january 1997, tanzania requested international assistance against rinderpest on the grounds that the virus had probably entered the country from southern kenya. over the next few months, a variety of attempts were made to determine the extent of the incursion by searching for serological and clinical evidence of the whereabouts of the virus. at the clinical level, these attempts were hampered by the low virulence of the strain, and at the serological level by the lack of a baseline against wh ...200212537386
[expression of rice dwarf virus outer coat protein gene(s8) in insect cells].outer coat protein gene(s8) of rdv was cloned into the transfer vector pvl 1393 to construct a recombinant vector pvl1393-s8. the recombinant vector pvl1393-s8 and the linear baculovirus rp23. lacz were cotransfected into sf9 cells to produce the recombinant virus rp23-s8. rp23-s8 infected sf9 cells were collected and analysed by sds-page and western-blot. the results showed that the s8 gene of rdv was expressed in sf9 cells and the expression level of sf9 cells was higher between 72-96 h after ...200112549020
[construction of rice dwarf virus genome database].secondary database construction is an important subject in the field of bioinformatics. as the full genomic sequences of some organisms are being completed and followed by structural and functional studies, construction of secondary database becomes essential on the agenda. the rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a pathogen infecting rice in china, japan and the southeastern asia region and leading to considerable economic loss. based on the data generated from recent genomic research and earlier biochemi ...200112549187
[nucleotide and protein sequence analysis of rice dwarf virus replicase(segment s1)].the full length cdna of rice dwarf virus (rdv) fujian isolate genome segment s1 was cloned and full length sequence was determined. the results showed that s1 is 4422 bp in length and contains a major open reading frame which encodes a polypeptide with 1444 amino acids. the major orf contains the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) consensus sequences, such as motif i (dxxxxd) motif ii (sgxxxtxxxn) and motif iii(gdd). in addition to the three motifs, a well-conserved region (exxkxy) is found fol ...199812549398
the fusion core complex of the peste des petits ruminants virus is a six-helix bundle assembly.we describe the properties of the two heptad repeats (hr1 and hr2) of the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) fusion protein (f) to obtain insights into the mechanism by which these repeats influence pprv-mediated cell fusion. both hr1 and hr2 inhibit pprv-mediated syncytia formation in vero cells in vitro. of these, hr2 was found to be more effective than hr1. we studied the mechanism of fusion inhibition by these two repeats by using various biophysical and biochemical methods either separ ...200312549911
[molecular cloning and sequencing of outer capsid protein gene of rice dwarf virus and its expression in escherichia coli].the s2 full-length cdna of rice dwarf phytoreovirus which enocodes the viral outer capsid protein was cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. the results showed that s2 is 3512 bp long with a large open reading frame which encodes a protein of 1116 amino acids. it shares 94.6% and 95.4% identity with rdv of japanese h isolate in terms of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, and it also shows some homology with vp2 of rotavirus at the level of amino acid sequence ...199912555568
competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on monoclonal antibody and recombinant hemagglutinin for serosurveillance of rinderpest virus.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) which detects antibodies unique to rinderpest virus (rpv) has been developed. this test can differentiate antibodies against rpv and those against peste des petits ruminants virus. the recombinant rpv hemagglutinin (h)-protein c-elisa (rech c-elisa) is based on the ability of a well-characterized monoclonal antibody (mab) produced with the soluble, secreted form of the h protein (sec h protein) of rpv made in a baculovirus expression syst ...200312624013
expression of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus in transgenic tobacco and immunogenicity of plant-derived protein in a mouse model.the use of transgenic plants as a production system for recombinant subunit vaccines has been considered safe and economical compared to cell culture methods. we have exploited this approach to produce rinderpest virus hemagglutinin (h) protein in transgenic tobacco as a model plant for testing the immunogenicity of plant-derived hemagglutinin protein. the transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by molecular analysis such as gene specific pcr and southern hybridization using full-length h ...200312706071
