immunologic relationship between rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses. 197586993
[origin of urinary hyperexcretion of camp in the irradiated animal. use of a viral lymphocyte depletion technic]. 1976188360
the isolation of adenoviruses from goats affected with peste des petits ruminants in nigeria.mucosal scrapings from the large intestine of two goats that had died from peste des petits ruminants (ppr) in separate outbreaks in nigeria were examined for viruses. a mixed viral infection of ppr virus (morbillivirus) and adenovirus was confirmed in both goats. the adenoviruses did not conform to any of the ovine and bovine serotypes recognised; the two isolates were considered different serotypes. it is concluded that, although the role of adenoviruses in the epizootiology of ppr in nigeria ...1977203986
the occurrence of infectious diseases in mixed farming of domesticated wild herbivores and domestic herivores, including camels, in kenya. i. viral diseases: a serologic survey with special reference to foot-and-mouth disease. 1979225576
serological studies with the virus of peste des petits ruminants in was possible to distinguish separate serological responses when experimental goats were inoculated with either rinderpest virus or peste des petits ruminants virus. examination of field samples established that peste des petits ruminants occur commonly in nigerian sheep and goats although some villages have escaped recent infection. there was no evidence of infection with rinderpest in these animals.1979262608
antiviral effects of double-stranded rna from rice dwarf virus on infection of mice with western equine encephalitis virus.a single administration (1 to 10 mg/kg) of rice dwarf virus rna (rdv-rna) prior to virus challenge reduced the mortality of mice infected with western equine encephalitis (wee) virus. the protective effect of rdv-rna was significantly higher than that of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. however, when these rnas were given after virus infection, the protective effect was negligible. the titer of circulating interferon in mice reached a peak about 5 hr after injection of these rnas and remained at ...1977333233
[effect of estrogens on infection of rabbits with cattle plague virus previously administered to rabbits].the rabbit bovipest virus selectively destroys the lymphoid b line in the rabbit. estrogens inhibit this destruction when they are administered before the infection which leads are to think that they act on membrane sites of the lymphocytes.1977408043
studies on the methods of preparation of rinderpest hyperimmune sera in rabbits.the procedures for the preparation of the rinderpest hyperimmune sera in rabbits were studied by comparing the sera from rabbits immunised by three different schedules of inoculations. the best sera for use in immunodiffusion tests were obtained from rabbits inoculated first with rinderpest hyperimmune serum and lapinised virus, and then with lapinised virus mixed with oil adjuvant twice at weekly intervals. those rabbits which received additional one or two intravenous inoculations with lapinis ...1977410129
confirmation of rinderpest from samples of affected gums. 1977413227
classification of peste des petits ruminants virus as the fourth member of the genus morbillivirus.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a virus disease of sheep and goats in west africa. when first described, the virus was considered a variant of rinderpest virus. the biological and physicochemical characteristics of the virus indicate that it is closely related to measles, rinderpest and canine distemper viruses. these three viruses form the genus morbillivirus of the paramyxoviridae. ppr virus is sufficiently distinct from these 3 viruses to justify considering it as the fourth member of the ...1979457363
experimental infection of domestic pigs with the virus of peste des petits ruminants.pigs could be subclinically infected with pprv by inoculation or contact with infected goats. there was no evidence that the virus could spread to uninfected pigs or goats and pigs are not considered important in the epidemiology of pprv.1979462558
the isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from nigerian sheep and goats.four isolates of peste des petits ruminants virus were obtained from sick nigerian sheep and goats. one was identical antigenically with the prototype senegalese strain. a cross relationship was found between peste des petits ruminants virus and rinderpest virus based on neutralisation in vitro.1979472495
observations on the survival and infectivity of airborne rinderpest virus. 1979500244
protection of goats against peste-des-petits-ruminants with attenuated rinderpest virus.goats vaccinated with attenuated rinderpest were protected from peste-des-petits-ruminants virus for at least 12 months; vaccinated animals were unable to transmit the challenge virus. before challenge neutralising antibodies were directed primarily against rinderpest but following exposure to peste-des-petits-ruminants, a high antibody level to both viruses was found.1979542719
polypeptides of rinderpest virus & virus-specific polypeptide synthesis in infected cells. 1979575850
studies on the preparation of rinderpest antigen for use in conglutinating complement absorption test. 1978738787
autoimmunity induced in rabbits by rinderpest virus.during rinderpest virus infection in rabbits, 19s cold hemagglutinating antibody against rabbit erythrocytes and 7s anti-nuclear antibody, which reacts with the nuclei and/or the nuclear membranes in immunofluorescent staining, were demonstrated. virus infection that affected the thymus-dependent immune functions was speculated to act as a trigger for the production of these two autoantibodies.1976773835
detection of antibody to rinderpest virus by indirect fluorescent antibody technique. 1976824483
etiology of the stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex in nigerian dwarf goats.the causative agent of stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex was isolated in domesticated goats and vero cell culture. it was identified immunologically and morphologically as identical with the "peste des petits ruminants" virus. there were cross reactions between stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex virus isolate and rinderpest virus by immunodiffusion and complement fixation tests but no cross neutralization. goats recovered from stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex were protected against a challeng ...1976826310
