TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
sequence analysis and product assignment of segment 7 of the rice dwarf virus genome.the complete nucleotide sequence of segment 7 of the rice dwarf virus (rdv) genome was determined. the segment was 1696 bp long and its plus-strand terminal sequence, 5'ggcaaa---ugau3', was in agreement with the consensus sequence previously found in other segments of rdv. a 10 bp inverted repeat was found adjacent to the termini. a single long open reading frame extended for 1518 bp from the first aug triplet (positions 26 to 28), and encoded a polypeptide of 506 amino acids (mr 55,339). this p ...19902313270
observations on the pathogenicity for sheep and goats and the transmissibility of the strain of virus isolated during the rinderpest outbreak in sri lanka in 1987.the pathogenicity for sheep and goats of the virus strain that caused acute rinderpest in cattle and domestic buffalo in sri lanka after an interval of over 40 years has been examined. the results show that it can cause overt clinical disease in goats, but only mild or unapparent infection in sheep. the disease was transmitted from infected sheep to in-contact susceptible sheep and calves.19902316182
the serological response to a thermostable vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine under field conditions in niger.a lyophilized thermostable vero cell-adapted ringerpest vaccine, stabilized with lactalbumin hydrolysate and sucrose, was tested for safety, serological response and suitability for use with an abbreviated cold chain under field conditions in niger. a total of 480 cattle, 90 goats and 55 sheep of unknown serological status were vaccinated on government ranches and observed for at least 22 days. no untoward effects of the vaccine were detected. the serological response to the vaccine stored at en ...19902353442
the role of the 5' nontranslated regions of the fusion protein mrnas of canine distemper virus and rinderpest virus.the mrnas which code for the fusion proteins of the morbilliviruses (measles virus, canine distemper virus, and rinderpest virus) have unusually long 5' untranslated regions (utrs) which are gc-rich and are capable of folding into extensive secondary structures. in measles virus the first aug codons in the fusion (f) protein mrna are in close proximity at nucleotide positions 574 and 583 and protein translation is initiated at the second position. in the canine distemper virus (cdv) and rinderpe ...19902353458
a serological survey of rinderpest antibody in wildlife and sheep and goats in northern extensive serological survey for rinderpest antibody in wildlife, principally buffalo (syncerus caffer), and sheep and goats has been undertaken in the previously endemic region of northern tanzania to determine whether or not the virus has continued to cycle in susceptible species since the last occurrence of overt disease in 1982. the results show that infection but not disease has occurred at least until 1987 in buffalo in parts of the serengeti national park but not in the other game area ...19902384143
nucleotide sequence of segment s9 of the genome of rice gall dwarf virus.dna complementary to the ninth largest (s9) of the 12 genome segments of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) was cloned and its sequence was determined. it is 1202 nucleotides in length and contains one open reading frame which extends for 969 nucleotides from nucleotide 26. it encodes a polypeptide of 323 amino acids with an mr of 35,560. the dinucleotide sequence at the 5' end and the trinucleotide sequence at the 3' end of the plus strand, 5' gg--gau 3', which are present in the rna of both wound tu ...19902391501
the production of peste des petits ruminants hyperimmune sera in rabbits and their application in virus diagnosis.hyperimmune sera were produced by serial inoculation of rabbits with vero cell-adapted, sucrose gradient-purified nigerian peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) isolate. two antisera produced, neutralized the homologous pprv but not the heterologous rinderpest kabette "o" virus. the antisera gave strong precipitin lines with purified pprv antigens and were used to detect pprv and rinderpest virus antigens from ante-mortem secretions and post-mortem tissue homogenates from ppr and rinderpest vi ...19902396483
antiserum raised in pigs against canine distemper virus and its utility in diagnostic procedures for morbillivirus infections (canine distemper, phocine distemper, rinderpest).antiserum against canine distemper virus (cdv) was raised in pigs by intranasal inoculation with cdv strains cnd65 and rockborn. immunoglobulin fractions were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. peroxidase-conjugated anti-cdv immunoglobulin preparations were used for the detection and titration of cdv, seal-derived (phocine) distemper virus (pdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) in vero cell cultures. for the detection and titration of corresponding neutralizing antibodies a direct neutralizing pe ...19902396484
characterisation of the european seal morbillivirus.the elisa test originally developed for the detection of serum antibodies to rinderpest virus has been shown to detect cross-reacting antibodies in sera of diseased common and grey seals. analysis of sera collected from various seal populations is in progress to establish the correlation between different morbillivirus neutralisation tests, elisa tests and the disease status of the animals. rna purified from post-mortem tissues removed from diseased seals has been analysed by hybridisation with ...19902402877
the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the attachment protein h of canine distemper virus.the sequence of the h gene and flanking sequences in the f and l genes of canine distemper virus (cdv) have been determined. the h gene of cdv (1946 nucleotides) contains one large open reading frame starting at position 21 and terminating at position 1835, encoding a protein of 604 amino acid residues. this protein contains three potential glycosylation sites in the extracellular domain and, like all other paramyxoviruses, a n-terminal membrane-spanning hydrophobic anchor domain. the deduced h ...19911993883
immunological and virological characterization of improved construction of recombinant vaccinia virus expressing rinderpest virus hemagglutinin.we constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing rinderpest virus (rpv) hemagglutinin (h) by modifying the promoter region of the original rvv. the promotor region was modified at three points, i.e., an outframe atg was eliminated, the sequence between the promoter and initiation codon was shortened and the base sequence just upstream of the initiation codon was changed. as compared with the original rvv, the modified rvv was found to produce a remarkably large amount of h protein in ...19912001178