[canine distemper virus--an agent looking for new hosts].canine distemper is caused by the canine distemper virus (cdv), a rna virus belonging to the genus morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae. the genus morbillivirus includes measles virus, rinderpest virus and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus. the host spectrum of cdv, which includes numerous families of carnivores, has been changed in the last years and distemper-like diseases have been observed in numerous other species. these include epidemics in large felids, marine mammals and javelinas. ...200312756952
expression of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus in transgenic pigeon pea [cajanus cajan (l.) millsp.] plants.rinderpest virus is the causative agent of a devastating, often fatal disease in wild and domestic bovids that is endemic in africa, the middle east and south asia. the existing live attenuated vaccine is heat-labile, and thus there is a need for the development of new strategies for vaccination. this paper reports the development of transgenic pigeon pea [ cajanus cajun (l.) millsp.] expressing one of the protective antigens, the hemagglutinin (h) protein of rinderpest virus. a 2-kb fragment co ...200312789415
use of participatory epidemiology in studies of the persistence of lineage 2 rinderpest virus in east 1994, rinderpest virus of african lineage 2 was detected in east africa after an apparent absence of more than 30 years. in 1996, a disease search, based on participatory epidemiological techniques supplemented by serological and virological analyses, was undertaken in southern somalia and north-eastern kenya to collate past and current epidemiological information about rinderpest-compatible disease events, and to test the hypothesis that african lineage 2 rinderpest virus persists in populat ...200312790233
oral immunization of cattle with hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed in transgenic peanut induces specific immune responses.rinderpest is an acute, highly contagious often fatal disease of large and small ruminants, both domestic and wild. global eradication of rinderpest needs a robust, safe and cost-effective vaccine. the causative agent, rinderpest virus (rpv) is an important member of the genus morbillivirus in the paramyxoviridae family. we have generated transgenic peanut (arachis hypogea l.) plants expressing hemagglutinin protein of rpv and report here, the induction of immune responses in cattle following or ...200312804859
characterization of antigenic sites on the rinderpest virus n protein using monoclonal antibodies.the n protein of the rinderpest virus (rpv) was analyzed topologically and antigenically by using anti-n monoclonal antibodies (mabs). ten mabs were raised against the n protein of the rpv. at least six non-overlapping antigenic sites (sites a-f) were delineated by competitive binding assays using biotinylated mabs. of them 5 sites (a, c, d, e and f) on the n protein were recognized by rpv-specific mabs in elisa and ifa while site b was recognized by mabs reacting with both rpv and pprv. non- re ...200312819366
avianization of lapinized rinderpest virus. 195313050895
thermal reactions of kenya cattle vaccinated with lapinized rinderpest virus. 195413176432
use of rabbit-passaged strains of the nakamura la rinderpest virus for immunizing korean cattle. 195413207578
an investigation of antibody response in cattle vaccinated with the rabbit-passaged la rinderpest virus in korea. 195513228870
the optimum concentration of lapinised rinderpest virus for the inoculation of rabbits in the production of vaccine. 195513242670
cytopathogenicity of rinderpest virus in tissue culture. 195713407712
propagation of the lapinized-avianized strain of rinderpest virus in the culture of chicken embryo tissue. 195813498257
duration of immunity conferred by wet lapinised rinderpest virus vaccine in n'dama cattle in sierra leone. 195813502491
a specific diffusible antigen of rinderpest virus demonstrated by the agar double-diffusion precipitation reaction. 195813552687
mortality of rabbits inoculated with lapinised rinderpest virus. 195913641446
studies with rinderpest virus in tissue culture. i. growth and cytopathogenicity. 195913641447
studies with rinderpest virus in tissue culture. ii. pathogenicity for cattle of culture-passaged virus. 195913641448
[attempts at titration of the antibodies neutralizing rinderpest virus]. 195913650296
[studies on the avianized variants of rinderpest virus]. 196113702708
treatment of rinderpest-infected cattle with caprinized rinderpest virus. 196113749351
some factors influencing the propagation of rinderpest virus in embryonated eggs. 196113764967
rinderpest interference with caprinized rinderpest virus. 196113785245
multiple components of rinderpest virus as determined by the precipitin reaction in agar gel. 196013834929
adaptation of two strains of rinderpest virus to tissue culture. 196213884138
studies with tissue culture-modified rinderpest virus as an immunizing agent. 196213884139
influence of the route of exposure on the titre of rinderpest virus in rabbits. 196213909927
Displaying items 401 - 500 of 725