immunogenicity of rice dwarf virus-ribonucleic acid.using rice dwarf virus (rdv)-rna which was extracted from rdv and further purified by mak-column chromatography, anti-rna antibodies were produced in rabbits immunized with rdv-rna antibodies were prods immunized with rdv-rna-methylated bovine serum albumin complexes. the antisera, as analzyed by complement fixation, cross-reacted with synthetic double stranded rnas (poly (a)-poly (u), poly (i)-poly (c)), but not with native or denatured dna, rrna, trna, 5 s rna and nucleic acids from rice plant ...1977918970
the application of imidocarb dipropionate for the control of theileria annulata infection in egyptian cattle used for testing rinderpest vaccine. 1976963507
the production and use of rinderpest cell culture vaccine.description of preparation, safety and efficacy testing of a rinderpest cell culture vaccine which is observed in lyophilized form and should be used within two hours following its reconstitution. excellent results have been obtained with this vaccine in kenya, uganda and tanzania.19761030429
development of a diploid cell line from fetal calf lung for virus vaccine production.details of isolation and replication of a fetal calf diploid cell (fcdc) is given. from the karyological point of view, the fairly large number of chromosomes existing in metaphase spreads made counting rather tedious. lack of practical classification was another problem which made reference to individual chromosomes difficult. by increasing the population doubling of this cell, a tendency of telocentric chromosomes to undergo centric fusion was observed. susceptibility of fcdc to different viru ...19761036404
studies on recovery mechanism from rinderpest virus infection in rabbits. i. effect of anti-thymocyte serum and thymectomy.the role of cell-mediated immunity in recovery from rinderpest virus infection in rabbits was investigated by application of immunosuppressive procedures, i.e., treatment with anti-thymocyte serum and combined treatment with thymectomy and anti-thymocyte serum, both of which were confirmed to depress significantly cell-mediated immunity in rabbits. the immunosuppressed animals recovered in almost the normal fashion in terms of clinical signs, of virus clearance from the blood and lymphoid tissue ...19761087650
a study of immunoglobulin m antibody to measles, canine distemper, and rinderpest viruses in sera of patients with subacute sclerosing boys were studied who had the clinical features of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe) and whose brain histology was consistent with sspe. measles antigen was detected in the seven brains by the direct fluorescent antibody method. three out of the seven boys had in their sera measles specific immunoglobulin m (igm) which was detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody method, and the cell receptors for it were acetone stable. a prozone effect was noted in the sera of two patients. ...19751097472
diminished antibody response to rinderpest vaccination in cattle undergoing experimental east coast fever.the immunocompetence of cattle undergoing east coast fever (ecf) reactions of varying degrees of intensity was evaluated using the neutralising antibody response of these cattle to the vaccine response was found in animals undergoing severe ecf reactions. the results suggest that the massive lymphoid cell involvement of such severe ecf reactions diminishes the immune responsiveness of cattle to rinderpest vaccine.19751166127
experimental infection of white-tailed deer with rinderpest virus.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) succumbed to experimental infection with virulent rinderpest (rp) virus that was also lethal to cattle and goats. the deer developed clinical signs typical of rp and died 5 and 6 days post-inoculation. infection was confirmed by recovery of virus from blood before death, from lymph node tissue after necropsy, and demonstration of specific complement fixing antigen in those tissues. electron micrographs of infected vero cell cultures revealed extracellul ...19751195493
[propagation of the lapinized strain of rinderpest virus in the organ culture of rabbit lymph node tissue (author's transl)]. 19751241631
haemagglutination-inhibition technique for definitive diagnosis of rinderpest-virus-specific antibody.a simple and rapid serological method for the definitive diagnosis of rinderpest-specific antibody is described. the technique is based on adsorbing out the cross reacting antibodies to peste des petits ruminants antigens from a rinderpest immune serum, thereby leaving active the specific antibody to rinderpest which is determined by haemagglutination-inhibition test.19921298202
serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
[quality control of the vaccines and cold chain during the national vaccination campaigns].during the two vaccination campaigns against rinderpest and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (cbpp) in 1989 and 1990, 507 vaccine samples were collected for quality control at each step of the distribution chain from the veterinary pharmacy of abidjan to the vaccinator on the field. parallel to that, the quality of the cold chain was checked. a total of 463 titrations were performed. all the titration levels were above the oie/fao standards, i.e. 10(2.5) dict50/ml for rinderpest valence and 10( ...19921338738
a modern vaccine for an ancient plague: rinderpest. 19901366928
improved isolation of rinderpest virus in transformed bovine t lymphoblast cell lines.bovine t lymphoblast cell lines transformed by the protozoan theileria parva were compared with bovine kidney (bk) and vero cells for their ability to isolate various strains of rinderpest virus from tissues and infected secretions. all of the strains of rinderpest virus that were tested, including attenuated cell-culture, caprinised and lapinised vaccines, and both mild and virulent pathogenic strains, readily induced syncytial cytopathic effect (cpe) in t lymphoblasts. the cpe could often be d ...19921410806