nucleotide sequence of cdna to the rinderpest virus mrna encoding the nucleocapsid protein.the full-length cdna corresponding to the mrna encoding the nucleocapsid protein (np) of rinderpest virus (rv) was cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. the gene of rv-np was composed of 1683 nucleotides and contained a single large open reading frame, which is capable of encoding a protein of 525 amino acids with a molecular weight of 58,241 da. the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence were compared with those of measles virus (mv) and canine distemper vir ...19912017875
serological evidence of peste des petits ruminants in jordan. 19912024417
confirmation of rinderpest in experimentally and naturally infected cattle using microtitre techniques.virulent rinderpest virus was detected by immunoperoxidase staining of microtitre bovine kidney cell cultures within 24 to 48 hours of inoculation with prescapular lymph node and spleen homogenates from experimentally infected steers. rinderpest virus specific cytopathic effects were evident from 48 hours in microtitre plates and from 72 hours in rolled tube cultures. nasal and ocular secretions collected from cattle naturally infected with rinderpest and inoculated into bovine kidney cell cultu ...19912038765
crystallization and preliminary x-ray study of a double-shelled spherical virus, rice dwarf virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a double-shelled spherical plant virus consisting of 46,000 mr capsid and 114,000 mr core proteins and minor structural proteins, and containing 12 genome segments of double-stranded rna. the virus has been crystallized in the cubic space group i23 with a = 789 a. there are two particles per unit cell, each positioned on a point of 23 symmetry. packing considerations showed that the diameter of the virus particle is 693 a. the crystals diffract to at least 6.5 a resolut ...19912056533
an immunohistochemical study of the pneumonia caused by peste des petits ruminants virus.ten goats were inoculated with peste des petits ruminants virus, a paramyxovirus closely related to rinderpest virus. all goats developed severe clinical disease, 8/10 having coughing or dyspnea as prominent clinical signs. in addition, all of the goats had stomatitis and diarrhea. histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies were done only on the respiratory tracts. pathologic changes ranged from mild multifocal bronchiolitis and bronchitis to severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia. lesions we ...19912063517
identification of epitope(s) on the internal virion proteins of rinderpest virus which are absent from peste des petits ruminants virus.monoclonal antibodies (mab) raised against the rbok vaccine strain of rinderpest virus were characterized by radio-immunoprecipitation (ripa) and in the indirect elisa using measles (mv), distemper (cdv), rinderpest (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants viruses (pprv). those found to be specific for the matrix (m) protein and the nucleocapsid (n) protein could be classified into different groups on the basis of the anti-morbillivirus mab classification scheme; a number of these mab showed a selec ...19911709543
antigenic and functional characterization of rinderpest virus envelope proteins using monoclonal antibodies.a total of 24 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the haemagglutinin (h) and the fusion protein (f) of rinderpest virus (rpv) were used to characterize their antigenic structure and biological properties, and to analyse natural variation in the envelope proteins of morbilliviruses. the anti-h and anti-f mabs defined seven and three distinct antigenic sites, respectively. the mabs to six sites on h were able to neutralize the infectivity of rpv. the addition of guinea-pig complement or anti-mous ...19911714940
analyses of baseline survey data on rinderpest in bahr el ghazal province, with proposal of an improved vaccination strategy against rinderpest for southern sudan.results from analyses of baseline surveillance data on rinderpest are used for proposing an improved vaccination strategy against rinderpest in southern sudan. sera from 4,074 (47%) of the total sample of 8,565 cattle collected in a series of cross-sectional surveys in 400 cattle camps in the bahr el ghazal province of southern sudan were tested for rinderpest antibodies using the standard virus neutralisation test (vnt) technique: 77.4% were positive while 22.6% gave negative results. the data ...19911763441
viruses in the phytoreovirus genus of the reoviridae family have the same conserved terminal sequences.the 5'- and 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences of the dsrna genome segments of rice dwarf virus (rdv) and rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv), members of the phytoreovirus genus of the reoviridae family, were determined and compared with those of wound tumour virus (wtv). the 3' tetranucleotides of the plus strand of all genome segments of rdv and rgdv were found to be the same (---ugau 3'), except for segment 9 of rdv which had the 3'-terminal sequence---cgau 3'. the conserved 3'-terminal sequence (---u ...19911765764
the nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid composition of the haemagglutinin and fusion proteins of the morbillivirus phocid distemper virus.the amino acid composition of the two surface proteins of the recently isolated morbillivirus phocid distemper virus (pdv) were deduced from the nucleotide sequence. the fusion (f) protein of pdv exhibited characteristics similar to those of other morbillivirus f proteins. the overall amino acid similarity with its closest homologue, canine distemper virus (cdv), was 72%. from the context of the starting codons and the requirement for a hydrophobic signal peptide, it is likely that translation o ...19911765768
comparison between the antigenicity of two rinderpest vaccine strains using the neutralization test. 19911830808
molecular analysis of rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment s11 corresponding to wound tumour phytoreovirus segment s12.the complete nucleotide sequence of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) genome segment s11 was determined. s11 is 1067 nucleotides long. there is an inverted repeat of 10 bp adjacent to the conserved 5'-terminal hexanucleotide (5' gguaaa 3') and 3'-terminal tetranucleotide (5' uagu 3') sequences. a single large open reading frame found in the plus strand of s11 begins with the first aug codon (bases 6 to 8) and extends for 567 bases. evolutionary relatedness between rdv s11 and wound tumour phytoreov ...19911840611
the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of the attachment protein of canine distemper virus.the nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the attachment protein of the convac strain of the canine distemper virus (cdv), corresponding to the haemagglutinin (h) gene of measles virus was determined using a mrna-derived cdna clone and genomic viral rna. the mrna transcribed from the cdv h gene is 1944 nucleotides long excluding the polyadenylated tail. only one long open reading frame was found comprising nucleotides 21-1841. the predicted protein has a single hydrophobic region which can ...19911891961
