progress in the development of a heat-stable recombinant rinderpest vaccine using an attenuated vaccinia virus vector.rinderpest is a fatal infectious disease of cattle and buffalo, and is prevalent in many parts of the developing world. eradication campaigns are at present under way in africa, the middle east and south asia. as these regions have very hot climates, it is difficult and expensive to establish reliable cold chains to deliver heat-sensitive vaccines and, for this reason, many previous vaccination/eradication campaigns have been ineffective. to overcome the problem of vaccine heat-lability, a recom ...19947949348
applications of recombinant vaccinia virus for veterinary vaccines. 19947958475
detection of novel rna viruses: morbilliviruses as a model system.recent advances in molecular detection of viral-specific nucleic acid sequences have facilitated the search for pathogenic viruses in clinical samples. primers for the polymerase chain reaction can be targeted to unique or conserved regions of the viral genome. while the design of primers must be based on known sequences, it has been demonstrated in bacteria that amplification with primers which hybridize to highly-conserved regions of the genome can be exploited to detect new agents. by taking ...19947969194
circulating immune complexes in rabbits surviving rinderpest virus infection.circulating immune complexes (cics) precipitated from the sera of rabbits recovered from infection with rabbit virulent (lapinized) rinderpest virus (rpv) were found to contain rpv antigen and rabbit igg. the cics persisted for at least 77 days post infection. the cics and the antigen isolated from them by chromatography on sepharose-6b were found to be non-infectious. rpv-specific antibodies could be detected in the antisera raised in rabbits against the cics and the isolated antigen. furthermo ...19947976861
nucleotide sequence comparisons of the fusion protein gene from virulent and attenuated strains of rinderpest virus.we have cloned and sequenced the entire fusion (f) protein gene of the rbok vaccine strain of rinderpest virus and the coding regions for the f genes of two mild field isolates of the virus from africa. analysis of the nucleotide and the predicted amino acid sequences showed that the vaccine virus was more than 99% identical in the protein coding region to the virulent kabete o strain from which it was derived, whereas the field isolates differed by 10 to 12% from each other and from the vaccine ...19947996154
immunodetection of rice dwarf phytoreoviral proteins in both insect and plant hosts.peptides encoded by truncated (s1 and s2) or full-length (s3 to s11) cdnas of 11 of the 12 rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) genome segments were expressed in a baculovirus vector system. antibodies raised against each of the expressed peptides were used as probes to detect the authentic proteins encoded by the rdv open reading frame. polypeptides identified as gene products of s1 to s11 in both rdv-infected rice leaf and leafhopper (nephotettix cincticeps) homogenates were the p1 minor core (170 k ...19948009852
genomic heterogeneity of rice dwarf phytoreovirus field isolates and nucleotide sequences of variants of genome segment 12.electrophoretic profiles of the dsrnas of field isolates of rice dwarf virus (rdv) were compared with those of an isolate maintained at hokkaido university (rdv-h). unexpectedly, the genomic dsrnas of most of the field isolates showed distinct electrophoretic mobility profiles. this was the case even among isolates from the same region. genome segment 12 (s12) from some variants migrated faster than s12 from rdv-h. these rnas were converted to full-length cdnas and sequenced. s12 from all the va ...19948046386
recombinant capripoxvirus expressing the hemagglutinin protein gene of rinderpest virus: protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses.a cdna clone containing the complete coding sequence of the hemagglutinin (h) protein gene of the rbok vaccine strain of rinderpest virus, under the control of the vaccinia late promoter p11, was inserted by homologous recombination into the thymidine kinase gene of the ks-1 strain of capripoxvirus. the recombinant virus produced authentic h protein as judged by its electrophoretic mobility, transport to the cell surface of infected lamb testis cells, and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies sp ...19948091673
characteristics of an attenuated vaccinia virus strain, lc16m0, and its recombinant virus vaccines.this article reviews studies concerning the characteristics of a vaccinia virus strain, lc16m0, and its recombinant virus vaccines. the lc16m0 strain is one of several temperature-sensitive and further attenuated variants derived from the lister (elstree) strain of vaccinia virus, which has a proven safety record in human populations. several types of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing a foreign antigen gene from a pathogenic virus have been constructed using the lc16m0 strain as a vector, ...19948091843
visual detection of rinderpest viral antigens on surface. 19938105648
viral antigen distribution in organs of cattle experimentally infected with rinderpest virus.the distribution of viral antigen in various organs of four approximately 10-month-old castrated male friesian cattle experimentally infected with a highly virulent strain of rinderpest virus was studied. a monoclonal antibody with genus-specific reactivity for morbilliviruses was applied in an indirect immunoperoxidase method performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. rinderpest viral antigen was located mainly in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of the digestive, resp ...19938116148
comparison of the pathogenicity of rinderpest virus in different strains of rabbits.pathogenicity of the lapinized nakamura-iii (l) strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) was examined in four strains of rabbits consisting of two inbred strains (nw-nibs and duy-nibs) and two outbred strains maintained in closed colony (nw-nibs and jw-nibs) using a marmoset lymphoblastoid cell line, b95a cell-passaged virus and tissue homogenates of virus-infected rabbits. the cell culture virus was found to maintain virulence for rabbits of both closed colony and inbred nw-nibs strain similar to the h ...19938117822
the detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in cattle, sheep and goats and the possible implications to rinderpest control programmes.monoclonal antibody-based competitive elisa (c-elisa) have been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to both rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viruses in cattle, sheep and goats. examination of serum samples from sheep and goats in gambia, before and after vaccination with rinderpest vaccine, suggested that antibodies to ppr virus could prevent an immune response to the rinderpest vaccine. cattle sera from nigeria and ghana showed a high prevalence of antibody against pp ...19948119361
