TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
detection of rinderpest virus antigens in vitro and in vivo by direct immunofluorescence.cell-culture attenuated and virulent strains of rinderpest virus (rv) were inoculated on to bovine kidney cell cultures. a direct immunofluorescent antibody test detected rv antigens in cell cultures within one to three days after inoculation whereas rv cytopathic effects usually took three to nine days to develop. cells containing rv antigens were also detected in impression smears and frozen sections of tissues collected from rv infected animals at post mortem examination, and in smears of lym ...19826755594
use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of igg antibodies to rinderpest virus in epidemiological surveys.a comparison was made between an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and the virus neutralisation test (vnt) for the detection of antibodies to rinderpest virus in field sera. the results did not agree for 6 per cent of the sera tested where 3 per cent of the samples gave elisa positive/vnt negative and 3 per cent gave elisa negative/vnt positive. the latter sera all had high levels of igm antibody, which may indicate animals being at an early stage of infection or detection of a ...19836340173
detection of rinderpest antigen by agar gel diffusion and counter-immunoelectrophoresis. 19836408775
serological studies with peste des petits ruminants and rinderpest viruses in hundred and ninety-five goat and 67 sheep sera collected from various parts of southern nigeria were screened for neutralising antibodies to both the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) and rinderpest viruses. neutralising antibodies against both viruses were found in the sheep and goat sera examined. parallel titration of samples which neutralised both viruses indicated a primary infection with the ppr virus (pprv). however, some samples which failed to neutralise pprv neutralised the rinderpe ...19846485096
serum-virus simultaneous method of immunisation against peste des petits ruminants.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) hyperimmune serum was prepared in cattle and used to protect goats against ppr. the serum was well tolerated by goats and 8 ml of serum was found to protect goats against 4 ml of pooled virulent ppr virus. a durable active immunity was conferred on goats when serum and virulent ppr virus were given simultaneously. passive immunity lasted for 15 days.19846485097
the shedding of a virulent kabete o strain of rinderpest virus by cattle.a muguga substrain of the virulent kabete o strain of rinderpest virus was demonstrated in the ocular, nasal, oral and rectal swabs collected from infected cattle. ocular shedding was detected at the onset of viraemia and before the onset of clinical signs whilst virus shedding in nasal, oral and rectal discharges appeared at the same time as lesions. it is suggested that virus isolation from ocular and nasal swabs should be considered in the diagnosis of rinderpest in addition to the other meth ...19846495633
the detection of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus antigen by agar gel precipitation test and counter-immunoelectrophoresis.the detectability of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) viral antigen in both ante-mortem secretions and necropsy samples from experimentally infected goats was investigated by both the agar gel precipitation test (agpt) and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (cie). viral antigen was detected from 42.6% of the samples tested by the agpt and 80.3% by cie. the detection of viral antigen in a high proportion of the ocular and nasal secretions as well as the faeces and buccal scrapings, particularly from t ...19846512258
a microneutralization test for the detection of rinderpest virus antibodies. 19846531493
the duration of immunity in cattle following inoculation of rinderpest cell culture vaccine.the duration of immunity following a single administration of rinderpest cell culture vaccine, of 90 or more monolayer passages, was studied in e. african zebu (boran) and grade (cross-bred european) cattle. all animals were kept for periods of 6-11 years in rinderpest-free environments; groups of them (in all 23 borans and 10 grades) were then challenged by parenteral or intranasal inoculation of virulent virus or by contact exposure to reacting cattle. nasal excretion of virus was studied dail ...19846736639
isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from the sudan.based on clinical signs, the presence of a rinderpest related antigen and the ability of rinderpest immune serum to prevent virus isolation, rinderpest was diagnosed in two outbreaks in goats in central sudan during 1971 and 1972. two viruses isolated from these goats have been re-examined both serologically and by the inoculation of experimental cattle, sheep and goats. each is now considered to represent the virus of peste des petits ruminants, thereby extending the geographical range of this ...19846200906
detection of rinderpest antibodies.rinderpest antibodies were detected by employing the fluorescent antibody test (fat) and the immunoperoxidase test (ipt) and the results were compared with the counterimmuno electrophoresis test (cie). fat was found to be the most sensitive in detecting post-vaccinal antibodies followed by ipt and cie tests.19846385428
rapid diagnosis of rinderpest by countercurrent immuno-electro-osmo-phoresis in nigeria. 19846395580
the differential growth of virulent and avirulent strains of rinderpest virus in bovine lymphocytes and macrophages.rinderpest virus (rv) grew readily in cultures of purified bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes and udder macrophages. the growth of three strains of rv was compared and there appeared to be a relationship between increasing virulence and increased ability to infect lymphocytes and macrophages. the proportion of infected cells as determined by the presence of virus antigens was a better indicator of affinity between a strain and cell type than production of new infectious virus. rv grew better in ...19853873515