differential diagnosis of rinderpest and ppr using biotinylated cdna probes. 19921441177
application of corynebacterium cutis lysate as an immune stimulant in ultrasonicated lysate of corynebacterium cutis (ultracorn, virbac, france) was administered to 10-day-old calves, 5-month-old calves, and pregnant dams kept under egyptian environmental conditions. ninety-five calves and 50 dams were used in the study. all animals were treated with 2 ml/100 kg body weight of killed c cutis. its effects on body weight gain and on calf mortality and morbidity were recorded. the results obtained showed that treated calves had greater weight gains, reduced suscep ...19921445670
observations on rinderpest in kenya, 1986-1989.rinderpest was confirmed in kenya in 1986, 1987, 1988 and 1989. three epidemiologically distinct events appear to have occurred: repeated outbreaks in west pokot district related to cross-border movement of stock, an outbreak in marsabit district in 1987 (thought to have been caused by illegal movement of cattle, possibly in vehicles, from countries further north) and a series of related outbreaks in and near nairobi between 1988 and 1989 due to the unauthorized movement from abattoirs and holdi ...19921472724
round table on morbilliviruses in marine mammals.since 1988 morbilliviruses have been increasingly recognized and held responsible for mass mortality amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and other seal species. virus isolations and characterization proved that morbilliviruses from seals in northwest europe were genetically distinct from other known members of this group including canine distemper virus (cdv), rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus and measles virus. an epidemic in baikal seals in 1987 was apparently caused by a m ...19921481361
sequence analysis and editing of the phosphoprotein (p) gene of rinderpest virus.we have cloned the cdna of the phosphoprotein (p) gene of the virulent (kabete "o") strain of rinderpest virus and provided a comparative analysis of its sequence with that of the p genes of measles, canine distemper, and phocid distemper viruses. the gene encodes two overlapping open reading frames of 1521 and 531 nucleotides. use of the first atg would produce a p polypeptide of 507 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 54,344. the second atg would produce a c polypeptide of 177 re ...19921529555
the genes encoding the phospho- and matrix proteins of phocine distemper virus.the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (p)/v/c and matrix (m) protein genes of phocine distemper virus (pdv) have been determined and the deduced amino acid sequences of the proteins derived from these genes compared with those of the other morbilliviruses. the 1655 nucleotides of the p gene encode a phosphoprotein of 507 amino acid residues (from nucleotide numbers 60 to 1583) which is 75% identical to that of canine distemper virus (cdv). the c proteins of the two viruses are 73% ident ...19921535099
molecular characterization of phocine distemper virus: gene order and sequence of the gene encoding the attachment (h) protein.generation of a set of cdna clones covering the n, p/v/c, m, f, h and part of the l gene of phocine distemper virus (pdv) has been described. the gene order of pdv determined from a physical as well as a transcriptional map, was identical to that of the other morbilliviruses so far studied. the h gene sequence (1951 nucleotides) contains one large open reading frame which encodes a protein of 607 amino acids, identical in length to that of the h protein of the convac strain of canine distemper v ...19921588321
phocine distemper virus, the agent responsible for the 1988 mass mortality of seals.the biochemical characterisation of phocine distemper virus (pdv) has shown that pdv is related to but clearly distinct from canine distemper virus (cdv) and relative to its relationship with cdv is only remotely related to the other morbilliviruses, namely measles virus (mv) or rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (pprv). comparative studies with monoclonal antibodies indicate that the virus is serologically closely related to cdv with many conserved epitopes, particularl ...19921594934
the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the m gene of phocid distemper virus (pdv). the most conserved protein of morbilliviruses shows a uniquely close relationship between pdv and canine distemper virus.the nucleotide sequence of the matrix gene (m) of a recently identified morbillivirus, phocid distemper virus (pdv), was determined and the amino acid composition deduced. the m gene of pdv shared many characteristics with the corresponding gene in other morbilliviruses. the nucleotide homology with the closely related canine distemper virus (cdv) was maximum at 67% followed by measles virus (mv) (58%) and rinderpest virus (rpv) (56%). the length of the 5' long untranslated region of pdv (408) w ...19921604930
a competitive elisa using anti-n monoclonal antibodies for specific detection of rinderpest antibodies in cattle and small ruminants.a competitive elisa (c-elisa) using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which bind to the nucleo-protein (np) of rinderpest virus (rpv) for detection of rpv antibodies in cattle and small ruminant sera is described. unlike virus neutralisation test (vnt), this test using mab ivb2-4, can detect specific rpv antibodies without showing a cross-reaction with antibodies to peste-des-petits ruminants-virus (pprv); by contrast, when mab ve4-1 is used the test detects both rpv and pprv antibodies, including lo ...19921626365
the role of biotechnology in tropical diseases. 19921626860
sequence analysis of the genes encoding the nucleocapsid protein and phosphoprotein (p) of phocid distemper virus, and editing of the p gene transcript.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of two genes of phocid distemper virus (pdv) were determined by cdna cloning and sequencing. the long open reading frame of the gene encoding the nucleocapsid (n) protein is presented. as with other morbilliviruses, the phosphoprotein (p) gene of pdv was found to be located after the 5' end of the n gene and before the 3' end of the matrix protein gene. the p gene was shown to have the capacity to encode three distinct proteins, p, v and c, in anal ...19921634877