cloning and sequence analysis of the matrix (m) protein gene of rinderpest virus and evidence for another bovine morbillivirus.we have cloned and sequenced the entire m gene of the vaccine strain of rinderpest virus and that of the virulent kabete "o" strain from which it was derived. the sequences of these two genes are essentially identical (99% at the nucleotide level), but were very different from a previously published kabete o m gene sequence (m. limo and t. yilma, 1990, virology 175, 323-327). inspection of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of known morbillivirus m genes showed that the earlier sequ ...19948128616
detection of anti-dna antibody responses in rabbits infected with rinderpest virus by elisa.elisa was standardized to detect anti-dna antibodies (adabs) in sera of rabbits infected with rinderpest virus (rpv). these antibodies were found in late (28th and 36th day post inoculation (dpi)) sera of rabbits infected with rabbit virulent lapinized rpv, but not in early (7th dpi) sera of the same rabbits. adabs were not found either in early or late sera of rabbits infected with attenuated rbok strain of rpv. rabbit anti-rpv hyperimmune serum was also found to be positive for adabs. detectio ...19938184791
distribution of antigen in cattle infected with rinderpest virus.five holstein heifers (approximately 8 months of age and weighing 225-275 kg) were inoculated subcutaneously with 1,000 tcid50 of rinderpest virus, virulent kabete o strain. they become clinically ill 2 to 5 days post-inoculation, with fever (40 c to 41.5 c), conjunctivitis, and diarrhea. all were euthanatized when moribund at 6 days postinoculation. the following tissues were collected in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and subsequently subjected to histopathologic and immunohistochemical exami ...19948203082
protection of goats against peste des petits ruminants with a vaccinia virus double recombinant expressing the f and h genes of rinderpest virus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. the causative agent, pprv, is a member of the family paramyxoviridae and the genus morbillivirus. other members of the genus include rinderpest (rpv), measles, canine distemper and phocid distemper viruses. ppr has a very high rate of morbidity and mortality, and effective control of this disease is of economic importance in africa, asia and the mid ...19938212844
rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants-like disease in the al-ain region of the united arab emirates.the author demonstrates that rinderpest prevailed among the cattle population in the al-ain region of the united arab emirates from 1987 to 1989. a total of twenty-four outbreaks of rinderpest were recorded during the study period. similarly, evidence of the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) or a ppr-like disease was regularly encountered in small ruminants in a total of forty-one outbreaks.19938219335
use of the polymerase chain reaction in differentiating rinderpest field virus and vaccine virus in the same 1991, a disease with clinical signs indicative of rinderpest was reported in yaks in the former soviet union, near the border with mongolia. at the peak of the epizootic, mortality among affected yaks was 32-42% in adults and 65% in animals less than one year old. pathological samples were examined independently at two institutes in russia. both institutes confirmed the presence of rinderpest using complement fixation, agar gel diffusion and immunoassays. since vaccination had been initiated ...19938219336
[rinderpest eradication and recombinant vaccine]. 19938236832
cloning and expression of the nucleocapsid gene of virulent kabete o strain of rinderpest virus in baculovirus: use in differential diagnosis between vaccinated and infected animals.rinderpest (rp) is a viral disease of ruminants with > 95% morbidity and mortality. we have cloned the cdna of the nucleocapsid (n) gene of the virulent kabete o strain of rinderpest virus (rpvk) and compared its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences with those of the n genes of the lapinized strain of rinderpest virus (rpvl), measles virus (mv), and canine distemper virus (cdv). the gene has an open reading frame of 1575 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 525 amino acids with a molecula ...19948259649
biological properties of phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus.morbilliviruses constitute a major threat to the health of animal and man. to date the morbillivirus genus in the paramyxoviridae family comprises five established members, namely canine distemper virus (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv), measles virus (mv), rinderpest virus (rpv), and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv). in addition, morbillivirus candidates infecting aquatic mammals were recently discovered. the present review on the biology of morbilliviruses focuses on knowledge gained ...19938268007
dipstick enzyme immunoassay for rinderpest antibody in cattle.a dipstick enzyme immunoassay (elisa) has been standardized for the detection of rinderpest antibodies. one hundred and thirty bovine serum samples were analysed by the dipstick elisa method and the results compared with the conventional plate elisa method. the sensitivity was found to be similar in both methods. the dipstick elisa does not require expensive micro-plates and an elisa reader, and is recommended for use in field laboratories where the qualitative detection of rinderpest antibodies ...19938273283
evidence for different lineages of rinderpest virus reflecting their geographic isolation.sequence analysis of part of the fusion protein gene from recent isolates of rinderpest virus revealed that distinct lineages of the virus exist which reflect the geographical location of their isolation in africa and asia. current strains circulating in kenya and sudan were most similar, both in terms of nucleotide sequence and pathogenic nature, to viruses isolated in egypt and in nigeria in 1983/1984 and they were quite distinct from an east african isolate (rbt-1) from the 1960s. two older i ...19938277286
rinderpest vaccination responses among calves and adult cattle in uganda monitored using elisa assay.responses to the plowright rinderpest vaccine by 43 calves and 70 adult cattle in uganda in 1990, through the production of igg antibodies, were monitored for 4 weeks using the elisa assay. 80% of the calves were seronegative before vaccination of which 32% remained seronegative and 68% subsequently seroconverted at 2 weeks postvaccination. 20% of the calves were seropositive before vaccination but registered a decline during the 2nd and 4th weeks postvaccination. 50% of adult ankole cattle sero ...19938281740
single capripoxvirus recombinant vaccine for the protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease.a recombinant capripoxvirus has been constructed containing a full-length cdna of the fusion protein gene of rinderpest virus. the gene was inserted in the thymidine kinase gene of the capripox genome under the control of the vaccinia virus major late promoter p11 together with the escherichia coli gpt gene in the opposite orientation under the control of the vaccinia early/late promoter p7.5. a vaccine prepared from this recombinant virus protected cattle against clinical rinderpest after a let ...19938342321