notes on immunoprecipitin reactions with rinderpest virus. 19853922099
antibody response of cattle to rinderpest vaccine.antibody production was studied in cattle infected with rinderpest vaccine virus. vaccinated cattle produced both igm and igg serum antibodies. the igg antibodies were mainly those of igg2 subclass. no iga antibody response was detected in vaccinated animals.19853984206
simple techniques for increasing the batch size of rinderpest cell culture vaccine. 19853992673
comparison of messenger rnas induced in cells infected with each member of the morbillivirus group.virus-specific mrnas radiolabelled with [32p]orthophosphate in the presence of actinomycin d were extracted from the cytoplasm of vero cells infected with each of the known morbilliviruses: measles virus, canine distemper virus, rinderpest virus, and peste des petits ruminants virus. when analysed on denaturing agarose-formaldehyde gels the major rna species from all viruses in the group were identical, except for canine distemper virus where one of the virus-specific mrnas (mrna 5), which proba ...19854013082
the ultrastructure of peste des petits ruminants virus. 19854050210
freeze-dried vaccine against rinderpest: stability and activity study.a freeze-dried vaccine against rinderpest was prepared from modified virus multiplied in calf kidney cell culture. characteristics of the vaccine are as follows: high titre after freeze-drying (10(4) ccid50/dose), well-adapted freeze-drying stabilizer which ensures maintenance of the infective titre of the vaccinal virus, even under severe conditions (3.5 days at +45 degrees c), use of an appropriate solvent: magnesium sulphate molar solution or more simply physiological saline (for stability af ...19854092427
is rinderpest virus the archevirus of the morbillivirus genus?groups of 6-39 monoclonal antibodies identifying 3-18 distinct epitopes on the nucleoprotein (np), polymerase (p), hemagglutinin (h; equivalent in canine distemper and rinderpest viruses), and fusion (f) components of measles and canine distemper viruses were characterized in immunofluorescence tests with fixed vero cell cultures infected with measles, canine distemper and rinderpest viruses. the majority of np-specific monoclonal antibodies reacted with all three viruses, but one-third of the a ...19852409055
microneutralisation systems for use with different strains of peste des petits ruminants virus and rinderpest virus.comparative studies were made to determine the most suitable microtitration system for assaying strains of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rv). infectivity titres did not differ significantly when assayed in either calf kidney, sheep kidney or vero cells. however, cytopathic effects were much easier to detect in the latter making them the cell of choice. addition of small amounts of virus to preformed cell monolayers in microplates with the subsequent addition of ma ...19852411037
production of interferon and of plaque enhancing factor by rinderpest-virus. 19852413658
the structure of rice dwarf virus determined by small-angle neutron scattering measurements.the structure of rice dwarf virus (rdv) has been investigated by small-angle neutron-scattering measurements using the contrast variation method. the contrast match point gave an rna content of about 20% by weight. the value of the neutron intensity scattered at zero angle in water divided by the virus concentration yielded a particle weight of 65.2 x 10(6). the data suggest that the viral rna is located at radii </= 230 a and the protein between radii 230 and 360 a. these results are in good ag ...198518640559
the antigenic relationship between measles, canine distemper and rinderpest viruses studied with monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were used to delineate the antigenic relationship between the three morbillivirus types: measles virus (mv), canine distemper virus (cdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv). panels of six to 31 mabs against the haemagglutinin (h), fusion (f), nucleocapsid protein (np), phosphoprotein (p) and matrix (m) proteins of mv and the h, f, np and p proteins of cdv were employed. nine strains of mv, three strains of cdv and four strains of rpv were examined by radioimmunoprecipitation ...19862425047
adaptation of the lapinized rinderpest virus to in vitro growth and attenuation of its virulence in rabbits.a lapinized rinderpest virus, the l strain, which is virulent in rabbits and had been grown only in rabbits, was adapted to grow in vero cells by the fusion of vero cells with virus-infected rabbit spleen cells in the presence of polyethylene glycol, and subsequently passaged in vero cells by co-culture technique. after several passages, free virus was produced at high titre. the vero cell-adapted virus acquired the ability to infect several cell lines which were non-permissive to the unadapted ...19863944587
single radial hemolysis test for the detection of rinderpest antibody.the single radial hemolysis [srh] test was employed for detection of rinderpest antibodies in post-vaccinated serum samples as also in serum samples from animals recovered from rinderpest infection. the results were compared with counterimmunoelectrophoresis [cie] and serum neutralisation [sn] tests. the cie test was found to be more sensitive than srh but because of ease and simplicity srh can also be used for monitoring antibody development after vaccination.19863532467
simple and rapid dot-enzyme immunoassay for visual detection of rinderpest antibodies in bovine and caprine sera.a modified solid phase enzyme immunoassay (eia) is described for visual detection of anti-rinderpest virus (rpv) antibodies in cattle and goat sera. dots of rpv antigens were adsorbed to nitrocellulose (nc) paper (hence dot-eia) and the adsorptive reactive sites were blocked with skim milk powder. after immersion in bovine or caprine test serum bound antibodies were reacted with a peroxidase-conjugated anti-bovine or anti-caprine igg (h & l), respectively. positive reactions were easily visualiz ...19863544400