a vaccinia virus double recombinant expressing the f and h genes of rinderpest virus protects cattle against rinderpest and causes no pock lesions.rinderpest is a highly contagious viral disease of ruminants with greater than 95% morbidity and mortality. we have constructed an infectious vaccinia virus recombinant that expresses both the fusion (f) gene and the hemagglutinin (h) gene of rinderpest virus. the wyeth strain of vaccinia virus was used for the construction of the recombinant. cattle vaccinated with the recombinant virus were 100% protected from challenge inoculation with greater than 1000 times the lethal dose of rinderpest vir ...19911896447
b95a, a marmoset lymphoblastoid cell line, as a sensitive host for rinderpest virus.we reported earlier that b95a, an epstein-barr virus-transformed marmoset b lymphoblastoid cell line, is more susceptible to infection with measles virus than other cells. the cell line also was found to be susceptible to infection with the lapinized nakamura iii (l) strain of rinderpest virus and various strains derived from it. the b95a cell line was therefore the only host cell system available for the propagation and quantification of the l strain. in contrast to the adaptation of the l stra ...19911900885
nucleotide sequences of genome segments s8, encoding a capsid protein, and s10, encoding a 36k protein, of rice gall dwarf virus.the nucleotide sequences of dnas complementary to the eighth (s8) and the tenth (s10) largest of the 12 genome segments of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) were determined. the s8 and s10 segments consist of 1578 and 1198 nucleotides, each with a single open reading frame extending for 1278 nucleotides from nucleotide 21, and 960 nucleotides from nucleotide 22, respectively. s8 encodes a polypeptide of 426 amino acids with an mr of 47419. the amino acid sequences of several peptide fragments of the ...19911940872
rapid isolation of monoclonal hybridoma cultures by a 'fusion-cloning' method: the requirement for aminopterin.hybridomas were generated by fusing the balb/c sp2/0 myeloma-like cell line with either: (i) splenocytes from balb/c mice immunized with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), african swine fever virus (asfv) or pig thymocytes; or (ii) lymph node cells from cattle immunized with fmdv. if the fusion mixtures were plated in cloning medium of methyl cellulose and hat medium, small hybridoma colonies developed which rarely survived. fusi ...19911954000
improved isolation of rinderpest virus in transformed bovine t lymphoblast cell lines.bovine t lymphoblast cell lines transformed by the protozoan theileria parva were compared with bovine kidney (bk) and vero cells for their ability to isolate various strains of rinderpest virus from tissues and infected secretions. all of the strains of rinderpest virus that were tested, including attenuated cell-culture, caprinised and lapinised vaccines, and both mild and virulent pathogenic strains, readily induced syncytial cytopathic effect (cpe) in t lymphoblasts. the cpe could often be d ...19921410806
differential diagnosis of rinderpest and ppr using biotinylated cdna probes. 19921441177
application of corynebacterium cutis lysate as an immune stimulant in ultrasonicated lysate of corynebacterium cutis (ultracorn, virbac, france) was administered to 10-day-old calves, 5-month-old calves, and pregnant dams kept under egyptian environmental conditions. ninety-five calves and 50 dams were used in the study. all animals were treated with 2 ml/100 kg body weight of killed c cutis. its effects on body weight gain and on calf mortality and morbidity were recorded. the results obtained showed that treated calves had greater weight gains, reduced suscep ...19921445670
observations on rinderpest in kenya, 1986-1989.rinderpest was confirmed in kenya in 1986, 1987, 1988 and 1989. three epidemiologically distinct events appear to have occurred: repeated outbreaks in west pokot district related to cross-border movement of stock, an outbreak in marsabit district in 1987 (thought to have been caused by illegal movement of cattle, possibly in vehicles, from countries further north) and a series of related outbreaks in and near nairobi between 1988 and 1989 due to the unauthorized movement from abattoirs and holdi ...19921472724
round table on morbilliviruses in marine mammals.since 1988 morbilliviruses have been increasingly recognized and held responsible for mass mortality amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and other seal species. virus isolations and characterization proved that morbilliviruses from seals in northwest europe were genetically distinct from other known members of this group including canine distemper virus (cdv), rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus and measles virus. an epidemic in baikal seals in 1987 was apparently caused by a m ...19921481361
sequence analysis and editing of the phosphoprotein (p) gene of rinderpest virus.we have cloned the cdna of the phosphoprotein (p) gene of the virulent (kabete "o") strain of rinderpest virus and provided a comparative analysis of its sequence with that of the p genes of measles, canine distemper, and phocid distemper viruses. the gene encodes two overlapping open reading frames of 1521 and 531 nucleotides. use of the first atg would produce a p polypeptide of 507 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 54,344. the second atg would produce a c polypeptide of 177 re ...19921529555
the genes encoding the phospho- and matrix proteins of phocine distemper virus.the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (p)/v/c and matrix (m) protein genes of phocine distemper virus (pdv) have been determined and the deduced amino acid sequences of the proteins derived from these genes compared with those of the other morbilliviruses. the 1655 nucleotides of the p gene encode a phosphoprotein of 507 amino acid residues (from nucleotide numbers 60 to 1583) which is 75% identical to that of canine distemper virus (cdv). the c proteins of the two viruses are 73% ident ...19921535099
molecular characterization of phocine distemper virus: gene order and sequence of the gene encoding the attachment (h) protein.generation of a set of cdna clones covering the n, p/v/c, m, f, h and part of the l gene of phocine distemper virus (pdv) has been described. the gene order of pdv determined from a physical as well as a transcriptional map, was identical to that of the other morbilliviruses so far studied. the h gene sequence (1951 nucleotides) contains one large open reading frame which encodes a protein of 607 amino acids, identical in length to that of the h protein of the convac strain of canine distemper v ...19921588321