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.infections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in europe and siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (pdv-1) and phocid distemper virus-2 (pdv-2) respectively. pdv-1 was characterized as a newly identified morbillivirus, most related to canine distemper virus (cdv), whereas pdv-2 most probably is a strain of cdv. morbilliviruses were also isol ...19938343804
expression in baculovirus vector system of the nucleocapsid protein gene of rinderpest virus.the rinderpest (rv) nucleocapsid (np) gene segment was inserted into the genome of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acnpv) adjacent to the polyhedrin promoter. the expression of np protein in sf9 cells was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence and by western blotting analysis with monoclonal antibodies. recombinant rv-np protein was purified by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient, and used as an antigen for an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect anti rv ...19938366167
cloning and sequence analysis of the phosphoprotein gene of rinderpest virus.we have cloned several cdnas derived from the p gene of rinderpest virus. one of these, derived from a bicistronic n-p mrna, has been sequenced in its entirety. sequencing of a section of the others, and comparison with the genome sequence, showed that p gene transcripts, as for other morbilliviruses, were variable; non-templated gs could be added at a site resembling the normal stop transcription site. primer extension analysis showed that about half the transcripts were edited. sequences of th ...19938429304
the growth of cell culture-attenuated rinderpest virus in bovine lymphoblasts with b cell, cd4+ and cd8+ alpha/beta t cell and gamma/delta t cell phenotypes.cloned bovine lymphoblastoid cell lines, transformed by the protozoan parasite theileria parva were infected with cell culture-attenuated rinderpest virus vaccine. the virus grew readily in lymphoid b cells, cd4+ and cd8+ alpha/beta t cells and gamma/delta t cells producing new infectivity, viral antigens, c.p.e. and total cell death. there did not appear to be a predilection for any particular phenotype of lymphoblast. the results imply that if the vaccine causes immunosuppression, it could do ...19938429305
effect of gamma irradiation on reactivity of rinderpest virus antigen with bovine immune serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and virus neutralization and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests.gamma irradiation effectively inactivated gradient-purified rinderpest virus. irradiated antigen and sera remained functional in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, virus neutralization tests, and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests. irradiation, however, led to a dose-dependent decrease in reactivity, particularly significant (p < 0.05) when both reagents were irradiated. to avoid false-positive reactions, only one reagent (serum or antigen) may be irradiated.19938432831
immunological responses of mice and cattle to baculovirus-expressed f and h proteins of rinderpest virus: lack of protection in the presence of neutralizing antibody.rinderpest is a highly contagious viral disease of ruminants and has greater than 95% morbidity and mortality. the etiological agent, rinderpest virus (rpv), is a member of the family paramyxoviridae and the genus morbillivirus. immune responses to both the hemagglutinin (h) and the fusion (f) antigens of morbilliviruses play an important role in the prevention of infection, and only attenuated live vaccines have been shown to provide protective immunity against the group. the lack of protection ...19938437215
immunisation of cattle with a recombinant vaccinia vector expressing the haemagglutinin gene of rinderpest virus.the efficacy of a recombinant rinderpest vaccine, constructed by inserting the rinderpest virus haemagglutinin gene into attenuated vaccinia virus, lc16mo strain, was tested in cattle. after subcutaneous inoculation of 10(8) plaque-forming units (pfu) of the recombinant vaccine, neither palpable skin lesions nor increases in body temperature were observed, indicating the absence of detectable clinical reactions. all the vaccinated cattle were completely protected from challenge with the saudi 1/ ...19938456545
the use of thermostable vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine as a heterologous vaccine against peste des petits ruminants.the thermostable vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine was evaluated in terms of immunogenicity as a heterologous vaccine against peste des petits ruminants. a titration to establish the minimum immunising dose was performed in american mixed breed goats by vaccinating test subjects with dilutions of vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine and then challenging 26 days later with virulent peste des petits ruminants virus. all animals were followed for virus neutralising antibodies against both rinder ...19938460262
characterization of morbilliviruses isolated from dolphins and porpoises in europe.a previously unidentified morbillivirus was isolated from two harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) that had died in the dutch waddensea (north sea) in 1990. this porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), which had recently caused a heavy mortality in mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), were compared antigenically with other members of the genus morbillivirus, including the newly recognized phocine distemper virus type 1. dmv and pmv proved to be similar ...19938468554
antibody levels determined by an appropriate technology (hi) in local cattle following anti-rinderpest campaign in nigeria.the levels of antibodies against rinderpest measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test were titrated in 640 randomly collected sera. out of 640 samples, 586 (91%) exhibited high titres of > 4 while 54 (9%) had low titres of < or = 4. of the 400 samples collected in zaria, 354 (88.5%) had high titres while 46 (11.5%) had low titres. in funtua, 140 samples were collected with 132 (94.3%) recording high titres while 8 (5.7%) had low titres. all samples (100) collected from shika had hig ...19938470425
monoclonal antibody-based blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific detection and titration of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus antibody in caprine and ovine sera.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-elisa), using two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs), was established and compared with the virus neutralization test (vnt) for detecting specific peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv) antibody in caprine and ovine sera. this technique was developed because vnt, the only available specific serological test for pprv and the cross-reactive rinderpest virus (rpv), is time-consuming and unaffordable for most laboratories in regions where both ...19938501207