development and stability of rinderpest virus antigens in cattle tears and lymph nodes.diffusible rinderpest virus antigens were demonstrated in increasing quantities in ocular and lymph node biopsies from rinderpest-infected cattle using agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (ciep) tests. positive samples were detected from the second day of pyrexia to two days after death. the antigens in ocular secretions and lymph nodes were thermolabile being destroyed within five minutes at 56 degrees c and within two weeks at 4 degrees c.19863705176
continuing presence of rinderpest virus as a threat in east africa, 1983-1985.the re-emergence of rinderpest virus in east africa in 1979 caused widespread outbreaks of disease and subclinical infection throughout the region until mid-1983. subsequent massive emergency vaccination campaigns have been successful in eliminating clinical rinderpest from tanzania and preventing its spread southwards. unfortunately the virus is still endemic in north-eastern uganda and has recently caused epidemic outbreaks with high mortality in cattle in that country. in kenya, buffaloes (sy ...19873824842
an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants in a zoological collection.peste des petits ruminants virus was suspected to be the cause of a disease outbreak in a zoological collection at al ain in the arabian gulf. clinically the outbreak affected gazelles (gazellinae), ibex and sheep (caprinae) and gemsbok (hippotraginae); subclinical involvement of nilgai (tragelaphinae) was suspected. a morbillivirus was isolated and using monoclonal antibodies and biological tests in cattle, sheep and goats the virus of peste des petits ruminants was identified.19873424615
[successful development and methods of use of rinderpest vaccine]. 19873442452
application of a precipitinogen inhibition test in the detection of antibody to peste des petits ruminants virus. 19873444960
comparison of proteins induced in cells infected with rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses.the two morbilliviruses rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) are closely related and cause severe disease in large and small ruminants, respectively. they show distinct epidemiological patterns and are distinguishable by reciprocal cross-neutralization tests. we have analysed the proteins induced by these viruses in infected cells and have shown that they can be distinguishable by a very marked difference in the apparent mol. wt. of the nucleocapsid (n) protein. the ...19873598564
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the rinderpest virus mrna encoding the hemagglutinin protein.we cloned the full-length cdnas corresponding to the mrna for the hemagglutinin (h) protein of rinderpest virus (rv) and determined the nucleotide sequence of rv-h. the gene of rv-h was composed of 1952 nucleotides and contained a single large open reading frame, which was capable of encoding a protein of 609 amino acids with a molecular weight of 68,330 da. the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence were compared with those of the measles virus (mv)-h. the 5' end of the message ( ...19873629979
production of monoclonal antibodies against rice dwarf virus and characterization of antigenic proteins with affinity media.hybridomas were developed which secreted antibodies to the core and outer capsids of rice dwarf virus (rdv). the reactive proteins of rdv were simply and rapidly analyzed using monoclonal antibody (moab)-coupled affi-gel 701 beads and sds polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and were isolated with a moab-coupled sepharose 4b affinity column.19873654899
a recent outbreak of rinderpest in east africa.rinderpest was brought under control in kenya in 1976 but in april 1986 an outbreak of the disease occurred in cattle in western kenya, five kilometres from the kenya-uganda border. this was the first confirmed field outbreak of the disease in kenya after a lull of over 10 years. clinical disease was confined to unvaccinated zebu calves aged six to eight months from which rinderpest virus was isolated. high titres of antibodies to rinderpest virus were demonstrated in sera collected from sheep a ...19873660452
application of solid phase aggregation of coated erythrocytes technique for detection of rinderpest antigen.a solid phase aggregation of coated erythrocytes (space) technique was standardized and used for the detection of rinderpest antigen in 129 samples of 9 visceral organs; from 50 clinical samples such as gum scraping, tongue scraping, faeces, urine, nasal swabs; blood from 18 rinderpest infected cattle and 2 field samples. the comparative sensitivity of space, reverse phase passive haemagglutination and counter-immuno-electrophoresis tests was found to be 86.8, 84.5 and 79.8%, respectively.19873667851
effects of antipyretics in rinderpest virus infection in rabbits.administration of acetylsalicylic acid or mefenamic acid during experimental infection of rabbits with a rabbit-adapted strain of rinderpest virus did not prevent initiation of the febrile response but significantly reduced the duration of fever. suppression of fever had a markedly deleterious effect on the course of infection, resulting in an increased content of infectious virus in the mesenteric lymph nodes, increased mortality, and retarded recovery in animals that survived the infection. hi ...19872435819
reverse phase passive haemagglutination test for the detection of rinderpest antigen.reverse phase passive haemagglutination [rpha] test was applied for the detection of rinderpest antigen in various organs of rinderpest infected cattle. the results of rpha were compared with counter immunoelectrophoresis [cie] and single radial haemolysis [srh] test. rpha was as sensitive as cie and srh in detecting rinderpest antigen.19873299936