phocine distemper virus, the agent responsible for the 1988 mass mortality of seals.the biochemical characterisation of phocine distemper virus (pdv) has shown that pdv is related to but clearly distinct from canine distemper virus (cdv) and relative to its relationship with cdv is only remotely related to the other morbilliviruses, namely measles virus (mv) or rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv). comparative studies with monoclonal antibodies indicate that the virus is serologically closely related to cdv with many conserved epitopes, particularl ...19921594934
the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the m gene of phocid distemper virus (pdv). the most conserved protein of morbilliviruses shows a uniquely close relationship between pdv and canine distemper virus.the nucleotide sequence of the matrix gene (m) of a recently identified morbillivirus, phocid distemper virus (pdv), was determined and the amino acid composition deduced. the m gene of pdv shared many characteristics with the corresponding gene in other morbilliviruses. the nucleotide homology with the closely related canine distemper virus (cdv) was maximum at 67% followed by measles virus (mv) (58%) and rinderpest virus (rpv) (56%). the length of the 5' long untranslated region of pdv (408) w ...19921604930
a competitive elisa using anti-n monoclonal antibodies for specific detection of rinderpest antibodies in cattle and small ruminants.a competitive elisa (c-elisa) using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which bind to the nucleo-protein (np) of rinderpest virus (rpv) for detection of rpv antibodies in cattle and small ruminant sera is described. unlike virus neutralisation test (vnt), this test using mab ivb2-4, can detect specific rpv antibodies without showing a cross-reaction with antibodies to peste-des-petits ruminants-virus (pprv); by contrast, when mab ve4-1 is used the test detects both rpv and pprv antibodies, including lo ...19921626365
the role of biotechnology in tropical diseases. 19921626860
sequence analysis of the genes encoding the nucleocapsid protein and phosphoprotein (p) of phocid distemper virus, and editing of the p gene transcript.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of two genes of phocid distemper virus (pdv) were determined by cdna cloning and sequencing. the long open reading frame of the gene encoding the nucleocapsid (n) protein is presented. as with other morbilliviruses, the phosphoprotein (p) gene of pdv was found to be located after the 5' end of the n gene and before the 3' end of the matrix protein gene. the p gene was shown to have the capacity to encode three distinct proteins, p, v and c, in anal ...19921634877
haemagglutination-inhibition technique for definitive diagnosis of rinderpest-virus-specific antibody.a simple and rapid serological method for the definitive diagnosis of rinderpest-specific antibody is described. the technique is based on adsorbing out the cross reacting antibodies to peste des petits ruminants antigens from a rinderpest immune serum, thereby leaving active the specific antibody to rinderpest which is determined by haemagglutination-inhibition test.19921298202
serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
[quality control of the vaccines and cold chain during the national vaccination campaigns].during the two vaccination campaigns against rinderpest and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (cbpp) in 1989 and 1990, 507 vaccine samples were collected for quality control at each step of the distribution chain from the veterinary pharmacy of abidjan to the vaccinator on the field. parallel to that, the quality of the cold chain was checked. a total of 463 titrations were performed. all the titration levels were above the oie/fao standards, i.e. 10(2.5) dict50/ml for rinderpest valence and 10( ...19921338738
identification of epitope expression on the internal proteins of rinderpest virus which is dependent upon virion maturation events.monoclonal antibodies (mab) identified the existence of both maturation-dependent and maturation-independent epitopes on rinderpest virus antigens. the former were divided into (i) post-maturation antigenic determinants, which were dependent upon the maturation of viral antigen into complete virions; and (ii) pre-maturation antigenic determinants, which were only expressed on what appeared to be immature particles before 'budding' into the extracellular environment. epitope expression could be r ...19937679394
visual detection of rinderpest viral antigens on surface. 19938105648
viral antigen distribution in organs of cattle experimentally infected with rinderpest virus.the distribution of viral antigen in various organs of four approximately 10-month-old castrated male friesian cattle experimentally infected with a highly virulent strain of rinderpest virus was studied. a monoclonal antibody with genus-specific reactivity for morbilliviruses was applied in an indirect immunoperoxidase method performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. rinderpest viral antigen was located mainly in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of the digestive, resp ...19938116148
protection of goats against peste des petits ruminants with a vaccinia virus double recombinant expressing the f and h genes of rinderpest virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. the causative agent, pprv, is a member of the family paramyxoviridae and the genus morbillivirus. other members of the genus include rinderpest (rpv), measles, canine distemper and phocid distemper viruses. ppr has a very high rate of morbidity and mortality, and effective control of this disease is of economic importance in africa, asia and the mid ...19938212844
rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants-like disease in the al-ain region of the united arab emirates.the author demonstrates that rinderpest prevailed among the cattle population in the al-ain region of the united arab emirates from 1987 to 1989. a total of twenty-four outbreaks of rinderpest were recorded during the study period. similarly, evidence of the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) or a ppr-like disease was regularly encountered in small ruminants in a total of forty-one outbreaks.19938219335
use of the polymerase chain reaction in differentiating rinderpest field virus and vaccine virus in the same 1991, a disease with clinical signs indicative of rinderpest was reported in yaks in the former soviet union, near the border with mongolia. at the peak of the epizootic, mortality among affected yaks was 32-42% in adults and 65% in animals less than one year old. pathological samples were examined independently at two institutes in russia. both institutes confirmed the presence of rinderpest using complement fixation, agar gel diffusion and immunoassays. since vaccination had been initiated ...19938219336