prevalence of morbilliviruses among pinniped and cetacean species.since 1987, morbillivirus infections have caused serious disease outbreaks with high mortality among aquatic mammals. baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were involved in an outbreak caused by a virus closely related to canine distemper virus (cdv) in 1987. harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in north-western europe were struck by a newly recognised morbillivirus of seals (pdv1). a serological survey has indicated that these morbillivirus infections frequently ...19938518442
protection of goats against rinderpest by vaccination with attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus.the ability of the attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine virus to protect small ruminants against virulent rinderpest virus was investigated. out of four susceptible goats that were infected with the highly virulent saudi strain of rinderpest virus by intranasal ioculation, three developed mild clinical signs of disease and infected susceptible in-contact goats and cattle with rinderpest virus. however, four goats which had been vaccinated with the attenuated peste des petits ruminants v ...19958525096
morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. the first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (pdv) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in northwestern europe. a similar epizootic among baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia in 1987 was later attri ...19958548190
pathomorphological and immunohistological findings in cattle experimentally infected with rinderpest virus isolates of different pathogenicity.experimental infection of nine cattle with seven rinderpest virus strains of different pathogenicity resulted in significant variations of clinical signs, morphological lesions and distribution of viral antigen in tissues. the severity of clinical disease was correlated with the extent of tissue alterations and the amount of immunohistologically detectable viral antigen. both mild and virulent strains of rinderpest share essentially the same tissue tropisms in vivo, i.e. epithelio- and lympho-tr ...19958588308
characterisation of african isolates of rinderpest virus.isolates of rinderpest virus (rpv) recovered from outbreaks of the disease in kenya and southern sudan between 1986 and 1993 were compared to each other and to earlier isolates from east and west africa. the recent isolates were mildly pathogenic for susceptible cattle and thus resembled other mild strains of rpv recovered from cattle and wildlife in east africa more than 30 years ago. monoclonal antibody analysis using a panel of 12 anti-rpv haemagglutinin protein-specific antibodies (mabs) rev ...19958588309
characterization of an in vitro transcription system from rinderpest in vitro transcription system for rinderpest virus (rpv) is described. ribonucleoprotein complexes isolated from rpv-infected vero cells, human lung carcinoma cells, or detergent-disrupted purified virions synthesized authentic rpv mrnas for the n, p, m. f and h genes as identified by dot blot hybridization analysis with individual cdna clones. the relative abundance of the mrnas synthesized in vitro decreased from the 3' end of the genome to the 5' end, very similar to that observed with mea ...19958588310
the sequence of the n and l genes of rinderpest virus, and the 5' and 3' extra-genic sequences: the completion of the genome sequence of the virus.we have sequenced the nucleocapsid (n) and polymerase (l) genes of the vaccine strain of rinderpest, and the 5' and 3' terminal domains of the genome. together with previously published data, this completes the sequence of the entire genome of rinderpest virus. the l gene is identical in length to that of measles virus, encoding a 2183 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 248,100. the l protein sequence of three morbilliviruses is highly conserved, greater than 76% of residue ...19958588311
editing of morbillivirus p gene transcripts in infected animals.rna editing in the morbillivirus genus in vivo was investigated by applying a polymerase chain reaction-based primer extension technique to measure the edited and non-edited mrna transcripts. in this genus of the paramyxoviridae the p gene transcript is altered by the co-transcriptional addition of one extra g residue to produce the mrna for the v non-structural protein. using tissues of phocine distemper virus (pdv) infected seals, canine distemper virus (cdv) infected dogs and rinderpest virus ...19958588325
recent developments in the diagnosis of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants.effective implementation of control measures for rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants requires that a proper and rapid diagnosis of the disease is made. peste de petits ruminants (ppr) can be confused clinically with other infections such as pasteurellosis or contagious ecthyma. rinderpest, in its classical form, is easy to identify clinically; however, mass vaccination in many countries and also the emergence of mild strains of the virus have made clinical diagnosis more difficult. clinica ...19958588326
novel ntp binding property of rice dwarf phytoreovirus minor core protein p5.rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) mrna synthesized from purified virion has a cap structure, m7gpppam-, which suggests the presence of guanylyltransferase activity in the virion. we attempted to identify the enzyme involved in the cap formation by using a nucleoside triphosphate binding assay. incubation of virion with [alpha-32p]gtp resulted in labeling of an 89-kda protein that had not previously been identified in purified virus preparations. interestingly this protein also covalently bound utp ...19968638413
regulatory framework and requirements for managing risks associated with veterinary biological products in africa: present systems and future needs.veterinary vaccines are considered to be medicinal products. as such, they are subject to assessment for managing risks associated with their marketing and use. the current risk assessment procedures used in africa are based on the quality testing methods standardised by the pan-african veterinary vaccine centre (panvac). the authors examine the risk assessment procedures related to the importation of products and to the release of live products into the environment. the lack of infrastructures, ...19958639954
relative ability of different bovine leukocyte populations to support active replication of rinderpest virus.bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) were infected with the pathogenic saudi isolate of rinderpest virus (rpv) in order to identify the cell subpopulation(s) susceptible to active replication of this virus. flow cytometry analysis, using a monoclonal antibody recognizing the h glycoprotein of rpv, showed that monocytes were the main subpopulation in which the virus replicated, whereas <2% of lymphocytes expressed viral antigen. the activation of pbmc with concanavalin a before infect ...19968676465