a reassessment of the dual vaccine against rinderpest and contagious bovine the light of the recent outbreaks of rinderpest in africa a further assessment of the efficacy of the simultaneous inoculation of rinderpest virus vaccine and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccine was undertaken. groups of cattle were inoculated with a dual preparation of rinderpest vaccine virus and mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides or m mycoides alone. these groups were then challenged with m mycoides, first unsuccessfully by an in-contact challenge method and then by subcutaneous ...19873300010
single and combined rinderpest vaccines. 19873314100
nucleotide sequence of segment s10 of the rice dwarf virus genome.dna complementary to the tenth largest (s10) of the 12 genome segments of rice dwarf virus (rdv) was cloned and its sequence was determined. this genome segment is 1319 nucleotides in length and has a single long open reading frame extending for 1059 nucleotides from the first aug triplet (residues 27 to 29). the predicted translation product comprises 352 amino acids and has a mol. wt. of 39094. rdv transcripts synthesized in vitro have the same polarity as the plus strand of the genome. termin ...19883335833
analysis of the polypeptides synthesized in rinderpest virus-infected cells.we have identified, by [35s]methionine labeling, eight major induced proteins and a number of minor proteins in rinderpest virus-infected bovine kidney cells. the polypeptides ranged in molecular weight from 212 to 21.5 kda. the majority of these polypeptides are virus specific, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation with rabbit hyperimmune serum against rinderpest. infected cells radiolabeled with glucosamine contained a 75-kda polypeptide and a broad band migrating at 80 kda, both identified a ...19883354196
antigenic variation between three strains of rinderpest virus detected by kinetic neutralisation and competition elisa using early rabbit antisera.strains of rinderpest virus (rv) with high and low virulence were compared with cell culture-attenuated rv for antigenic differences. sera collected from rabbits 1 week after inoculation with live virus distinguished between homologous and heterologous strains by kinetic neutralisation and competition elisa.19883376417
cloning of the fusion gene of rinderpest virus: comparative sequence analysis with other morbilliviruses.we have cloned the cdna of the fusion (f) gene of the virulent (kabete o) strain of rinderpest virus and provided a comparative analysis of its sequence with that of the f genes of measles and distemper viruses. the gene has an open reading frame of 2241 nucleotides with two potential initiation codons in-frame. use of the first atg would produce a polypeptide 747 amino acids long with a calculated molecular weight of 81,068. however, we suggest that the second atg is used to generate the fo pro ...19883413983
cloning and sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of the virulent strain of rinderpest virus.we have cloned the cdna of the hemagglutinin (ha) gene of the virulent (kabete o) strain of rinderpest virus and produced a comparative analysis of its sequence with that of the ha genes of rinderpest (lapinized strain) and measles viruses. the gene has an open reading frame of 1827 nucleotides, and the derived protein is 609 amino acids long with a calculated molecular weight of 68,006. the kabete o ha polypeptide is identical in length to the ha of the lapinized strain of rinderpest virus and ...19883413986
growth of rinderpest and bovine virus diarrhoea viruses in theileria parva infected lymphoblastoid cell lines. 19882844014
[serologic survey of rinderpest, ibr-ipv, rsb, pi3 and bvd-md viruses in cattle in shaba and western zaire]. 19882851152
detection of rinderpest antigen by latex agglutination test.a slightly modified latex agglutination test was applied for detection of rinderpest antigen. the antigen was added to sensitized latex particles in the presence of hyperimmune antiserum to facilitate agglutination. out of 129 samples tested by latex agglutination (la), solid phase aggregation of coated erythrocytes (space), reverse phase passive haemagglutination (rpha) and counter immunoelectrophoresis (cie) test, 86.0, 86.8, 84.4 and 79.8 per cent, respectively, were found positive.19882902777
use of the caprinised strain of rinderpest virus for potency testing an attenuated cell culture rinderpest vaccine.the caprinised strain of rinderpest virus was inoculated into goats to produce a challenge stock. these goats were kept with control animals (goats, sheep, calves). in this trial the caprinised strain was shown to have a mild pathogenicity for goats and it spread to one of two contact goats but not from goats to other species. the caprinised strain was then tested on cattle where a febrile reaction was observed. the caprinised strain also did not spread between cattle. the cattle vaccinated with ...19883041655
[an immunoenzyme test used for the detection of antibodies to rinderpest: the advantage of using a purified virus cultivated in a cell line].two types of in vitro assays (enzyme immunoassay and sero-neutralization test) were compared for their ability to detect antibodies to rinderpest virus in field sera from west african bovines. purified virus grown on vero cells (ag/vero) or bovine kidney cells (ag/bk), were tested as antigen in enzyme-linked immunoassays (eia). the results of the comparative evaluation of the two antigens by eia, prove that ag/vero did enhance the sensitivity and the specificity of the test in comparison to ag/b ...19883053021
characterization of antinuclear antibodies induced in rabbits by rinderpest virus infection.rabbits infected with the l strain of rinderpest virus (rv) produced high titres of antinuclear antibodies (ana) which reached a maximum two weeks after inoculation but rapidly disappeared by 6-8 weeks. these anas reacted with hela cells by indirect immunofluorescence test resulting in a homogeneous nuclear fluorescence. in order to investigate the target antigens of anas, the effects on the nuclear fluorescence pattern of pretreating hela cells were examined: dnase 1 treatment resulted in a dec ...19883058091