identification of epitope(s) on the internal virion proteins of rinderpest virus which are absent from peste des petits ruminants virus.monoclonal antibodies (mab) raised against the rbok vaccine strain of rinderpest virus were characterized by radio-immunoprecipitation (ripa) and in the indirect elisa using measles (mv), distemper (cdv), rinderpest (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants viruses (pprv). those found to be specific for the matrix (m) protein and the nucleocapsid (n) protein could be classified into different groups on the basis of the anti-morbillivirus mab classification scheme; a number of these mab showed a selec ...19911709543
antigenic and functional characterization of rinderpest virus envelope proteins using monoclonal antibodies.a total of 24 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the haemagglutinin (h) and the fusion protein (f) of rinderpest virus (rpv) were used to characterize their antigenic structure and biological properties, and to analyse natural variation in the envelope proteins of morbilliviruses. the anti-h and anti-f mabs defined seven and three distinct antigenic sites, respectively. the mabs to six sites on h were able to neutralize the infectivity of rpv. the addition of guinea-pig complement or anti-mous ...19911714940
analyses of baseline survey data on rinderpest in bahr el ghazal province, with proposal of an improved vaccination strategy against rinderpest for southern sudan.results from analyses of baseline surveillance data on rinderpest are used for proposing an improved vaccination strategy against rinderpest in southern sudan. sera from 4,074 (47%) of the total sample of 8,565 cattle collected in a series of cross-sectional surveys in 400 cattle camps in the bahr el ghazal province of southern sudan were tested for rinderpest antibodies using the standard virus neutralisation test (vnt) technique: 77.4% were positive while 22.6% gave negative results. the data ...19911763441
viruses in the phytoreovirus genus of the reoviridae family have the same conserved terminal sequences.the 5'- and 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences of the dsrna genome segments of rice dwarf virus (rdv) and rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv), members of the phytoreovirus genus of the reoviridae family, were determined and compared with those of wound tumour virus (wtv). the 3' tetranucleotides of the plus strand of all genome segments of rdv and rgdv were found to be the same (---ugau 3'), except for segment 9 of rdv which had the 3'-terminal sequence---cgau 3'. the conserved 3'-terminal sequence (---u ...19911765764
the nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid composition of the haemagglutinin and fusion proteins of the morbillivirus phocid distemper virus.the amino acid composition of the two surface proteins of the recently isolated morbillivirus phocid distemper virus (pdv) were deduced from the nucleotide sequence. the fusion (f) protein of pdv exhibited characteristics similar to those of other morbillivirus f proteins. the overall amino acid similarity with its closest homologue, canine distemper virus (cdv), was 72%. from the context of the starting codons and the requirement for a hydrophobic signal peptide, it is likely that translation o ...19911765768
comparison between the antigenicity of two rinderpest vaccine strains using the neutralization test. 19911830808
molecular analysis of rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment s11 corresponding to wound tumour phytoreovirus segment s12.the complete nucleotide sequence of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) genome segment s11 was determined. s11 is 1067 nucleotides long. there is an inverted repeat of 10 bp adjacent to the conserved 5'-terminal hexanucleotide (5' gguaaa 3') and 3'-terminal tetranucleotide (5' uagu 3') sequences. a single large open reading frame found in the plus strand of s11 begins with the first aug codon (bases 6 to 8) and extends for 567 bases. evolutionary relatedness between rdv s11 and wound tumour phytoreov ...19911840611
the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of the attachment protein of canine distemper virus.the nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the attachment protein of the convac strain of the canine distemper virus (cdv), corresponding to the haemagglutinin (h) gene of measles virus was determined using a mrna-derived cdna clone and genomic viral rna. the mrna transcribed from the cdv h gene is 1944 nucleotides long excluding the polyadenylated tail. only one long open reading frame was found comprising nucleotides 21-1841. the predicted protein has a single hydrophobic region which can ...19911891961
a vaccinia virus double recombinant expressing the f and h genes of rinderpest virus protects cattle against rinderpest and causes no pock lesions.rinderpest is a highly contagious viral disease of ruminants with greater than 95% morbidity and mortality. we have constructed an infectious vaccinia virus recombinant that expresses both the fusion (f) gene and the hemagglutinin (h) gene of rinderpest virus. the wyeth strain of vaccinia virus was used for the construction of the recombinant. cattle vaccinated with the recombinant virus were 100% protected from challenge inoculation with greater than 1000 times the lethal dose of rinderpest vir ...19911896447
b95a, a marmoset lymphoblastoid cell line, as a sensitive host for rinderpest virus.we reported earlier that b95a, an epstein-barr virus-transformed marmoset b lymphoblastoid cell line, is more susceptible to infection with measles virus than other cells. the cell line also was found to be susceptible to infection with the lapinized nakamura iii (l) strain of rinderpest virus and various strains derived from it. the b95a cell line was therefore the only host cell system available for the propagation and quantification of the l strain. in contrast to the adaptation of the l stra ...19911900885