immunohistochemical detection of rinderpest virus: effects of autolysis and period of fixation.samples of eyelid, tongue, soft palate and palatine tonsil were collected from calves infected experimentally with rinderpest virus. the tissues were fixed in 10 per cent neutral buffered formalin immediately, 24 or 48 hours post mortem. then, after three days, 10 days, 28 days or three months in formalin, they were processed into paraffin blocks and examined immunohistochemically for rinderpest viral antigen. the tonsil was the best of the four tissues in providing a consistently positive immun ...19968685543
synthesis of leader rna and editing of p mrna during transcription by rinderpest virus.purified rinderpest virus was earlier shown to transcribe in vitro, all virus-specific mrnas with the promoter-proximal n mrna being the most abundant. presently, this transcription system has been shown to synthesize full length monocistronic mrnas comparable to those made in infected cells. small quantities of bi- and tricistronic mrnas are also synthesized. rinderpest virus synthesizes in vitro, a leader rna of approximately 55 nucleotides in length. purified rinderpest virus also exhibits rn ...19968725103
comparative analysis of the attachment protein gene (h) of dolphin morbillivirus.dmv, dolphin morbillivirus, a paramyxovirus of uncertain origin recently emerged in mediterranean dolphins. this study presents the complete nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin (h) gene including the gene boundaries. the single open reading frame of the dmv h gene encodes a protein of 604 residues which exhibits overall sequence characteristics similar to the h genes of other morbilliviruses. when compared to its closest homologues, measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus (rpv), dmv has, re ...19968725120
[first- time isolation of the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus in chad and experimental induction of the disease].in chad, in 1993-1994, investigation into "peste des petits ruminants" (ppr) outbreaks were carried out in flocks of sahelian goats. although in the early 1993 outbreaks the virus had not been isolated yet, a serological prevalence (34%) was observed using elisa test in 475 sera collected in the infested area. the virus was then isolated for the first time in chad and typical ppr cases were observed in sahelian goats, known to be little sensitive to the virus. to experimentally induce the diseas ...19958734226
[evaluation of vaccinal protection against rinderpest in cameroon. ii. the north province].cameroon joined the sero-survey component of the parc (pan african rinderpest campaign) program in 1989. during the 1992 campaign, a detailed sampling frame, adapted to the breeding conditions of the north province was drawn up according to parc recommendations. the four administrative divisions of the province were covered by sampling cattle in 14 sites chosen by randomisation. eight thousand six hundred and eighty sera samples from 217 cattle herds were tested using fao/iaea rinderpest competi ...19958745745
inhibition of replication of rinderpest virus by 5-fluorouracil.5-fluorouracil (5fu), an analogue of uracil, was found to inhibit the production of infectious particles of rinderpest virus (rpv) in vero cells (african green monkey kidney cells) by 99%, at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml. the levels of individual mrna specific for five of the virus genes were also reduced drastically, while the level of mrna for a cellular housekeeping gene-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh)-was unaltered by fluorouracil treatment of infected cells. both virus ...19968793007
ultrastructure of equine morbillivirus.the ultrastructure of the equine morbillivirus (emv) which was implicated in the death of one human and fourteen horses in queensland, australia during september 1994 and a 36 year old man from queensland in october 1995 is described. the ultrastructure of the virus and the intracellular virus-specific structures are characteristic for the family paramyxoviridae. cytoplasmic nucleocapsids were observed within the infected cells monolayers, endothelial cells (lung) of infected horses and the neur ...19968822630
evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for the detection and characterisation of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses for epidemiological studies.the high sequence variability found in rna viruses makes it difficult to design primers for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification which will be certain to work with all new field isolates. to overcome this problem for the detection and differential diagnosis of rinderpest (rp) and peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viruses (v), we have designed several sets of primers, based on well-conserved sequences in the p and f genes. analysis of a large number of field isolates from ...19958837881
stabilization of rinderpest vaccine by modification of the lyophilization process.rinderpest (rp), a lethal disease of cattle, was almost eradicated from the african continent under joint project 15 (jp15), using an excellent modified live virus vaccine. due to marked instability of the vaccine, a cold chain was required to ensure that the vaccine was potent at the time of application. rinderpest re-emerged in the early 1980s. the pan african rinderpest campaign (parc) was developed to combat the new epidemic. for parc to be efficacious and affordable, there was a clear need ...19968854023
p2 protein encoded by genome segment s2 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus is essential for virus infection.loss of infectivity to insect vector cell monolayers of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) after ccl4 treatment was associated with the removal of one of the viral proteins from the virus particles. this protein, encoded by genome segment s2 and thus named p2 protein, was located at the outer capsid of the virus particle. when rdv was treated with ccl4 for various times, the reduction in the amount of p2 protein and the loss of viral infectivity to vector cell monolayers were proportional to treatme ...19968874514
the nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin gene of the la strain of rinderpest virus, a seed virus strain used for vaccine production in japan.the sequence of the hemagglutinin (ha) gene of the la strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) has been determined by the direct sequencing method. the amino acid sequence of the protein which it encodes displays conservation of its structural determinants with the ha proteins of the other rpv strains. the la-ha protein was shown to have three conserved potential n-linked glycosylation sites, compared with four such sites in the ha protein of l strain. the glycosylation site at position 200 on the l-ha ...19968877976
[evaluation of vaccinal protection against rinderpest in cameroon. iii. general evaluation].the national veterinary laboratory, garoua (cameroon) has been carrying out rinderpest sero-surveillance since 1989 as part of an effort made by the panafrican rinderpest campaign (parc) to control rinderpest in africa. in 1993, 8517 serum samples collected from 286 cattle herds (from 0 to 3 years old) randomly chosen from six provinces with large cattle population (far-north, north, adamaoua, east, west, north-west) were tested using the rinderpest competitive elisa technique; the herd immunity ...19968881414