development and distribution of rinderpest virus antigen in experimentally infected goats.three goats, experimentally infected with rinderpest virus were examined for the development and distribution of precipitating antigens in various tissues and secretions using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. virus antigens were detected in ocular secretions and lymph node biopsies from the second to the fourth and fifth days of pyrexia, respectively, but were not detected in nasal secretions. precipitating antigens were demonstrated in various lymphoid organs, the lung and abomasum of a goat ...19883140470
peste des petits ruminants and cost effectiveness of its prevention in niger. 19883148274
protection of cattle against rinderpest with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the ha or f gene.rinderpest is a highly contagious ruminant viral disease manifested by a rapid course and greater than 90% mortality. infectious vaccinia virus recombinants were constructed that express either the hemagglutinin or the fusion gene of rinderpest virus. all cattle vaccinated with either recombinant or with the combined recombinants produced neutralizing antibodies against rinderpest virus and were protected against the disease when challenged with more than 1000 times the lethal dose of the virus.19883194758
prevalence of rinderpest antibodies in sheep and goats in southern india.rinderpest antibodies were demonstrated in 37 per cent of 2400 sheep and 29.5 per cent of 1000 goats in the southern states of india by the avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. this technique, besides quantifying rinderpest antibodies, has provided a simple method for the differentiation of positive and negative serum samples on the basis of the development of a pink colour, a great advantage in the screening of large numbers of sera for field epidemiological studies. the p ...19883212917
economic analysis of the development and usage of thermoresistant rinderpest vaccine. 19883232645
structural proteins of rinderpest virus. ii: purification and characterization of the nucleocapsid protein n, the haemagglutinin protein, h and the matrix protein, m. 19883255671
induction of antinuclear antibodies in rabbits by infection with rinderpest viruses with different degree of virulence. 19883264353
experimental peste des petits ruminants (goat plague) in goats and order to study the pathomorphology and immunohistochemistry of peste des petits ruminants, four goats and two sheep were inoculated intranasally with the malig-yemen strain of peste des petits ruminants virus. the animals developed fever, nasal discharge, oral erosions, cough and diarrhea. one goat and one sheep died and one moribund goat was killed. three animals survived the infection. at necropsy, erosive stomatitis, pneumonia and gastroenteritis were found. histopathologically the pneumon ...19883280108
fusion glycoprotein (f) of rinderpest virus: entire nucleotide sequence of the f mrna, and several features of the f protein.the full-length cdna corresponding to the mrna for the fusion protein of rinderpest virus (rv) was cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. the mrna for the f protein was composed of 2359 nucleotides and contained a single large open reading frame which was capable of encoding 566 amino acids with a molecular weight (mw) of 58,929. the rv-f mrna had a long noncoding region at the 5' end (586 bases) which was c-rich like the measles virus (mv)-f mrna but they did not appear to ...19883285575
preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid protein n and h glycoprotein of rinderpest virus.fifteen stable mouse spleen cell myeloma hybrids (hybridomas) producing monoclonal antibodies to rinderpest virus proteins were produced. the specificity of these monoclonal antibodies was established by radioimmunoprecipitation followed by polyacrylamide gel analysis and immunofluorescence. nine antibodies were specific for the surface glycoprotein h. all the nine clones showed inhibition of haemagglutination by measles virus. the antibodies from two clones (a7d2 and b2f6) neutralise infectious ...19892471370
characterization of monoclonal antibodies against four structural proteins of rinderpest virus.twenty-four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against rinderpest virus (rpv) were established and characterized by several serological tests. of the 24 mabs. 10 recognized the nucleoprotein (np), six the phosphoprotein (p), four the haemagglutinin (h), and two the fusion (f) protein as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assay. the specificities of the remaining two mabs could not be determined. from a competitive binding assay using mabs against each structural protein, at least five, four and tw ...19892477496
[attenuation of a strain of rinderpest virus: potential homologous live vaccine].peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants frequently associated with severe mortality in these hosts. in countries where it occurs, ppr represents an important constraint to the improved productivity of sheep and goats. until now the only way to combat this plague has been the use of heterologous rinderpest vaccine; all attempts to develop a homologous vaccine have ended in failure. the present communication describes the attenuation of the nigerian strai ...19892485537
the suitability of different microtitre plates for detection of antibody to virus antigens by indirect optimize enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for the detection of virus-specific antibodies, a range of commercially available microtitre plates was evaluated for their ability to bind virus antigen. rinderpest virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus were investigated as target antigens. binding capacity for antigen, binding ratios (attachment of specific antibody versus that of non-immune antibody) and the variation in the results of the tests within and between plates were measured. ...19892541132