[rinderpest eradication and recombinant vaccine]. 19938236832
biological properties of phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus.morbilliviruses constitute a major threat to the health of animal and man. to date the morbillivirus genus in the paramyxoviridae family comprises five established members, namely canine distemper virus (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv), measles virus (mv), rinderpest virus (rpv), and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv). in addition, morbillivirus candidates infecting aquatic mammals were recently discovered. the present review on the biology of morbilliviruses focuses on knowledge gained ...19938268007
dipstick enzyme immunoassay for rinderpest antibody in cattle.a dipstick enzyme immunoassay (elisa) has been standardized for the detection of rinderpest antibodies. one hundred and thirty bovine serum samples were analysed by the dipstick elisa method and the results compared with the conventional plate elisa method. the sensitivity was found to be similar in both methods. the dipstick elisa does not require expensive micro-plates and an elisa reader, and is recommended for use in field laboratories where the qualitative detection of rinderpest antibodies ...19938273283
evidence for different lineages of rinderpest virus reflecting their geographic isolation.sequence analysis of part of the fusion protein gene from recent isolates of rinderpest virus revealed that distinct lineages of the virus exist which reflect the geographical location of their isolation in africa and asia. current strains circulating in kenya and sudan were most similar, both in terms of nucleotide sequence and pathogenic nature, to viruses isolated in egypt and in nigeria in 1983/1984 and they were quite distinct from an east african isolate (rbt-1) from the 1960s. two older i ...19938277286
rinderpest vaccination responses among calves and adult cattle in uganda monitored using elisa assay.responses to the plowright rinderpest vaccine by 43 calves and 70 adult cattle in uganda in 1990, through the production of igg antibodies, were monitored for 4 weeks using the elisa assay. 80% of the calves were seronegative before vaccination of which 32% remained seronegative and 68% subsequently seroconverted at 2 weeks postvaccination. 20% of the calves were seropositive before vaccination but registered a decline during the 2nd and 4th weeks postvaccination. 50% of adult ankole cattle sero ...19938281740
single capripoxvirus recombinant vaccine for the protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease.a recombinant capripoxvirus has been constructed containing a full-length cdna of the fusion protein gene of rinderpest virus. the gene was inserted in the thymidine kinase gene of the capripox genome under the control of the vaccinia virus major late promoter p11 together with the escherichia coli gpt gene in the opposite orientation under the control of the vaccinia early/late promoter p7.5. a vaccine prepared from this recombinant virus protected cattle against clinical rinderpest after a let ...19938342321
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.infections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in europe and siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (pdv-1) and phocid distemper virus-2 (pdv-2) respectively. pdv-1 was characterized as a newly identified morbillivirus, most related to canine distemper virus (cdv), whereas pdv-2 most probably is a strain of cdv. morbilliviruses were also isol ...19938343804
expression in baculovirus vector system of the nucleocapsid protein gene of rinderpest virus.the rinderpest (rv) nucleocapsid (np) gene segment was inserted into the genome of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acnpv) adjacent to the polyhedrin promoter. the expression of np protein in sf9 cells was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence and by western blotting analysis with monoclonal antibodies. recombinant rv-np protein was purified by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient, and used as an antigen for an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect anti rv ...19938366167
cloning and sequence analysis of the phosphoprotein gene of rinderpest virus.we have cloned several cdnas derived from the p gene of rinderpest virus. one of these, derived from a bicistronic n-p mrna, has been sequenced in its entirety. sequencing of a section of the others, and comparison with the genome sequence, showed that p gene transcripts, as for other morbilliviruses, were variable; non-templated gs could be added at a site resembling the normal stop transcription site. primer extension analysis showed that about half the transcripts were edited. sequences of th ...19938429304
the growth of cell culture-attenuated rinderpest virus in bovine lymphoblasts with b cell, cd4+ and cd8+ alpha/beta t cell and gamma/delta t cell phenotypes.cloned bovine lymphoblastoid cell lines, transformed by the protozoan parasite theileria parva were infected with cell culture-attenuated rinderpest virus vaccine. the virus grew readily in lymphoid b cells, cd4+ and cd8+ alpha/beta t cells and gamma/delta t cells producing new infectivity, viral antigens, c.p.e. and total cell death. there did not appear to be a predilection for any particular phenotype of lymphoblast. the results imply that if the vaccine causes immunosuppression, it could do ...19938429305
effect of gamma irradiation on reactivity of rinderpest virus antigen with bovine immune serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and virus neutralization and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests.gamma irradiation effectively inactivated gradient-purified rinderpest virus. irradiated antigen and sera remained functional in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, virus neutralization tests, and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests. irradiation, however, led to a dose-dependent decrease in reactivity, particularly significant (p < 0.05) when both reagents were irradiated. to avoid false-positive reactions, only one reagent (serum or antigen) may be irradiated.19938432831
immunological responses of mice and cattle to baculovirus-expressed f and h proteins of rinderpest virus: lack of protection in the presence of neutralizing antibody.rinderpest is a highly contagious viral disease of ruminants and has greater than 95% morbidity and mortality. the etiological agent, rinderpest virus (rpv), is a member of the family paramyxoviridae and the genus morbillivirus. immune responses to both the hemagglutinin (h) and the fusion (f) antigens of morbilliviruses play an important role in the prevention of infection, and only attenuated live vaccines have been shown to provide protective immunity against the group. the lack of protection ...19938437215