rinderpest and other animal morbillivirus infections: comparative aspects and recent developments.the genus morbillivirus presently comprises measles virus of man, rinderpest virus (rpv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), and canine distemper virus (cdv). 'emerging' morbilliviruses, such as phocid distemper virus (pdv) of seals, dolphin (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) have probably been present for a long period of time and outbreaks are possibly related to introduction into a highly susceptible population and/or be the result of interspecies transmission. in this review some c ...19968885706
adaptation of caprinised rinderpest virus to grow in vero cells in vitro.caprinised rinderpest virus gtv strain (gtv) was adapted to grow in vero cells (vgtv) by polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of infected goat spleenocytes with non-infected vero cells. the usual methods of infection of cell culture, i.e. virus adsorption or co-cultivation, were not successful. vgtv-induced cytopathic changes in vero cells were similar to those reported for rinderpest virus. virus titers increased with the passage number but the virulence for goats decreased. immunoblot analysis ...19968886098
epidemiologic association between antibody titres against bovine virus diarrhoea virus, rinderpest disease virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in a buffalo herd.the association between antibody titres against bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) and rinderpest disease virus (rpdv) in buffaloes was investigated in a cross-sectional study. thirty-six lactating buffaloes from a herd in landhi cattle colony, karachi were bled and serum samples subjected to a micro-neutralisation test at the plum island animal disease center, usa, to categorise each buffalo either as positive or negative against each of 3 viral ...19968888525
long-term immunity in cattle vaccinated with a recombinant rinderpest vaccine. 19958966974
rescue of rinderpest virus from cloned cdna.rinderpest virus is a morbillivirus and is the causative agent of a widespread and important disease of cattle. the viral genome is a single strand of rna in the negative sense. we have constructed plasmids containing cdna copies of the 5' and 3' termini of the virus separated by a reporter gene and have shown that antigenome-sense rna transcripts of these model genomes can be replicated, transcribed, and packaged by helper virus, both rinderpest virus and the related measles virus. further, the ...19978995650
the genome sequence of the virulent kabete 'o' strain of rinderpest virus: comparison with the derived vaccine.we have compared the complete genome sequences of the vaccine strain of rinderpest virus and the virulent strain from which it was derived. only 87 bases differed between the two genomes (0.55%). possibly significant differences in amino acid sequence were found in the n, p, f, h and l proteins. a number of differences were also found in the leader region (3' end of the genome), whilst the trailer region appears to be more conserved. in addition, the length of the genome was found in both cases ...19969000095
trial of a capripoxvirus-rinderpest recombinant vaccine in african cattle.cattle were vaccinated with differing doses of an equal mixture of capripox-rinderpest recombinant viruses expressing either the fusion protein (f) or the haemagglutinin protein (h) of rinderpest virus. animals vaccinated with 2 x 10(4) p.f.u. or greater of the combined viruses were completely protected against challenge, 1 month later, with both virulent rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses. vaccination with any of the doses did not induce any adverse clinical response in the animals or tr ...19979042036
nucleotide sequence analysis of the large (l) genes of phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus (corrected sequence).this paper corrects the previously published sequence of the l gene of canine distemper virus (cdv). errors in the published sequence (m. s. sidhu et al., 1993, virology 193, 50-65) led to frame shifts between residues 1021-1032, 1190-1219 and 1645-1650; a deletion of 21 amino acids between residues 1684-1705, and a single residue deletion at residue 1478. residue 237 is now found to be glycine rather than tryptophan and residue 1626 proline instead of threonine. the sequence of the l gene of ph ...19979049407
rinderpest: at war with the disease of war.rinderpest, the legendary cattle plague, has caused devastating losses for centuries and remains the biggest threat to sustainable livestock production in developing countries. strenuous efforts are now being made to achieve global eradication of this viral disease, a goal made feasible through the use of attenuated live vaccines developed in the 1950s. their use almost resulted in eradication in the 1970s but left several foci of disease from where the plague then re-emerged. recent mass vaccin ...19979161126
immunogenic and protective properties of haemagglutinin protein (h) of rinderpest virus expressed by a recombinant baculovirus.the hemagglutinin (h) protein of rinderpest virus expressed by a recombinant baculovirus used as a vaccine produced high titres of neutralizing antibody to rinderpest virus in the vaccinated cattle, comparable to the levels produced by live attenuated vaccine. the immunized cattle were protected against a vaccine-virus challenge, as demonstrated by the failure of development of antibodies to n protein of the vaccine virus. the lack of replication of vaccine virus in the immunized cattle indicate ...19979178457
potency testing of tissue culture rinderpest vaccine in rabbits.rinderpest (rp) vaccine potency testing requires virulent bovine rinderpest virus (rpv). use of virulent rpv is a biosafety hazard. in this study we had vaccinated rabbits with tissue culture rp vaccine at different doses and thereafter challenged with lapinized virus. no thermal reaction in vaccinated rabbits was observed. serum neutralizing antibody response to vaccine was dose dependent until the second week post-vaccination but by the fourth week post-vaccination all the rabbits had similar ...19979178458
protective vaccination of ferrets against canine distemper with recombinant pox virus vaccines expressing the h or f genes of rinderpest investigate the ability of rinderpest virus (rpv) antigens, expressed in pox virus vectors, to protect against canine distemper virus (cdv) infection in ferrets.19979185963
cellular immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19979191319
use of dot-immunobinding assay for visual detection of rinderpest antibodies in vaccinated cattle.a dot-immunobinding (dib) assay was used to detect rinderpest antibodies in cattle vaccinated with kabete 'o' strain vaccine, using purified rinderpest virus. of 120 serum samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals, rinderpest antibodies were detected in 80%, 88.4% and 91.6% of samples at 2, 3 and 4 weeks postvaccination respectively. all the serum samples from non-vaccinated animals were negative. the dib results had a good correlation with those of the micro neutralisation test. the te ...19979203306