assay sensitivity and differentiation of monoclonal antibody specificity in elisa with different coating buffers.buffers of different ph and ionic strength were employed as coating buffers for antigen adsorption to microtitre plates. their efficiency for coating plates with rinderpest virus (rpv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) antigens was studied by elisa with polyclonal and monoclonal antibody preparations. while the adsorption and detection of rpv antigen with polyclonal antiserum was highly dependent on the ionic strength and ph of coating buffer, adsorption of antigenically active fmdv antige ...19892551906
peste des petits ruminants of sheep in india. 19892609485
[evaluation of serological protection against cattle rinderpest of bovine livestock in chad].2,544 bovine sera, sampled during the year 1986 either in the course of five field missions or at farcha's abattoir, have been studied by seroneutralization against rinderpest. this survey permits the determination of the overall rinderpest immunity rate in chadian cattle.19892626567
surveillance and monitoring programmes in the control of rinderpest: a review. 19892665257
immunohistological localisation of rinderpest virus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from experimentally infected cattle.six freesian steers were subcutaneously inoculated with the virulent rinderpest virus strain kabete "0" and sacrificed at the height of fever. sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were stained according to the peroxidase anti-peroxidase (pap) technique. labelling of viral antigen, both in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei of infected cells, was observed in the epithelial cells of the upper and lower alimentary tract and in lymphoid organs, i.e. spleen, lymph nodes, pharyngeal tons ...19892669428
dot enzyme immunoassay for visual detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus antigen from infected caprine enzyme-linked immunosorbent microassay using nitrocellulose paper as the solid-phase support was developed for the detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus antigens in infected caprine tissue homogenates. dots of tissue homogenates were applied to nitrocellulose papers, and any unreacted sites were blocked with 5% skim milk powder in triethanolamine-buffered saline. after incubation of the papers in tissue culture supernatant monoclonal antibody against the peste-des-petits-ruminants vir ...19892674200
an epidemiological model of rinderpest. i. description of the model.the development of an epidemiological model of rinderpest in cattle and wildlife populations is described. the model uses a state-transition structure, incorporating a stochastic element through the use of monte-carlo methods modified to allow large populations to be simulated. the potential applications include the estimation of "safe" host population immunity rates and the design of cost-effective rinderpest vaccination programmes.19892711464
an epidemiological model of rinderpest. ii. simulations of the behaviour of rinderpest virus in populations.fixed parameters for different hypothetical strains of rinderpest virus (rv) and different susceptible populations are described together with details of their derivation. simulations were then carried out in a computer model to determine the effects that varying these parameters would have on the behaviour of rv in the different populations. the results indicated that virulent strains of rv are more likely to behave in epidemic fashion whereas milder strains tend towards persistence and the est ...19892711465
immunization with a vaccinia recombinant expressing the f protein protects rabbits from challenge with a lethal dose of rinderpest virus.a cdna clone containing the complete coding sequence of the rinderpest fusion protein (f) gene was inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus (wr strain) under the control of the 7.5k early/late vaccinia virus promoter. all forms of the f protein, i.e., the glycosylated f0 precursor, the unglycosylated f1 protein, and the glycosylated f2 protein, were detected in cells infected with the recombinant virus. vaccination of rabbits with the recombinant virus induced antibodies which r ...19892718375
differentiation of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses using specific cdna clones.the morbilliviruses which infect ruminants, rinderpest (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants (pprv), are difficult to distinguish serologically. they can be distinguished by differential neutralisation tests and by the migration of the major virus structural protein, the nucleocapsid protein, on polyacrylamide gels. both these methods are time consuming and require the isolation of live virus for identification; they are not suitable for analysis of material directly from post-mortem specimens. w ...19892723018
nucleotide sequence of rice dwarf virus genome segment 9.the complete nucleotide sequence of the phytoreovirus rice dwarf virus (rdv) genome segment 9 is presented. it consisted of 1305 nucleotides and had an open reading frame that codes for a putative polypeptide of 351 amino acids. mr of the protein was calculated to be 38,598. the terminal nucleotides 5' gguaaa--gau 3' were the same as those of rdv genome segment 10. the fourth nucleotide from the 3' end of an expected conserved sequence was a c rather than the u found in the previously sequenced ...19892732716
preliminary observations on rinderpest in pregnant cattle.a kabete 'o' strain of rinderpest virus enhanced in virulence was inoculated subcutaneously into four cows which were between six and eight months pregnant. all the cows developed clinical signs of rinderpest from the third day after inoculation and shed high titres of virus in their ocular and vaginal secretions during the course of the clinical disease. three of the cows died of rinderpest on the third day after the onset of fever but no virus was isolated from their fetuses which were examine ...19892750030
