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a parainfluenza virus vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) prefusion f protein is more effective than rsv for boosting a primary immunization with rsv.live-attenuated pediatric vaccines for intranasal administration are being developed for human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), an important worldwide pediatric respiratory pathogen that lacks a licensed vaccine or suitable antiviral drug. we evaluated a prime-boost strategy in which primary immunization with rsv was boosted by secondary immunization with rsv or with a chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (rb/hpiv3) vector expressing the rsv fusion f protein. the vector-expressed f ...202033115876
phylogenetic characterization of bovine parainfluenza 3 from contaminated cell cultures and field isolates from brazil.genomic fragments of the hn and l genes from brazilian bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (bpiv-3) isolated as contaminants from cell cultures and clinical specimens were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), sequenced using specific degenerate primers and analyzed by phylogenetic comparison with reference strains of bpi3v. the brazilian isolates revealed a high degree of genomic when compared to sf4/32 prototype strain, within the recently proposed genotype a of bpiv- ...201124031776
reciprocal complementation of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 lacking either the membrane or fusion gene.two defective bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) strains were generated, one lacking the membrane (m) protein gene and expressing egfp (δm-egfp) and the other lacking the fusion (f) protein gene and expressing mstrawberry (δf-msb), by supplying deficient proteins in trans. when madin-darby bovine kidney (mdbk) cells were co-infected with δm-egfp and δf-msb at a multiplicity of infection (moi) of 0.1, complemented viruses were easily obtained. complemented viruses grew as efficiently as wi ...201728842134
cholesterol-rich lipid rafts play a critical role in bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) infection.lipid rafts are specialized lipid domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipid, which can be utilized in the lifecycle of numerous enveloped viruses. bovine parainfluenza virustype3 (bpiv3) entry to cell is mediated by receptor binding and membrane fusion, but how lipid rafts in host cell membrane and bpiv3 envelope affect virus infection remains unclear. in this study, we investigated the role of lipid rafts in the different stages of bpiv3 infection. the mdbk cells were treated by methyl-β ...201728654867
subcutaneous, but not intratracheal administration of the tlr9 agonist, cpg dna transiently reduces parainfluenza-3 virus shedding in newborn lambs.synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) containing cpg motifs signal through tlr9 and activate innate immunity resulting in protection against a variety of parasitic, bacterial and viral pathogens in mouse models. however, few studies have demonstrated protection in humans and large animals. in the present investigations, we evaluated protection by cpg odn in a parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus infection in neonatal lambs. subcutaneous (sc) injection of cpg odn induced high levels of 2'5'-a synthetase ...201020619456
species-independent detection of rna virus by representational difference analysis using non-ribosomal hexanucleotides for reverse transcription.a method for the isolation of genomic fragments of rna virus based on cdna representational difference analysis (cdna rda) was developed. cdna rda has been applied for the subtraction of poly(a)(+) rnas but not for poly(a)(-) rnas, such as rna virus genomes, owing to the vast quantity of ribosomal rnas. we constructed primers for inefficient reverse transcription of ribosomal sequences based on the distribution analysis of hexanucleotide patterns in ribosomal rna. the analysis revealed that dist ...200515817564
recombinant type 5 adenoviruses expressing bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 glycoproteins protect sigmodon hispidus cotton rats from bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection.cotton rats were used to study the replication and pathogenesis of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) and to test the efficacy of the f and hn glycoproteins in modulating infection. in vitro cultures of cotton rat lung cells supported the growth of bpiv3 as shown by virus recovery, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and syncytium induction. intranasal (i.n.) inoculation of cotton rats with 10(7) pfu resulted in peak recovery of virus after 2 days (8 x 10(4) pfu/g of lung tissue) and ...19957769692
antigenic analysis of human and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 strains with monoclonal antibodies.the antigenic characteristics of eight human strains and two bovine strains, one of which is represented by two plaque variants, of parainfluenza virus type 3 were analysed. the strains and variants were compared using 52 monoclonal antibodies against five, two, six and six epitopes of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn), fusion, nucleocapsid and matrix viral proteins respectively, employing radioimmuno-precipitation and immunofluorescence assays. the human strains, seven of which were isolate ...19873039045
antigenic variation of human and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 strains.three human and six bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3) strains were examined by the use of 60 monoclonal antibodies (mabs). fifty-three mabs to the human c243 strain were directed against six, four, nine and seven epitopes of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn), fusion (f), nucleocapsid (n) and matrix proteins, respectively. seven mabs to the bovine strain were directed against three epitopes of the hn protein and three epitopes of the f protein. each strain was characterized in elisa an ...19901695673