sequence and structure alignment of paramyxoviridae attachment proteins and discovery of enzymatic activity for a morbillivirus hemagglutinin.on the basis of the conservation of neuraminidase (n) active-site residues in influenza virus n and paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn), it has been suggested that the three-dimensional (3d) structures of the globular heads of the two proteins are broadly similar. in this study, details of this structural similarity are worked out. detailed multiple sequence alignment of paramyxovirus hn proteins and influenza virus n proteins was based on the schematic representation of the previousl ...19979223510
characterization of membrane-bound and membrane anchor-less forms of hemagglutinin glycoprotein of rinderpest virus expressed by baculovirus recombinants.the rinderpest virus (rpv) hemagglutinin (h) is a class 2 glycoprotein by means of which the virus attaches to the host cell receptor. a full length cdna coding for h protein was used to construct a recombinant baculovirus expressing the h protein, rech(m), on the surface of insect cells. the small n terminal cytoplasmic domain was deleted and the transmembrane domain which extends from amino acids 35 to 59 was replaced with a signal peptide derived from the ecdysteroid udp glycosyl transferase ...19979237348
[epidemiology of rinderpest and cattle plague in mali: serological surveys].within the epidemiological surveillance of rinderpest in mali a serological survey has been carried out on 58 herds of small ruminants. out of 567 tested sera for the detection of antibodies against rinderpest 2 were positive. these sera were collected from two animals over 6 years old, probably infected during the last outbreak of rinderpest in mali in 1986. therefore, it can be assumed that the rinderpest virus has not circulated in mali since that year. however, the infection rate among goats ...19969239932
rinderpest virus isolates of different virulence vary in their capacity to infect bovine monocytes and macrophages.three isolates of rinderpest virus (rpv) with different in vivo virulence were able to infect and productively replicate in bovine monocytic cells. they differed in their kinetics of replication and the morphological changes induced in infected cultures. the highly virulent rpv-saudi infected > 80% of cells within 6 days p.i. (m.o.i. = 0.1 tcid50 per cell). under identical conditions, > 50% of cells were infected by the 'mild' (causes minimal mortality in vivo) isolate rpv-egypt, whereas only 25 ...19979266982
animal health risks associated with the transportation and utilisation of wildlife products.the animal health risks associated with the movement of wildlife products are infinitely less than those associated with the movement of live animals. very few pathogens are sufficiently robust to survive the significant changes in temperature, ph, moisture content and osmolality which occur post mortem, or which are associated with preservation processes such as pickling, smoking or drying. certain pathogens, however, (e.g. foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever [hog cholera] and african ...19979329110
molecular cloning, sequencing, functional analysis and expression in e. coli of major core protein gene (s3) of rice dwarf virus chinese isolate.the complete nucleotide sequence of major core protein gene (segment s3) of rice dwarf virus (rdv) chinese isolate was determined after cdna cloning from the viral genomic rna. sequence analysis showed that the cloned fragment is 3195 bp in length and contains a single open reading frame (orf), encoding the major core protein (p3) which m(r) of 114 k. the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of s3 of this isolate share significant homology (94.1% and 97%, respectively) with those of s3 of ...19979385405
the minor outer capsid protein p2 of rice gall dwarf virus has a primary structure conserved with, yet is chemically dissimilar to, rice dwarf virus p2, a protein associated with virus infectivity.the nucleotide sequence of the genome segment 2 (s2) of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv), a phytoreovirus, when compared with the amino acid sequence of a component protein of the virus, showed that s2 potentially encoded a 127k minor outer capsid protein. this 127k protein designated as p2 and the 127k minor outer capsid protein (also termed p2) of rice dwarf virus (rdv) are similar in size, located in the outer capsid, and have well-conserved predicted polypeptide sequences, suggesting similar fun ...19979413509
a review of three pathology-based techniques for retrospective diagnosis of rinderpest, with comparison to virus isolation.base of tongue, eyelid, and retropharyngeal lymph node were collected from three animals experimentally infected with rinderpest and utilised in a study comparing virus isolation with histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridisation to determine the usefulness of the latter three techniques as retrospective diagnostic aids for this disease. virus isolation was positive for all nine samples. histopathology was suggestive in all the tissues and definitive in some. immunohistochemist ...19979429240
rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment s11 encodes a nucleic acid binding protein.the function of rice dwarf virus segment 11 and the corresponding segments of other phytoreoviruses is not yet determined. the amino acid sequence of pns11, encoded by segment 11, contains a putative zinc finger and five flanking basic regions at the c-terminus. the full-length pns11 protein and three truncated derivatives, which lack the n-terminus, the zinc-finger or the c-terminal five basic regions were expressed in escherichia coli and their nucleic acid binding properties were studied. pns ...19989454700
serological evidence of morbillivirus infection in small cetaceans from the southeast pacific.the presence of morbillivirus-specific serum antibodies was examined by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) and virus neutralization tests in serum samples from 30 dusky dolphins (lagenorhynchus obscurus), 8 long-snouted common dolphins (delphinus capensis), 2 inshore and 6 offshore bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and 20 burmeister's porpoises (phocoena spinipinnis) taken in fisheries off central peru in 1993-1995. the sera from six dusky dolphins, one common dolphin ...19989549850
preliminary seromonitoring of rinderpest among cattle raised under different husbandry systems in saudi arabia.using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the seromonitoring of rinderpest in saudi arabia, antibodies were detected in 30% of the sera of 1,018 cattle slaughtered at riyadh abattoir during june and july 1995. the correlation between the detection of antibodies and the origins of the slaughtered animals was analysed. all the culled dairy cows had detectable antibodies. the proportions of bulls giving serologically positive results were as follows: 57% for animals imported from ...19979567303