immune response and protection of cattle and pigs generated by a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the f protein of rinderpest virus.the immune response of cattle and pigs to a vaccinia recombinant virus containing the fusion (f) protein gene of rinderpest virus was examined. half the cattle and all the pigs gave humoral response to primary vaccination and all the cattle gave an anamnestic response to a second vaccination 28 days after the primary vaccination. all the cattle after a single or secondary vaccination were completely protected clinically after exposure to a lethal dose of the saudi 1/81 strain of virus. prior vac ...19892763430
duration of maternal immunity to peste des petits ruminants. 19892773199
development of heat-stable recombinant rinderpest vaccine.recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) containing the full-length cdna of rinderpest virus (rv)-haemagglutinin (h) gene was constructed. the h gene was inserted into the attenuated vaccine strain of vaccinia virus (vv), le 16 m0, with two different promoters, namely cowpox virus a-type inclusion body (ati) promoter or vv 7.5 kilodalton (p7.5) promoter. these rvvs produced the same sized fully glycosylated rv-h protein in rk 13 cells as that of the authentic rv-h. their heat stability in the lyophylize ...19892818208
a modern vaccine for an ancient plague: rinderpest. 19901366928
genetic comparison of ovine and bovine pestiviruses.viral rna oligonucleotide fingerprinting was used to compare genetic relationship among pestiviruses originating from ovine or bovine host species. ovine pestiviruses, including reference border disease virus and 2 border disease isolates originating from natural pestivirus infections of sheep, appeared to have a more distant genetic relationship among themselves than with certain bovine pestiviruses. a closer genetic relatedness was evident between border disease virus and 3 noncytopathic bovin ...19901964772
pathogenicity of peste des petits ruminants virus isolated from egyptian goats in egypt.2 egyptian goats and boscat rabbits were experimentally inoculated with peste des petits ruminants (ppr) local egyptian strain (ppr, egypt 87). the inoculated animals contracted the disease with minor clinical manifestations, accompanied by rise of neutralizing antibodies to ppr virus. virus was isolated from ocular and nasal secretions, buffy coat, spleen, and liver. no contact infection was observed between inoculated and healthy goats.19902096796
the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in the sultanate of oman.virological and serological evidence was obtained to show that peste des petits ruminants virus was widely distributed in omani sheep and goats. there was no evidence for the concomitant presence of rinderpest virus in these species. two virus isolates were classified as peste des petits ruminants virus on the basis of their pathogenicity in experimental animals and their specific hybridisation with nucleic acid probes. however, neutralisation tests and polyacrylamide gel analysis of their nucle ...19902114052
peste des petits ruminants.the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is proving to be a disease which has an increasingly significant economic impact on a number of countries in africa and the middle east, and possibly also on the indian sub-continent. the antigenic relationships which exist between the ppr and rinderpest viruses pose problems for diagnosis which complicates rinderpest control and eradication programmes. progress has recently been made in regard to diagnosis (specific nucleic probes and monoclonal antibodies), ...19902132714
optimal time for vaccination against peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease in goats in humid tropical zone in southern nigeria.investigation of the incidence of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease in goats revealed seasonality in the natural occurrence of ppr disease in the environment. tissue culture rinderpest vaccine was shown effective in protecting goats against the disease. the optimal time for vaccinating goats against ppr disease was when the least number of animals were incubating the disease. in the tropical humid zone, as in west africa, the optimal time for vaccination against the ppr disease is from la ...19902134153
sequence analysis of rice dwarf phytoreovirus genome segments s4, s5, and s6: comparison with the equivalent wound tumor virus segments.the complete nucleotide sequences of genome segments s4, s5, and s6 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) were determined. s4 and s5 consist of 2468 and 2570 base pairs, respectively, s5 thus being larger in size than s4, contrary to the situation suggested by their relative migration in a polyacrylamide gel. s6 is 1699 nucleotides long. the individual segments have segment-specific inverted repeats adjacent to the conserved terminal sequences (5'gguaaa---ugau3' for s4, 5'ggcaaa---ugau3' for s5 and ...19902219732
nucleotide sequence of rice dwarf virus genome segment 4.the complete nucleotide sequence of rice dwarf virus (rdv) genome segment 4 was determined. genome segment 4 was 2468 nucleotides long and had a long open reading frame initiating at nucleotides 64 to 66 and terminating at 2245 to 2247. the deduced polypeptide contained 727 amino acid residues with an mr of 79.8k. amino acid sequences similar to a 'zinc-finger' and purine ntp-binding motifs were present in the deduced polypeptide. considerable amino acid sequence homology was detected between ge ...19902230727
isolation of peste des petits ruminants from goats in saudi arabia. 19902238415