immunisation of cattle with a recombinant vaccinia vector expressing the haemagglutinin gene of rinderpest virus.the efficacy of a recombinant rinderpest vaccine, constructed by inserting the rinderpest virus haemagglutinin gene into attenuated vaccinia virus, lc16mo strain, was tested in cattle. after subcutaneous inoculation of 10(8) plaque-forming units (pfu) of the recombinant vaccine, neither palpable skin lesions nor increases in body temperature were observed, indicating the absence of detectable clinical reactions. all the vaccinated cattle were completely protected from challenge with the saudi 1/ ...19938456545
antibody levels determined by an appropriate technology (hi) in local cattle following anti-rinderpest campaign in nigeria.the levels of antibodies against rinderpest measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test were titrated in 640 randomly collected sera. out of 640 samples, 586 (91%) exhibited high titres of > 4 while 54 (9%) had low titres of < or = 4. of the 400 samples collected in zaria, 354 (88.5%) had high titres while 46 (11.5%) had low titres. in funtua, 140 samples were collected with 132 (94.3%) recording high titres while 8 (5.7%) had low titres. all samples (100) collected from shika had hig ...19938470425
monoclonal antibody-based blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific detection and titration of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus antibody in caprine and ovine sera.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-elisa), using two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs), was established and compared with the virus neutralization test (vnt) for detecting specific peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) antibody in caprine and ovine sera. this technique was developed because vnt, the only available specific serological test for pprv and the cross-reactive rinderpest virus (rpv), is time-consuming and unaffordable for most laboratories in regions where both ...19938501207
prevalence of morbilliviruses among pinniped and cetacean species.since 1987, morbillivirus infections have caused serious disease outbreaks with high mortality among aquatic mammals. baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were involved in an outbreak caused by a virus closely related to canine distemper virus (cdv) in 1987. harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in north-western europe were struck by a newly recognised morbillivirus of seals (pdv1). a serological survey has indicated that these morbillivirus infections frequently ...19938518442
characterization of morbilliviruses isolated from dolphins and porpoises in europe.a previously unidentified morbillivirus was isolated from two harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) that had died in the dutch waddensea (north sea) in 1990. this porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), which had recently caused a heavy mortality in mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), were compared antigenically with other members of the genus morbillivirus, including the newly recognized phocine distemper virus type 1. dmv and pmv proved to be similar ...19938468554
the use of thermostable vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine as a heterologous vaccine against peste des petits ruminants.the thermostable vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine was evaluated in terms of immunogenicity as a heterologous vaccine against peste des petits ruminants. a titration to establish the minimum immunising dose was performed in american mixed breed goats by vaccinating test subjects with dilutions of vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine and then challenging 26 days later with virulent peste des petits ruminants virus. all animals were followed for virus neutralising antibodies against both rinder ...19938460262
detection of anti-dna antibody responses in rabbits infected with rinderpest virus by elisa.elisa was standardized to detect anti-dna antibodies (adabs) in sera of rabbits infected with rinderpest virus (rpv). these antibodies were found in late (28th and 36th day post inoculation (dpi)) sera of rabbits infected with rabbit virulent lapinized rpv, but not in early (7th dpi) sera of the same rabbits. adabs were not found either in early or late sera of rabbits infected with attenuated rbok strain of rpv. rabbit anti-rpv hyperimmune serum was also found to be positive for adabs. detectio ...19938184791
comparison of the pathogenicity of rinderpest virus in different strains of rabbits.pathogenicity of the lapinized nakamura-iii (l) strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) was examined in four strains of rabbits consisting of two inbred strains (nw-nibs and duy-nibs) and two outbred strains maintained in closed colony (nw-nibs and jw-nibs) using a marmoset lymphoblastoid cell line, b95a cell-passaged virus and tissue homogenates of virus-infected rabbits. the cell culture virus was found to maintain virulence for rabbits of both closed colony and inbred nw-nibs strain similar to the h ...19938117822
genomic heterogeneity of rice dwarf phytoreovirus field isolates and nucleotide sequences of variants of genome segment 12.electrophoretic profiles of the dsrnas of field isolates of rice dwarf virus (rdv) were compared with those of an isolate maintained at hokkaido university (rdv-h). unexpectedly, the genomic dsrnas of most of the field isolates showed distinct electrophoretic mobility profiles. this was the case even among isolates from the same region. genome segment 12 (s12) from some variants migrated faster than s12 from rdv-h. these rnas were converted to full-length cdnas and sequenced. s12 from all the va ...19948046386
nucleotide sequence comparisons of the fusion protein gene from virulent and attenuated strains of rinderpest virus.we have cloned and sequenced the entire fusion (f) protein gene of the rbok vaccine strain of rinderpest virus and the coding regions for the f genes of two mild field isolates of the virus from africa. analysis of the nucleotide and the predicted amino acid sequences showed that the vaccine virus was more than 99% identical in the protein coding region to the virulent kabete o strain from which it was derived, whereas the field isolates differed by 10 to 12% from each other and from the vaccine ...19947996154
cloning and expression of the nucleocapsid gene of virulent kabete o strain of rinderpest virus in baculovirus: use in differential diagnosis between vaccinated and infected animals.rinderpest (rp) is a viral disease of ruminants with > 95% morbidity and mortality. we have cloned the cdna of the nucleocapsid (n) gene of the virulent kabete o strain of rinderpest virus (rpvk) and compared its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences with those of the n genes of the lapinized strain of rinderpest virus (rpvl), measles virus (mv), and canine distemper virus (cdv). the gene has an open reading frame of 1575 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 525 amino acids with a molecula ...19948259649
the detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in cattle, sheep and goats and the possible implications to rinderpest control programmes.monoclonal antibody-based competitive elisa (c-elisa) have been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to both rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viruses in cattle, sheep and goats. examination of serum samples from sheep and goats in gambia, before and after vaccination with rinderpest vaccine, suggested that antibodies to ppr virus could prevent an immune response to the rinderpest vaccine. cattle sera from nigeria and ghana showed a high prevalence of antibody against pp ...19948119361
cloning and sequence analysis of the matrix (m) protein gene of rinderpest virus and evidence for another bovine morbillivirus.we have cloned and sequenced the entire m gene of the vaccine strain of rinderpest virus and that of the virulent kabete "o" strain from which it was derived. the sequences of these two genes are essentially identical (99% at the nucleotide level), but were very different from a previously published kabete o m gene sequence (m. limo and t. yilma, 1990, virology 175, 323-327). inspection of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of known morbillivirus m genes showed that the earlier sequ ...19948128616
distribution of antigen in cattle infected with rinderpest virus.five holstein heifers (approximately 8 months of age and weighing 225-275 kg) were inoculated subcutaneously with 1,000 tcid50 of rinderpest virus, virulent kabete o strain. they become clinically ill 2 to 5 days post-inoculation, with fever (40 c to 41.5 c), conjunctivitis, and diarrhea. all were euthanatized when moribund at 6 days postinoculation. the following tissues were collected in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and subsequently subjected to histopathologic and immunohistochemical exami ...19948203082
effect of ammonium chloride on multiplication of rinderpest virus in vero cells.ammonium chloride, a lysosomotropic weak base, inhibited replication of rinderpest virus in vero cells. the inhibition of replication was dose-dependent and the minimum effective dose of ammonium chloride was determined as 5-10 mmol/l. the fusion efficiency and the yield of both cell-free and cell-associated virus were reduced in the presence of the inhibitor. western blot analysis of rinderpest virus-infected vero cells revealed that synthesis of two virus-induced polypeptides were affected by ...19947817898
protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease with a recombinant capripoxvirus expressing the fusion protein gene of rinderpest virus.cattle were protected against challenge with rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses by vaccination with a recombinant capripoxvirus containing the fusion protein (f) gene of rinderpest virus. the minimum protective immunising doses for rinderpest and lumpy skin disease were 5.5 x 10(4) plaque forming units (pfu) and 1.5 x 10(3) pfu, respectively.19947880246
progress in the development of a heat-stable recombinant rinderpest vaccine using an attenuated vaccinia virus vector.rinderpest is a fatal infectious disease of cattle and buffalo, and is prevalent in many parts of the developing world. eradication campaigns are at present under way in africa, the middle east and south asia. as these regions have very hot climates, it is difficult and expensive to establish reliable cold chains to deliver heat-sensitive vaccines and, for this reason, many previous vaccination/eradication campaigns have been ineffective. to overcome the problem of vaccine heat-lability, a recom ...19947949348
applications of recombinant vaccinia virus for veterinary vaccines. 19947958475
detection of novel rna viruses: morbilliviruses as a model system.recent advances in molecular detection of viral-specific nucleic acid sequences have facilitated the search for pathogenic viruses in clinical samples. primers for the polymerase chain reaction can be targeted to unique or conserved regions of the viral genome. while the design of primers must be based on known sequences, it has been demonstrated in bacteria that amplification with primers which hybridize to highly-conserved regions of the genome can be exploited to detect new agents. by taking ...19947969194
circulating immune complexes in rabbits surviving rinderpest virus infection.circulating immune complexes (cics) precipitated from the sera of rabbits recovered from infection with rabbit virulent (lapinized) rinderpest virus (rpv) were found to contain rpv antigen and rabbit igg. the cics persisted for at least 77 days post infection. the cics and the antigen isolated from them by chromatography on sepharose-6b were found to be non-infectious. rpv-specific antibodies could be detected in the antisera raised in rabbits against the cics and the isolated antigen. furthermo ...19947976861
immunodetection of rice dwarf phytoreoviral proteins in both insect and plant hosts.peptides encoded by truncated (s1 and s2) or full-length (s3 to s11) cdnas of 11 of the 12 rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) genome segments were expressed in a baculovirus vector system. antibodies raised against each of the expressed peptides were used as probes to detect the authentic proteins encoded by the rdv open reading frame. polypeptides identified as gene products of s1 to s11 in both rdv-infected rice leaf and leafhopper (nephotettix cincticeps) homogenates were the p1 minor core (170 k ...19948009852
recombinant capripoxvirus expressing the hemagglutinin protein gene of rinderpest virus: protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses.a cdna clone containing the complete coding sequence of the hemagglutinin (h) protein gene of the rbok vaccine strain of rinderpest virus, under the control of the vaccinia late promoter p11, was inserted by homologous recombination into the thymidine kinase gene of the ks-1 strain of capripoxvirus. the recombinant virus produced authentic h protein as judged by its electrophoretic mobility, transport to the cell surface of infected lamb testis cells, and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies sp ...19948091673
characteristics of an attenuated vaccinia virus strain, lc16m0, and its recombinant virus vaccines.this article reviews studies concerning the characteristics of a vaccinia virus strain, lc16m0, and its recombinant virus vaccines. the lc16m0 strain is one of several temperature-sensitive and further attenuated variants derived from the lister (elstree) strain of vaccinia virus, which has a proven safety record in human populations. several types of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing a foreign antigen gene from a pathogenic virus have been constructed using the lc16m0 strain as a vector, ...19948091843
differential immunohistochemical staining of peste des petits ruminants and rinderpest antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. 19947516718