the bovine paranasal sinuses: bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens.the bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. while lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (brd) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. the par ...201728282443
bovine parainfluenza-3 virus selectively depletes a calcium-independent, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase c and inhibits superoxide anion generation in bovine alveolar macrophages.bovine parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus inhibits oxygen-dependent bacterial killing by phagocytes, a key pulmonary defense, thus predisposing the host to intrapulmonary bacterial superinfection. pi-3 virus inhibited opsonized zymosan or pma-activated superoxide anion (o2-) generation in bovine alveolar macrophages. the respiratory virus influenza also inhibits o2- generation by phagocytes, however, the mechanisms(s) of viral inhibition differs from pi-3. pi-3 did not trigger o2- generation before in ...19948027547
[Diagnosis of bovine viral respiratory diseases].Enzootic bronchopneumonia (EBP) is an infectious, multifactorial respiratory disease of cattle. Different viruses may be involved in its pathogenesis. In this study an adapted method of endoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of caudal parts of the right cranial lung lobe was established and evaluated. The obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) served as template for the detection of BRSV, BPIV-3 and BCoV specific nucleic acids by RT-PCR. BALF samples of 44 cattle affected with respiratory ...201121971671
immunogenicity of bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus proteins encapsulated in nanoparticle vaccines, following intranasal administration to mice.stimulation of long lasting, protective immunity to respiratory viruses is often difficult to achieve with conventional respiratory vaccines. polymeric nanoparticles, incorporating viral proteins have been shown to offer sustained release of antigen, with consequent prolongued stimulation of the respiratory immune system. in this paper the efficacy of two nanoparticle vaccines (poly-lactide-co-glycolide, plga; polymethylmethacrylate, pmma), incorporating proteins of bovine parainfluenza type 3 v ...200312589745
comparative health assessment of urban and non-urban free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in southeastern british columbia, canada.the provincial wildlife management agency, british columbia ministry of forests, lands, natural resource operations and rural development, performed a translocation to control the urban mule deer (odocoileus hemionus; umd) overpopulation and supplement the declining non-urban mule deer (numd) population in the kootenay region, british columbia, canada. the objectives of this cross-sectional study were to evaluate the health of the urban and numd populations by comparing pathogen exposure, body c ...201829942678
identification and genome characterization of genotype b and genotype c bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the united states.bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses (bpi3v) are respiratory pathogens of cattle that cause disease singly but are often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (brdc) in conjunction with other viral and bacterial agents. bovine vaccines currently contain bpi3v to provide protection against the virus, but there is no current information regarding the bpi3v strains that are circulating in the u.s.201525976921
health status of reintroduced wood bison ( bison bison athabascae): assessing the conservation value of an isolated population in northwestern canada.a central goal for reintroduced populations of threatened wood bison ( bison bison athabascae) is to maintain them free of diseases of concern, particularly bovine tuberculosis (caused by mycobacterium bovis) and brucellosis (caused by brucella abortus). a wood bison population in southwestern yukon, canada was reintroduced into the wild in 1988, but no health assessment has been done since then. to provide an initial assessment of the health status and, hence, the conservation value of this pop ...201929953313
efficacy and safety of ban huang oral liquid for treating bovine respiratory diseases.ban huang oral liquid was developed as a veterinary compound preparation by the lanzhou institute of husbandry and pharmaceutical sciences of the chinese academy of agricultural sciences (caas). the purpose of this study was to determine whether the oral liquid preparation of traditional chinese medicine, ban huang, is safe and effective for treating respiratory diseases in cattle.201728573221
mycoplasma bovis and viral agents associated with the development of bovine respiratory disease in adult dairy cows.the etiology and pathologic findings of bovine respiratory disease (brd) in adult dairy cows (n = 35) from a commercial dairy herd in southern brazil were investigated. pulmonary samples were examined for histopathologic patterns and specific features within these patterns, while immunohistochemical (ihc) assays were designed to detect the intralesional antigens of viral infectious disease agents and mycoplasma bovis. pneumonia was diagnosed in 91.4% (32/35) of these cases; neither pneumonia nor ...202031232526
diva metabolomics: differentiating vaccination status following viral challenge using metabolomic profiles.bovine respiratory disease (brd) is a major source of economic loss within the agricultural industry. vaccination against brd-associated viruses does not offer complete immune protection and vaccine failure animals present potential routes for disease spread. serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (diva) is possible using antigen-deleted vaccines, but during virus outbreaks diva responses are masked by wild-type virus preventing accurate serodiagnosis. previous work by t ...201829621258
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