immunizing effect of vaccinia virus expressing the nucleoprotein of rinderpest virus on systemic rinderpest virus infection in rabbits.a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing the nucleoprotein (np) of rinderpest virus (rpv) was examined in rabbits for the involvement of the np protein in protection from the rpv infection. despite their production of anti-np antibody, the rvv-immunized rabbits succumbed to the rpv challenge, although there was a slight delay in the onset of disease after the low-dose challenge. on the other hand, the animals immunized with rvv expressing the hemagglutinin (h) protein of the rpv were comple ...19989611679
[primary structure of gene h of cattle plague virus strain k].synthesis, cdna cloning, and identification of h gene nucleotide sequence of rinderpest virus (rpv) k strain are carried out. analysis of the identified nucleotide sequence has revealed the single open reading frame encoding a protein consisting of 609 amino acids with molecular weight of 68 kda. the mean nucleotide homology between h genes of k, kabete o and l strains in 88.0%, the mean amino acid homology of the corresponding proteins is 88.2%. rpv k strain hemagglutinin contains 5 potential g ...19989611757
construction of recombinant vaccinia virus expressing rinderpest virus nucleocapsid protein and its immunogenicity in mice.recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) was constructed by inserting rinderpest virus (rpv) nucleocapsid (n) protein gene. the rvv expressed rpv-n protein in the rvv-infected cells. the rvv was shown to produce rpv-n-specific antibody in mice.19989637306
rediscovery of the second african lineage of rinderpest virus: its epidemiological significance. 19989670447
rice ragged stunt oryzavirus genome segments s7 and s10 encode non-structural proteins of m(r) 68,025 (pns7) and m(r) 32,364 (pns10).the nucleotide sequences of genome segments s7 and s10 of a thai-isolate of rice ragged stunt virus (rrsv) were determined. the 1938 bp s7 sequence contains a single large open reading frame (orf) spanning nucleotides 20 to 1843 that is predicted to encode a protein of m(r) 68,025. the 1,162 bp s10 sequence has a major orf spanning nucleotides 142 to 1,032 that is predicted to encode a protein of m(r) 32,364. this s10 orf is preceded by a small orf (nt 20-55) which is probably a minicistron. cou ...19979672632
structure of double-shelled rice dwarf virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv), a member of the reoviridae family, is a double-stranded rna virus. infection of rice plants with rdv reduces crop production significantly and can pose a major economic threat to southeast asia. a 25-a three-dimensional structure of the 700-a-diameter rdv capsid has been determined by 400-kv electron cryomicroscopy and computer reconstruction. the structure revealed two distinctive icosahedral shells: a t=13l outer icosahedral shell composed of 260 trimeric clusters of p8 ...19989765392
the 42k protein of rice dwarf virus is a post-translational cleavage product of the 46k outer capsid protein.the outer capsid protein (p8) heterogeneity of rice dwarf virus (rdv) exists not only in purified virus particles, but also in rdv-infected rice, transgenic rice expressing p8, e. coli expression of p8 product and the in vitro translation products of s8. n-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that p8 is a cleavage product of p8'. the cleavage occurs specifically at the residues of asp362 and pro363. the function of the proteolytic processing is unknown.19989787666
morbillivirus downregulation of cd46.there is evidence that cd46 (membrane cofactor protein) is a cellular receptor for vaccine and laboratory-passaged strains of measles virus (mv). following infection with these mv strains, cd46 is downregulated from the cell surface, and consequent complement-mediated lysis has been shown to occur upon infection of a human monocytic cell line. the mv hemagglutinin (h) protein alone is capable of inducing this downregulation. some wild-type strains of mv fail to downregulate cd46, despite infecti ...19989811778
recommended standards for epidemiological surveillance systems for rinderpest. office international des epizooties.a process involving time-bound steps used to verify the transition from the status of freedom from rinderpest to that of freedom from infection with the rinderpest virus is described. the procedure, informally but widely known as the 'oie pathway' (oie: office international des epizooties), originated with the report of the 1989 expert consultation on rinderpest surveillance systems. the oie foot and mouth disease and other epizootics commission, with the assistance of experts on the disease, pr ...19989850554
seroepidemiology of rinderpest in bovids in sri lanka using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) technique.approximately 0.2% (n = 4397) of the bovids (cattle and buffalo) in sri lanka were sampled, from june 1992 using a multi-stage sampling procedure. serum antibodies for the rinderpest virus were detected using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the age, the agroclimatic zone, the management system practiced in the farms, and the vaccination history of the sampled bovids were studied as potential risk factors for being seropositive. the prevalence of rinderpest antibodies in non-va ...19989879581
eradication of rinderpest from ethiopia. 19989881430
use of prokaryotically expressed nucleocapsid protein as positive antigen in elisa.a cdna library of rinderpest vaccine virus was prepared in zap express vector (stratagene). the rinderpest 'n' gene specific clones were selected, characterized and thereafter expressed in e. coli xlolr strain. the expressed protein was found to be immunogenic in western blot with hyperimmune sera. it reacted with rinderpest and 'n' protein specific monoclonal antibodies in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). prokaryotically expressed 'n' protein also gave precipitin band in counter immun ...19989891841
a newly identified horseshoe crab lectin with specificity for blood group a antigen recognizes specific o-antigens of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.a 14-kda lectin, named tachylectin-3, was newly identified from hemocytes of the japanese horseshoe crab, tachypleus tridentatus. this lectin exhibited hemagglutinating activity against human a-type erythrocytes, but not against the b- and o-types of erythrocytes and animal erythrocytes, including those of sheep, rabbit, horse, and bovine. the hemagglutinating activity of tachylectin-3 was equivalent to that of a previously identified lectin, named tachylectin-2, with affinity for n-acetyl-d-glu ...19999920866
structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for cd46 interaction.the entry of measles virus (mv) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (ha) to the complement regulatory protein cd46. two subdomains, one each within cd46 short consensus repeats (scrs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. however, little is known about the regions within mv ha needed for a high-affinity cd46 interaction. to better define the ha-cd46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanin ...199910087234
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