nucleotide sequences of genome segments s8, encoding a capsid protein, and s10, encoding a 36k protein, of rice gall dwarf virus.the nucleotide sequences of dnas complementary to the eighth (s8) and the tenth (s10) largest of the 12 genome segments of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) were determined. the s8 and s10 segments consist of 1578 and 1198 nucleotides, each with a single open reading frame extending for 1278 nucleotides from nucleotide 21, and 960 nucleotides from nucleotide 22, respectively. s8 encodes a polypeptide of 426 amino acids with an mr of 47419. the amino acid sequences of several peptide fragments of the ...19911940872
rapid isolation of monoclonal hybridoma cultures by a 'fusion-cloning' method: the requirement for aminopterin.hybridomas were generated by fusing the balb/c sp2/0 myeloma-like cell line with either: (i) splenocytes from balb/c mice immunized with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), african swine fever virus (asfv) or pig thymocytes; or (ii) lymph node cells from cattle immunized with fmdv. if the fusion mixtures were plated in cloning medium of methyl cellulose and hat medium, small hybridoma colonies developed which rarely survived. fusi ...19911954000
genetic comparison of ovine and bovine pestiviruses.viral rna oligonucleotide fingerprinting was used to compare genetic relationship among pestiviruses originating from ovine or bovine host species. ovine pestiviruses, including reference border disease virus and 2 border disease isolates originating from natural pestivirus infections of sheep, appeared to have a more distant genetic relationship among themselves than with certain bovine pestiviruses. a closer genetic relatedness was evident between border disease virus and 3 noncytopathic bovin ...19901964772
the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the attachment protein h of canine distemper virus.the sequence of the h gene and flanking sequences in the f and l genes of canine distemper virus (cdv) have been determined. the h gene of cdv (1946 nucleotides) contains one large open reading frame starting at position 21 and terminating at position 1835, encoding a protein of 604 amino acid residues. this protein contains three potential glycosylation sites in the extracellular domain and, like all other paramyxoviruses, a n-terminal membrane-spanning hydrophobic anchor domain. the deduced h ...19911993883
immunological and virological characterization of improved construction of recombinant vaccinia virus expressing rinderpest virus hemagglutinin.we constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing rinderpest virus (rpv) hemagglutinin (h) by modifying the promoter region of the original rvv. the promotor region was modified at three points, i.e., an outframe atg was eliminated, the sequence between the promoter and initiation codon was shortened and the base sequence just upstream of the initiation codon was changed. as compared with the original rvv, the modified rvv was found to produce a remarkably large amount of h protein in ...19912001178
nucleotide sequence of cdna to the rinderpest virus mrna encoding the nucleocapsid protein.the full-length cdna corresponding to the mrna encoding the nucleocapsid protein (np) of rinderpest virus (rv) was cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. the gene of rv-np was composed of 1683 nucleotides and contained a single large open reading frame, which is capable of encoding a protein of 525 amino acids with a molecular weight of 58,241 da. the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence were compared with those of measles virus (mv) and canine distemper vir ...19912017875
serological evidence of peste des petits ruminants in jordan. 19912024417
confirmation of rinderpest in experimentally and naturally infected cattle using microtitre techniques.virulent rinderpest virus was detected by immunoperoxidase staining of microtitre bovine kidney cell cultures within 24 to 48 hours of inoculation with prescapular lymph node and spleen homogenates from experimentally infected steers. rinderpest virus specific cytopathic effects were evident from 48 hours in microtitre plates and from 72 hours in rolled tube cultures. nasal and ocular secretions collected from cattle naturally infected with rinderpest and inoculated into bovine kidney cell cultu ...19912038765
crystallization and preliminary x-ray study of a double-shelled spherical virus, rice dwarf virus.rice dwarf virus (rdv) is a double-shelled spherical plant virus consisting of 46,000 mr capsid and 114,000 mr core proteins and minor structural proteins, and containing 12 genome segments of double-stranded rna. the virus has been crystallized in the cubic space group i23 with a = 789 a. there are two particles per unit cell, each positioned on a point of 23 symmetry. packing considerations showed that the diameter of the virus particle is 693 a. the crystals diffract to at least 6.5 a resolut ...19912056533
an immunohistochemical study of the pneumonia caused by peste des petits ruminants virus.ten goats were inoculated with peste des petits ruminants virus, a paramyxovirus closely related to rinderpest virus. all goats developed severe clinical disease, 8/10 having coughing or dyspnea as prominent clinical signs. in addition, all of the goats had stomatitis and diarrhea. histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies were done only on the respiratory tracts. pathologic changes ranged from mild multifocal bronchiolitis and bronchitis to severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia. lesions we ...19912063517
pathogenicity of peste des petits ruminants virus isolated from egyptian goats in egypt.2 egyptian goats and boscat rabbits were experimentally inoculated with peste des petits ruminants (ppr) local egyptian strain (ppr, egypt 87). the inoculated animals contracted the disease with minor clinical manifestations, accompanied by rise of neutralizing antibodies to ppr virus. virus was isolated from ocular and nasal secretions, buffy coat, spleen, and liver. no contact infection was observed between inoculated and healthy goats.19902096796
the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants in the sultanate of oman.virological and serological evidence was obtained to show that peste des petits ruminants virus was widely distributed in omani sheep and goats. there was no evidence for the concomitant presence of rinderpest virus in these species. two virus isolates were classified as peste des petits ruminants virus on the basis of their pathogenicity in experimental animals and their specific hybridisation with nucleic acid probes. however, neutralisation tests and polyacrylamide gel analysis of their nucle ...19902114052