evidence of identification of peste des petits ruminants from goats in egypt.peste des petits ruminants virus was isolated from young goats in an outbreak of the disease for the first time in egypt. affected goats showed symptoms simulating rinderpest, disease in cattle. the mortality rate was about 30%, and morbidity reached 90%. history, clinical symptoms, postmortem lesions, and diagnosis were discussed.19902241482
comparison of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses using anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were obtained using a purified preparation of the rbok strain of a rinderpest vaccine virus. the cytoplasmic immunofluorescent staining test showed that these clones had specificity for the nucleoprotein (n) of the virus. six clones which immunoprecipitated the n protein corroborated these results. thirteen anti-n mabs were used to compare geographically widespread rinderpest viruses (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants viruses (pprv) to two other morbilliviruses, me ...19902247932
nucleotide sequence of rice dwarf virus (rdv) genome segment s3 coding for 114 k major core protein. 19902251136
potential use of live viral and bacterial vectors for vaccines. who meeting, geneva, 19-22 june, 1989.the use of vaccinia virus vector for the delivery of antigens was first described by moss and paoletti and their colleagues in 1982. such vaccines could be of particular value in developing countries because they would be cheap, stable, easy to administer and provide long-lasting immunity. who recognized the potential value of such a delivery system by convening two meetings, one at the national institutes of health, usa in november 1984 and the second at who headquarters, geneva, switzerland in ...19902251869
pathogenicity of attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus in sheep and loss of virulence for goat kids was noticed when peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus was passaged in vero cells. while goats inoculated with the 60th passage suffered from the clinical ppr disease and mortality, goats inoculated with the 80th passage did not show any sign of the disease. if the progressive loss of virulence of the virus with passage continues, it will not be long before a homologous ppr vaccine will be obtained at the national veterinary institute, vom.19902263739
temporary breakdown of immunological tolerance to dsdna and nucleohistone antigens in rabbits infected with rinderpest virus.the rabbit-passaged l strain of rinderpest virus (rv) causes the transient induction of anti-nuclear antibodies (ana) in rabbits. it has been shown by an indirect immunofluorescence test that the target antigens of these ana are dna and/or dna-histone complexes (nucleohistone). here detailed examinations of the target antigens were carried out by elisa, and it was revealed that rabbit sera contained three types of antibodies: antibodies reacting equally with both dsdna and ssdna; those reacting ...19902265490
segment 5 of the rice dwarf virus genome encodes a protein highly conserved within the phytoreoviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of segment 5 (s5) of the rice dwarf virus (rdv) genome was determined. rdv s5 is 2571 bp in length and has a single long open reading frame which encodes a polypeptide of 801 amino acids (mr 90495). when compared to the wound tumor virus genome s5, there was 56.9% and 52.8% similarity in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. this high similarity suggests that the s5 proteins of these viruses are functionally similar.19902273396
bovine interleukin 2: production kinetics in normal and in vivo antigen-primed cattle.conditions influencing production kinetics of bovine interleukin 2 (il-2), viz. cell concentration, mitogen and its concentration, length of incubation, nutrient medium and in vivo antigen-priming were investigated. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbl) of outbred cattle of different age groups showed considerable variation in their ability to secrete il-2 which possibly reflects their immune competence. of the cultures initiated with pbl, 5 x 10(6) cells/ml cultured in serum free iscove's me ...19902279762
comparison of the effect of various chemical stabilizers and lyophilization cycles on the thermostability of a vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine.the thermostability of a rinderpest vaccine produced on vero cells was evaluated using a variety of chemical stabilizers and lyophilization protocols. three stabilizer preparations and three lyophilization schedules were examined using accelerated stability testing at 37 degrees c. the vaccine preparation exhibiting the greatest stability at 37 degrees c was tested at three additional temperatures, 42, 45 and 56 degrees c, and an arrhenius plot was constructed from the data. the stability of the ...19902305545
molecular cloning of the rinderpest virus matrix gene: comparative sequence analysis with other paramyxoviruses.the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the matrix or membrane (m) protein of the virulent (kabete-o) strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) has been determined. the m gene is 1457 nucleotides long with a single, large open reading frame. the derived polypeptide has 335 amino acids, corresponding to a calculated molecular weight of 38,289 and contains both small hydrophobic regions and many basic residues. the predicted amino acid sequence was compared to the m proteins of paramyxoviruses. sequen ...19902309449
detection of phocine distemper virus using the polymerase chain reaction.during the fatal seal epizootics in the north and baltic seas in summer 1988 a virus was isolated which was shown to be the causal agent. it was subsequently classified as morbillivirus by neutralization assays, reaction with monoclonal antibodies and nucleic acid hybridization studies. the virus (tentatively called phocine distemper virus, pdv) is difficult to grow in culture making rapid diagnosis difficult. we have used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) as an alternative and fast method to ...19902311537
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