high resolution genome typing and genomic reassortment events of rice dwarf phytoreovirus.genomic reassortment of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) was experimentally demonstrated for the first time in plant reoviruses. combinations of two genomic variants, most of the genomic segments of which could be distinguished by a high resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were used to produce genomic reassortants. after artificial mixed injection of two of three isolates (rdv-s, rdv-ai, and rdv-an) into the insect vector nephotettix cincticeps, rice seedlings were sequentially inoculat ...19957571443
rinderpest virus infection of bovine peripheral blood monocytes.the ability of rinderpest virus (rpv) to replicate in vitro in adherent peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages under non-stimulation conditions was investigated. when flow cytometry analysis on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) was performed, monocytic cells were seen to be targets for infection by the cell culture-attenuated rbok vaccine strain of rpv. viral glycoprotein (h) and nucleoprotein (n) expression in adherent blood monocytes and monocyte-derived mac ...19957595385
differentiation of peste des petits ruminants and rinderpest viruses by neutralisation indices using hyperimmune rinderpest antiserum.six field isolates believed to be rinderpest viruses and 2 known strains of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viruses were titrated in the presence of normal rabbit serum and with hyperimmune rinderpest antiserum prepared in rabbits. the known ppr viruses had indices less than 10 whereas 4 of the suspect field isolates had indices greater than a hundred. two suspect field isolates had indices less than 20; both were collected from small ruminant wild life and are probably ppr viruses.19957652944
development of a competitive elisa for detecting antibodies to the peste des petits ruminants virus using a recombinant nucleoprotein.a competitive elisa based on the reaction between a monoclonal antibody (mab) and a recombinant nucleoprotein of the peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) was developed. this protein was obtained in large quantities from insect cells infected with a ppr nucleoprotein recombinant baculovirus (n-b). the competitive elisa was compared with the virus neutralisation test (vnt) for detecting specific antibodies to pprv in sheep and goats. the time consuming vnt is the only prescribed test that is ca ...19957709061
immunohistochemical studies of lymphoid tissues of rabbits infected with rinderpest virus.the pathogenesis of infection with the l-strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) in rabbits was investigated. of several lymphoid tissues examined, those associated with the gut showed the most marked virus growth. the virus titres were maximal 4 days after inoculation but had declined at day 6. the distribution of viral antigen was examined immunohistochemically with the recently established anti-rabbit cd5 monoclonal antibody (moab), which is a pan-t-cell marker, and the anti-rpv-nucleoprotein moab. ...19957722007
protection of goats against peste des petits ruminants with recombinant capripoxviruses expressing the fusion and haemagglutinin protein genes of rinderpest virus.goats were protected against a lethal challenge of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus following vaccination with a recombinant capripoxvirus containing either the fusion (f) gene of rinderpest virus or the haemagglutinin (h) gene of rinderpest virus. the h gene recombinant produced high titres of neutralizing antibody to rinderpest virus in the vaccinated goats, whereas the f gene recombinant failed to stimulate detectable levels of neutralizing antibody. a similar response to the two recomb ...19957762275
humoral antibody response in animals infected with virulent rinderpest virus.humoral antibody responses in cattle or rabbits infected with virulent rinderpest virus or lapinised rinderpest virus respectively were assessed. rinderpest specific antibodies could be first detected 6 days post-infection. no correlation could be established between antibody response and the course of the disease in infected animals during the early stages of infection. the animals with fatal infection either did not respond or had a transient antibody response. a gradual increase in antibody t ...19957770948
capripoxvirus-based multivaccines. 19957796952
vaccinia virus recombinant vaccines for rinderpest. 19957796955
live virus vaccines for use in animals. 19957796966
sequencing and analysis of the nucleocapsid (n) and polymerase (l) genes and the terminal extragenic domains of the vaccine strain of rinderpest virus.the nucleocapsid (n) and polymerase (l) genes of the vaccine strain of rinderpest, and the 5' and 3' terminal domains of the genome have been sequenced. together with previously published data, this completes the sequence of the entire genome of rinderpest virus. the viral genome is 15,881 bases in length, similar to that of measles virus and slightly longer than that of canine distemper virus. the l gene is identical in length to that of measles virus, encoding a 2183 amino acid protein with a ...19957897350
protection of goats against rinderpest by vaccination with attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus.the ability of the attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine virus to protect small ruminants against virulent rinderpest virus was investigated. out of four susceptible goats that were infected with the highly virulent saudi strain of rinderpest virus by intranasal ioculation, three developed mild clinical signs of disease and infected susceptible in-contact goats and cattle with rinderpest virus. however, four goats which had been vaccinated with the attenuated peste des petits ruminants v ...19958525096
morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. the first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (pdv) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in northwestern europe. a similar epizootic among baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia in 1987 was later attri ...19958548190
pathomorphological and immunohistological findings in cattle experimentally infected with rinderpest virus isolates of different pathogenicity.experimental infection of nine cattle with seven rinderpest virus strains of different pathogenicity resulted in significant variations of clinical signs, morphological lesions and distribution of viral antigen in tissues. the severity of clinical disease was correlated with the extent of tissue alterations and the amount of immunohistologically detectable viral antigen. both mild and virulent strains of rinderpest share essentially the same tissue tropisms in vivo, i.e. epithelio- and lympho-tr ...19958588308
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