peste des petits ruminants.the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is proving to be a disease which has an increasingly significant economic impact on a number of countries in africa and the middle east, and possibly also on the indian sub-continent. the antigenic relationships which exist between the ppr and rinderpest viruses pose problems for diagnosis which complicates rinderpest control and eradication programmes. progress has recently been made in regard to diagnosis (specific nucleic probes and monoclonal antibodies), ...19902132714
optimal time for vaccination against peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease in goats in humid tropical zone in southern nigeria.investigation of the incidence of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease in goats revealed seasonality in the natural occurrence of ppr disease in the environment. tissue culture rinderpest vaccine was shown effective in protecting goats against the disease. the optimal time for vaccinating goats against ppr disease was when the least number of animals were incubating the disease. in the tropical humid zone, as in west africa, the optimal time for vaccination against the ppr disease is from la ...19902134153
sequence analysis of rice dwarf phytoreovirus genome segments s4, s5, and s6: comparison with the equivalent wound tumor virus segments.the complete nucleotide sequences of genome segments s4, s5, and s6 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv) were determined. s4 and s5 consist of 2468 and 2570 base pairs, respectively, s5 thus being larger in size than s4, contrary to the situation suggested by their relative migration in a polyacrylamide gel. s6 is 1699 nucleotides long. the individual segments have segment-specific inverted repeats adjacent to the conserved terminal sequences (5'gguaaa---ugau3' for s4, 5'ggcaaa---ugau3' for s5 and ...19902219732
nucleotide sequence of rice dwarf virus genome segment 4.the complete nucleotide sequence of rice dwarf virus (rdv) genome segment 4 was determined. genome segment 4 was 2468 nucleotides long and had a long open reading frame initiating at nucleotides 64 to 66 and terminating at 2245 to 2247. the deduced polypeptide contained 727 amino acid residues with an mr of 79.8k. amino acid sequences similar to a 'zinc-finger' and purine ntp-binding motifs were present in the deduced polypeptide. considerable amino acid sequence homology was detected between ge ...19902230727
isolation of peste des petits ruminants from goats in saudi arabia. 19902238415
evidence of identification of peste des petits ruminants from goats in egypt.peste des petits ruminants virus was isolated from young goats in an outbreak of the disease for the first time in egypt. affected goats showed symptoms simulating rinderpest, disease in cattle. the mortality rate was about 30%, and morbidity reached 90%. history, clinical symptoms, postmortem lesions, and diagnosis were discussed.19902241482
comparison of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses using anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were obtained using a purified preparation of the rbok strain of a rinderpest vaccine virus. the cytoplasmic immunofluorescent staining test showed that these clones had specificity for the nucleoprotein (n) of the virus. six clones which immunoprecipitated the n protein corroborated these results. thirteen anti-n mabs were used to compare geographically widespread rinderpest viruses (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants viruses (pprv) to two other morbilliviruses, me ...19902247932
nucleotide sequence of rice dwarf virus (rdv) genome segment s3 coding for 114 k major core protein. 19902251136
potential use of live viral and bacterial vectors for vaccines. who meeting, geneva, 19-22 june, 1989.the use of vaccinia virus vector for the delivery of antigens was first described by moss and paoletti and their colleagues in 1982. such vaccines could be of particular value in developing countries because they would be cheap, stable, easy to administer and provide long-lasting immunity. who recognized the potential value of such a delivery system by convening two meetings, one at the national institutes of health, usa in november 1984 and the second at who headquarters, geneva, switzerland in ...19902251869
pathogenicity of attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus in sheep and loss of virulence for goat kids was noticed when peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus was passaged in vero cells. while goats inoculated with the 60th passage suffered from the clinical ppr disease and mortality, goats inoculated with the 80th passage did not show any sign of the disease. if the progressive loss of virulence of the virus with passage continues, it will not be long before a homologous ppr vaccine will be obtained at the national veterinary institute, vom.19902263739
temporary breakdown of immunological tolerance to dsdna and nucleohistone antigens in rabbits infected with rinderpest virus.the rabbit-passaged l strain of rinderpest virus (rv) causes the transient induction of anti-nuclear antibodies (ana) in rabbits. it has been shown by an indirect immunofluorescence test that the target antigens of these ana are dna and/or dna-histone complexes (nucleohistone). here detailed examinations of the target antigens were carried out by elisa, and it was revealed that rabbit sera contained three types of antibodies: antibodies reacting equally with both dsdna and ssdna; those reacting ...19902265490
segment 5 of the rice dwarf virus genome encodes a protein highly conserved within the phytoreoviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of segment 5 (s5) of the rice dwarf virus (rdv) genome was determined. rdv s5 is 2571 bp in length and has a single long open reading frame which encodes a polypeptide of 801 amino acids (mr 90495). when compared to the wound tumor virus genome s5, there was 56.9% and 52.8% similarity in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. this high similarity suggests that the s5 proteins of these viruses are functionally similar.19902273396
