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nucleotide sequence analysis of the simian virus 41 gene encoding the large (l) protein and construction of a phylogenetic tree for the l proteins of paramyxoviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of the simian virus 41 (sv41) large (l) protein gene was determined. the l gene spanned 6883 nucleotides including a putative trailer rna, and the l mrna contained a single large open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 2269 amino acids. dot-matrix comparisons under stringent conditions identified domains highly conserved among paramyxoviruses. domain 3 is the most highly conserved, and has been hypothesized to be the rna polymerase active site. a phylogeneti ...19921328485
transcripts of simian virus 41 (sv41) matrix gene are exclusively dicistronic with the fusion gene which is also transcribed as a monocistron.the complete nucleotide sequences of the matrix (m) and fusion (f) genes of simian virus 41 (sv41) were determined. deduced amino acid sequences confirmed the close relationship of sv41 with human parainfluenza type 2 virus (piv2). analyses of noncoding regions between the f and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) genes suggested the absence of the small hydrophobic gene, which is present between the f and the hn genes of simian virus 5 and mumps virus. it was striking that there was no apparen ...19911651608
antigenic and structural properties of a paramyxovirus simian virus 41 (sv41) reveal a close relationship with human parainfluenza type 2 virus.seven structural component proteins of a paramyxovirus simian virus 41 (sv41) were identified with the aid of monoclonal antibodies prepared against sv41 and human parainfluenza type 2 virus (piv2). the nucleoprotein is antigenically very close to that of piv2, while it is comparatively far from that of simian virus 5 (sv5). the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) protein showed no immunological relationship to either of the hn proteins of piv2 or sv5. the amino acid sequence of the sv41 hn protein ...19902173260
immunological relationships of simian virus 41 (sv41) to other paramyxoviruses and serological evidence of sv41 infection in human populations.antigenic relationships of simian virus 41 (sv41) to other paramyxoviruses were examined by immunoprecipitation of isotope-labelled sv41-infected cell lysates with specific antisera. sv41 is closely related to the group comprising human parainfluenza virus 2 (hpiv-2), simian virus 5 (sv5), parainfluenza virus 4 and mumps virus. slight cross-neutralization was detected between sv41, hpiv-2 and sv5. anti-sv41 activities were detected in 21 of 1116 human serum specimens, indicating that a proportio ...19902212992
extensive antigenic diversity among human parainfluenza type 2 virus isolates and immunological relationships among paramyxoviruses revealed by monoclonal antibodies.a panel of 128 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn), fusion (f), matrix (m), and polymerase (p) proteins, and nucleoprotein (np) of the toshiba strain of human parainfluenza type 2 virus (piv2) was prepared to examine the antigenic relationships among clinical isolates of piv2 and among paramyxoviruses by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. the hn proteins of 18 clinical isolates of piv2 showed extensive antigenic diversity: 23 of 33 anti-hn mab ...19892545038
identification of regions on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 important for promoting cell fusion.the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) and fusion (f) glycoproteins of two paramyxoviruses, human parainfluenza virus type 2 (piv2) and simian virus 41 (sv41), were expressed in hela cells by transfecting with recombinant plasmid harboring each glycoprotein gene. expressed f proteins could not induce cell fusion by themselves, but evoked prominent cell fusion when coexpressed with homologous hn proteins. it was also proved that piv2 hn protein could weakly promote sv41 f-mediated cell fusion. by a ...19957483263
sequence determination of the p gene of simian virus 41: presence of irregular deletions near the rna-editing sites of paramyxoviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of the p gene of simian virus 41 (sv41) was determined. the gene was found to be 1406 nucleotides long and to contain a relatively small open reading frame encoding a cysteine-rich v protein with a calculated m(r) of 24076. we have demonstrated that rna-editing events occur in sv41 p gene transcripts and that the ratio of edited mrnas to faithfully copied mrna (p-mrna:v-mrna) is about 1:5 at either 24 or 40 h post-infection. the mrna with two g insertions was cap ...19938492098
identification of regions on the fusion protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 which are required for haemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins to promote cell fusion.using a plasmid expression system in hela cells, we have previously shown that the fusion (f) protein of simian virus 41 (sv-41) induces cell fusion when coexpressed with the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (piv-2), while the piv-2 f protein does not induce cell fusion with the sv-41 hn protein. in the present study, we found that the piv-2 f protein induced extensive cell fusion with the hn protein of mumps virus (muv), whereas the sv-41 f protein d ...19989472612
human parainfluenza virus type 2 v protein inhibits genome replication by binding to the l protein: possible role in promoting viral fitness.the human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hpiv2) v protein plays important roles in inhibiting the host interferon response and promoting virus growth, but its role in hpiv2 replication and transcription is not clear. a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-expressing a negative-sense minigenomic construct of hpiv2 has been established by standard technology, with helper plasmids expressing the nucleocapsid protein (np), phosphoprotein (p), and large rna polymerase (l) protein, to examine the role of v pr ...200818417591
identification of domains on the fusion (f) protein trimer that influence the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase specificity of the f protein in mediating cell-cell fusion.for most paramyxoviruses, virus type-specific interaction between fusion (f) protein and attachment protein (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase [hn], hemagglutinin [h], or glycoprotein [g]) is a prerequisite for mediating virus-cell fusion and cell-cell fusion. our previous cell-cell fusion assay using the chimeric f proteins of human parainfluenza virus 2 (hpiv2) and simian virus 41 (sv41) suggested that the middle region of the hpiv2 f protein contains the site(s) that determines its specificity for ...201121270148
full conversion of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase specificity of the parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein by replacement of 21 amino acids in its head region with those of the simian virus 41 fusion protein.for most parainfluenza viruses, a virus type-specific interaction between the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) and fusion (f) proteins is a prerequisite for mediating virus-cell fusion and cell-cell fusion. the molecular basis of this functional interaction is still obscure partly because it is unknown which region of the f protein is responsible for the physical interaction with the hn protein. our previous cell-cell fusion assay using the chimeric f proteins of parainfluenza virus 5 (piv5) and ...201323698295
the fusion protein specificity of the parainfluenza virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein is not solely defined by the primary structure of its stalk domain.virus-specific interaction between the attachment protein (hn) and the fusion protein (f) is prerequisite for the induction of membrane fusion by parainfluenza viruses. this hn-f interaction presumably is mediated by particular amino acids in the hn stalk domain and those in the f head domain. we found in the present study, however, that a simian virus 41 (sv41) f-specific chimeric hpiv2 hn protein, sca, whose cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and stalk domains were derived from the sv41 hn protein, c ...201526423949
tetherin antagonism by v proteins is a common trait among the genus rubulavirus.tetherin (bst-2/cd317/hm1.24) is an anti-viral factor that restricts the budding of several enveloped viruses. most of these viruses have evolved to encode tetherin antagonists. our previous study demonstrated that the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hpiv-2), a member of the genus rubulavirus in the family paramyxoviridae, was inhibited by tetherin, and its v protein decreases the amount of cell surface tetherin by the interaction. in the present study, we investigated whether tether ...201728466381
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