bovine interleukin 2: production kinetics in normal and in vivo antigen-primed cattle.conditions influencing production kinetics of bovine interleukin 2 (il-2), viz. cell concentration, mitogen and its concentration, length of incubation, nutrient medium and in vivo antigen-priming were investigated. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbl) of outbred cattle of different age groups showed considerable variation in their ability to secrete il-2 which possibly reflects their immune competence. of the cultures initiated with pbl, 5 x 10(6) cells/ml cultured in serum free iscove's me ...19902279762
comparison of the effect of various chemical stabilizers and lyophilization cycles on the thermostability of a vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine.the thermostability of a rinderpest vaccine produced on vero cells was evaluated using a variety of chemical stabilizers and lyophilization protocols. three stabilizer preparations and three lyophilization schedules were examined using accelerated stability testing at 37 degrees c. the vaccine preparation exhibiting the greatest stability at 37 degrees c was tested at three additional temperatures, 42, 45 and 56 degrees c, and an arrhenius plot was constructed from the data. the stability of the ...19902305545
molecular cloning of the rinderpest virus matrix gene: comparative sequence analysis with other paramyxoviruses.the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the matrix or membrane (m) protein of the virulent (kabete-o) strain of rinderpest virus (rpv) has been determined. the m gene is 1457 nucleotides long with a single, large open reading frame. the derived polypeptide has 335 amino acids, corresponding to a calculated molecular weight of 38,289 and contains both small hydrophobic regions and many basic residues. the predicted amino acid sequence was compared to the m proteins of paramyxoviruses. sequen ...19902309449
detection of phocine distemper virus using the polymerase chain reaction.during the fatal seal epizootics in the north and baltic seas in summer 1988 a virus was isolated which was shown to be the causal agent. it was subsequently classified as morbillivirus by neutralization assays, reaction with monoclonal antibodies and nucleic acid hybridization studies. the virus (tentatively called phocine distemper virus, pdv) is difficult to grow in culture making rapid diagnosis difficult. we have used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) as an alternative and fast method to ...19902311537
sequence analysis and product assignment of segment 7 of the rice dwarf virus genome.the complete nucleotide sequence of segment 7 of the rice dwarf virus (rdv) genome was determined. the segment was 1696 bp long and its plus-strand terminal sequence, 5'ggcaaa---ugau3', was in agreement with the consensus sequence previously found in other segments of rdv. a 10 bp inverted repeat was found adjacent to the termini. a single long open reading frame extended for 1518 bp from the first aug triplet (positions 26 to 28), and encoded a polypeptide of 506 amino acids (mr 55,339). this p ...19902313270
observations on the pathogenicity for sheep and goats and the transmissibility of the strain of virus isolated during the rinderpest outbreak in sri lanka in 1987.the pathogenicity for sheep and goats of the virus strain that caused acute rinderpest in cattle and domestic buffalo in sri lanka after an interval of over 40 years has been examined. the results show that it can cause overt clinical disease in goats, but only mild or unapparent infection in sheep. the disease was transmitted from infected sheep to in-contact susceptible sheep and calves.19902316182
the serological response to a thermostable vero cell-adapted rinderpest vaccine under field conditions in niger.a lyophilized thermostable vero cell-adapted ringerpest vaccine, stabilized with lactalbumin hydrolysate and sucrose, was tested for safety, serological response and suitability for use with an abbreviated cold chain under field conditions in niger. a total of 480 cattle, 90 goats and 55 sheep of unknown serological status were vaccinated on government ranches and observed for at least 22 days. no untoward effects of the vaccine were detected. the serological response to the vaccine stored at en ...19902353442
the role of the 5' nontranslated regions of the fusion protein mrnas of canine distemper virus and rinderpest virus.the mrnas which code for the fusion proteins of the morbilliviruses (measles virus, canine distemper virus, and rinderpest virus) have unusually long 5' untranslated regions (utrs) which are gc-rich and are capable of folding into extensive secondary structures. in measles virus the first aug codons in the fusion (f) protein mrna are in close proximity at nucleotide positions 574 and 583 and protein translation is initiated at the second position. in the canine distemper virus (cdv) and rinderpe ...19902353458
a serological survey of rinderpest antibody in wildlife and sheep and goats in northern extensive serological survey for rinderpest antibody in wildlife, principally buffalo (syncerus caffer), and sheep and goats has been undertaken in the previously endemic region of northern tanzania to determine whether or not the virus has continued to cycle in susceptible species since the last occurrence of overt disease in 1982. the results show that infection but not disease has occurred at least until 1987 in buffalo in parts of the serengeti national park but not in the other game area ...19902384143
nucleotide sequence of segment s9 of the genome of rice gall dwarf virus.dna complementary to the ninth largest (s9) of the 12 genome segments of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) was cloned and its sequence was determined. it is 1202 nucleotides in length and contains one open reading frame which extends for 969 nucleotides from nucleotide 26. it encodes a polypeptide of 323 amino acids with an mr of 35,560. the dinucleotide sequence at the 5' end and the trinucleotide sequence at the 3' end of the plus strand, 5' gg--gau 3', which are present in the rna of both wound tu ...19902391501
the production of peste des petits ruminants hyperimmune sera in rabbits and their application in virus diagnosis.hyperimmune sera were produced by serial inoculation of rabbits with vero cell-adapted, sucrose gradient-purified nigerian peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) isolate. two antisera produced, neutralized the homologous pprv but not the heterologous rinderpest kabette "o" virus. the antisera gave strong precipitin lines with purified pprv antigens and were used to detect pprv and rinderpest virus antigens from ante-mortem secretions and post-mortem tissue homogenates from ppr and rinderpest vi ...19902396483
antiserum raised in pigs against canine distemper virus and its utility in diagnostic procedures for morbillivirus infections (canine distemper, phocine distemper, rinderpest).antiserum against canine distemper virus (cdv) was raised in pigs by intranasal inoculation with cdv strains cnd65 and rockborn. immunoglobulin fractions were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. peroxidase-conjugated anti-cdv immunoglobulin preparations were used for the detection and titration of cdv, seal-derived (phocine) distemper virus (pdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) in vero cell cultures. for the detection and titration of corresponding neutralizing antibodies a direct neutralizing pe ...19902396484
characterisation of the european seal morbillivirus.the elisa test originally developed for the detection of serum antibodies to rinderpest virus has been shown to detect cross-reacting antibodies in sera of diseased common and grey seals. analysis of sera collected from various seal populations is in progress to establish the correlation between different morbillivirus neutralisation tests, elisa tests and the disease status of the animals. rna purified from post-mortem tissues removed from diseased seals has been analysed by hybridisation with ...19902402877
is rinderpest virus the archevirus of the morbillivirus genus?groups of 6-39 monoclonal antibodies identifying 3-18 distinct epitopes on the nucleoprotein (np), polymerase (p), hemagglutinin (h; equivalent in canine distemper and rinderpest viruses), and fusion (f) components of measles and canine distemper viruses were characterized in immunofluorescence tests with fixed vero cell cultures infected with measles, canine distemper and rinderpest viruses. the majority of np-specific monoclonal antibodies reacted with all three viruses, but one-third of the a ...19852409055
microneutralisation systems for use with different strains of peste des petits ruminants virus and rinderpest virus.comparative studies were made to determine the most suitable microtitration system for assaying strains of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and rinderpest virus (rv). infectivity titres did not differ significantly when assayed in either calf kidney, sheep kidney or vero cells. however, cytopathic effects were much easier to detect in the latter making them the cell of choice. addition of small amounts of virus to preformed cell monolayers in microplates with the subsequent addition of ma ...19852411037
production of interferon and of plaque enhancing factor by rinderpest-virus. 19852413658
the antigenic relationship between measles, canine distemper and rinderpest viruses studied with monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were used to delineate the antigenic relationship between the three morbillivirus types: measles virus (mv), canine distemper virus (cdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv). panels of six to 31 mabs against the haemagglutinin (h), fusion (f), nucleocapsid protein (np), phosphoprotein (p) and matrix (m) proteins of mv and the h, f, np and p proteins of cdv were employed. nine strains of mv, three strains of cdv and four strains of rpv were examined by radioimmunoprecipitation ...19862425047
effects of antipyretics in rinderpest virus infection in rabbits.administration of acetylsalicylic acid or mefenamic acid during experimental infection of rabbits with a rabbit-adapted strain of rinderpest virus did not prevent initiation of the febrile response but significantly reduced the duration of fever. suppression of fever had a markedly deleterious effect on the course of infection, resulting in an increased content of infectious virus in the mesenteric lymph nodes, increased mortality, and retarded recovery in animals that survived the infection. hi ...19872435819
preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid protein n and h glycoprotein of rinderpest virus.fifteen stable mouse spleen cell myeloma hybrids (hybridomas) producing monoclonal antibodies to rinderpest virus proteins were produced. the specificity of these monoclonal antibodies was established by radioimmunoprecipitation followed by polyacrylamide gel analysis and immunofluorescence. nine antibodies were specific for the surface glycoprotein h. all the nine clones showed inhibition of haemagglutination by measles virus. the antibodies from two clones (a7d2 and b2f6) neutralise infectious ...19892471370
characterization of monoclonal antibodies against four structural proteins of rinderpest virus.twenty-four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against rinderpest virus (rpv) were established and characterized by several serological tests. of the 24 mabs. 10 recognized the nucleoprotein (np), six the phosphoprotein (p), four the haemagglutinin (h), and two the fusion (f) protein as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assay. the specificities of the remaining two mabs could not be determined. from a competitive binding assay using mabs against each structural protein, at least five, four and tw ...19892477496
[attenuation of a strain of rinderpest virus: potential homologous live vaccine].peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants frequently associated with severe mortality in these hosts. in countries where it occurs, ppr represents an important constraint to the improved productivity of sheep and goats. until now the only way to combat this plague has been the use of heterologous rinderpest vaccine; all attempts to develop a homologous vaccine have ended in failure. the present communication describes the attenuation of the nigerian strai ...19892485537
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